Spearfish: Real-Time Java-Based Underwater Tracking of Large Numbers of Targets

my name is Bob cross I’m from the Department of the Navy I’m gonna talk to you today about not frameworks not groovy not Scala this is Java pretty much pure and simple a lot of Java desktop solving problems that maybe you didn’t know existed all right so we’re talking about this spear fish underwater tracking system that we use at a bunch of the u.s. Navy ranges and several of our allied ranges use it as well in one variation or another spearfishing is 100% java it’s entirely written in Newport there’s six or seven core people who’ve been working on it for somewhere between seven fifteen years possibly a little bit more in some cases we’re deployed on Windows and Linux we run on laptops we run on you know basically commodity hardware in general people get a little sqeezed out when we deploy on laptops because it’s not very impressive but I can run most of the real-time operations of the auto tech range from this vendor supplied laptop right here we can track to quite a deep depth we can track as deep as our Navy assets can go and that brings me to a very important point everything I’m going to say today is unclassified the things that I’m talking about do have classified performance metrics I will not be coy if there’s something that I can’t speak about I will try to point you to a source and I have the public affairs contact information at the end of the brief if there’s something you’d like to ask more about and if I don’t know which condition it’s a and I’ll tell you you know we’re not gonna fool around here we can track along a lot of targets and we can track them very fast we’re talking about commodity hardware like I said now modern multi-core processors allow us with the basic concurrency that we get from Java to go at least a hundred times real time in most of the scenarios that we’re dealing with and when I say we eat our own dog food I’m not kidding this is actually a system that I’ve taken out to see in situations where I had the opposite problem that you would normally think of the water was too flat so the kind of missions that were actually talking about and I when I use missions you know very carefully we’re talking mostly about training exercises where we have officer candidates for instance prospective commanding officers who are learning how to drive a submarine and they’re chasing other submarines around they’re chasing targets they’re getting chased by helicopters that are looking for them we can have service ships doing the same sort of thing gunfire exercises we also talk about test and evaluation of systems and that could be a new weapon type for instance or a weapon with new control software on it and we also have sort of new scenarios and that’s the catch-all where we take some piece that we have in inventory and we try to get it to do new things sometimes things that you did not know where possible that’s always fun so this is the problem space in which I operate the ocean hates all of us it hates me in particular but humans in general alright there’s nothing about the ocean that makes the tracking problem any easier anything you would normally think of you know a lot of what I’m going to talk about today has parallels to GPS tracking just some of the same vocabulary and the applications that we’re talking about nothing about GPS works nothing about lasers nothing about radio waves none of that works underwater it’s great at absorbing energy except for acoustic energy certain frequencies carry for quite a long ways because the ocean water is not really compressible it’ll carry that energy you know as far as we want it to in certain frequency bands unfortunately there’s a bunch of stuff in the water that’s already making noise squarely in some of the bands that we care quite a lot about in the final problem is that the Navy really doesn’t care about my convenience they’re out there to do their job and if I can track a better track that comes straight down from the Admiral right so here are some of the major system components and the java portion is if we follow this curve all the way down and up to the left everything from detection for reports up those are the java components that i’m going to be speaking about but we’ve got system in the water that would be the big red oval that could be a submarine that could be a weapon that could be a submarine simulator that little green triangle is what we call a ping er there’s a box or a ring or something it’s basically a transducer it’s an emitter in the water that sends out signals and that curved line that line is curved for a reason okay that none of our signals go in a straight line you know GPS deals with this a little bit our curves are dramatic and we get down to our hydrophones which is the microphone on the bottom I’d usually

way deep down in the water so we’re talking about 2,000 4,000 meters down we have hard lines going back to shore that are talking to the signal processor system that’s where we have real-time tag tagging this is not job that is sitting in a digital signal processor box also made a new port but that’s running you know Linux kernel and that’s dealing with signal processing cards and they take all that racket and they turn it into detection reports that I can then turn into track and put up on the screen and that’s the spear fish underwater tracking display system so the ping that we send out it’s an encoded signal it’s in most of the cases that I’m dealing with nowadays we have essentially an identifier which is 76 bit long which is a Hamming code it is essentially counting up from 1 to 12 so we have 12 different 76 bit codes this pair that we’ve got mounted to the box just transmits those pings for me usually once a second if we’re down at offset for instance we’ve got sound going through the water and it goes roughly 1,500 meters per second it is never going exactly that speed for any time any time that I think I know what the speed is is gonna change because of depth or salinity or temperature there’s a hydrophone down at the bottom and the detection report is just essentially taking the acoustics that came in to me or it came in to the system and it’s turning into data that I can play with on the Java side all right so the goals of the deployed system range safety is absolutely the most important one and again this is not a problem that most people are going to be talking about today we have for instance two submarines they are actively hiding from each other and trying to find the other one because they’re hiding they don’t know where the other one is and I don’t know if you’ve seen Hunt for Red October where you know who this is neat we can see the submarines and it’s really close together leaving aside the question of the fact that it’s really dark underwater and you wouldn’t be able to see the submarines if they were that close there would be a huge brouhaha as we would send messages up from our bi-directional phone saying no you guys you’re way too close because you cannot turn like they do in the in the movie they’re like fighter planes so we based Bay on our end we have to basically detect and track range participants this could be a submarine that just clicked off its pinger it could be a surface ship it could be an exercise torpedo dropped from a helicopter that’s going to go down and then come back up to the surface and need to be recovered so we’re now tracking it on the surface so the recovery boat can drive out and pick it up we’ve got a scale and degrade based on how much data data is going on we can never drop down below the data flow that’s coming in so we can never run it below real-time and when I say real-time I’ll talk about exactly what that means we need to let somebody know if there are problems and we need to provide some accuracy and accuracy is a term that changes based on context we have absolute accuracy which is relative to essentially GPS accuracy you can have relative accuracy where if I know that these two submarines have it askew and they’re off by some number of meters off to one side as long as I know the separation between them they’re not going to hit and the Admiral won’t get mad at me all right so real-time different system components have different real-time capabilities when we’re talking about the conversion of the acoustics into detection reports we need SEL millisecond accuracy hopefully down in a microsecond world we’re talking about seventy six bit signals at 13 kilohertz ish that’s a fairly long signal we’d like the time tag to be up right on the leading edge as it arrives at the hydrophone sometimes that works sometimes it doesn’t remem what I said about the ocean not caring all right depending on how the track accuracy goes that starts eating into my error budget okay if the signal processor can’t time tag to some level or accuracy there’s nothing I can do past that point it’s not garbage in garbage out but it’s less delicious you know going through the the recipe we have some latency and again there’s nothing we can do about this speed of sound roughly fifteen hundred meters per second if you think about the depth of the water you know we have hydrophones that are easily three thousand meters deep that’s two seconds straight down best case so already I am behind real-time and as I I need as I’ll show you I need to accumulate data from many of the hydrophones so there’s nothing I can do about it I have to wait for the signal to go out to those phones collect it and then turn that into a track as quickly as I can but that transit through the water that’s just a consequence again ocean not caring we need to be multi-threaded in the sense of we can’t hold up our processing anything that we put on the screen can’t

slow down the processing of the data most importantly we can never ever lose any of the data that we receive okay there’s a hundred percent data retention that is actually a requirement okay there are software requirements when it comes to display in terms of they really really really want to see all the data on the screen but if you have to sacrifice one it’s the data retention in the database that’s the most important all right so this is essentially the funnel of data as I’m talking about the whole system like I said we’ve got a lot of acoustics going on ping-ping-ping we’ve got snapping shrimp we’ve got mammals which are a phenomenal benefit to the ecology and kind of a hassle when it comes to tracking turns out that some of our tracking capabilities can produce quite a lot of interesting information about the mammals and we’re funneling it all the way down and as we neck it down further and further we’re trying to turn it into a location all right so like I said a paying is in a coded encoded acoustic signal the payload as far as I’m caring there’s a target ID one through 12 or 2 1 2 through 12 codes so that allows me either on range 12 items could be submarines could be weapons could be targets could be surface ships or if I’m using what are called frame pings up to 63 63 targets would be a lot for the Navy to field at one time it is not a lot for tracking tracking is fine with that much all right so each one of these painters has a repetition rate just like in GPS where we’re talking about a one-second signal quite often we’re talking about a one-second pinger in certain circumstances we use a different repetition rate in for instance a vehicle that does not move very fast because like I said we’re pushing all these acoustics through the water if I can avoid a little bit of noise pollution I can potentially get a more accurate track on things that I care about a lot like for instance weapons care a lot about weapons and these pingers tend to point down okay this becomes a problem if for instance my weapon gets to the end of run comes towards the surface now it’s emitting energy away from the hydrophones that I’m listening on and that can be a problem again ocean not care so then we have this concept called a splash a splash is anything else that’s tracking mammals that’s tracking gunfire scoring that’s tracking simulated weapons that we push out of a helicopter and if you look super super closely you can see me sitting in the portside gunner seat of that uh-60 and this is one of those situations where I bring the pictures home and show them to my kids who I add up on the screen earlier they’re like dad has the coolest job ever okay because this is the low flight where we’re down at about a hundred feet up and we push the big marker buoy out of the the helicopter makes basically a kabloosh the bigger one on the bottom is from a 1,500 feet and that made quite a kaboom it was really neat it took a long time as I was watching it fall okay so backing up again and I I know that I’m going through this several times but nobody else in JavaOne is talking about anything like acoustics so I’m doing this super quick overview of some of this system components so that i can get to the java part that’s coming we’re almost there alright so hydrophones detecting sounds the sound is converted to a voltage not useful to me at this point they take that voltage in the signal processor and turn that into a ping or a splash detection report they start turning it into data that I can process now limitations on the signal processing side like I said the water is noisy not only can it mean that we potentially lose data we can also get corrupt data coming in on the detection report this is a real problem no one cares I still have the requirement to track we have these bad angles that could mean that I’m getting further and further off range I’ll show you during the demo the actual range coverage area again you know the guys operating the range want to be able to say this particular submarine is coming on range I expect them to be on site at such-and-such time they want a large footprint rain safety you know and also rain scheduling all right now we’re in the Java world okay this is everything that I deal with all the time the tracking part of the problem I’ve said detection reports a lot of times like I said detection reports can get corrupted if we got potentially bad data so we have to run through a validation process that is essentially a set of rules that says here’s my raw stream that’s coming in from this particular hydrophone based on the logical rules that I can go with what subset of data here is probably valid for the target that I’m looking for at this time then I have to turn it

into a localization that’s saying take the data from multiple hydrophones the valid data that came out of the validation process as we’re coming down sort of through the tentacles take a bunch of those validated data streams start turning those into positions now I have to couple that with the sound velocity profile like I said at the beginning the sound never goes in a straight line so all the geometry that we’d like to try to solve is extra complicated and squishy and requires a lot of approximation all of this work to get one point on the screen at time it’s a lot of installation one point per second usually okay some of the limitations like I said 1500 meters per second plenty of the assets that we’re talking about can travel in excess of at least 1% of that speed this is not a problem that you deal with in GPS with Lightspeed there is no time when anything you can track with the GPS system goes point one see it doesn’t happen yeah I’ve been to us all the time no one cares okay a not a nautical mile just for rule of thumb I’m gonna flip between units every now and then I can do math better in meters but a nought is about if you’re talking about a meters per second that’s about two knots so it’s okay for doubling and you’ll see immediately again the ranges like to use whatever units they use so they’re using feet and they’re using yards and all sorts of crazy numbers that I don’t use anymore and like I said we have plenty of latency in the whole equation all right now getting into requirements other than the tracking we also have this weird sort of derived requirement that is everything has to be deterministic all the time so we’ve got a data flow architecture where all of this data is coming in through the hydrophones and going through validation etc if I rerun that exact same data no matter what speed I push it into the system the output has to be identical this is a requirement it’s kind of frustrating because a lot of your parallelization options don’t apply in that situation or the architecture gets a little bit more complicated we have to run essentially with a flexible buffer to deal with this latency issue as we’re trying to capture all the data that’s required to track a particular system in a particular point on the range the depth varies on the range we could be looking at hydrophones that are 1500 meters deep some of them are 900 meters deep some of them are 4000 meters deep on the same range so we’re constantly varying this buffer to say how long do I have to wait before I get all of the useful data and a lot of what I’d like to be able to paralyze too bad has to be single-threaded because of all this did the determinism requirements alright so backing up a little bit when I was talking about the validation process this is kind of what it looks like if you look at this bottom row I’ve got you know a time axis going by on the bottom and okay I’m just gonna describe it I’m not gonna make you look at the numbers except that big bars are good green and yellow bars valid everything else less good all right so on the bottom hydrophone seven is receiving what looks to be about one ping per second and it looks like we’ve got mostly yellow and green that’s all looking great there’s a little bit of blue way off to the left there up there on the hydrophone one we’ve got a little bit of validated that seems to have started everything else quantitive looks like a snow storm nothing really good contributing to the track at this point I need more data than this before I can start tracking again this is one of the layers of frustration that we deal with it looks like we’re receiving data we won’t have track at this point so you have your range customer who’s then yelling at you saying I see numbers like yeah but you’re not gonna have track yet so this is what some of the sort of data input looks like this top line again I’m not going to make you read it you can see there are 12 codes on the sequence pings they’re running through essentially 0 to 15 and then they roll over basic counter going over and over there’s also this M and L ll that’s an encoded depth there’s a depth sensor on the payer for once somebody’s trying to make my life a little bit easier and it’s trying to tell me I’m roughly at this depth except they’re not going to tell me the real number they’re gonna tell me four bits at a time so we’re gonna tell me a high nibble or a low nibble and they’re thinking well the low level will probably change more often so once a second I get part of the numbers unfortunately this is the most easily corrupted part of the ping so as I’m doing data reconstruction I’m sitting there trying to do bit matching between all of these different hydrophones trying to figure out how many of these ones and zeros should actually be on down at the bottom we have a different pattern instead of saying okay I’m counting all the way up to 15

I have sort of a syncopated rhythm between two different codes you can see this 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 that’s what I would call a framed ping where instead of telling me I am ping 0 I am ping 1 I’m ping – it’s saying somewhere in this if you keep track of where you are in the pattern without you can deduce what index this is this actually makes things fairly complicated and this is a little bit down in the weeds but again it goes with the theme of no one makes anything easy for me this allows the Navy to have more targets on range at the same time actually more targets than they can have currently deploy and most of the exercises that we deal with and you’ll see if I’m using a sequence ping which I’m not going to use in the example data today I have mostly green a little bit of yellow the frame pains are mixes of yellows and greens when they’re validated all right all of that was validation now we’re talking about localization and this is where anybody who’s worked on a GPS type system some of these words will sound familiar I have validated data that came out of my validation process I have known hydrophone low locations on the bottom and finding all those hydrophones once they’ve been deployed down to sub meteor accuracy is an experience that is a fairly heavy-duty evolution they do an extensive hydrophone survey and they mathematically compute using multiple GPS antennas all right the hydrophone must be here 4,000 meters down that’s very important and then they use those positions for upwards of 20 years because funnily enough things don’t really change down there very often so I’ve got my hundred frelling locations I have that ping ordering it’s the sequences or the frames and I have my sound velocity profile now using all of that I need to come up with a position and this I’ll show you what this looks like this is a spherical loop this is a spherical tracking problem sort of in action and as you can see it doesn’t seem to be lining up quite right this is the tracking that you would normally use this is what is often used in the GPS tracking algorithms is hyperbolic tracking what they do they say all right I know that I received a signal in this case I’m the middle from somewhere on this curve in the center I know that I have a time of arrival at hydrophone a I have a to right time of arrival at hydrophone B and as I look at those two times as ping wana rise at those two phones it arrived at hydrophone one wasn’t second earlier then it arrived at hydrophone two so I’m looking at a curve where the time difference of arrival is identical so in the center it could be time is one on the you know connecting to a time two and then time two time three times three times it’s times four so that’s gonna drive a curve through the water so that’s the harder one this is really the easy one once I know the actual time of admission which again in the GPS situation usually do because those clocks are going out once the second exactly on the time if I have a what’s called a synchronous pinger in the water I can do spherical tracking and that’s just saying all right I know the time of arrival I know my time of omission my delta time there divided by the speed of sound through the water that’s going to define a radius so I have a radius of possibles ations around hydrophone a I have a radius of possible positions around hydrophone B if I look at where those two things interact intersect there’s two possible positions if these hydrophones are sitting on the bottom and I’m looking at essentially top and bottom I am fairly certain that my submarine is not beneath those two hydrophones because there’s dirt there okay so with those two phones I can make a reasonable guess right that’s really not quite enough because like I keep saying sound doesn’t travel in straight lines in the water so what we do is we use what’s we use a ray tracing approximation to pretend that it does what we do is we cast a whole bunch of rays through these sound velocity profiles and say how about the pinger was here talking to this hydrophone well that would be this particular ray path well imagine there was just a straight line let’s take that transit time divided over this particular straight line path and call that an effective sound velocity profile essentially what we do is we build a great big lookup table doesn’t take too terribly long it is currently infeasible for us to do this every ping which is once per second for every submarine and weapon that’s currently in the water but by doing that we are able to meet essentially our engineering requirements you know the accuracy that we lose by not doing the full rate race isn’t any worse than what we’re dealing with with the Ackerson snapping shrimp that are messing with

our pings so like I said we pre compute all the data and then we store a whole bunch of date tables we can store per month we can store per day we can store per exercise or we can just say look fifteen hundred meters per second we don’t have time to measure and like I said we’ll get relative accuracy at that point everything will be skewed kind of the same direction all right so spherical tracking there are three kinds but here’s essentially how the mathematics work like I said if I have two phones I have some left-right ambiguity I can’t but pick between those two possible solutions if I add another phone so now I’m listening on three phones so I’ve listened long enough to know I’m getting data from hydrophone C it looks like in the 2d case and by the way we never assume that water is flat we understand that the earth is curved we do deal in Cartesian coordinates just because it’s easier to do the math but in the Z plane you know there’s actually a curve a water latitude longitude depth let’s just be clear right we’re not dumb so we’ve got the three phones and as you can see all right those three phones together give me one possible location they only intersect in one place people who have done this sort of thing is you’re talking about solving systems of equations actually look at that a little bit sideways because you think whew I only just barely have enough data to pick that position if I was to add another phone what if that had potentially disagreeing information in this case hydrophone D maybe it’s got some bad data maybe it picked up a multipath you know instead of getting a straight line path to the bottom maybe it picked up a ping that went up and then came down maybe it’s just got garbage some reason there’s a false detection or whatever now I’ve got more data maybe I need to bias my solution so I can potentially skew kind of up there to the upper right or maybe I can throw out that phone and a little bit more error tolerant and like I said if I add more data my tolerance for error only goes up in the two dimensional case in the three dimensional case now I can actually drop a hydrophone again right I’ll imagine the idea to a whole bunch of intersection diagrams using hyperbolas I can’t do that in PowerPoint it’s awful so this is the three Hydra phone case essentially you need one more phone for hyperbolic tracking than you do in spherical tracking right in the tracking scenarios on the ranges that we deal with we have standard conditions the submarine is largely driving in straight lines for relatively long periods of time we have targets that are more or less doing the same thing surface ships looking for all of these things again largely going in straight-line paths life is pretty good in most scenarios now the submarine starts launching weapons it the weapon has a ping er the submarine has a ping er which one wins at the signal processor because they’re in the same place they’re emitting it’s the same transit time so the sounds are arriving at the phones at the same time there’s contention in the water now so it’s going to take some time before the weapon separates from the submarine and we can begin tracking each one of those and what we call the end of run by the way these are exercise torpedoes they’re firing at each other but they don’t make holes in the other submarine they turn away and then they come up and they have to be recovered we put different heads their weapon hits on the top there are war shots generally they’re a different color and everything at the end of run so they’re out of fuel they need to be recovered they go vertical and if they’re going from relatively deep water it can take them quite a while to get back to the surface like I said the pinger emits down except down is now to the left the hydrophones are down here so all that Energy’s going that way there’s an excellent chance that I’m not tracking anymore and that’s all kinds scary because now there’s a weapon in the water doing something and then it shows up on the surface and now it’s rolling around in the waves because the waves in Hawaii are really quite large and it gets hard to track again because the pinger is supposed to be pointing down but it’s rolling around back and forth sometimes it’s pointing up it doesn’t go well through the air all right now all the way back out of the mathematics now we’re into the user interface requirements world still and Java what we’re trying to do in this world is look at this big firehose of data it’s really multiple simultaneous fire hoses of data and we’re trying to provide to the expert operator of which I am one which is sometimes to my own consternation as they send me out to the water to do stuff we try to give the operator many slices of and views on the same data so we want to say all right operator you need to be able to look at this data stream so we have that time series graph maybe I need to look at the numbers maybe I need to look at the bars

maybe I need to turn that whole graph on its side maybe I need to look at the visitor positional data and all the time series the core speed in depth don’t try to read this this is the numeric chart that an operator would normally deal with the numbers are too small but essentially we’re looking at a standard table view where we’ve got course speed and depth and all the other tracking mathematical parameters that I care about but we also have the emission time that would be this column right over here this emission time this is the last time that I had a good track on this target that is a very interesting number because I want that number there to be very close to that number there because if there’s a large Delta between those two times I haven’t had track on say this weapon for seconds and or minutes and this becomes a range safety problem rather rapidly so again this is a mission time here I’m talking about this MTG number down here yes that’s what that’s why I called my master time number okay so that’s master time for the whole system these numbers over here these are calculated in terms of Master time they’re tracked delayed and they’re the track delay column has gone off to the right their contact time is when I first detected this thing this is data that the range cares about a lot when did this submarine get detected and tracked and when was this weapon actually launched was it launched on schedule people get scored on this sort of thing and track acquisition time quite often track acquisition time precedes contact time because the contact time is when validation kicked in and said yep I’ve got validated on this thing it turns out that validation can then backtrack and say well perhaps I had valid data all this time but I had to buffer up enough to say yeah I think I’ve got this guy and then I can say back up say about four seconds and so that sometimes confuses people and we’re looking at seven homes in solution this is hyperbolic track you can see we’ve got quite a lot of hydrophones validating right this is another way of looking at the data that’s coming in again don’t try to read what I’m looking at here is the auto tech hydrophones this is the sample data that I joined up in my basement last weekend we’re looking at the hella tech hydrophones we’ve got multiple targets in the water this bottom here is all the raw data the green is showing me validated data so we’ve got a whole bunch of phones that are validating data coming in on these tracks if you’re an expert operator again you’re counting up the data per second that’s arriving you expect to see about one ping per second if you see multiple per second arriving then you’ve potentially got bounce paths going on or some kind of reverberation this is all that data but now I’m looking at it in terms of numbers again no reading the numbers are too small anybody is super curious I can play it up here after the show and we can look at the real numbers that arriving Green is good yellow is good white and blue are bad what this is showing is that I’m not only got more data than I expect I probably am listening to multiple targets on these phones I may have ID contention and I know I do because I’ve made the data stream that’s what it looks like if you don’t use the numbers okay this is that time series data that I was talking about before new data on the right you know cascading over towards the left these are the hydrophones I’m listening in and you look at that it looks kind of like a firehose and this is definite ID contention tracking is doing fine with this scenario I have greens and yellows carrying on just fine but the operator is looking at this and saying I don’t understand this at all so if I turn the data sideways yet again I’m listening to a hydrophone 45 on target one two so I have these two IDs that in a frame pinger that I was talking about before one one one one two two etc this is the actual submarine that I care about over here is something else and there is something else yet again this is some other target that’s using a one for instance maybe it’s a one three maybe it’s a one for this scenario happens all the time it’s actually very convenient when you’re watching a weapon behave close to another target because you start getting unfair docked Oberer scenarios and you can watch the behavior for instance if you have a sudden change if you add for instance a slope upwards and then downwards that’s potentially a target or a weapon locking on change of speed and I’ve done that during some of the exercises and it’s actually quite fun you really can be you know Demetri the

sonar operator all right a little bit of history I promised in the the talk summary that I would talk about sort of the history of concurrency on this problem that we’re trying to solve here and that’s that this system began before Java really was an operational language indoor platform it was towards the days when C++ was really becoming viable fish I was in graduate school back and I was using C++ but I wouldn’t recommend it to other people back then so some of the code that is in the platform right now dates back to those days this is something that I’ve heard in multiple talks while I’ve been here this week is that the burden that you put in the code right now the framework or the implementation or anything like that the lifespan is long some number there can be some average number I don’t know what that number is cuz it seems to be getting bigger as time goes on I would like to say that we’ve dealt with most of our horrible threading problems I cannot say that we’ve dealt with a hundred percent of all of them horrible yes all of them new our requirements haven’t changed during that time you must not have data loss concurrency back in the day poor implementations of concurrency lead to deadlock in data loss so that was the motivation for solving some of these things so our goal is no data loss no interference between interface and the actual processing this is an example of one of the problems that some of the early implementation code sort of inflicted on ourselves this is very pseudocode pseudocode a eyes to try to illustrate what the problem was back in the day someone decided that we needed to have a client-server implementation rather than a single process and so this was you know RMI looked like a really good idea Barham I potentially a good idea you know to say alright here’s my user interface event I want the system to do something unfortunately the implementation that the person chose was no longer with government was to then make another RMI call from the server back to the user interface which is an immediate implementation of deadlock it’s just deadlock that you haven’t detected yet because who knows what’s gonna happen you click the button to fast and now the entire system is locked up because it’s trying to process one blocking call while the other blocking call is reaching back and so that was when I arrived at the government that’s one of the things that I started doing first was just clicking the button a whole bunch of times it’s like yep I locked the system again like no no no no can’t have this so in later days what we said was hey you know eventbus it’s not bad it’s not the perfect message-passing architecture but it isn’t bad and it wasn’t hard to put in place because you could see a lot of the parallels most of what we’re trying to do in the user interface world is not time-critical the submarine is six to eight seconds behind where we think it is we’re already late so there’s no reason for us to sit there and say it is super critical for me to click this button and see an immediate change on the server side I would like it to proceed a pace but more importantly I don’t want to lock my user nerve interface or my processing I don’t want to inflict any damage on either side and so what we do is we’d say all right my detection reports are coming in I’ll pop them in a list you know I’ll make that a synchronize list so that I’m not going to have contention well I’m not going to have an actual data loss problem but now I’ve potentially got blocking between these two processes but it’s better than it was before I can pour that data through my event bus and at least allow my data acquisition to proceed apace maybe my user interface may have a deadlock but I would rather kill the client side and let the server side keep going compromise at the time well like I wasn’t happy with that compromise for very long and so we very quickly started moving into that concurrency from Java six in Java seven not talking about really sophisticated implementations it’s more or less like the copy-on-write array law or the ArrayList that we’re dealing with where we’re taking these detection reports and just pushing them into a data structure that later on we can send off to J free chart without having the locking in-between we want our data collection to proceed apace who want our displays to show all the data that’s coming in frankly if I’m running at a hundred times real-time all of that data is going to be cascading off the screen so fast I’m really just going to be doing qualitative analysis rather than quantitative I don’t have a real requirement for real-time speed at that point or super high accuracy I just want it to go and this allowed us to essentially then go to you push it into the swinging folk later and you know alright user interface do

your thing do it as best you can and my favorite implementation of user interface speed up is last one wins the last day did come in put that on the screen carry on no locking just go go go great so why am I talking about basics right what we’ve established sort of proof by existence is that old systems get more and more thread unsafe as the time goes past I don’t know that I could produce enough data to prove that conclusively but I’d say certainly emotionally the older it is the less thread safe it is and what I’m looking for as the team leader is ways for me to minimize that problem again I’m not trying for a hundred percent correctness all the time I’m trying for most correctness most of the time as long as I don’t lose my data and essentially I’m looking for easy ish solutions best value in Java 7 most of the basic data structures and the components that I’m dealing with they’re no complex frameworks just pour it into copy-on-write and you know let the display put it up on the screen as fast as it can hmm good I’m on sketch all right I’m gonna show you some data you drink of water it is super important that we all recognize that what I’m about to show you is unclassified I need to see nods okay thank you you laugh alright I have made up all this data nothing that I am going to put on the screen is derived from any Navy system you know allied or enemy no enemy or other alright I have put together what looks like a surface forces sub exercise multiple weapon shots the weapons after they reach the target or miss will rise to the surface and then will sit in a to not surface current which is going north-south and they’ll drift waiting for recovery I’m not going to show you the recovery process I’m not show you the whole thing at one time speed because frankly anti-submarine warfare the abbreviation ASW also stands for awfully slow warfare right I work for the naval undersea warfare center we’re rooting for the submarine in this exercise so alright this is these are the Bahamas my pointer alright this is the island of Nassau this is Andros Island if you go to Google Earth actually the NASA world wind system that we’re working on right now if anybody works in a continuous deployment environment you know that you get those good releases going out on a regular basis our quarterly release was a few days ago and I as the team leader said no I’m not bringing this to San Francisco it’s a little bit too fragile to demo right now so sadly I’m going to show you something that isn’t quite as pretty as Google Earth maybe I’ll get another chance another time if you google for auto tech you’ll see you’re right about there is site 1 and I don’t know if anybody saw the show on the History Channel about a law tech or they call it area 52 Google that that is a super funny show oh my goodness we have hydrophone cables that are running out here into the water and they’re covering sort of this area in here I’m going to put on the screen in a minute the hydrophone locations out of context for the picture the locations are actually potentially a little bit sensitive or for official use only so I can’t show you both things at the same time but I will show you the grid of hydrophones that we’re dealing with just out of the context of the shoreline here soo when you switch out of that by the way those are my kids they think my job is awesome you’re a little bit bigger than that now alright so as we can see things are moving very slowly our friend the submarine is down here our friend the surface ship is coming down to the south and we’ve got near-perfect data coming in I’ll increase speed in a moment but I just wanted to show some of the major user interface components let’s bring up a speed chart I would like to do a strip chart of speed let’s do an auto scale I’m using J free chart here because I work for the government and the key word there is free also J free chart I really really liked it very powerful very low sort of maintenance and development cost

so nothing in particular is happening actually my colors have switched here so pretend the red is blue because my red is that guy oh no I’ve got it right as you can see our submarine friend here was cruising along very fast and has done some sort of a speed change he was coming on range and has acquired the target not really I’m not modeling any of that stuff but it’s something like that and it’s decided okay I need to slow way down because speed is noise he’s turning that turn is something that they don’t talk about in hound 4 at October is the submarine has what’s called a towed sonar array does anybody heard about this sort of thing before all right it’s towing that out and not really and is waiting for it to straighten out came this direction and is going that way to resolve that ambiguity the high towed sonar array provides a line of hydrophones which gives you in the spherical tracking case that you know left/right ambiguity problem he’s trying to resolve that because as he came in couldn’t really tell is my target on the right is my target on the left okay so again let’s just look at what this data looks like I can see here these are times of arrival and you might almost be able to read those back there you can see that none of these times are quite the same and there’s potentially a fairly large disconnect between them but if you look for ping F here ping F thing F thing F those are arriving at different times at the various hydrophones because of the separation I promised I’d show you what the hydrophones look like we’ve got quite a few hydrophones slight one is right about there ish roughly our scale here is yards because people like making my life difficult they like yards you can set yards in the in start-up but you can see as we’re talking about the square footage of the range we’re talking about zero to over 30 thousand so yards are meters if your reader of xkcd and we’re talking about a good sort of 40 by 40 kilometers you know rough order of magnitude it’s a very large area and in the model that I’m using here you can see that the whole range is lighting up you know I’m receiving these pings on a whole bunch of Hydra phones and I’m doing a very straightforward acoustic model here so the real data would look slightly different but it’s representative so let’s zoom back in a little bit and I’m going to speed up just so that we can have a little bit more excitement we’re still going slow tough okay slow warfare we’re not kidding all right so right about here I’m expecting a weapon launch not a real weapon and I’ll see a new stream of data I will see a new tracker appear up here and if I look at my what I call my hide strip view yep there’s a weapon launch let’s look at this guy right here like I said this is the data sort of that that hide strip you hear in the background that time series view tall bars are big are better that’s good this is that same data it’s only looking at hydrophone 46 which is this one right here and it’s looking at time versus fractional time so if you imagine going left from right here on the bottom these are integer seconds that vertical part is the point whatever remainder so our weapon here had a run out and the course changed erected and the weapons acquired now our surface ship to counter fire down the same bearing thinking AHA I have detected the submarine you looked in exactly the wrong place to make matters worse our friend the submarine fired three more weapons because why not you know this is Hunt for Red October world you might as well all right so we’ve got a swing to miss here that’s gonna be scored as a hit these are two misses and that’s a probable hit as well well look at all this data okay you can see this is very high slope that’s probably a high velocity target in this case and then an inflection point probable change in speed all right now we’ve got yet another shot coming from the surface ship down to the submarine it’s using a different ID also shared here because I made this data for specifically this chart here and it looks like it’s closing at relatively high speed but it looks like it’s gonna miss unfortunately for the submarine I made this data set

and so it’s kind of course change and a speed change that’s that inflection point right there and it’s coming right up the back and there’s not very much that it can do that little picture right there is very interesting you see how there’s sort of double green coming in here that’s where the data is so close together that validation it’s having trouble telling these targets apart and that’s the end of run so what we saw there was surface data it’s fine submarine data we’re looking at multiple weapons and we saw the scenarios that we have to deal with in terms of all right we’ve got things that are moving very fast for instance one of the validation parameters that we have to keep track of is maximum speed I’m not going to put that number on the screen because it’s unclassified but let’s just not that’s edible in run time where you say all right one of my validation parameters is this is the fastest I expect something to go in this particular case I was using multiples of 10 m/s for everything on the screen because it was easier for me to do the math that way and if you look at my notebook there’s all sorts of charts as I was trying to figure out which way I wanted things to go but you can see we get a lot of data pollution very fast you see that chart in the back you know there’s a lot of information pouring through the system and I’m not zoomed in very far but in for instance when I was right in here where these two guys were very close you would have seen a little bit of jitter this is considered acceptable because I don’t have data loss when these two targets are very close together the tracks are going to be affecting each other a little bit that is considered acceptable partly because they rarely get as close as I made them get because the weapon will turn away I can’t model that because I didn’t want to sit there and do the geometry it took me all day to do the data set as is alright so let’s see back to the slideshow that’s the end of the demo and that’s the end of the talk the contact information here if you have critical feedback please feel free to contact me here if you would like to say something nice this is the mailing address for the Public Affairs Office feel free to say attention captain Kramer you know dr cross is a really nice guy and that’s all for today there are any questions I have a few minutes thanks very much by the way yes sir you’re talking about mammal impact the mammal impact group there are two groups that operate our office if by the way if that’s not my group if you’d like detailed information contact the Public Affairs Office and they’ll give you far more information they publish quite a lot of information it turns out well we have two groups one of them is specifically mammal impact and mammal impact could apply to any sort of operation industrial or anything like that if you talk about for instance the China lake out there where they do actual missile impacts on dirt there are plenty of mammals out there as well but when we’re talking about sea life these there’s the mammal impact modeling team there’s also the people who listen to the hydrophone data and track individual whales and their behavior these installations for particularly the ones that Autec and in San Diego and out in off of Kauai in Hawaii have gathered enormous amounts of mammal information data species we thought were almost extinct turned out to be like rats you know it and the behavior of modeling that we get out of that is fascinating but it’s not my area so I can’t really speak to it so yes contact the Public Affairs Office or google it I’m sorry your hand over here first oh yes the everything here had distribution statement a on it so this is for all use every algorithm that I used and just talked about today has been published and has been out there for quite a long time we have civilian systems that want to do some sort of track accuracy and you can do that in Narragansett Bay which is where I live you can do that at one of the other installations you have to contact the range and there’ll be a public affairs office there as well so yes I don’t have that information in my head that will they’re no joke those if you knew at Cod Navy mill you there’s phone numbers and there’s contact information yeah yes sir

say again we have a we have a variety of test methods it’s sort of a cascading scale you have your basic unit tests we have a bunch of test procedures where we’re using archive data or simulated data like something like this usually it those data sets were driven by scenarios that we saw on site we have unclassified and classified labs in my building that are not classified no higher than the secret level which is my personal clearance where we know what we expected to see and this is what we saw instead so there’s multiple levels we like to have all the tests pass before they would get out to the fleet sometimes that works great usually what they do is they find a new scenario so I guess what when you have three weapons that come directly at each other the track looks poor like well of course it’s like how often the time between say for instance me writing new code to actually being on range is no more than 90 days so we’re writing code all the time it’s driven by customer requirements right now we’re primarily focused on the display side you saw that – I plot that’s a J free chart plot I really like J free chart nothing about that is sexy when you’re doing demos to the Admiral it doesn’t really look pretty Google Earth and such things they look pretty end they also give you a better geodetic display of what you’re trying to show so all the time but you sir on this particular team like my team is pretty large and they they keep putting more people on my team some of them are testers which I think are great I love testers the core developers of the people who are still with government six to seven six yes the okay the the actual okay I can tell you the components I work for the government so nothing I say in the next few minutes condones recommendation of any particular vendor or supplier etc etcetera you know everything that well no not everything that we use is open-source we do use open-source partly because the price is right we do contribute to open source projects on this software forged mill side if you have a and cat card which is a military ID card you can access that the forward side the development process is a modified feature driven development where essentially we have a pool of cases that are prioritized they happen to be in fog buds because that plugs into a very low ceremony development process we have a small number of people so there are two different repositories that go on the back end subversion is the older side the new systems are going into kiln which is a flavor of material which comes with our fog website license which we paid money for there was a competitive bid process that’s the retarder and there’s a Eclipse and NetBeans depending on which one you like the best in between did I answer your question okay good it’s Jenkins now we were using cruise control for a long time yes sir the actual incoming data the okay the transmitted data is ordered so it’s you know its first ping is ping one then there’s ping two and then it rolls over to ping one again after it because 16 of those so that’s one of the things that allows me to correlate between two different hydrophones this ping one and that ping one must be the same if for instance I had a very rapid ping rate in very short what’s called baselines different distances between the hydrophones I can get what’s called a frame ambiguity where it’s rolled over too fast and now I don’t know which ping one I’m talking about but yes there’s a distinct order and if you think about it most of the time it’s you know going from ping 1 to 16 it’s 1,500 meters per second we’re talking upwards of 10 kilometers at that point so I can cover a pretty large footprint as I up the ping rate that area begins to neck down so it’s good okay yes sir on the airborne side I’m not talking I didn’t show any of the airborne data we’re also responsible for taking in the radar data at law Tech the systems at the other ranges also provide radar data it’s an older display system that doesn’t pass through this code base this particular code base and those generally produce for me a tyskie a time space position

information packet directly and they they produce it however fast they want to a lot of those if they were old missile control radars or upwards of 20 times a second which is relatively low bandwidth you know compared to everything else that we have to deal with yes sir the the question is on but would we use machine learning I would say machine learning in an unsophisticated sense is very much on our R&D plan because what we would really like to do and we’ve talked about this a lot and it’s not even a funding question it’s literally we don’t have enough minutes in the day to start pulling into this is to say we have years and years of archived data to say this particular target was at this point which phones can hear it because I’d like to be able to produce per phone a hearing volume because their art I said the bottom doesn’t change very often it does over a period of 20 years change some we had one hydrophone down at law tech fall into a hole or something like that where literally the hearing volume change that it fell into a ditch or something happened or it got caught on a trawl line or something like that where all of a sudden it wasn’t hearing things that it should have been hearing before and it physically moved so it had to be resurveyed and it turned out that that was an issue we would like to be able to detect that I would also like to be able to say alright I have a GPS source for this particular surface target I know it’s pinging these phones can’t hear it something’s wrong or there’s an occlusion you know I have a I have what’s a called a ping er Pole where I can temporarily mount a ping er in the water and put an acoustic tracking source on something for a little while it might be on one side of the boat so I can’t hear over there is that good sure yes sir we do mostly on the positions I would really like to look into calman filtering on the input but we haven’t done that yet it’s 2 o’clock so you guys could go if you wanted to thanks very much for coming

Jens Weller – Meeting C++ 2012 – Clang LibTooling ASTVisitors & Refactoring

so I like to use the other look to plan a little part of climb or shooting with this library to XS s abstract syntax trees from super fast and other languages and basically the tooling thought to the tool set for writing tools for signal path you can basically write a printer penetrance s or you can write some to the generator this exalted what was again a refactoring tool which request certain part of your coach lewis center for that I was motivated to look into climb by the top which can occur thank you NASSCOM this year and also get you and if you want to get a present back to decline i think is expected general overview and as we only have 45 minutes I’m trying to get you a little bit of general over you but also the first come closer programming so I think first ready to start rental to see watch Atlantis and time is basically the team language part of the low-level virtual machine which includes sees it as cousin objectivity and as far as I know the first part also includes Supercross 11 as far as a perfect line so you can not already are super photogenic of fun and s um they make the wise decision to implement llvm and c and c++ manias eight of us so we have a tool to work let us see the pass code in C++ and there is a very good yeah I thought to them you might already started climbing separately I couldn’t write it better than later on the rest are on ya as you see here you have to check out various repositories you have the penalty goes to the llvm then you have to check out Clemens and subdirectory there’s some optional things you can build fly and if you just want to use the tuning of Vegas yes yes Teddy basically to have everything because on the two ministers on top of the compilers over it you need the compound parts to the cart on that’s basically what you’re going to instantiate of community setting the compiler environment lying on chica trust and allowing you to access this environment and to transfer information back and forth and rewrites often covered again and quiet and go get to presentation we see was the limit tuning from plan defines as the library to the for writing standalone tool based on flying so only the tendency actually is flying and the bus because as far as I’ve seen flying this was a huge frame of hundreds and thousands of classes and basic methods and it has extra whole other in penalties for example too loose or something so they basically also used in make of the process either its SDF or it’s something they had written message and the concept is pretty nice retina specialist and the only thing is I don’t actually like about it is there a birthday sometimes our unique code and it’s not probably highlight that you can get confused at the south now a very little time as tightly recovered okay but is it and so predominantly

difficulty and I’d like to go to come out to have enjoyed some stuff you can see federal programs 10-0 just help with the blanket ended up and giving I’ll get intellectually five around successful the compartment attack as earlier each guest and so so we later and run to the school apart escoba currency and on we have a class for a good estimate or which just can’t help agendas bed class for our visitor between opportunity to visit to ask and propagate amazement of the arts and related see maybe so I simplicity also going on for information back into the earth can link can change things and promote again full profile and to that way with a correctly the visit first implemented first virtual functions you have for comic book your conscience is picking overload and then once the note of course in the s3 has really caught relatively new year step again now we need reinvested in the four location and location varies in the first because this program I wrote to print all kind of like a tree of faces fines and looks as part of it remember littles for class names function is on fire and we have a context switch handed over to the constructor 60 which is the contact of the osteo Kirlian and we get the declaration as an argument and then we ask the context for vacation and decoration we asked for you get this deeper in the lobby and for example professionisti the special coffee for next time implant certain date like a fire occurred so police the confusion between the time but I think you could rather too let’s climb and we know that is possible what I haven’t set the time to do this and now please just justices for what we got from two angles relative and also we wanna know this is insane here unless you’re running and how environmentally gets folded a lot of stuff in the system as we only want to to get information from the ogre pylori test on this and those knees another to do it hopefully at some lighting dark is a better attitude to do that or maybe also there should be raised to respect the partner from you from trying to love the part of so certain set of policy then we notice again don’t you see out here we use dollar going out which just very Taylor screaming component component two terms of Fortran and on the strata correction from the full occasion we get a spare in a number and other members of you know where I use energy forms results and we name stranger from the office i’ll bet you a similar thing to the demolition technology especially in relation to what we get in the cook and

the then used several tips to determine dismissal from the certain things you reinvested in a method function declaration and 340 declaration in value and again because rather than the matter in tulsa performing of the strip and correctly SFA stuff and decorations in law and you want to know ever seen the declaration here actually always the capacity of context which provide us with in the chorus for the firm the S&S is firmly in there then we in the mental five main cross consumer from China’s consumer and turn and stop sign Gandhi half years a visitor as the baseball on yes a little variability what a paper for this year we get and the translation unit core from flying for the duration then we have again the mobile pet horse under my protection from production and we commence year functions of a factory implementation for planning to create our version of contact our consumer and then we have the main function which is the reason why would the panics and calls routine for client to me finish implemented through inspection okay now I state refers to get a photo because client was not be me happy because actually the Parliament information for client here so planning fountain of the heater prosthetic one exit out I don’t know that I don’t listen we got but still on that Rockefeller and we get all the information actually wanted and of course and i’m a real too liberal llaves para más astoria hotel for freedom implemented variable or planning their retreat layer scene and now we see that other another name various functions of Princess and it’s in yeah it’s a little tree like I actually originally eyes I have a plan to try to get this into and so cute and you treat to you that after the reason I’m using should traitor but on the one on one hand on a really expert and one thing was though

it’s not that easy to get blind to any right to created you technically you good plan with busty negative this is aesthetically in the lake monsters everywhere teammate and actually very easy to the planet and I children the compiler they’re just minimum you know for animals such as also the Kampala we’re dedicated agenda item button and to get this round and cute creator certain things that haunts the header and correct in the correct way and you have to define a flea market and define the basic libraries under 20 minutes sample from complying there’s a chart as you see there’s a toilet food extra and there are some limitations of examples of two lists one of them is a very sweet and that way you can see how again get started I think originally as a third that there was a city people where I think I’ll certainly doesn’t make probably here we have known here in a cupboard for the fire the simplest Angeles run over fire look up for SBR class yes your cause of efficient and remove them as an unnecessary we see again we have to shower is made a new friend and takes a little bit of time to get around and until you see how things are done as I think the best source for forgetting help us planning for luring or friends and I Englishness that it is my opinion and the very list of plan is very active but as far as I know that yet no special made innisfil attuning so we have all sort of patents pending open spaces so we have fully implementation of rain they are medical team I think probably the first regatta many functions in serious things associated first planning to start with the computation databases basically will contain all the files and pipes and everything English we get from the compiler error then we have a hare published on metal options it was important that you focus crying engine is a choice in ancient over or it’s expected from time that the ANFO was a kind of put all of excellence you love to have to work and so when is in your

is definitely for the flexible very much crime in code and you can get a clear out come back now we see is complaining with support and mostly error message to compare the database and try to this location otherwise we go to 20 tour which then gets on certain tests mattress and this is that it you know local implementation of what we gotta do and for a comment as much as a measure their bunch of predefined metrics and case we brought up something called construct expression and is a declaration has to follow this earthquake and the cows some argument comes with the north of us have had another thought of as organized we specify almighty and member for expressing ideas member we were a specialist association of the Declaration system has nine and move leds in language just to find about about name for the type or defect language the compiler basically will see for straying secure and more arguments and all for energy wait up there and suddenly they reduce percentage of course okay i’m cracking the whole thing we’re just a little long fec very cold out here yeah we do something that we never see feel so partly first year and researching it now as public perception live event and if we represent a participant of the first year in now we see the string definition of what the compiler serves name correctly what we’re testing and resident and for one thing there’s the very stringent of residency and other kind of um shipyard if you had a good day you’re the organization of all responded for more astonished product and the add method for drum very specific by now what is the gunman dragging the last metro metro saw call and we figure out that question we get some information here put it figure out an arrow here if the code was using credited the pointer or our control what about the coil for

us bisect this year and then we try to get you noticed together and it’s either because it was zero and then the four more tequila prints and here just for Molitor sketches this energy this fellow senators crossing your own anything you call it rains on which we see is another one functioning or presence researcher and three edges of investment replaced length of the vector of investments we put in what we were looking for and veggies we’re getting tougher to mouth Rebecca Red Cross when we have here method called for mafia runs the dance again manager so scantily dressed in drag our apartment manager minish certain certain information then those get a dedicated information will come to the source and we got the expression which were looking at currently then we look all we have a new operator you having a priority get a quote from the operator and the case the whole the Texas father refundable head of flowers and so you have some long antennae glitz and energy I will not have to pay the tax on their place the types of empty string not return either a leading the star here as you see or just idiots we have some business information this is how to leave permanently in every operational very part of their set off of expression retractor the total energy doesn’t come by so we have to wrap our expression now in parentheses and as a star so now we have this message cause reach from linear operator operator minutes against operator passing marks and call records positive customer management and the father we test the arguments we have post operation here’s documentation and disease it says return to express it needs to be put in turn we’re just a normal operation a fighter ed Vance this my little by over territory steadily and this is a good test method basically strengths of text over the fire and this affects performance our all enticed them and pull it back a little later we’ve seen and adg this is the one contagion of the summer and as you see it’s quite complicated in some ways as playing a

little of the fort down bro I think you have seen what you can do this time editing this time mr. Tooley you have to choose that to region and easy to spot product so we get any information which the compilot handling all works on you can either specific tool which comes because they wanna be a function of our operators are in the file or you can change things who is I’ve seen what they’re estimating says 12 wood which party for us and acute and transfers to foreclose TTYL 16 to locating for sharepoint and pay for courses when we have a function and sharepoint is handed over by forever and so I think every function body generator copy object form of a person through pay upfront and the tool basically transforms the function call of d x value is an aggressive so let’s already a lot of food out there some horizontal which also seen year versus support of complex go to prison for converted this tries to convert normal for loops as we have done the importance which we have now and yes the whole bunch of other things out there but i still dunno what we’ve seen we have effect there was an experience third wish can search the eft and we can get certain notes with her interested interesting process and on the other hand we can refactor and change those notes understand anything no from my heart dance there any questions time a three piece of tunnel profile just texted irresistible Tony using a hater religion gee no reason of diet or listen for life for this video to order the expecting somewhere I have some family with actually ongoing development of time three two one where I checked out compile pony in the planet the name is an issue with the church I out so when you want to check out from upon again okay it’s easy for the situation also go to each other the last allocates which is on the blended into the river civilian system that is that gate so plain is how to support among us fling himself slinging self-support and windows for lost time that you are going through their differences we have to see Clank as a tool from under the nose the code is perfect emergency but first there’s no dependencies to Lulu together or little the combat groups but you cannot generate executables on windows okay so hard where people would like to see some work but there’s currently no one really being able to do that work as a Microsoft probably not yes and over the hump of the tank and there for this some

people wanting to do it and some people like to do it so Dennis price of know there’s curvy no serious work for having working plan compiler for generating code for Windows 8 or 7 economic system this is nt okay then we come to compile went with the term component learning will we lose to me too yes you can you can respect it a friend is a day for so the type out on the windows and together or is an erroneous compartment so essentially they get value to useful thing exists all far how you have from five times in under like april by piece of code and just step see what it is a compiler is do is write a check for example by the conference and exposition is elective or stuff like that because I study something which is really see the progress is that you provide some stuff and face for two reasons and don’t worry doesn’t trust that what happens from agency to their obesity is perfect all 32 teams details or the message of the pieces who would be you have some kind of two texts that will take over this planet and I’m not sure broken the air or anytime I mean because everyone is kind master how much very little for that and as plain as possible and I think a lot of people will talk to have that and I think it’s surely going to be easier to be implemented already or even basically for me the motivation was to have a plan for a conference and unfortunately I could not get an honest answer Kevin under settings i decide either to talk about myself about buying them to have actually come by becoming the more professional this is important that the ability of time extended the program even your profile would buy a time and reach and warnings and sanitation information sat i stashed under these institutions such necessary and the neighborhood is it wasn’t able to but actually as a prototype version and new template and papers on that the GT quadratics that was a version is working into the maturation a Malaysian information increases but invisible and then you can compiler or get information from a problem which compiles it doesn’t imply a terrible system we have to get the right information about where it is wife just settle settle this information very sorry sweetie some eh HD and SD this is expecting the escape of mine currently climbing on the platform which generates code that generates code but how is using not as efficient as for

other compounds and I know people who have been brought into the train run for a sample yet for exactly that reason flying a very good error messages and it’s usually much more effects on the arrow than very simple food then another compiler so I know several environments and companies we’re trying used as compelling to define tended ever since our arrows which are hidden inside compilation not as good to be trackable without a compiler okay just read it that’s probably also available in lead to the same my same error because you need that if you wanna make something yourself in error it’s a matter of fine-tuning self the entire thing including itself is only the part for daliyah factoring and getting visiting the ass notes and stuff but there’s other part of code frontline of course beautiful and mechanical sexual all open source and this released on a very focussed balance this is comparable to boost and get eaten so baby PS it’s a very good and faithful set for super sports and retouch definitely starting with December as far as i remember the 16 or 17 december if they want to release flank the points to some people say that there will be very close to full implementation of Super Stocks 11 as far as I know at least what we can say about this crime will probably still have the region implementing citizens

Lecture by Nikolas Weinstein

I’m greedy girl it’s the interim instructor of the glass three course here at CCA it’s my pleasure to be introducing to you this evening one of the more innovative and dynamic contemporary designers I’ve had the privilege of working with in my 22-year career in glass Nikolas Weinstein was born in New York City in 1968 his aesthetic derives from a long-standing interest in the natural world established during his internships at the American Museum of Natural History and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography his first formal experience in working with the medium of glass was through a program at the Rhode Island School of Design this is where Nicholas became fascinated by this unique material and its ability to transform from a formless liquid into a solidified fixed and sometimes complex shape after graduating from Brown University with a degree in literature Nicholas moved to San Francisco and started work for a graphic designer Michael Cronin Cronin excuse me blowing glass in the weekends he eventually left and started Nicholas Weinstein studios here in San Francisco in 1991 without extensive formal training and largely self-taught his interest in organic forms were unrestrained by more traditional techniques in glass which resulted in his unique approach to the manipulation of the material through his exploration of visual texture by the use of plaster and cast-iron molds his first expressions were smaller glass sculptures sold and designed boutiques and galleries when Frank O’Gara approached Nicholas to design and build an installation for the central atrium of DZ banks new headquarters in Berlin his largest Commission to that date had not exceeded seven feet in length this project when completed covered 2,000 square feet and weighed more than two and a half tons this was the launch of Nicholas’s continuing interest in the works that lie in the intersection of art and architecture and which leveraged new technologies to build living works in glass his concept of creating something large enough to have a conversation with the architecture resonates through all his contemporary installations he continues to work with some of the most innovative and renowned architects in the world creating pieces that range from the intimate and scale to those that define and care the character of an entire space and all of his works the beauty and message of the completed piece failed to justify the complexity involved with its creation each piece seemingly simple in its elegance holds unique solutions to numerous mechanical and physical challenges each piece manipulates this age-old material to create site-specific works that are original with an appearance unlike any other so without further ado it’s my distinct pleasure to introduce to you my friend and one of my favorite designers Nicolas Weinstein I’ll just skip whole sections so I thought I’d start by just talking about how I approach the work I don’t know if you’ve ever been at a dinner party or out for drinks and someone asks what you do and I’ve always found that it’s a pretty good litmus test if you’re eager or / willing to tell them if you are that means you’re probably proud of what you do I think that’s pretty important and if you’re not you should probably change what you’re doing that having been said I don’t always like going to work we’ll have this notion of creatives as consumed by their art and I have to say that often times I find the design process really difficult I dread it but the thing that keeps me coming back to it is that I think glass is a pretty remarkable material for three particular reasons the first being that it’s

extraordinarily technically challenging I learned this very early on unless you really do it for about 10 or 20 years straight you’re not gonna be very good at it it’s kind of like learning to play the piano the second thing is that it’s fundamentally about light a cheap parlor trick but very effective this is why they use it for fiber optics I’m just wiggling my fingers and because light has such a dramatic effect on the glass the pieces that you make with it are always changing and that’s a very compelling idea that the sculptures you make out of this material aren’t fixed the last thing is that as we don’t mentioned it’s magically elastic it can pretty much take any shape you can smoosh it stretch it will it twist it bend it and really create an infinite number of forms so I’m going to talk to you sort of in five sections tonight the first is the cosmopolitan crash course which is taking one project the cosmopolitan Towers and sort of walking you through a couple of things that we encounter to give you an idea of what the work looks like and what kind of problems it aggregates the second is has roughly been covered by cuido but perhaps not the imposter part so I’m going to tell you how I ended up doing what I do the third is entitled where do you find these people this is a common question when I work overseas I’d say that about 99.9% of our work is not in this country we don’t have any work here except for one of significant and people always sort of look at us after we’ve finished presenting the work and go who builds this stuff so I’ll talk a little bit about that because that’s pretty important the fourth thing I was going to talk about is fabric I’ve been spending a lot of time over the last three or four years sort of trying to build for lack of a better word glass textile systems so I thought I’d talk about that across four or five projects so you can kind of get inside my head and watch me think about one thing through a whole bunch of different situations and then the last thing is this idea that Guido mentioned of talking to buildings and that’s a sort of general what what do we do when we start these projects and what’s important to us so because of a crash course so this is in Singapore it’s an external installation it’s the only one that we’ve done outside and it’s at the end of an approach to a pair of residential towers at the left and right and the whole site is defined by these by this sort of language of columns right you’ve got these wooden columns in the front there and then actually at the rear of that image hard right you’ll see these giant pylons which are these large creatures in the middle that you see here and those are actually what the buildings sit on this they start about six stories up so the whole site has this kind of language when we figured that’s what we’d play with obviously these things are pretty large they’re about six meters tall so about 20 feet tall they’re big around pretty much just like trees so the trick on this project was the tension between all the straight lines in the architecture and then these very very simple pure curves and because there’s you know they’re pretty much the length of this stage to make a mold that smooth is really hard especially that big and because it’s just one curve and one curve only any perturbations any variances are immediately visible in the finished piece Just Cause the idea is simple you can you can pick up where it failed essentially so our first attempts bridge our first depends to build this kind of worked we got a bunch of faceting as I was just saying might be a problem and we also didn’t have it kill much bigger than a truck so we couldn’t really see how it’s gonna work and driving over the bridge one day I selected this one because it’s a little easier to see very clearly here I remarked on the beautiful catenary curves of the primary cables that you see the droop between the two stanchions and that’s a that’s a basic physical law that if you take two points that aren’t in the same vertical plane gravity will describe perfect arc between them and we figured that that or at least I did when I was driving alone and then convinced my shop that that was the way to actually make these things so as with many projects we built a kiln to

do this we’ve done two sort of large kilns for particular projects and this one which you can see Dave christening at the right that it’s first launched no can you hear me okay if I wasn’t talking into this so that yeah and this is it arriving at the shop but just to give you an idea of how it actually works the whole thing is on giant legs so it’s essentially a hat kiln that’s the description for that and there’s a large sort of railroad bed that rolls in underneath and then there’s a winch system that lifts it up and into place and on the inside I think I can’t really remember but I think after we made a lot of mistakes we came up with this which is an assembly that that has this sort of sling kind of like a dolphin carrier I don’t know if you’ve ever seen those and you basically we stacked up all these loose tubes in there and then get them hot enough that they would be beginning to get sticky not so hot that they collapse except your not hot enough they don’t stick so you get them stuck together so they begin to perform as a single bundle rather than a bunch of loose tubes and then we can remotely drop the sling from outside while the whole kilns still buttoned up and the whole piece is riding on a giant cable that runs through its core originally we had another set of winches and we’re gonna dial in different tensions to get different arcs that we needed but we didn’t have very much leverage and pretty much if you just let the kiln run for an extra half hour you got a deeper curve so that’s how we did that but what it allowed you to do was to build these these huge pieces that didn’t use mold so you didn’t have all this thermal mass and you got these curves that had sort of a built in tension because they showed how they were actually formed this is the thing that like if you’ve ever read Sara talked about his stuff he’s very insistent that because there’s a huge amount of pressure sort of forcing those plates between the rollers that that’s shown in the finished work and I think that’s something that plays out here too that you can see when something looks like it was dead and it just kind of slumped in the kilim and you can see when it was really kind of fighting or getting pulled by something which is the case here another thing that was really interesting to us on this project was the idea of these two bends and as I showed you before with that little movie with the light they’re kind of like fiber optics so you can either pump light through it or if they’re they’re not if they’re not jacketed by an opaque material light gets in through the sidewalls of the tubes runs down and you get these sort of spectacular and end glows at the end of the tubes and we wanted to make that a component of the piece and full disclosure we couldn’t get tubes that long so one of the big problems is is that tubing is made in these huge factories there aren’t a lot of them there are several stories tall and they run a continuous feed at the bottom they’re just sort of dripping glass constantly and it comes down and as it comes down it sets up and goes out on a conveyor so getting the full lengths wasn’t the problem it was that the tubes in here range from let’s say 20 millimeters up to about 80 millimeters and if you ship those across the country around the world and they’re 20 25 feet long they’re all gonna snap they they have no bending strength they’re tiny little sticks and until they’re actually fused together into these huge bumble bundles where they act like a big section then they’re strong so we literally just couldn’t figure out how to get this stuff to us so we sort of thought oh well maybe we can turn turn it into a design detail and that didn’t work and we started getting all this cracking well the idea of the aesthetic detail work but as you can see the idea of the structural detail failed massively and what you’re seeing here is just like coming down through the tubes and glass is very good at showing where it’s been broken if you pump enough light through it that’s actually how they test windows for the space shuttle is just the same system edge lighting shows any flaws very quickly so what was happening is here is you you have these two tubes coming up next to each other and all the tube joints were randomly spaced so you’d have a tube joint halfway up its neighboring tube you get these huge stress concentrations where this tube stopped and the next one started because everything getting hot and cold at different rates and they’re stretching at different rates and so you get one crack and cracks want to run and I want to keep going as long as there’s stress and what’s happening here is they’re actually jumping starting at

that stress concentrator where it two bends next to a neighbor and then run so our solution was actually to rebuild the tubes back at the studio where we actually started joining them together and here are a sort of forcing the tubes together under heat using them then actually we started over forcing them over joining them so pushing more glass into that well and creating these sort of thickened wall sections so they actually accentuate what we’re trying to get before and create these little sort of apparently percolating bubbles of light that travel up the piece and those are acting just like lenses is taking ambient light and focusing them down just like a regular magnifying glass would so that seemed to solve that problem we have the continuous runs so there’d be no more cracking we have these extra nice bubbles now and of course it continued to crack and it continued to crack and they continued to crack despite our best efforts it’s hard to convey how grueling this is you know to weld up all the tubes for one of these stalks probably took one person a week week and a half and then actually getting them all together prepping the fire you know every time you lost one of these things thousands and thousands of dollars and you know a week or two of several people’s labor and you get so deep into these problems and looking at all the data that sometimes very obvious solutions become obscured and especially difficult solutions remain obscured and in this case we have forgotten something that we learned several years earlier on on our first project which would have solved the whole problem if we have been able to remember it but we were in too deep this is the inside of the kiln box which is a crazy gaggle of wires and they’re actually it has an onboard controller that’s a little fancier than most kilns they’re actually used for ovens in airplane food prep places so like where they have these 300-foot conveyor and rolling muffins through so these kilns are able to turn on conveyor belts at certain portions and then slow them down or speed them up to cool the muffins etc so they have all these inputs and outputs on them and one thing that people usually don’t realize in kneeling for those of you who are not glass creatures is really just about cooling something at a very special rate the rate being slow enough that it can go through various stress points and phase changes so that everyone’s coming down to room temperature in a nice orderly fashion unlike the cracks we were getting before where they’re not so the problem is that everyone’s always monitoring the oven or the kiln right you go home you put something in the oven you dial it up to 500 you don’t really care how hot the oven is you care how hot your lamb chop is you’re a big potato is and it’s the same thing for glass you don’t really care what’s going on outside you care what’s going on inside the actual glass piece what’s going on in the kiln is irrelevant so we realized we had to hold these extra pickups on the Omnicon this kiln controller and we started running them in kind of like electrodes on someone’s head so we’d we’d bury 110 feet deep down the core of the of the the column one underneath it wanted either end and then actually as the kiln ran we could set up a program parameter where if any one of those data points got more than 20 degrees out of whack with any of the other data points everyone froze isn’t there a duct up game where you have to do that everyone just stops right and you wait until everyone falls back in line then the kiln goes so it basically builds automatic on-the-fly kiln programs based on what the actual glass is doing so that should give you a vague idea of some of the stuff that that we encounter in some of the projects one of the things I don’t know if you you know you’re at the doctor you’re filling out an insurance form and they always ask you for occupation and I of course never know what to put I am certainly not an engineer I don’t have a degree as Guido said complet and I wouldn’t feel comfortable putting down artists designer kind of but doesn’t really capture it the path that I took to get where I’m at and what the studio does I probably true for everyone who works with me it’s certainly not the path that I assumed I would go on I was

at Oberlin College losing my mind had to get out of there liked it a great deal but it was in the middle of nowhere transferred to Brown and had a semester off and went to New York I figured I’d find a just a weird eccentric job so I started going through the classifieds as one did back in the day and I guess 1988 and I found a job ad for a stained-glass assist at which I I called up and I said of course they knew what I was doing I didn’t but I figured coming from a family who was involved the arts I could wing it and it was an awful job it was a Brooklyn was not the place it is today this was in about a 20 minute walk from a subway station god save us and all the buildings were abandoned and they were at the top of this four-story small industrial building and the first three floors had nobody in them and the elevator was broken and one of my Jobs was to carry the raw glass up the stairs it’s like these big three four foot square sheets of plate and stained glass needless to say I had nightmares and my bosses were terrible one was named a I kid you not and the other one used to call me boy boy could you come here oh he thought it was very funny I of course did not and stained glass can be very beautiful but it’s I hope no one’s a big stained glass artist here it’s very monotonous and it was just drug so I figured there’s got to be something more to this I found that the experimental glass workshop in New York which used to be down Little Italy a tiny little place it was sandwiched between Umberto’s clam house where there was a big mob rub out and a gelato place and it was this weird little labyrinth like entry up this ramp and there were two or three furnaces and there was guys name I can’t remember anymore who did all these very traditional Venetian figurines by himself in the exact same way they did it in the 16th century in the 17th century a real sort of talented kook and I took a couple lessons there and then I left them went off to school got my degree in comp lit I had extra time my last semester at Brown I figured out what the hell I’ll go take a class at RISD I took the introductory glass one class with a guy named Michael shiner and one of the assignments was the word organic and right of course didn’t do very well everyone else was doing these very conceptual things bottled blood bottle of urine bottle of milk and I made things that looks like squashes I took everything very literally and got very interested in this sort of language of organic stuff and a friend of my mom I’ve given some pieces to my mother saw one of them commissioned one that I made it went to New York she refused it I was dumbstruck some doesn’t do that partly because I thought it was nice and it was my mother’s you know close friend of her so I decided to shop it around I called up some place on Madison Avenue that showed a lot of design objects it was owned by Japanese company and I went over there showed them my stuff oh I was in town delivering something for Commission and thought you might be interested in seeing my work and they started carrying it and then I moved to San Francisco a couple months later and started working for this guy Michael Cronin who unfortunately just died very recently a very sort of formative person in my life and he he did a lot of stuff he did a bunch of work for the post office he also named the Kindle and TiVo and did a lot of big branding I of course was his Lackey I did a bunch of design work on a polo book and he was always super supportive he used to loan me money to rent time over in the East Bay to blow my stuff on the side that I was still selling and at this point I was starting to get it into places like dumps and Barney’s and things like that and then I had I think I laughed at about six months there and then I had the I I quit you’re fired conversation which essentially I figured that he asked me to go out to lunch and I thought he’s gonna can me cuz I didn’t really know how to do graphic design so I started saying I felt badly so I was like listen you know maybe it’s time then I moved on he thinks that I actually quit so to this day no one really knows but then I started working in the basement of my house in San Francisco which was pretty much a dirt crawlspace and for the next five or six years I continued to make that production work for lack of a better

word most of the stuff was sculptural ostensibly functional not really and out of the blue the Gary Commission happened which really was not more complicated than he saw it at someone’s house hey who did that and then someone from his office got in touch with me and a couple of people asked me what’s it like to work with him you know he’s a pretty amazing architect and the answer is he was totally hands-off I always feel badly I don’t have any spectacular stories to tell you other than he had supreme confidence considering that I had no idea what I was doing and you know when I went down there for the first presentation of the models that I’d come up with I remember at 3:00 they were sort of iterative so I started with the first this is when I was trying to do so I thought this would work with that and it’ll be relative to this and then I miss model I sort of tried to deal with that problem and change it and after I gone on for about 10 minutes he said that that that that that which one do you want to do and I said number three and he said okay so it was for the main atrium of the headquarters of a bank a DZ Bank and at that time I was 26 when I started it this project took me all in probably about four or five years and I was totally green I hadn’t made anything bigger than about my wing my wingspan and I learned a huge amount in an incredibly quick assaultive and often extraordinary way and this project pretty accurately predicts everything that I’ve done since then it was a really seminal project it was just inside freezer plots which is where the Brandenburg gates are so mm-hmm has super super strict zoning so the exterior of the building you couldn’t really do much with does it let out on this historic Plaza this is the divide between East and West essentially and so all the energy went to the center of the building which was that weird thing is the conference hall otherwise known as the horses had and the piece we ended up doing was pretty much just a conversation with that you couldn’t avoid it you couldn’t ignore it it was it was quite an icon so it was menacing somewhat it was quite opaque it was covered in stainless and the insides quite beautiful it’s all covered in this beautiful honey wood very inviting the outsides terrifying so we figured that our response to it had to be a very ephemeral and light and that idea of going into a space and spending all your time trying to think of how do you respond to that is pretty much the way we start every project so there are 36 panels that fly through the space they’re about the size of cars and kind of rise up to meet the mouths of the conference hall look there’s weed oh so now I thought I’d tell you two stories about some of the kinds of problems we ran into how we solved them and I think they’re both they describe very well how absolutely adrift we were and how we worked through it sort of remarkably doing a lot of pretty crazy things so as I said I hadn’t built anything very big before this and you can’t really blow anything bigger than yourself so that wasn’t gonna be the solution to this space which was quite large and can you guys hear me okay so one of the things I immediately started thinking about was you needed a lot of glass and you need a lot of it readily available because I certainly didn’t have any big furnaces of production facilities to crank out that kind of stuff so plate glass very common very dense very heavy very boring and that’s one of the reason why you see so much large architectural plate glass sculpture it’s readily available and it’s very well tested and people have trouble finding stuff that it can get their paws on that’s very quantifiable so I got interested in tubing which is also very readily available mostly for laboratories and they also reprocess it a lot for a lot of the jars that you buy your pickles in and things like that and when you create these fused bundles with

it they’re essentially hollow honeycombs cellular structures so they’re very light so I made the first panel in my little kiln that was probably much bigger than this table and I was pointed towards a young guy at Arup which is an engineer at big engineering Furman and he was in their London office and he was in San Francisco for a big glass conference and he grabbed this other guy Michael Mulhern who’s a does glass connection systems he did a lot of stuff like all the little doodads on pay’s pyramids at the Louvre all the connections on the outside of the glass box of bullsh X P surround the planetarium the big sphere in New York I think what happened was Graham was like I gotta go meet this guy he doesn’t sound like he know it’s a but he doing could you come with me I need backup so I met them in the hotel lobby and the day before I had broken the sample and was the only sample I had and it was maybe this big and I couldn’t I mean I couldn’t do anything about it so I turned up at this meeting very sheepish because as I said I didn’t really know how I was gonna do any of this these guys were engineers and to add insult to injury I was like here’s my pea soup that had these big cracks and missing pieces of glass and to make a long story short it turned out that their cracks were sort of the solution the saving grace to that whole project because none of the glass in there is tempered and none of it is laminated which are two common forms of safety glass used in public spaces the ideas that in one case laminated glass you hit it it breaks its lumps it’s held together by this inter layer of glue so that you can deal with the situation take it out of the store window frame what have you tempered glass in your heart in your car explodes and the ideas you set up a stress pattern in the glass such that explodes in such small pieces that no one really gets hurt by oh this stuff was kind of an end-run on both of those things and effectively a very specialized new kind of safety glassware because it was that cellular structure it had all these individual compartments and it tended to localise quarantine if you cracks and so they didn’t spread and so you had time to actually deal with it and when we were pitching that project to the we had to go through the German authorities and we spent about a week making a special video where we would get like 9 or 10 meters up and dropped various things on glass panels to show them that it would effectively catch them and we dropped lights on them drop wrenches on them and they caught them kind of like mitts so that that’s something that sort of was as you can tell a big mistake I hadn’t intended to break the panel but it yielded this sort of remarkable result and we sort of used a lot of those cellular structures and many of the works since then the other thing was that on that project we also started getting some very complicated sort of internal glass questions in terms of annealing and the structure of the assemblies that we were making and we figured that the only people who could probably help us were people at Corning since they had done so much in those fields so we just started calling Corning and working our way through their phone tree until we found this guy who was specialists in annealing named Hank Hagee we’ve done all the annealing schedules for the Palomar telescope lenses these huge huge lenses that are still around today and the other guy was this guy herb Miska who had worked on as I mentioned before the windows for the space shuttle and he was actually they were both retired guys they were probably 75 80 herb was building a canoe in his garage and we didn’t start having these conversations with them we were amazed because Palomar telescope lenses you know Space Shuttle and it was pretty incredible and they were really interested in talking to us because now they were retired and they were just stunned at how quickly we would try stuff you know they’re used to working with government agencies and it would take years to build anything or get anything done and we’d be on the phone with them one day they’d say well why can’t you try this one like we’ll call you tomorrow and we’d go do the test and so it was very sort of down and dirty so there was this very sort of simpatico back-and-forth relationship between these old guys from Corning and us so there was this guy Hank I used to call captain I don’t know why I started doing that so we get on the phone and I like you know captain Hagee how are you gonna go like fire and we had built this kiln a different kiln that we have built just

for a project and as you can see there through the door it was all top fired meaning all the elements were on the roof basically much like your oven and the broiler part of your oven and that’s why Hank one day said that all the annealing problems we were having were the consequence of us having a dang boiler which we were very offended by and so we started talking about convection and how to solve that and so we ultimately decided to get these big stainless steel propellers and try and mix up the air kind of like how you now have little fans and your convection toaster oven and stuff like that to blow the air around we’ve built this assembly on the backside with motors and we mounted it and you know the you can see on the front there there they just these tiny little windows that are about six inches there quartz windows which have a higher melting temperature than most of the stuff we were working at so you could still see through them and they wouldn’t start slumping when we started slumping our glass but you couldn’t really tell what was going on and so we convinced Chris worked with us to put on a big respirator and climb in the kiln and we turn on the propellers and then we lit smoke bombs and he was sitting in there kind of you know watching the smoke swirl around him as we would adjust the propeller slightly to see you could kind of get a good mix going where you would create an even sort of temperature throughout the kiln and when we finally did try to fire a panel with our new little convection adjustment we came in the next morning we turned on turned on the propellers closed it up and left we came in the x1 we couldn’t see in any of the windows and I was standing there it was like 6:00 in the morning it came in early because I was really anxious and I was looking through the window and I was thinking to myself why would it be let’s see it would be colder inside so water would wait no that doesn’t work because when you’re like your car it’s on the outside I was staring at her trying to figure out how there could possibly be condensation inside of a kiln which is usually hot and then it finally occurred to me and I opened the door to the kiln and the whole thing was covered in about three inches of snow the whole panel the floor of the the kiln looked like it was pure powder it was quite quite beautiful and what had happened was the propellers I had the way we had fixed them no one thought about this the propellers had gotten warm then huh and they had expanded and then as they spun the propeller started crawling up the shafts and over the course of an hour sort of made it all the way to the back wall of the kiln where there was an ice you know six or seven inches of fluffy refractory material and just beat it all to shreds and dispersed it like a snowstorm on the whole inside of the kiln needless to say we didn’t use the propeller solution anymore but it’s a good example of some of the crazy stuff we’ll get involved in some of them are crazy failures but they’re all pretty critical to most of our process the people who work with me this is a model that I made out of my favorite jet sorry a German crepe paper because it kind of you can get it stretch much like glass when it’s hot so I found it to be a great modelling material but then of course you start making shapes that look good with that particular paper and so you end up with things that are kind of an expression more of the materiality of the paper than what you’re planning on building and I found that to be a very good exercise for getting you out of your comfort zone so a lot of times will end up trying to figure out how you make a sculpture that looks like paper and glass and it’s also another way of saying that I really don’t believe that you should design based on what’s in your toolbox you should design based on what you want to do and then figure out how to do it and I think that’s an expression of the fact probably that I didn’t have any formal training no one told me how I was supposed to hold the jacks or carry the pipe or those are blowing things I never learned what the right way was so there was never this anxiety about doing it wrong and I’d say that usually out by the time we finish any one project I’d say about 70 or 80 percent of the way through we finally figure out how you’re actually supposed to do it and probably about the first 50 or 60 percent of it is spent breaking stuff failures changing direction redoing the whole

design pretty radically I’m not saying this lightly like it’s not uncommon that halfway the new project will just completely change everything about how we’re approaching the problem the material the size of the tubes whether it’s fired vertical or horizontal it just kind of throw a lot up in the air and by the time the projects are over we’re usually pretty bored with it that you kind of see all the mistakes usually because it’s taken like a year so you grow and you’re like oh that’s not that interesting anymore let’s do it this way and so by the time you get to the end of it you’re always thinking about the next way you would do it and so a lot of what we do at the shop is build things that we don’t have that we need on the left is a weaving machine that allows us to put sort of anywhere from four to ten to twelve sort of weave laces on these sort of woven tube assemblies the middle one is for feeding cables through said umpteen number of tubes the one on the end is a little fire polisher but it shunts relate to do this kind of stuff it doesn’t really matter whether that people know anything about glass I’m I’m really not interested in people who have those degrees or any degree for that matter it’s more important to find people who like solving problems it’s usually more about how someone thinks about a problem that’s important to me you want the people who want to take apart the clock when it breaks and fix it so I thought I would suffice it to say that we actually have two people who studied and got their degrees in art history and we actually have one guy who worked in a tuna packing canning plant and also pretty much every other job known to man but I was just gonna tell you about three people in particular Arlen got his degree in food science up at Davis he also participated this was actually part of his application to the studio his resume was a club that held competitions for who could build the plane that was able to carry the most weight only using a particular size engine particular wingspan acceptor and you make your version of the plane and they have these contests this was one of the things that Arlen did and he actually was on his way to go work at the laboratory for Sierra Nevada in their brewery laboratory I guess Quality Assurance and we poached him thankfully and Sam was trained as an engineer and is obsessed with Lego and actually over the years versions of tools we have have slowly started appearing in the shop where he’ll come in one day and he’s like oh look I made the boom-lift from Shanghai and on the right is our chop saw and when he got sick over a couple days we built this from memory so here was say I made a lego model of this big kiln in the shop so Sam won’t you give us quick rundown of what we’re seeing first year you’re gonna see the vents open on top and you door opens with the setup counterweights and Bender slides out super and then there are all these little pins what are those doing the pins are used to inquire a shape into the glass that were forming there’s a set of gears and chains underneath which raise the platen button picks up each pin that raises it right set any any shape that you’re looking for yeah which was cool right because you don’t have all the thermal mass we don’t have these really big expensive mole excellent we’re glad you spend your time doing this when you’re sick the last person I was gonna introduce to you was a day of who unfortunately just left us he’s long been a huge fan at the Exploratorium he’s now in charge of their outdoor arts program he was trained also as an engineer he also was a program or an apple for a while he also worked at ILM doing robotics and puppetry and has the claim of fame as having been the puppeteer for the alien that pops out of the belly and space

balls as you can see basically a lot of the people who work for me are gear heads they like tinkering and because we create a lot of problems that’s a very important kind of person to have around needless to say I couldn’t do any of what I do without them and one of the more interesting things that I’ve found over the years is that the work skews to whoever is working for me so when we had a lot of mechanical guys machining guys the work started getting about connections and very physical relations and then over the last there was a two two and a half year period where we have three people in the shop who were I don’t know enough about coding to really say this with any great sense of assurance but they were like solid mid-level kody kind of people so all the solutions started to be driven by these very intensive CAD solutions where it wasn’t just using CAD it was sort of piggybacking programming languages on top of them to automate a lot of solutions to logistical problems so the solution that the artwork was allowed to sort of gain all of these logistical statistical elements that never would have been possible if we didn’t have those kinds of people so who works for you is really really important in this fourth section I just wanted to sort of talk you through one idea across a bunch of different projects so you can kind of see how I look at it to an extent you know after Berlin we have made those simple curved panels and we started getting really interested in double curb double curved surfaces where we might fire two three four times and we would literally sort of be remotely reaching in with a whole bunch of cable systems and pulleys and weights and sort of peeling parts of the glass up and over kind of like marionettes where we would be remotely kind of controlling the panel because we couldn’t put our hands in we would do it sort of via these cable systems and one of the frustrations with a lot of the fused work was that once you installed you couldn’t change it you couldn’t tweak it you couldn’t adjust it once it left the kiln that was it so in a piece like this which was done for a Norman Foster residence he didn’t live there he designed it the pieces nest really closely and so to get the four good pieces that you see here we probably made about ten or twelve and scrapped six or eight of them so even when we’d model them very carefully and digitize them and then program the key on them and set up all these kinds of standards to check against when you close the door they would invariably start doing their own thing and you have the choice of either stopping it or letting it go and of course you let it go because that’s when you always get the nicest stuff sometimes it would run away from you or sometimes you get stuff that you wouldn’t imagine so you couldn’t sort of ensure that you’d get these pieces that would actually work so it’s kind of a crapshoot and as we started getting commissions that were bigger and bigger this was not a very reliable way to work or way to sort of base of business by any means and for the for this other project that we started working on for capella which was also foster building and Singapore I was just noodling in the glass shop this is probably about an inch and a half just kind of making stuff flailing trying to come up with some kind of inspirational idea they made this little thing and after you know sat on my desk for awhile I started looking at it and I kind of started to appreciate that it had these sort of accordion like qualities right it had this pleating this Banting that went up and down back and forth we started to think about that as a way of building sculptures that you sort of create these modular systems where you’d have hundreds and hundreds of tubes and they’d be sewn together into these sort of fabrics if you will right if you think about an accordion all the vents in it are actually stiff the leather doesn’t Bend it’s the way they’re all related to their neighbor that allows you to get these incredibly complex organic forms so when I started looking at it I started thinking all those crazy shapes you could make with these stiff pieces of leather and according that I thought oh well glass is stiff at room temperature you could do that and then maybe you could actually build something where you could change its shape at room temperature and you could be basically sculpt without heat so we started to build these this is sort of the tail end of the process but started building these armatures based on scale models and then sewing these sort of panels of glass into these

accordion light structures that were then shipped over to Singapore actually suspended on like giant rubber bands inside of these space frame crates and then once on site they were prepped and lifted into space warm and here you’re seeing a whole bunch of feeder motors that could be sold individually kind of drive them all in unison get them up there and then we could start actuated motors differentially to adjust the attitude I’m gonna get it roughly how we wanted and then we could go up there and you could actually change the shape kind of like hauling a sale in or letting it out as you could as it were and if you go up there you can you can literally push on the piece and it’ll it’ll kind of give a little bit you can push a depression into it so this was this was a big deal right because you could be on site and you could be looking at it going right which I know all the architects in the room have wanted to do countless times with various walls but then we started thinking like well what would happen if you unfurled it what if you started to actually treat treat it just like raw material just as sort of sections that would get strung together into these long lengths and then sort of sculpt it on site so you could start imagining sculptures that were enormous that could get pieced together inside the room and sculpt it on site something you could never ship because of course it would be far too large so the idea the whole sculpture that I’m going to show you shipped in two boxes that were about six meters to 20 feet long maybe three feet two to three feet wide to three feet tall tiny and then they’d get taken out and get articulated into their vague accordion kind of shape based on a bunch of CAD that we had done that model I just showed you before was kind of the Bible for everything and then they would get lifted on site in the same six meter section and they’re basically like giant wet noodles you can see those flecks so even though I kind of wanted it to be flexible I’ve never anticipated there would be this flexible it was almost unruly some of these lifts were really hard to control because the stuff that just be noodling all over the place and the only thing that’s holding it in place is about five or six hundred very small small cables and based on their exact connection to points on the ceiling to exact points on the piece very particular lengths those describe the general shapes that you’re seeing and then you can kind of stand back and go a little up a little down a little this way that way and you can kind of you can tweak it on site and kind of finesse these curves this was done with about eight or nine people occasionally ten over the course of about three weeks and this is a this is a real game-changer because what you start to realize is that scale goes out the window that you could make something in this case you know a city block and a half two city blocks long you could make it five blocks long you could make it two storeys high five storeys high you get the idea because it’s a modular system you can go any which way which is really important if you’re building stuff that’s supposed to talk to buildings the other thing is that the idea that your limitation on building something only as big as a car or a tree also goes out the window because they’re not stiff elements they’re flexible so they can withstand pressures and changes and adjust essentially they’ve got hundreds and hundreds and hundreds and hundreds of joints unlike those giant glass trees you probably couldn’t get them much past about six meters unless he started making them a lot fatter but that’s a scary proposition so then we started to miss all the sensuality that we’ve gotten when we were actually working the glass hot right so we had started with the the simple forms then we’ve done the double curved forms then we got frustrated with the fact they were killing formed so we made this fabric and we lift it on space but it wasn’t really fabric so we made it act like fabric and then we started sculpting it on site but they were all straight tubes so they didn’t have that certain agenda c’est quoi that you get from glass that is actually bent so we started to put the fabric back in the kiln and by very carefully putting a couple of parameters on which parts could fall in or fall out you can then close up the kiln and it was kind of like its own controlled little ecosystem and you kind of let gravity play out based on where you were holding it and restraining it and you’d get these incredibly sort of sensual forms that

were still flexible so in this case they were potted into a track with this electrical silicon so you go up to them and hit them and they’re kind of like jello they go pop which means that once they get on site you can nest them incredibly closely so if there are any variances between the pieces whereas before and that first piece that I showed you you know if this part went out four inches too far and you tried to put them together the way you design that wouldn’t fit whereas in this one they just kind of they gave so you could get these really really complex nested forms and by the way all the color that you’re seeing in the room there is just the surrounding jungle and pool there they’re kind of like chameleons so they just throw back whatever colors around them and that’s the way they kind of integrate into the spaces that they’re in the tracks that you saw them formed in are actually behind that system it’s a sort of system of leather tiles that we made that echoes the construction of the surrounding ceiling that’s made of these kind of Domino shaped mirrored bronze tiles so it’s a way that it’s sort of supposed to integrate into this space most recently I’ve become obsessed with this image from an assay Miyake ad for those of you know his clothes he loves the accordion the pleat and this thing just kind of looked like a lot of stuff that I always wanted to make I spent a lot of time thinking I was gonna be an oceanographer when I was in high school and I worked at Scripps and this looks like crazy new tube ranks or an enemy like things to me and so we’ve been sort of trying to then go one step back and say well if you take the fabric you get it hot and you actually put curves into it and you start getting these but you know you can make these very very complex shapes what happens if you start treating that again like fabric that you can sculpt on the fly those pieces that I just showed you in that last project we took fabric put it in the kiln got it hot and then whatever came out was fixed and you could kind of nestle him but that was it with this stuff we’re starting to play around with the idea that you could kind of do the Shanghai like project again where you could go back into a space and just sculpt on site but instead of having all these straight tubed fabrics you can have these much much more complex central shape so everything you’re seeing here is made of tubes that all have the exact same radius so that means that they’re all identical which just seems impossible right those are all the same tube so you get back to the ability to have a kit of parts where you can go on site of tube bricks you swap it out it’s a system it’s if Lego and so you can see you can start getting some some some really really complex forms that basically look blown right you get all that stretchiness and drooping that’s really starting to look like fabric again so the last thing I was going to talk to you about was this idea of talking to building you know the first stuff that I made was essentially gallery work unto itself self-reflexive wasn’t really about anything around it not very interesting to me and then the work that we started to do was all about the space that was in after the Gehry building so for this project that I showed you earlier it was actually in this Foster Hotel in the middle of the courtyard there was an oculus and this was a ballroom that was actually underneath it and because all the natural light was coming in from above you walked in the first thing you did was look up because that’s where all the light was so we decided that obviously that’s where the glass should go because glass likes light and the whole space was built of circles the oculus the dome circular room the outside Carter was circular so the whole piece became about circles and when we started scaling up the piece to be big enough to fit in the room and look right you blocked the whole skylight and so we eventually cut out the center kind of like a doughnut it’s kind of like a swirling vortex when you walk in you can still look up and see the sky but it’s still it’s sort of quite massive in settings sort of elevation despite the fact that it’s got a hollow middle so the point here is if you took this piece out of the room it really wouldn’t make very much sense it’s so integrated and influenced by where it is that it really wouldn’t work anywhere else this is the one project that I’m going to show you that’s actually in this country in our city it’s called bar Agricole and it’s built in an old warehouse space that was originally a brewery that has these three big old skylights in it and the architect put in this dropped ceiling so the place wasn’t so tall because it was a very long sort of shotgun space and then we proposed these glass sort of boxes that essentially extrude skylights

down through the space and we work really closely with the architects to sort of make these cutouts so there’s a very very close relationship between the architecture and the sculpture and hopefully you know you walk into the place and you’re not sure whether they architect did those things or whether the sculptor did part of the ceiling or this is probably most reflective of where we kind of want to be that blurred line between being a sculptor and an architect this is just an image this is just natural light coming down through the piece in terms of where we’re kind of heading this was a project that we started working on that was actually most of it was underground so there’s three or four stories you see there sorry the three stories below the fourth is above-ground didn’t get any natural light and there was a huge space over here so we started working on this idea of using heliostats which were quite old systems of technology where you’re essentially bouncing sunlight in very particular directions so today you now just have mirrors on motor drives that track the Sun as it moves through the sky and it’s always heading it into a particular space or in this case to a mirror that shoots it down through that stairwell and we started imagining a sculptural kind of light piece that this sort of performed a function that actually diffused the light became a an aesthetic central focus to the space but was actually doing some work you can start to imagine how it’d be rendered based on some of the fabrics I showed you just before and inside of the column there would be these it would be wrapped in this lenticular plastic so the light coming down would get redirected out and kind of wash to that thing and you’d get light through the whole stairway all the way down three or four stories underground um that’s the end of everything I was going to show you I guess the last thing that I was going to say was uh I’ve been doing this for I guess about 14 years at least kind of what you’re seeing on the screen right now and all of its been tubing and every once in a while I get someone going so you do anything besides tubes and the answer is currently now we seem to remain challenged by it despite the fact that we’ve been using them for so long none of the projects are really identical they’re all kind of different and some pretty fundamental way and if it’s not obviously aesthetic then it’s I can assure you it’s definitely technical it’s kind of like holding a geode and you know we usually get tired of it this way but you could kind of look at it like that or like that and presumably when we run out of different angles to look at the stuff we’ll get rid of it I have a sneaking suspicion that’s hopefully gonna be in the next year or two but I still find it incredibly interesting and I think probably most of what I find interesting is the challenges I was talking about so thank you and if anyone has any questions nine I assume you mean sort of politically well so for example in in the Agricole project there are two or three redundant systems in the glass so one of the main ones is you you basically want to if each of those boxes as you extrude them down have four sides so you basically want to stop each of the walls from getting going and you can’t see them they’re very delicate cable networks that come down if the box is here that come down on an angle to sort of roughly a little below mid point on the panel right so this guy stops him from swinging this way and then there’s a grid that passes along the inside of the piece then goes back up again so you basically got this so on both sides of each of those wall panels they can’t do this so that that’s one system that

stops them from getting going and every one of those connections to the ceiling has little dampening elements in it where the cable actually attaches then there are four horizontal weaves up each panel so even if one fails there are three redundant ones above it and then inside of every single tube that’s hanging there there are two totally separate cables that are continuously tied back up to the ceiling so the idea is that Venom pieces break they’re basically like beads on a necklace you might get a couple little chips but all of the larger elements are held in place by those cables running through the course there’s some other solutions to you know every projects kind of different the first project that I showed you or that was on the screen this guy was actually in Tokyo and as you can imagine there surprisingly understandably concerned abandon and there’s about a 50 page report seismic modeling that we did with Arab on in different conditions exactly which areas of the glass are stressed and how highly they’re stressed and the piece unto itself is seismically pretty safe but this particular client it’s a very very big prominent Japanese developer this is kind of their their baby their new headquarters and everything about the building is maxed out and they insisted on putting this new patented seismic ceiling that they’ve developed above the sculpture so the whole rest of the building might be doing this but apparently the ceiling immediately above our sculpture is just gonna be floating there but it’s pretty interesting the outside skin of the building has a whole series of giant hydraulic Pistons that are actually somewhat visible apparently in the Tokyo market it’s almost a selling point where the seismic systems become aesthetic and a marketing kind of element but all the stuff that we’ve done you know that video we made for Berlin for the code people no one would ever look at it because you know the fixtures code guy was like that’s not a fixture that’s uh you know architecture the architecture structural guy would be like that’s not architectural structure that’s like a either a fixture or it’s an art thing and you know hot potato so most of the projects that we do were essentially policing ourselves in concert with Arab for these some of these works are amazingly technically challenging and you troll with technology at it but at the same time you have to rely it’s an elated knowledge of a guy who was 75 years old from the Corning Museum how does that work how do you deal with a uncertainty science for tubing yeah I mean I don’t know how to say this by the way the guy who’s 75 is like supremely he’s actually he died a couple years ago but if you’re really into like annealing Sciences he’s a he’s a I mean major domo kingpin so he he’s very well established and respected but you know honestly at the end of the day yeah it’s us alone in the studio and most of the time we know more about this glass than even guys at Corning or Arab so in a lot of these projects everyone’s getting in each other’s sand boxes because there are no standards for the step we’re building so in a lot of architectural conditions right you look up beam strains for various two by fours and six by eights and all the rest of it when you start putting glass together like this every single assembly acts differently and then when you treat it as a sculptural material where not everyone is identical and the quality control is largely aesthetic you get all kinds of variability that even if you could engineer it you know it might change because I decided to make it go a little that way as opposed that way so at the end of the day we often do we’re sort of like getting the engineers up to speed on how this stuff actually acts so we’re doing a lot of testing in-house so we have lots of we have some pretty fun videos of just we just break stuff over and over and over again it’s it’s really pretty much just like I I would imagine a standard lab you know

control points data do it again take your lowest answer and that’s your greatest strength and build significant safety margins into it but I think the real question you were asking is how do you how do you keep doing it when you don’t know what’s gonna work it was that kind of yeah you can’t you have to yeah or you have to get comfortable with it I mean we do have insurance carriers which which honestly is a little bit almost more for our clients than it is for us there are very few standards for the quick easy direct answer to a question is it’s a total nightmare and we fall through every single crack that’s established because right now we carry all the insurance that an architect does and all the insurance that a contractor does and normally in the insurance world their liability circles are either totally separate or one negates the other so you know like if you’re carrying an Ino policy and they find out that you’ve also got an installation policy that like ow while that voids clause three four of six seven because normally you don’t get the people who are designing this stuff also actually going on-site and installing it so the way we work is we do everything from pretty much soup to nuts so from concept through engineering a lot of times we’re doing some of the engineering our engineers are doing some of it then we’re actually building it we’re usually the ones packing it we’re always the ones packing it because who would you ask the pack and then we’re the ones who fly over and install it so in terms of liability scenarios we’re just we’re like swerving all over the road like getting in everyone’s we’re not where we’re supposed to be and we’re in the process of trying to you know reconsider that whole question yet again but we’re we don’t fit into any niche very well and it causes a lot of problems exhilarating and terrifying you know I mean you’re bluffing you know ninety percent of the time I mean I’d say that so is I mean that was the reason why I’ve partly entitled that impostor you know because there was there was nothing in my experience to suggest that I could handle project budgets that big schedules liability engineering you know you’re in there there are plenty of stories on Berlin where you know I had friends helping me I was so deep behind the line we lost so much money on that and so much sleep and like everything I mean I would do it all over again but I had friends coming in on the weekends like helping load kilns and unlock it was like a sort of became a bit of a family affair and when when all these panels were breaking and breaking and breaking you couldn’t figure out how to kill him that convection the propellers and all those kind of stuff yeah I’d often be there at like 1 o’clock in the morning babysitting the kiln convinced that it was gonna break again or we the solution wouldn’t work and yeah there you have it I mean there’s there’s nothing I can say that that explains why I was able to stick with it and that it was a huge jump in scale and there was no there was no legitimate process for kind of like how am I supposed to deal with this like who you ask I mean I used to the guy who was my liaison at Gary’s office was great but I mean he doesn’t know what the hell I’m doing most of the time you can’t help me figure out the problem with glass like what do you do when this happens I don’t know if that answered your question I mean there there was no precedent for me personally there’s no reason why I should have thought I should I could do that is there a reason those your projects are suspended and are you

interested in ground-based ones like yeah I’d be more interested in doing that I mean the tree projects planted it sort of has problems I mean the ones that get down into people’s face you’ve got to work a lot more closely with the architects because there has to be a very aligned dance where you know pieces are protected or positioned in such a way that it doesn’t look like you’re putting a glass barrier in front of them because that kills it I mean in the glass tree piece there was you know there was there was a pit there but you couldn’t see it and there was no rail on the pit but you’d never stepped into it because immediately saw a pit so there wasn’t this like psychological moment where you like I can’t go there because there’s a barrier you just don’t in a way and so for a lot of the pieces that come down into people’s space I think it’s really important that there’s a really tight integration with the architecture so that it doesn’t look like an artificial condition that’s that’s protecting the piece and that’s hard to find most architects or a lot of architects forgive me would probably want to do everything themselves and secondly the way most design systems work is they’re very sequential so the kind of work we do that’s largely considered part of finish or interiors never gets thought of until like everything else is already drawn and set up so there’s very little opportunity for people to interact it’s a little less that way in Japan but certainly in the United States it’s it’s terrible there’s not a lot of holistic design where people are talking about interiors along with architecture along with engineering along with construction all up front and in terms of architects I don’t I don’t know if I’d say one in particular I would like I mean I think that because the simple answer is I’d really like to do a lot more work in Japan I’ve been there nightmare in the beginning but once you kind of figure it out it’s during just incredible and money there’s a lot more money and that was Far East and you know I ended up going to Singapore in like 2004 a very small Commission and while I was over there I just I went around and I met a bunch of Architects that I figured as long as I’m in all the way over here I met as well and nothing happened for about two years and then about two years later they all started to hit when that whole Asian economy really started to take off and Singapore is sort of with Hong Kong it kind of those are the twin engines for design in that whole part of the world so we started getting more work there and then you know work baguettes work but gets work here people see it or you’re always flying over there so you figure as long as you’re in Singapore you might as well go to Shanghai and Tokyo and it’s kind of a self-fulfilling prophecy I also you know I think that sort of on a philosophical level a lot of Asia’s a lot of Asian culture and religion is much more simpatico with the whole theme of nature as much as at the same time they’re destroying large parts of it you know there’s there is an intruder is an interest that I don’t think really exists or in the United States the interest in nature is has a very different kind of very male kind of feeling to it right the world order or Asia is a lot more I think in keeping with some of the aesthetics that I’m interested the short answer is yes we’re getting a

lot better at it and the only reason why we’re getting better at it is that we’ve done more of it so we’re very we’re pretty good at tracking all of our labor pretty closely and we’ve been doing it for quite a long time so every project that we produce is another data point so the best way to say it is to the extent that all the projects are experimental and necessarily have this component that’s unknowable which kind of has something to do with what you were talking about the only way of being able to be predictive about it is to get a big enough backlog of unpredictable projects does that make sense so they actually start to play out where over like six or seven projects you can sort of say like installation is always twenty to twenty-five percent of the project if it’s this kind of a project where there’s a lot of heart for me hot forming involved it skews 230 but that’s largely how we do it now it’s it’s a totally internal system it there’s no logic beyond that cross paths you know I mean I’ve worked on a couple of projects that he was involved in or he was actually the other for the Berlin project there are two people I occasionally run into and I don’t know either of them personally so I don’t mean suggest that I do one is Chihuly on one or two projects we’ve sort of they were the other person who was up for bid or trying to get the project and Jamie carpenter who’s and both of them are I kind of feel like I’m caught between them you know Jamie carpenter I don’t know if you guys know him I bet that both of those guys went through the RISD program in the 60s and started Pilchuck together but Jamie carpenters sort of more of almost like an architect slash engineer so all of his installations are very very they’re tight and they’re mechanical were precise he did those little dichroic fins on either side of those boat shapes at the top of the terminal in San Francisco and so he’s almost more techie so he’s not really competition or someone that I would think as doing the same he does something totally different than I do so we don’t cross paths that often because I think it’s a very different aesthetic and Julie is kind of like the totally opposite perspective his work is almost not about wherever it is it’s about itself in color and so the kind of clients or projects that we’re after are really a lot more about like integrating and being forgiveme contextual so but those are the only two I kind of run into okay super thing

stampylonghead Minecraft: Xbox – Building Time – Movie Set {50}

baile de taille bear who will win and who will ball we’ve had the World Tag hello this is gonna be and welcome to building time the show was good and I need to build in time on a friday and this is a very special building time because this is the 50th episode specials that we have a something some thinking store which I’m sure you’re all going to enjoy why didn’t you tell them script at yes so 50 episodes stretch I’ve been wearing the same pair of Underpants it’s not something that I’m particularly proud of but you know it’s just doesn’t fit does dedication yeah it for you ya know we can look forward to changing your underwear after the episode is that the special fresh underwear yeah it is yes that’s it i’m gonna i’m gonna sell them on ebay afterwards that’s what’s going to happen there so this is the 50th episode it is a normal episode but we do have something in store coming very soon those that listen to the the magic animal club podcast will know what is everyone else what but you’re gonna find out soon there’s gonna be a a mega building time coming up soon we’ll be talking more about that in the future but now we are going to be talking about last week’s building time so we have to build a jungle didn’t we yeah yeah it’s quite good last week it was a quite a narrow topic but we both did pretty good i’m excited to see who’s once are reported the same thing reported realized i want to close okay just look we both built jungles it was really weird i don’t know why that happened here everyone has voted and the results have been counted by me and they are squid with 59,000 and stampy with 65,000 square lon if not I feel naughty boy that’s every time i do the results that I when I feel can you so do that can we switch around now we’ve got 2 episode 15 can I say the results with it it was really bad me going and I warned you last week’s bills was that far like a father would look good yeah it was only 6,000 in it to be fair it wasn’t too bad anywhere it was it was it was close but so sorry authority for squared in squiddy’s help i want i want that week when one of it yeah but maybe this is gonna be your week maybe this is gonna be the turnaround because you whatever you win you don’t a good that you tend to go on a streak don’t use that maybe this is that I don’t know about your underwear every style break you going to drink for the three years as good as a site anybody lives near squared yeah maybe that’s why everyone keeps voting for me that I want you to streak anybody that’s good anyway we’re gonna have 15 minutes to build whatever is behind this trapdoor trapped all right well divert the trapdoor a movie share ok i was suggested by gupta 15 hips their GP stir this is a cool one nicely this is we’re not done anything like this before because i’ll be very unlikely for us to do the exact same in the air as each other yeah so this is gonna be this is gonna be an interesting one so are you ready to begin building think so i think i am ya think I’ve got a topic thanks to you we are you have movie set right let’s begin in three two one and begin right the other time has started 15 mins to do a movie set so see the obvious thing is to what I think of movie sets always think of westerns for some reason I don’t if that’s too obvious i might do hmm everything I want to think quick i got to think fast so i think i’m going to Western I know that’s the obvious choice but i feel like it’s like an obvious idea but it’s something i could end up making look cool so I’m not a gentleman again I’m gonna do that I’m gonna do like a modern see your mother is going to be a superhero feel that’s what i can do so i’m going to set up some like polytechnics like basically like some like fake explosions and things so as you pull a leave it can like set it off and if i can make it a controlled explosion so I don’t destroy you I could destroy the set like if i say before I do I could make it so it gets destroyed logo that’s my idea i’m not doing our Western i’m doing a superhero films i’m gonna do like a city so obviously i don’t need to to build like them and the entire city and because all of the houses they can basically be like flat houses if that makes sense like I don’t mean like flats person that doesn’t like a party I mean that they can be basically all 2d so you see the front of the houses and nothing behind because

you know the thing about film set is you know you only need to worry about building what people are actually going to see so I can kind of you know allow people to use their imaginations this is just basically going to be am a road going straight down the middle of the the set I feel like I keep doing superhero things recently so which which superhero are we going to have today let’s kind of let’s go to just think about the options i have turned to build a superhero I could do like him pumpkin man and have a move a Pumpkinhead might be an obvious choice seems like it easily do a pumpkin man and he can have his there you have lots of pumpkin powers yeah I guess Mandy could have like I don’t like pumpkin bombs or something I reckon like there’s been so many superheroes I reckon a pumpkin man probably actually exist i reckon if I google search pumpkin man some of you might already be doing it right now I reckon something is going to end up coming up so oh yeah i think i might do that i don’t know i might end up changing my mind halfway through the the old which is a something that happens quite a lot but for now i want to get like only at least the am the main set part of the set done if that makes sense i want to get the road and a bit of a pathway maybe some lamp posts and things like this would be really good in the the city texture pack we’re not in the city texture packs little help me very much but this is basically gonna be my like my area that i can build everything else is I can make it as if there’s some battle going on so i need a villain that I need a supervillain so let’s think about this problem so we can have met melon mad melon man that sounds good give me the melon man and then the villain can be hmm there’s not much else to her to play with it could be like an explosive man like it could be like splodey man or something or TNT man that could be a good thing because I can explain why he’s kind of blowing the area are possibly so I’m making the am I making the like the pavements quite being like that the sidewalks are quite big just so and yeah cuz they’re the actual buildings can be quite smaller doesn’t really matter and her cat was really getting in the way just running around in circles like crazy he’s just excited to be here that could be like one of the the civilians that’s going like no help me like the cows are riding around i need to kind of come up with a little bit of a backstory which is going on here getting a bit worried because you know i’m not too far off you know going down a third of my time losing five minutes and as well most of the time building a big road and I think it’s a lovely road i do like the road but i’m not going to win any year any building time vote for my lovely roads i do need to get a move on with them as some of the other buildings and then re-adding in this super superheroes themselves because i don’t think the rest is gonna take too long I would have got the the building’s building actually super hero and the villain won’t take too long so I’m not not to worry about that so let’s go and down start adding in some of the the building’s themselves first then so it’s just gonna grab a few different materials that we can go and play around with it have some stone breaks a maybe like some some black and gray wall or something and yeah it’s kind of like not worry too much exactly what they’re gonna be like and just kind of focus on getting like the the generic shapes done so let’s kind of just do a building like this and maybe we could add am wooden roof to this one because why not I don’t want to spend too much time and it’s not really don’t think it’s gonna make too much difference what it ends up looking like just need her to look like a row of houses basically and this one even them more so than ever i’m really curious to see what squids doing like whether he is doing am like a Western thing like I first thought of you know be really annoying if he’s done the exact same thing as me which has happened before but yeah hopefully he’s not done the same like I could pick it’s never been said in the rules that we are not allowed to peek on what the other person is doing I’ve always just felt like it just kind of makes it a little bit less fun if you know what the other person i was kinda like waiting for the the big reveal at the ends i’m gonna i’m gonna try and resist as much as I can peaking and let’s um let’s do this one is like a giant skyscraper maybe this one here let’s go and do this one huge here because i only need to build the front of it and i can leave the the rest blank I can kind of like this like this and see what i could do is kind of maybe do like some like supports behind the building like some structures it there they’re holding all of these are there is a bit of like a random weird space left behind them and so rather than leaving that blank I could kind of do as if there’s there’s something holding all of these are sorry they would like just blow over in here the wind up away so let’s go to do this is a giant skyscraper but i’m gonna leave is like a giant iron blog if i have time at the end i can go and start adding more details to this building but i really want to make sure i get to get to do their the fun stuff started to add in the the actual superhero ender and things as well so let’s maybe dad like at least a little bit of a rooftop here maybe kind of go and do something like that and then maybe put like a little redstone torch on the top something like that look ok then this is true maybe trying to do mainly one big building as I’m gonna spend the entire time working on these buildings are not have time to do anything else that maybe this could

be like the town hall or the bank or something they’ll ask what it could be maybe this could be the the bank and then this is what the the villain was trying to rob we could kind of say maybe that that’s what the story is I completely honest just make up the story when squid that comes over to have a look that doesn’t matter too much about getting all of that completely worked out yet just to save times I don’t have to build loads of houses that’s mainly just focus on when one a giant building here unless maybe go and do some staircases for the roof maybe we can have a cobblestone roof I’m not gonna I’m not gonna win any prizes on how pretty these buildings hard to be honest but that doesn’t matter too much as long as they they kind of look ok and we could maybe like go in a little bit and then do it like that again there just to make it look a little bit more interesting that look about equal I think that looks ok there then maybe do the same go in 122 a staircase there go in one to do a staircase we just heard you can add a little bit of variety and once I start adding in the the the actual doorways to these are these buildings i think when it’s gonna Liz when it’s gonna look better I just need to be careful to to only use the the doorways without windows because otherwise people are going to be able to look through and see that there’s absolutely nothing behind them so let’s do another couple doorways on this one here no this is that this is starting to look more like a natural street this is looking like actually kind of happy with how this is looking is over and maybe on this one because I’d like two sets of double doorways on either side and just to make it look more like the Heather that always they would have won a giant skyscrapers here we go here is a my stretchy i guess i need one more little building town here if I could leave a little bit of a gallis just do like a little blue building down here and kind of a makeup that this is something i was going to do this one tiny because i already on to the fun stuff i want to to get onto building the the actual superheroes themselves for now we’re just going to ignore the fact that none of the buildings have any windows because yes i did windows your den see behind them which would which would kind of ruin the effect America this is my film set here let’s build a melon man dinner so I guess he could be two enormous because it would look really weird like I don’t have to be a giant but let’s do in them I guess green and red kind of almost like a watermelon might be some some good colors to to do a man so let’s do it wears like he’s got a red pants on–he can be flying he could be flying as well he can fly because men can fly so there we go here is melon man and now we need to we need to do his face and how should we know should we do this let’s do his face with a sign that’s always a fun way to do things faces though he needs to have am heroic expression on his on his face so you can have wide eyes like like this and then what sort of eyebrows let’s do earn kinda do like eyebrows like this maybe is that kind of matching up with his eyes there we go you can get a little bit shocked because he’s being attacked you have a little nose like that and she doing smiley that’s what I’m smiling she’s like in a battle let’s just do like quite a stir now fly that there we go there is everybody’s hero melon man and we can do like their the Superman pose look we do one up one down he’s like going to get better and then we can do his his cape on the the back and this can be he can have a red cape . used a different color cake let’s do $TIME a.m he can have a yo cake because he kind of has the yellow Cosmo go there is kate looks a little bit like a turtle but there we go there is the superhero middleman given the hat as well let’s give it a red hat as well which you can happen either the top and there we go there is melon man let’s go and do the the villain so I didn’t come up with a good name i said like explosion and emotion TN the TN something the tea at the TN terror TBS TNT that’s what it stands for the TN terror that’s what the the villains going to be and I guess he’s gonna be reddened and white because he’s like this and this guy could be he can be a bit bigger this guy he can be like a bit of a giant super villain so let’s do him with them white legs just to make him different from melon man and he can be standing on the ground i guess so he can kind of go up like this this can be his belt he’s gonna be he’s gonna be pretty ginormous if I’m honest and then his head is going to be entirely made out over $MONEY of tnt there we go there T and terror and then he needs to be like shooting TNT out so he can have his arms kind of going out like like this and then have like he could have TNT hands and so many punches things they blow up that could be quite cold let’s have a bit more detail here that’s gonna make maybe I’d like a stripe there like that and now we need to try to his face which might be a little bit more difficult it’s going to do is his eyes with these item frames and he can have black eyes like like that and then we go I think they’ll do the TMT actually kinda looks a little bit like a mousetrap almost there anything else we can I just turn let me just turn to Him to explode off of our

accidentally blocked my appt entire build it wouldn’t be much fun let’s just kind of had a little bit more detail you can have some earrings on either side like that with these trip wild ok no I don’t think you can put them on TNT you put these on the the top like that so there we go this is the the tea and terror can maybe at can I’d like trap doors to the side of him maybe I just just going to add a little bit more details are gonna let me do that nope doesn’t like it’s gonna let me do that but never got asked the the tea and terror so i kinda want to do now is let’s do the $TIME a.m. let’s do like a big hole in the the road as if he’s like just smashed it and kind of destroyed it so let’s kind of put some-some stowed in here but then also some some never act as well and we can go and set that all our honor on fire as if he’s just going to like just punch down we can add a bit of them are destruction to some of the buildings as well as if there’s like this this big old fight going on and then I want to have some sort of them some sort of attack that the melon man is doing as well as at the moment it kinda looks like they’re the tea and terrorists winning but we don’t want that in our superhero story we want beer the heroic melon man to come out on top so what could be the melon man attack be he could do they’re the melon mountain where he buries his foes in melons yeah he just good like have loads of melons firing down on them maybe i could add am I don’t know how I’m going to dispense of firing balance out it’s just their focus on adding a bit more destruction so this is the the bank that he’s gone into destroyed as well as if I could just build behind here is gonna look a little bit weird but it looks like it’s got really thick walls and he’s kinda just blown a hole into it and then we can go and add some some never rack into the the side here as well as if all of this is a its kind of blazing our way like this doesn’t make you look a little bit side it’s going to add the am the supports in as well was an eye for like the the back of these areas is going up there now because otherwise there’s like this just kind of nothing behind here so maybe that’s gonna add these along the the top these the these fences like this and then kind of just do some trails just leading down to the the ground like that as well I just as if like these entire things are being held up and to go just looking at the time we got like about a minute and a half left another huge amount of time to do anything else I think this is a about the time just her just to be happy with what I’ve got done so far and hope that fingers crossed this is going to be enough to beat whatever ever squid is built but i still have no idea what’s good son i don’t know if you’ve watched his view first or I know a lot of people what kind of both use at the same time but at the moment I have no idea what he’s built but i’m very curious but the one thing that I know for sure is there’s no way he’s built something the same as me there’s no way he’s built a payer a melon man and a tee and terror back in the other than say what I’ve I don’t know what your body or loop 410 fire spread off its all turning down although I said fighter my road its overall Cole isn’t all this isn’t good and time’s running out let’s put this fire out here HAP why didn’t I think about that it looks good though I like that that’s actually a bit of an improvement if you are back if you ask me it all got a burning down like that i like it i think that that’s their a definite improvement i kinda wish i had more let’s just going to add more just fire all over the place then shall we hopefully nothing else is going to burn down now maybe we should do a little bit safer and kinda used never act not near other things that are going to end up burning but that’s actually a pretty cool effect i accidentally made my own my build a lot more dramatic and if I kind of just place it does this go out now that fire spreads know and I think I don’t even need the the the never acts so much i can kind of just add kind of things just burning all over the place like this let’s kind of do maybe like a trail leading up the side of obvious a little bit and you only got a few seconds left so I do a little bit more of what I can but here we go this is my board finished time is up so let’s go and speak to squid and yeah we can find out what he’s been up to for the last 15 minutes hello Doug its hello hello great how’s that for you that was that was good that was really good actually enjoyed it is it’s very good did well so yeah I’m excited yeah well everyone’s gonna be the judge of that I i did one of the end of the night a bit of drama which are i’ll explain about when you see you might be able to guess what it is but are you ready to burn the wall yeah let’s do it has been the world right burn actually built the the wall really hikes I don’t bother counting how is nobody always 20 blocks high but i think it’s like a first two blocks I obviously happened up there anything you’re building a big fields they’re ok there we have you started it yet because you all know I turned fire spread off da punch a little hole-in-the-wall yeah you can probably guess what drama i had on my side now Apple wow I actually started burning my down but wall what’s going on here can you explain so this is the film set from the original Jurassic Park is when they’re all going along the enclosure and the t-rex pops

up from behind the am the electric fence and then this is just the destruction that has come from it so we got the camera guys here they’re filming everything about free camera guys on here and this is obviously the two cars got to by the t-rex and these are the actors her and then yeah this is the star of the film is the big t-rex that some people don’t you see breaking through the fence as well yeah so that’s what’s going on this is also that’s amazing i didn’t build camera that i forgot about building cameras that’s a cool touch as well in their little purchase yeah uh-huh shall be ours and what’s going on so he burned down a bit but actually made it look better so this is this is a superhero film so this is melon man hey down here and he’s battling the tea and terror over here and the tea and tara has TNT fists and anything he punches like blows up like TNT and they’re having a dramatic battle and this is this is the city that he’s trying to say this is the bank here uh-huh it’s pretty good I guess pretty awesome and other walls just like on fire nothing’s happening to her yeah it kind of actually workers I i build up the road out of coal and then i added a bunch of never rack and kinda forgot the fact that colors colors are pretty pretty good for burning so yeah I’d are added and a half the road was on fire but actually makes it look way better though it could have been a tragedy but it ended up actually I’m working out okay so this is my model little city and my superhero battle over here nice cool well they’re pretty also really good so you guys it’s up to you to decide who you think is the winner you can do it by water to wet even talk about can’t forget it click on the top right corner of the screen via neither says what’s good about stops or click on the description and the same sort of things there but these are two very different bills this week stops he’s there yeah pretty good it’s gonna be interesting to see two people like superheroes or dinosaurs but remember i leave suggestions for next week’s topic as well so we can pick something and I yet maybe who knows we’re gonna be building what you want us to build next week yeah but that’s it for this week guys hope you have enjoyed yeah we got next friday when the building times thanks for watching we’ll see you then Oh

The Search For Life In The Universe (fisheye)

Sunset in a city or suburb brings new lights, that outshine all but the brightest stars, leaving just a few stars scattered over the urban sky If our atmosphere had always been this opaque, we might never have looked up and wondered about the size and shape of the cosmos or our chances of finding companionship there But far from city lights, the sky is the same as our ancestors saw, filled with stars, and rich in sky lore For thousands of years, our ancestors worshiped sky gods, seeking to understand the connection between the stars and ourselves Throughout the world, different cultures connected the starry dots to recognize their mythical heroes In Greek sky lore, this rectangle of 4 bright stars marked the hunter Orion’s body and surrounded his distinctive 3-starred belt In India, this was the warrior Skanda, son of Shiva For the Native American Tewa tribe, Orion was Long Sash, who led his people to freedom In Egyptian mythology, Orion was the home of Osiris, a pharoah-god who conquered death His wife Isis, was the bright star Sirius Long before telescopes and modern astronomy, our ancestors saw living patterns in the starry night The search for life in the universe is ancient – part of our human nature, our longing for companionship, our need to bring meaning and order to the cosmos, our desire to find other intelligent life among the stars Our search for life in the universe begins with the Sun’s orbiting planets We will explore these alien worlds looking for life, past life, and for clues about why Earth is the most habitable planet in the solar system Planets and moons of all sizes orbit the Sun, yet only one has intelligent life or perhaps any life at all Why have these other worlds failed to foster life? What can they tell us about conditions for life to flourish? Neptune is the most distant giant planet in our solar system Although this methane-rich planet has the molecules necessary for life, they are in a deep freeze, without the energy of sunlight to fuel the birth of life Unlike any other planet, Uranus rotates on its side as it orbits the Sun, resulting in uneven heating of the planet’s atmosphere, making the development of life less likely Saturn’s famous rings are enormous; spanning over 175,000 kilometers from edge to edge Saturn’s rings are not solid, but contain billions of chunks of ice and ice-covered rock, ranging in size from pebbles to boulders Their brilliance suggests that these rings are very young, created perhaps out of a cataclysmic event, or continuously resupplied by Saturn’s icy moons The solar system’s most distant place to look for life may be Saturn’s huge moon, Titan The robot lander Huygens dropped through Titan’s thick smog of nitrogen, methane, and ammonia to reveal the surface below Titan has the atmosphere and chemical composition needed for life, but lacks an energy source to fuel its birth Solar energy increases as we move sunward toward Jupiter,

a planet so large, it produces its own energy as it continues to shrink Even with this energy source, life is most unlikely in Jupiter’s violent toxic atmosphere But Jupiter’s large moons could harbor life Io is an amazing world of dramatic change Erupting volcanoes blasting material hundreds of kilometers into space, constantly resurface the moon On Io, change is too violent and destructive and the surface is too unstable for life to develop These long fissures are fracture lines in the icy crust of Jupiter’s moon Europa Any life that might be swimming below this icy surface would be simple and primitive On Europa, the necessary conditions are present and there is a slim chance that life has developed below the ice The scarred surface of Ganymede tells the story of impact on a vast scale Ganymede has large cracks and linear scars that may be evidence for a slushy ocean trapped beneath and another place to search for primitive life Callisto, outermost of Jupiter’s four largest moons, possesses the most ancient surface Although violence destroys life, life will probably not develop and evolve on an unchanging world like this In 1994, a fractured comet plunged into Jupiter, releasing the energy of a thousand atomic bombs Any one of these comet fragments would have caused major damage on Earth, but Jupiter’s gravity captured them, thus protecting the inner solar system Development of life, may require a giant planet like Jupiter in the outer solar system to protect inner planets from life-threatening impacts The red planet Mars is at the outer edge of the Sun’s habitable zone – the region where water can exist as a liquid Ancient dried up riverbeds indicate that long ago, Mars was much wetter, with an atmosphere thick enough to support water as a liquid on its surface Life might have developed here then, but today’s dry and cold Mars cannot support the emergence of life Venus is Earth’s neighbor, marking the inner boundary of the Sun’s habitable zone It has been called Earth’s sister world, but a closer look reveals a nightmarish planet of intense pressures, extreme temperatures, and sulfuric acid rain Unmanned Russian spacecraft landed on Venus, but survived only a few hours Venus is the right size and distance from the Sun for life Yet its atmosphere is poisonous and its surface is too hot for life to form Mercury, closest to the Sun, is a tiny desolate world of craters, cliffs and impact sites Mercury is too close to the Sun’s heat and high-energy radiation to be a habitable planet Comets can come closer to the Sun than Mercury There are millions of these dirty snowballs in an enormous halo, far beyond the planets While the tail of a comet may stretch for millions of kilometers, its solid nucleus is only a few tens of kilometers across Comet impacts might have brought water and carbon compounds to the early Earth, and may also provide insights into the origin of life

With its large habitable zone and 10 billion year life span, our Sun is an ideal star to have life bearing planets In our search for habitable worlds we should look around other Sun-like stars Our solar system belongs to the Milky Way galaxy with hundreds of billions of stars and their families of planets The Sun lies in a safe region between two spiral arms, far from the galaxy’s center Here stars are far apart and rarely pass close enough to dislodge comets or disrupt planet formation We live in a place of long-term calm, within a galaxy that has a violent core, and very active spiral arms The Milky Way is just one of hundreds of billions of galaxies strewn across the universe in groups, clusters, and super clusters – almost all rushing away from one another To understand the timeline of the universe and to discover when and where life might appear, we need to follow the motions of these galaxies backward in time to a point when all matter and energy were in one place at one time Almost 14 billion years ago, everything we see today was concentrated in one super-dense region, heated to an incredible temperature by compression Suddenly the expansion began in a burst of energy, called the Big Bang, creating our time and space As the universe rapidly expanded and cooled, there was a critical time when the soup of elementary particles could combine into the matter we recognize today – mostly hydrogen and a little helium, in stable atoms made of protons, neutrons, and electrons Over hundreds of millions of years, these vast clouds of gas gradually began to fall in on themselves, condensing under their own gravity, and producing enough heat and pressure in their cores to become stars These newborn stars filled the universe with starlight, and began fusing the heavier elements that would be needed for life The collapsing gas clouds that ignited the first stars, also formed galaxies of stars bound together by gravity Elliptical galaxies, like giant footballs, can contain a trillion stars with very little gas and dust left over for further star formation Disks of starry arms and dark dust lanes characterize spiral galaxies These stellar whirlpools contain tens or hundreds of billions of stars with vast areas of gas and dust condensing into new stars Stars born more recently in these spiral galaxies are more likely to have the heavier elements needed for the development of life Galaxies tend to cluster in groups where their relative motions can cause a collision Within galaxies, stars are so far apart that there is little contact during such a collision and any life forming processes may proceed without interruption Finally, we approach our home galaxy, the Milky Way The Milky Way spiral has lanes of young hot blue stars mixed with clouds of gas and dust – regions with an abundance of heavier elements, but perhaps too young for life to have had time to develop or intelligence to appear In the Milky Way galaxy, we can watch stars at birth and death, showing the past and future of our solar system We can also discover when stars create the chemical building blocks of life The TrifFid Nebula is in our own stellar neighborhood Deep within this nebula, stars are forming in collapsing clouds of gas and dust Our region of the galaxy has many such stellar nurseries –

places of beauty, but probably too young for life Our Sun was in such a birth cloud, 5 billion years ago The Eagle Nebula is home to tremendous pillars of dust and gas that serve as a nest for newly forming stars Here we can also watch as stars form from gas and dust Within the nearby Orion Nebula, we can see a reddish glow revealing the presence of hydrogen Greenish hues indicate oxygen created by an earlier generation of stars – and now becoming part of the nebula’s newborn solar systems This stellar recycling and rebirth is the forge that creates all the basic elements from which planets and life develop Passing deeper into the nebula, we encounter a spinning disk of gas and dust – a protostar Such protostars not only house the slowly warming balls of gas that will someday ignite into new stars, but are themselves surrounded by clouds of material that may one day become orbiting planets A star produces energy by fusing its own hydrogen into helium and other heavier elements When the hydrogen runs out, the star begins to collapse and die One such star, Eta Carinae, is in its death throes and may destroy itself in the most violent of stellar deaths, a brilliant supernova When a massive star like Eta Carinae exhausts its hydrogen, the fusion process shuts down and the outer layers collapse onto the core, rebounding in a shock wave that literally tears the star apart While the bulk of the star is blown outward, the core itself implodes into a superdense sphere of neutrons, called a pulsar This rapidly spinning core concentrates energy into beams, that flash by us like a lighthouse beacon – a signal created naturally, but like one we might expect from an advanced civilization Not all stars die so violently When less massive stars like our Sun run low on hydrogen, they shed their outer layers into disks or lobes of expanding gas The rest of the star collapses into a white dwarf, slowly cooling into a cold black cinder At this point, the star can no longer support life on any of its planets This is our Sun’s fate in 5 billion years Earth has orbited its stable Sun for 5 billion years and we can look forward to 5 billion more Elements forged in long-dead stars are here in Earth’s land, water, and air Solar energy, a nitrogen atmosphere, liquid water, and moderate temperatures – are here as well to support the development of life Telescopes search for planets orbiting other stars Thus far a few hundred planets have been found, but most are giant worlds as large or larger than Jupiter It is much more difficult to identify the gravity tug of a smaller Earthlike planet We assume that where gas giants form, smaller rocky worlds may also exist With radio telescopes, we mount a more sophisticated search – looking for radio signals not made naturally, signals indicating the presence of intelligent life beyond Earth Since the 1960’s we have been listening and the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, or SETI, continues Searching nearby likely stars in specific radio wavelengths has yielded much data, but no unequivocal evidence of extraterrestrial intelligence Yet the sky is large, and the search has just begun – continued by research centers, by amateurs with small radio telescopes,

and by a worldwide network of volunteers, providing their computers to analyze data over the Internet We suspect that there may be millions of stars at the right age, composition, and location in the galaxy, to have planets where intelligent life has emerged We wonder why we haven’t detected a signal from these more advanced aliens Perhaps we need more sensitive equipment, or perhaps we’re not listening at the correct wavelengths Perhaps Earth is more rare than we thought and intelligence does not occur often on planets, even on life-bearing worlds Perhaps intelligence is common, but civilizations do not survive long enough to be detected at our unique time and place Or perhaps intelligence develops, but turns inward, deciding to stay at home, rather than exploring the cosmos Based on our own brief history, any one of these theories could be correct Regardless, we are certain of one truth: our search for companionship in the cosmos will tell us much more about ourselves, and our own place in the Universe

PhD defense – Astronomy and Astrophysics

so it’s wonderful to see lot of faces and I’m very happy to be here and before I begin, I just wanted to thank a lot of people, firstly to CONACyT Mexico which funded my research for the last four and a half years and my home institution INAOE that took care of me in so many things that I can’t imagine my supervisors, collaborators, my mentors and my friends, family who are joining me on Skype from India and then to everybody else who is present here, thank you for coming. So my PhD defense is– my title of the talk is going to be “Near-infrared polarimetry of the interstellar medium” My thesis is being supervised by Dr Abraham Luna and my main collaborators during the last four years are Dr Divakara Maya and professor Luis Carrasco of INAOE. I’ll just begin by giving you an overview of what this thesis contains. So at first I will give you details on why and how, what is the objective of thesis, giving an introduction on interstellar medium, star formation, polarization and then what facilities are we going to use for this study and then I will give you a description of all the methodologies that we used in work, as well as some of the software pipelines that used and calibrations of the instrument and finally our results, performance of the instruments, as well as some science observations. So let’s begin the introduction. The ISM is filled with matter such as dust, molecules and there is gas, cosmic rays and magnetic fields so but all in this and what is the most important is the star formation process where giant clouds condense into clumps and then cores and then eventually form stars. So this is a very dynamic environment. In order to understand our observable universe star formation process is a very important topic and there are still some open questions in our understanding of star formation process. As such, a key problem is what role do magnetic fields play in the star formation process? So the theory of star formation says that: basically we have models of strong magnetic fields, weak magnetic fields and somewhere where there is turbulence and magnetic fields. Strong magnetic fields show that the gravitational collapse is inhibited by magnetic fields, whereas in weak field models gravity dominates and then starts are formed, but what really happens is that we observe somewhere where there is significant turbulence and magnetic fields. So based on theory how the magnetic field direction should look in observation is that, either the magnetic field is parallel to the direction of molecular cloud or perpendicular to the long axis, but perhaps the only way to resolve all these problems is to observationally study magnetic fields So how do we observe magnetic fields? There are various physical phenomena that happen in the ISM and of which the four common methods in which magnetic fields have been observed through polarization are Faraday rotation, Synchrotron, Zeeman effect and dust polarimetry So in this talk I’ll be concentrating more on dust polarimetry where the dust grains get aligned to the local magnetic field in the interstellar medium which causes polarization because of dust emission and dust absorption. Here, in the figure you see an example of map of magnetic field that is produced by dust emission from Planck and then from near-infrared polarimetry that is from MIMIR instrument. So how does this work? if we actually look at the graphical picture the light from the background star passes through the interstellar medium and then the dust that is aligned to the local magnetic field absorbs the radiation from this and at far infrared and sub-millimeter it actually emits a polarization that is perpendicular to the direction of magnetic field. Basically these magnetic fields are weak around 5 micro Gauss. Whereas, if we got to near infrared and optical you know the same light from the background star gets dichroic extinction because of these dust grains and what we observe here is a polarization that is parallel to the direction of magnetic field. So in order to see what scales can be observed through these polarization observation, we need to see and especially these polarization are very weak from 1 to 3 percent, so this needs to be understood that we are looking at

very weak polarization caused by weak magnetic fields in the interstellar medium So to observe these polarization and magnetic field directions we are looking at regions of star formation from large sizes of clouds to eventually disks. So this if we translate into our observations what we see is that the clouds have a size around (that this distance) 20 arc minutes whereas the disks are very smaller in size. So we need to now define what observations can we possibly make depending either on sub-millimeter or near-infrared polarimetry. If we see the physical processes that happen, the near-infrared polarimetry, the dichroic absorption peaks within 0.5 microns to somewhere around 5 microns. Whereas, dust emission starts to increase from this region So if we see what are the advantages between both infrared and sub-millimeter The near-infrared can probe diffuse regions of interstellar medium, whereas sub-millimeter can probe dense regions of cores and star forming disks and at the same time what we also see is that near-infrared polarimetry has been established over time, whereas sub-millimeter is new technology and is very expensive and competitive. So in my thesis we will be concentrating on dust absorption near-infrared polarimetry which will be used to probe these diffuse regions of the ISM. So we come back to the same sketch of star formation, what we can probe now in all these different regions is that we will be probing only clouds and filaments that are around these physical sizes and angular sizes somewhere around few arc minutes, more than 10 arc minutes and hence now we defined what regions we are going to probe, we need to define some observing goals with background star light polarimetry So, 1) we need to define what area can we recover, that is what sizes are we going to see and 2) what near-infrared band is the best for observation of this region and 3) at what sensitivity do we need to have our instruments and 4) at what sampling do we need to actually probe, to have enough stellar density to trace the magnetic field directions and 5) to what signal to noise ratio and so after defining all this is finally an understanding is that, the objective of my thesis is to meet instrumental and scientific requirements to observe magnetic field directions using background star light polarimetry So how am I going to fulfill this objective is by asking key logical questions and these which actually create the path for scientific discoveries. So the questions that I ask is: 1) what instrument is required to realize these studies 2) if so what characteristics and sky performance should the instrument yield 3) what software tools and calibration methods are required to transform the data into science ready form 4) how does the instrument perform in comparison to the archival data and then finally 5) what new regions can be studied with these instruments. So I’ll follow my thesis by answering each of these questions which follow as chapters in order to actually fulfill our objective that was discussed earlier. So let’s start by the first question what instruments. I start by introducing the Cananea near-infrared camera at the 2.1 meter telescope in Sonora Mexico operated by INAOE and the contents of this chapter have been published by Carrasco et al. So if you see CANICA camera is basically a mechanical cryostat that is cooled by liquid nitrogen and there is the optical setup is here and if you see the optical setup you know there is a collimating lens which is here and then there are two filter wheels and a focusing system that focuses the f/12 beam from the telescope to f/6 on the detector and next the main filters that we actually will be using in the near-infrared are primary broadband J, H, and K whereas there is also other narrow band filters available in the instrument and this is how the instrument looks after it is mounted. So now we have the camera but that’s not enough for polarimetric studies, so we need to also introduce you to the infrared polarimeter, which is basically attached to the camera and in between the camera and the telescope by a mechanical assembly The instrument has a half-wave plate and a linear polarizer and these are connected to a rotating system that is controlled by a stepper motor that controls the modulation of these optical elements. In order to understand how

these Palani meters are operating we just need to see the way it’s mounted to the telescope and this is the final how it looks on the telescope and then what these elements are basically a half wave plate is an optical element that changes the face of the incoming polarization light and whereas the polarizer is that passes only light of a certain polarization form and these are some of the physical lab parameters of the optics that have been used in the instrument to see how these operate we need to go back to the physics of polarization very any electromagnetic radiation that actually translates an edit on this plane so this get me describe the equation of ellipse so in order but we cannot directly get the amplitude and phase of the electromagnetic radiation so Stokes actually divides the parameters of four parameters that can be used to see the intensity of the polarized light that’s called like Q and P so in our observations we are going to be measuring the Stokes parameters basically and how we are going to do this is by calculating what we get from the output what is the input polarization so if you see in our setup then there is a half and the detector so there’s an incoming polarization and which is then protected by the half wave plate and then this detector fits analyzer and then to the detector so in order to get what angles we need to rotate the half wave plate we will be using we used a system of correlation developed by mother so basically when light passes through each optical system is polarization state changes so based on the equation of order B divides the system where that we find that rotate in the half wave plate at four angles zero 22.5 4567 we can get the polarization state especially the minion polarization that is Q and you hence what it is important to notice that in other observations what we are observing to be getting is the flux of the stars at each of these angles of the half wave plate so the essential method to do this is by photometric and of the stars that we get on the image now that we have introduced the instrument let’s go and ask the second question what characteristic and performance should be instrument yield what is I start by introducing of the characteristics of the jenika detector as well as performance and some basic introduction how how infrared detectors work is that the photons fall on the semiconductor material and there’s a photoelectric effect and then as generated which are then amplified and converted it becomes so infinita what we’re using is a mere pretending the right detector of thousand by thousand pixels and putting it on the telescope will you the plate scale of five three two arc seconds with the field of mio five point five in the square and then here you can see an image of the flat where there’s basically four quadrants of the detector and then there’s thousand by thousand pixels and each quadrant is spread separately that is for us to see that how images are formed after observations are just here show a figure that what happens is it once the image is read it passes to be preamplifier circuit and then to various electronics here and then to an analog to digital converter and that just gets converted into fixed image so the main methodology that is used in technical just to be noted is that the readout is called correlated double sampling method where we first we set the detector that means flush out all the charges and then we because there is no shattering infrared so once you really test and then after you read then you integrate and then we read which gives you the first read is called the biased image first the integrated read is called the raw and the difference of these tools called seriously so when all this process is happening there is also certain detector parameters that affect the quality of the image such as conversion gain that will be not nice and in narrative so gain is what happens now gain is the relation between the photoelectrons detective to becomes that we measure and then dr. in yourself the noise generated because recombinations and thus reorganized the disposal due to the electronics and linear response of the detector so before we start talking about sites we need to find all these values and characterize the detector so that we are able to get accurate one with data so the question again be basically calculated from photon transfer but here is the signal signal this is the noise

in the middle price and so we come down flat from 1 to 60 second and for a box region we measure the signal and the standard deviation and this was repeated throughout the detector array and then we get the plot of signal covariance where we can see here is their variance blood and there’s the signal and the gain is measured that the scope of this plot which is 1 by this and with the gain of this so such measurements in order to get a really accurate when you kind of we’re done 12 the detector 4000 24 times and then here is the distribution of the all the game measurements and we fit a Gaussian to the histogram and you get the mean game value which is estimated here and next is that we have to in the darker so similarly that’s were obtained by closing the filter means slide and the different exposure time and there was something dark count in each image was measured for this is for for example this block is for one pixel but you can see that there’s a high increase of the dark count and then there’s a linear increase it means zoom in here you see this increase and then we fit the first order polynomial to actually get at a trend and so this was this measurement was repeated for all the pixels in the detector so that is 1k by 1k to get the mean that current value of the instrument next we also have to correct for linearity this is an important step because depending on the brightness of the stars you know if the detector is does not mean everybody may not get the actual plus so basically here what you see is that what is the response of the detector so this here on the y-axis is the comes that is measured so if you see close here is the saturation so I close to the saturation level the detector is around 10% nonlinear where has been the concert pillow you know there the linearity is spreading also to correct that you know be observing in flux and then we obtained out of the distribution of counts with exposure and figured well you know even then get the linear model and basically here you can see the media model that is the dashed line and then once you have the linear model with incorrect for the linearity by different coefficients and so here on this diamond curve is what you see that counts that is corrected after linearity whereas this is how it behaves so there’s this shift that we have been missing because of the nonlinear response of the detector so once all this is done the detective characteristics is performed we go not to how does the camera as an instrument perform for its seeing and went straight function so as we know the altitude at located is 2005 the average atmospheric seeing W cleanest one our second so theory says that the PSF of source should not vary with magnitude of brightness whereas we need to measure that if that mainly happens with the instrument so what we did was we did observations of for various objects at establish open clusters in the nearby galaxy plane which total three thousand foreign 42 sources over 13 nights and then we obtained the piercer for each source and then we plotted it along is magnitude in each of the broadband filters and what you can see is that you know the dispersion of this FWHM values increases as we go to finger manicures however this discussion is not uniform because sometimes when we are at effector magnitudes we are looking at extended sources such as galaxies and that not basically stars and their PSF is not the same as a star so once we do that if we want to see how does the PSF vary across the field of view of the detector so for each FWHM measurement of the star b then you know plot to made a contour plot across the full field of your kanika in j:h and japan and what you see is that the front rows represent the radial increase of the piece of values from the center towards the edge of the detector and these changes are 10% between the simple 4 into 4 that is shown in the box so these variation and PSF is believed to be due to the optical aberrations in the camera so what from this study will be conclude is that the central field of view a 400 watt meter is the best for point sources ovations once this is done we need to do photometric calibrations at the same point sources which should be measure the instrumental magnitude and then you obtain the zero-point when comparing it with the data from the 2mass all-sky survey and here is an example how zero-point measure so this each each points in the blood is the difference between magnitude of two

months and magnacube instrumental magnitude of one observations so if there is outliers that we can manually exclude and then we fit a straight line here horizontal line and to get the zero point of this instrument so such a from the observations earlier we did the similar technique in order to obtain the zero points so the next question we want to ask is how does zero point value at each night is there any variation or cable in the region so what we do is here in the plot you see that this for each point represents the average zero point of that night and the error part is the standard deviation of that night and then as you could as you see that over a period of 30 nights the standard deviation in the zero points measurements is around point zero five magnitude and the mean average zero point that we get from all the observations in jhn case twenty point five point six less from two however we need to note that the zero points are affected by the changes in seeing conditions and hence what we do here is correct the zero point of each stuff so that is your a museum point of a little star and then off the field that we observe and then off and then be corrected with the average zero point of kanika that somehow minimizes the effects that is caused by seeing atmospheric effects see so the next is how do you 0 points vary with color and magnitude so here is the plot of zero point with too much color that’s obtained for the same source of 3042 sources and we see that there is fitting a line to this distribution because there is slope is really negligible indicating that indicating that though there is no color and the filters that are we are using the connect standardized at the same time if we go to the plot under on the right hand side we see that the dispersion in zero point is uniform and as you go to finger magnitudes and the sum what we see is that you know around magnitudes up to 30 magnet jerk you know the dispersion is less than point zero point Mac that basically gives us the accuracy of the instrument once we finish doing that we need to see how to zero point scale across the field of us weather so unlike the figure that I showed earlier where there was a radial increase of the PSL here what we see that the zero points remain consistent at the centre for our field of view and this indicates that the photometric does not affect the quality of law does not has not been affected because of the optical aberrations and once we see that we can say that you know photography that we can perform for sources that’s well within the forward for our community the field would be best once we finish measuring the zero point we need to see that what is the best magnitude that we can observe with the instrument so here are the top what I’m showing is a theoretical flood has estimated from this equation where you have the zero point one signal-to-noise ratio and all these parameters so at the plot plot here you see this is the magnitude limit for signal to my suit or in a signal to noise ratio of F at an integration time of 900 seconds theoretically this is what we get eighteen point five magnitude in Japan seventeen point six magnitude and H and sixteen magnitude and gate in order to test what we see in theory we observe a standard start a is forty and fixed an integration time of nine hundred seconds so here is the plot of all the stars in this field and different signal think of the stars for many seconds of course though in a signal to noise ratio and in the observation finance section we have been days pull it in and system in point friend so these values are similar to what we obtain theoretically so finally to summarize all the detector characteristics and store site performance of the instrument that we measured here we see that we obtained the conversion in that and without noise as well as we measure the zero point magnitude and in the limiting magnitude of the instrument so this basically answers our previous question of what characteristic and sky performance should the instrument eally once we finish this we go to the next question what software tools and calibration methods are required to transform the data that we get into some static form for this I introduce a chapter for calibrations of the instrument that has been recently published in pacified so in order to begin we need to first understand the effects from atmosphere in your breath so the atmosphere mainly contains the three lines that dominant at h-man and then the background emission starts to dominate as we go from K and father so we need to observe such that beneath

facilitate the observations to remove the atmospheric effects so the standard methodology that we use in the effort is to deter the images and like an optical where you can directly just subscribe to my ass we need to deter the images in near-infrared and so for polarization observations we we expose for editor for all the four angles of the affected and this is repeated percept and then once you even combine this little image we can actually get the sky image that contains all these emissions here and typically this diameter is not too large is somewhere around 30 arcsecond where starts to not overlap at the same time and study the field of view is not compromised so the observing for polygon B uses somewhere around 15 meters that also allows us to obtain a high signal-to-noise ratio image when you combine once we define the observing if we need to see how to remove other effects such as pixel to pixel variation an illumination profile index passing in the detector so here we basically especially for me and it will polarimetry we use a new technique where we have in don’t flash with lights on and off and there then difference an average to obtain a master flat and then the master’s life is shown here in the figure and here you see the large scale illumination profile as well as a small pixel pixel variation so this is so in order to correct that then you divide by the normalized flat which has been known as to this regions of the pixel once finishing this we now have an idea of how we can make software pipelines in order to get sense quality itta so each image that we get through wall again basically the main effects other than other effects that we have is from the detectors linearity dark current and pixel to pixel variation the effects from the optical are not uniform illumination profiles thermal emission from local substance and the test test rain the optics and from atmosphere we have oh it’s emission turbulence pipe transmissions so we develop the new software in highrock four core values that have been adapted from earlier programs ever by collaborative unity Jeremiah so in order to begin data processing I just want to highlight that you know for linearity Corrections we already established our methods earlier in the chapter and then for darker we showed that how to measure our common document and for acceptor pixel and all these three points I showed that week you know how we obtained a flat image and for the atmospheric effects we have showed that by determine we can obtain the sky image so basically other necessary images and corrections in for data processing have been established by now so if we go back to the steps of data processing what we do is that once the images with the polarimeter are obtained we basically combine or group them depending on their exposure time bitter and the angles of that and the first step is to correct for linearity and the linearity is corrected for the seediest images and then we subtract the card and then we after subtracting the dark we flat finding image basically using the master plan once the images are flat filled with then we need to in this time image so the sky image is obtained by media combining all the vector images that is after flattening and then you subtract whatever the resulting Skype to this and finally then because the images have been deterred you need to align them so you measure the shifts in the ticker and then you align by reading the comments star in each reference image and then you have reached combined the images to attain the final image for one polarimeter angle and then these are then transformed and brought to the good field of view and then basically all the point sources in this image of things are will be selected once this is performed let’s uh go to the next important step that is that earlier and I pointed out that once in radius we need to select the point sources and also the essential for all polarimetry is a pressure photometric so we need to measure flux of the source and the flux of the source is measured by a synthetic aperture and here we use a new pipeline developed a non-ideal it’s called cluster Pole and so this basically uses task that is from development doubtful so in order to get what optimum approach do we measure the flux of the star and not the noise or other background contamination as we need to see the aperture radius so to do that we first calculate the signal-to-noise ratio of the source

added in aperture of 10 pixels and then once we owe in the signal-to-noise ratio then me then plotted against different approach or radius and then empirically we found out that at this signal-to-noise ratio the best pressure to be used for photo material 7 and then as the signal-to-noise ratio increases and we use larger aperture so this is done separately for each star and during image reduction process and so once we know that we reduce the images we have selected the point sources now it’s time to obtain the full width planimetric analysis so that is that so here here you see a 0.5 to pick are the fluxes of each star at different angles of the effective so we get the Stokes parameter skew menu from these fluxes and then we correct for other instrumental effects and then converted in the equatorial forms and then we finally measure the polarization question age as well as the position angle of the star so the steps involved here are than you basically you’d connect for half wave plate zero phase offset angle as well as instrumental polarization which I’ll explain later and then we converted it be by acid because here there’s a quadrature combination of Stokes Q and you so the always the polarization measurements and bias and then finally the output what we get from all the pipeline is that we get the hardness of the star its magnitude its Stokes parametres its polarizations position and go on the arrow and these are finally used to make the map of the polarization so here in the speaker what you see is that on the left is a rock image that’s obtained from the instrument and then this is after reduction the first stage of reduction and this is after doing the polarimetric analysis so there’s a big difference and you see the measurements so each vector has a certain length depending on its magnitude so here you see a reference track listing 3% and the position angles are measured from north towards the left you know and predictions so once the data processing is done we not need to come back to the equation where instrument polarization should be established so this is a a key important step especially when we are measuring low levels of polarization one person to three person so we need to remove the instrumental polarization carefully in order to get accurate polarization so the globular clusters are religious that have shown that they are basically the minimum or goes to zero polarization level so any polarization that’s measured from an observation of globular cluster indicates that it is from the instrument because the stars do not have any polarization so earlier studying by level show that my hands down best large so here is how a fight looks on the field of kanika so it basically covers all the stars covered almost the entire field of your planet of 5 25 minutes and so then if we spread this observation at different points we can easily map instrument organization so this observer of the observations of globular cluster was carried out for the last three years and we made 37 observations with a fixed exposure time in order to have a large statistics set of data and here what I see is that first to see that how do the values of globular cluster beta with tiny over the last three years so each point is the mean instrumental polarization calculated from all the stars of the globular cluster and then here is their Stokes Q&U of 37 ends at the center of the grand mean so the standard deviation all is around 0.2 percent that is a time-dependent variation over the last three years of this globular cluster but what’s important is we need to find the mean instrumental polarization off of polycast so what we did is for each star in the field we measured it stops Q&U and then we combine the measurements of all the 37 observations eventually leading to ten thousand seven hundred stars with instrumental values and then we distributed them in a histogram and whatever the Gaussian fitted a bus into the distribution to get the mean instrumental stores so we thought you can see is that the instrumental polarization Q is point five point is point five percent and use 0.1 percent once we have measured the mean value we need to see is there any change of instrumental polarization on the position so here is a map of the instrument of polarization Q U and P basically plotted up from the values of

each star a contour map and what we resulting we see is that the chain listen across the field of view 0.04 person which is very minimum so this basically indicates that the polarizing elements of our instrument polygon is in front of the camera so basically the effects of instrumental polarizing that is a fact that that is arising from the optics inside the camera is minimize the only effects that we have is from the telescope mirrors and that’s why we have a very low instrument polarization so once we have mentioned that we need to see what is the half wavelet offset angle of the instrument basically what this is is that when we set them for learning either the half wave plate angle is not aligned to the equatorial nerve so basically in we need to find out what is the offset angle so what we do is that we observe statics and then find it’s the position angle and then we see the difference of what is published and what is the question and will be get and then that difference gives us the position I have a plate so here basically we observed our matrix which is HD 385 63 C for our period of 99 of polarization and the corrected position angle so basically what you can see is that the published values and what we obtain here are matching and this finally what we obtain is the angle as 113 activity so now we finished our writing software pipelines calibrating the instruments so we go back to the next question that is what how does the instrument performing comparison to archival data so what we did was being reminder your being reminded our science pool that was to map large regions of clouds and filaments so here we choose a region that is from the polarization survey and a region that has high stellar density high polarization levels and it has a position angles uniformly and decisive on 22:12 architects at this distance plan split around close to ten parsecs and basically the field of view only can the good useful field of view is for art so to map this large region we had to have different point things where as this black box shows the field of view of the chip itself way whereas our field of view spot so basically in order to cover this entire region we have made fifteen point six point things with our instrument and then mapped it and with keeping an exposure time fixed to 20 seconds that 15 meters for this total integration time for this entire set of observation took seven point five hours now once we finished math matching we want to see what to be detect from these observations so here is the statistics of what we obtain from our instrument so what we see is totally we have a stellar detection of 13,000 stars in the field and here is a cumulative distribution of what stars we detect and we’re just our instrument polygons eclipse is blue and the green is two month so you can see that in the distribution polycon reaches depths higher then put the service in versus the number of stars detective is higher similarly the stars in the field now showed 9,000 structured polarization sections and we had only around 50% too much matches and the stellar density was excellent 30 to 40 stars per unit so he stars polarization gives us a magnetic field direction and 50% starts at magnitude brighter than 14 which is now which again shows that we can probe larger extinction deeper so once we know the stellar properties which seen photometric properties and here on the left-hand y axis you see the signal of each source and then here’s the magnitude error so basically the signal-to-noise ratio which we obtain here again to up to faint Almighty to 15.5 and the error in magnitude that we get is on one person up to that in magnitude so these photometric values were then also compared to much photometric to see how accurate is a photometer and we see that there’s the difference between our magnet füssen and the tumors magnitudes and the error bars indicates the magnitude error in the too much so the dispersion or the photometric accuracy is better than one person four stars after tucking my nephew so once we know the photometric properties we see the polarimetric properties which is basically the uncertainty of our polarization measurements how good or what is the reliability of each data each band polarization of each stuff

should be plotted with the polarization uncertainty and we see that starts up to 30 in magnitude have an uncertainty so only up to one person so that shows that our accuracies are below one person so that in order to actually choose stars that are reliable we need to divide or classify based on the uncertainty of polarization so we created usage flags from what data we get and show that your people usage like zero is the best in terms of quality which as a uncertainity less than one ninety two brighter than thirty and the polarization signal-to-noise so these will actually give you an accurate tracing of plaintiffs than magnetic indirect and similarly you have equal to one as uncertainly less than 1 in magnitude 30 and then we go to the fainter stars where incidentally is larger which give you a course direction of magnetic field so once we have established the stellar photometric and polarimetric properties now we need to see how do our observation slope so we go back to the map and then we plot our polarization values comparing to also the cheapest away what you see here is the pollak and it has plotted in blue and the cheapest is shown in red and visually most of the polarization vectors and the magnitude align but – in order to see statistically see it’s bad news we then find the difference between the cheap polygon and g-tubes polarization values n versus the position eigen values and you see here that this is done for total of thousand three hundred stars – in order to get accurate comparisons and then once you see we see that the dispersion increases to fake their magnitudes but it’s somewhere accurate for greater magnitudes and you see the value we fit that these we’ve plotted the Instagram distribution of both these differences and fit in a basket basically to get the standard deviation which gives the accuracy of our instrument so here you see the polarization differences the standard deviation is 0.4% picture first and similarly the standard deviation here of the position address that we get is less than 4 degrees so this basically sets the limit for our instrument for certain magnitude that is for starts with your feet to one category and the better so finally we if we I summarized the instrument what we get is is the important materials there’s the point what make four stars brighter than 13 and polarimetric accuracy person angle its accuracy and the instrumental polarization the right so all these thing and they’re our previous questions as as how does the instrument perform compared to archival data what’s its performance now from what people think here we want to relate it back to an original science code and it’s are these things could be able to relate it with these values so here if we compare from my results what areas we covered from few passes to subpar sex is that here we covered a large area from our 10 our six so how much extinction did before what what expanded hips but we went up to depths of 18 magnitude what accuracy be in order to measure what to three percent values what accuracy do we need so that is we have an accuracy better than 0.5% similarly a stellar density of pain that this field is more than what we required and as well as the singing of the nicely is basically some sub that are consumed at is ready for science observations so when their goals are being fulfilled we go to the last question that is what do regions can be studied with this instrument for this I introduce you molecular club statistics that as we know is earlier published by Blue Knight in conference proceedings and so here is the region of molecular clocks and we six basically it was identified from an iris source Circle which is located here and this is a to must image and the dark top cloud is seen by the dark patch aware the Stars and so this was then he used the 13 Co GRS survey the molecular data and then define the clouds you know based on information from breakfast and then you know this is the morphology of the cloud that we get from the molecule data so once we know there are size of the cloud in itself physical morphology now that we can target to map this with our estimate so basically this the cloud has a size of 1 2424 our opinion on the field of view again this is a large

region so we have to do multiple point things with our instrument to map the synthetic cloud so this one 36 point things and which eventually 23 point things covered in all the boundaries of the cloud which we observe successfully with an exposure time 30 seconds leading 2000 so on images and after analyzing using your own pipeline and theta we we obtain six thousand seven hundred ninety seven stars in this field with two thousand stars to much matches so let’s see how does the but before moving to the magnetic field direction the polarization detections from this region either can be from stars behind the cloud or in front of the club so in order to separate the stars that are foreground and background we use the standard method of color to the diagram and then finding the color of each star using the Tomas data and then finding the stars that are more behind the cloud basically are more wrecked and having a higher color mixes so we set the category of J minus H greater than want to say that these stars are giving the cloud and these Casa foreground stars so only polarization values from these stars will be useful to map the magnetic field directions and hence now we come back to this large map applause and I will show you the plot of polarization magnetic in directions on this clock and what here you see is that I’ve plotted values only for our reliability of U equal to one and each vector here is directly repressed in the plane of sky magnetic field Direction that’s one component of the e field and at the bottom is the main galactic field that is obtained from client observation so you see that the magnetic field direction of this cloud is an orientation somewhere around 30 degree comparing to the midfield but statistically analyzed as well as the axis of there’s a different direction which now relates back to the theory that I showed in the second slide where the field lines with the theory says that it’s perpendicular to the clubs long axis which what indicates or what we can interpret with these preliminary observations is that the cloud can gravitationally collapse along the field lines basically which will form like a filament like structure and then you know there is text regions here which are the clumps of course when you start school can be formed at these edges and eventually you know we see that here the role of B field is somewhere on this it has a significant relation how matter flows along the V direction so this is still a preliminary observation and this is the results that we obtained with the instrument and there is more analysis that we can do so with this I and the description of the work that have been presented in the thesis and I come to conclusion and future work so including remarks is that we have actually successfully calibrated characterized developed software’s for the connector camera as well as the polygons and so first step we did was we characterized the detector obtaining its various parameters key parameters that are useful for observation point and then we obtained how the camera performance on the sky we obtain zero whines limiting magnitude as well as the variations on the field of view to snow how important or where should our stars be positional people then we also define various operational parameters for the Pilate meter basically and then observing strategies how to deter how many number of little images should be obtained to obtain a high signal-to-noise ratio and then we developed a robust of data reduction and polarimetric analysis pipeline in order to convert the site the raw data into science quality form and then you know we obtain this instrumental polarization as well as the halfway bit of the tango and then we perform some sample observations to compare the results of our instruments and what accuracies that we achieved are they meeting the goals for magnetic field study and then finally being a very preliminary observations of a molecular cloud to reveal the last cave magnet typical structure in this region so with this

what else can be done from this instrument what else can be done with the data that we have is that you know once we obtain the magnetic field model she it’s important to obtain a magnetic field strength so field strength can be obtained from a combination of the polarization observations that we have as well as with the spectral data that gives us the local as the last in what intensity so this equation is basically if I give you an analogy if you have a guitar and then there’s strips if each string represents a magnetic field line and if the strength of the string or the tension of the string is the strength of the magnetic field of des coordination the vibration is less basically indicating that which is basically translated into polarization this question’s flow if the strength is weak the vibration of the string is larger so the polarization dispersion is more so eventually we can calculate the plane of sky magnetic field strength which then finally can be related calculating the master flux ratio that give us whether the region itself gravitationally bound to collapse or the magnetic field is in between the collapse of the region by clicking the master switches now once we know this we will have a better understanding of how with clouds form stars or not additionally you know with polar while you get this women we’re only mapping Laskin magnetic in structure but we can combine other women such as Sofia blackboard but they can fly to give a completely multi-skilled way of magnetic field from large clouds to dense force to eventually disk which gives you a full picture of star formation process and its relation to magnetic field to give actually better understand our journey and our understanding of our observable universe so with that I end my talk in terms for your patience and here’s a map of the magnetic field obtained by Planck

The Science Onboard the Next ISS Supply Mission

>>> WELCOME, I’M KATHRYN HAMBLETON WE’RE LOADED AND READY TO GO IN ATLAS 5 WHICH WILL LAUNCH DURING A 50 MINUTE WINDOW BEGINNING AT 11:05 TOMORROW EVENING HERE WITH ME TODAY†– ACTUALLY JUST TO LET YOU KNOW FIRST, WE WILL BE TAKING QUESTIONS FOR THOSE IN THE ROOM AS WELL AS FROM THOSE ON THE PHONE AND THOSE ONLINE IF YOU’RE ON THE PHONE, PLEASE PRESS STAR ONE TO BE ENTERED INTO THE QUEUE WE HAVE A LOT OF SCIENCE GOING UP ON THE ROCKET TOMORROW HERE WITH ME TO GIVE US AN OVERVIEW OF THE SCIENCE GOING UP, WE HAVE PETE HAS BRUK FROM THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION >>> THANK YOU FOR JOINING US THIS AFTERNOON WE ARE REALLY EXCITED ABOUT TOMORROW NIGHT’S LAUNCH AND ESPECIALLY ABOUT ALL THE SCIENTIFIC HARDWARE THAT’S GOING UP FOR US TO CONTINUE OUR GREAT WORK ON THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION THIS IS BRING A VARIETY OF ALL KINDS OF HARDWARE ON THIS LAUNCH IN THE SCIENTIFIC AREA WE HAVE 860 KILOGRAMS OF CARGO FOR THE SCIENCE TEAM, WHICH IS OVER 1,700 POUNDS OF CARGO WHICH ADDS UP TO ABOUT A QUARTER OF THE TOTAL CARGO ON THE CYGNUS THE ISS IS VERY VERSATILE AND CAPABLE LABORATORY IN SPACE BUT IT’S NOT LIKE MOST LABORATORIES THAT YOU’RE FAMILIAR WITH ON THE GROUND HERE WHICH MAY FOCUS IN ONE DISCIPLINE OF SCIENCE, AND MAYBE ONE VERY NARROW FOCUS OF SCIENCE WE’VE GOT A BROAD BREADTH OF SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINES HUMAN RESEARCH, BIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCES, PHYSICAL SCIENCES, TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AS WELL AS EDUCATION TODAY ACROSS THE INTERNATIONAL PARTNERSHIP WE’VE HAD OVER 1,900 EXPERIMENTS CONDUCTED ON THE ISS WE’VE SERVED MORE THAN 2,700 SCIENTISTS ACROSS THE PARTNERSHIP AND AROUND THE WORLD AND WE’VE HAD PARTICIPATION ON THE ISS PROGRAM OF MORE THAN 95 COUNTRIES AROUND THE WORLD TOMORROW’S LAUNCH WILL BRING SUPPLIES TO HELP US CONTINUE OUR WORK ON THE SPACE STATION, TO CONTINUE SOME OF THE EXPERIMENTS THAT ARE ALREADY GOING ON WE HAVE SEVERAL NEW EXPERIMENTS THAT THE CYGNUS IS BRINGING TO US TODAY, THIS AFTERNOON, THE SPEAKERS THAT FOLLOW US, YOU’LL HEAR ABOUT SOME OF THESE EXCITING INVESTIGATIONS WE HAVE A PLANNED CONTROLLED FIRE THAT WILL BE IGNITED ON THE CYGNUS SPACECRAFT AFTER IT’S FINISHED ITS MISSION AFTER IT’S UNBERTHED THAT WILL STUDY THE GROWTH OF FIRES IN SPACE AND HELP US KEEP FUTURE SPACECRAFT SAFE FROM FIRES YOU’LL SEE AN EXPERIMENT ABOUT MECHANICAL ADHESION THIS IS A TECHNOLOGY THAT ALLOWS ITS REUSABLE ADHESION, IT DOESN’T LEAVE ANY ADHESIVE IT’S USABLE ON MANY DIFFERENT SURFACES MOST BENEFIT TO US IS IT’S REUSABLE ON LOTS OF DIFFERENT SURFACES YOU’LL HEAR ABOUT ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, WHICH IS THE NEXT PHASE FOR US IN THE SPACE PROGRAM FOR MAKING HARDWARE OUT OF JUST RAW MATERIALS AND SPACE IT ALLOWS US TO BUILD NEW TOOLS ON THE SPACE STATION, REPLACEMENT PARTS AND EVENT WE’RE LOOKING FORWARD TO THE ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING BUILDING NEW EXPERIMENT HARDWARE FOR US YOU’LL HEAR ABOUT AN INVESTIGATION ABOUT THE IMPACT SHATTERED SOIL THAT MAKES UP THE LUNAR SURFACE, COMMENTS AND ASTEROIDS AND FINALLY, YOU’LL HEAR ABOUT AN INSTRUMENT TO BE MOUNTED INSIDE THE ISS WHICH WILL LOOK AT METEORS AS THEY ENTER THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE AND IT WILL LOOK AT THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THOSE METEORS, WHAT MAKES UP THOSE METEORS I HOPE YOU’LL AGREE WITH US THE STATION PROGRAM, SCIENCE PROGRAM WE HAVE IS ADVANCING THE KNOWLEDGE OF OUR EARTH AROUND US IT’S ADVANCING HUMAN EXPLORATION OF SPACE AND IS BENEFITTING ALL OF US ON THE GROUND I’D LIKE TO TURN IT OVER TO MIKE ROBERTS >> I’M HERE FROM THE CASUS IT’S THE MANAGER OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION NATIONAL LAB PETE INTRODUCED TO YOU A LOT OF THE DIFFERENT TOOLS THAT ARE AVAILABLE ABOARD THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION HE MENTIONED A BROAD BREADTH OF RESEARCH CENTERS ACROSS THE UNITED STATES THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION NATIONAL LAB SPECIALIZED IN PROVIDING ACCESS TO THE SPACE ENVIRONMENT FOR LARGE VARIETY OF USERS, WE ARE SPONSORING ON THE ISS LAB

PROJECT METEOR, UTILIZING THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION AS AN EARTH OBSERVATION PLATFORM IN THE SAME WAY THAT WE HAVE SATELLITES THAT ORBIT THE EARTH, THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION AFFORDS UNIQUE OPPORTUNITIES FROM ITS ORBITING THE U.S. AND THE WORLD ABOUT EVERY 90 MINUTES OR SO THERE ARE OPPORTUNITIES THERE TO UTILIZE IT AS AN EARTH OBSERVATION PLATFORM THERE ARE ALSO OPPORTUNITIES ON BOARD THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION FOR COMMERCIAL COMPANIES TO TEST HYPOTHESIS TO DEVELOP DRUGS AND IN SOME CASES TO ACTUALLY EXPLORE MANUFACTURING CAPABILITIES ON ORBIT YOU’RE GOING TO HEAR FROM ONE OF OUR IMPLEMENTATION PARTNERS MADE IN SPACE A LITTLE BIT LATER WHO WILL TAKE ABOUT IT WAS A TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION ON BOARD THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION THAT HAS TRANSFERRED INTO A ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING FACILITY THAT’S AN EXCITING OPPORTUNITIES FOR VARIETY OF USERS HERE IN THE UNITED STATES WHO RANGE FROM COMMERCIAL COMPANIES WHO WANT TO EXPLORE ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING CAPABILITIES AS WELL AS TO STUDENTS YOU’LL HEAR FROM ANOTHER IMPLEMENTATION PARTNER NANO RACKS WHO PROVIDES RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES AND OFFERING OPPORTUNITIES FOR SATELLITES TO BE LAUNCHED FROM THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION THEIR CUSTOMER BASE IS STUDENTS AS WELL THEY HAVE AN ACTIVE STEM PROGRAM TO ENABLE ACCESS TO THE SPACE ENVIRONMENT TO MIDDLE AND HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS WE LOOK FORWARD VERY MUCH TO THE LAUNCH OF THE ROCKET TOMORROW AND NEW POSSIBILITIES THAT ARE GOING TO COME FROM THE HUHDITION OF THESE FACILITIES TO THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION NATIONAL LAB >> THANK YOU WE NOW HAVE SOME TYPE FOR QUESTIONS BEFORE WE GO TO OUR NEXT SPEAKER FOR THOSE IN THE ROOM IF YOU WOULD RAISE YOUR HAND AND SOMEONE WITH A MICROPHONE WILL COME TO YOU STATE YOUR NAME AND TO WHOM YOUR QUESTION IS DIRECTED AND PLEASE KEEP IT TO ONE QUESTION FOR NOW IF WE HAVE ADDITIONAL TIME WE’LL GO FOR ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS FOR THOSE ON THE PHONE O PRESS STAR ONE AND THOSE ON LINE USE THE†#ASKNASA >> I’D LIKE TO HEAR MORE ABOUT THE ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING CAPABILITIES EXACTLY WHAT YOU’RE DOING AND TRYING TO ACCOMPLISH >> THAT WILL BE ONE OF OUR SPEAKERS THAT WILL COME UP, WE’LL BE ABLE TO TALK MORE ABOUT THAT SHORTLY >> MY NAME IS MARK GAUCH, HISTORICAL SPACE IMAGERY CAN YOU TELL ME, GENTLEMEN, THE NANO, RAX, WITH ITS CAPABILITY LAUNCHED FROM SPACE, FROM THE SPACE STATION? WILL THIS BE†– IF I’M TO BE LOOKING FORWARD TO THE FUTURE, LOOKING AT THINGS LIKE DREAM CHASER, BEING LAUNCHED JETTSING INTO SPACE, WILL IT BE ABLE TO DOCK AT THE SPACE STATION AND BE LAUNCHED FROM THE SPACE STATION? THAT WILL BE A POSSIBILITY? >> SHORT ANSWER TO THAT QUESTION IS YES THERE’S OBVIOUSLY A LOT OF INTEREST WITH THE CAPABILITIES OF SMALL SATELLITES AND NANO SATELLITES TO IMPROVE THE SPEED OF RETURN FOR TAKING TECHNOLOGIES INTO THE SPACE ENVIRONMENT RATHER THAN HAVING TO RELY UPON A LARGE SATELLITE BUS WHICH IS EXTREMELY EXPENSIVE AND REQUIRES A LOT OF DEVELOPMENT TIME TO ACTUALLY BUILD YOUR OWN AND DO IT YOURSELF AND THERE ARE COMPANIES THAT ARE INTERESTED IN TAKING THAT CAPABILITY FROM BUILDING A SATELLITE HERE ON EARTH AND TAKING IT INTO SPACE TO LAUNCH, TO ACTUALLY DOING ASSEMBLY AND MODIFICATION OF SATELLITES ON ORBIT THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION GIVES YOU THE OPPORTUNITY TO MANUFACTURE PARTS IN ORBIT AND RECONFIGURE BEFORE LAUNCH OR RECOVER IT IT’S THE BEGINNING OF A WHOLE NEW MARKET IN LOW EARTH ORBIT >> JUST A SECOND PART TO THAT QUESTION, VERY AWARE OF THE GREAT WORK CASUS HAS DONE IN GIVING MANY INDIVIDUALS AND GROUPS THE OPPORTUNITY TO DO EXPERIMENTS IN SPACE WAS CASUS PART OF THIS GOING FORWARD INVOLVING THE FUTURE OF SATELLITES? BEING LAUNCHED FROM THE SPACE STATION? >> YES, SO ONE OF THE MAJOR REASONS BEHIND THE DESIGNATION OF THE U.S. OPERATING SEGMENT AS AN INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION NATIONAL LAB WAS TO PROVIDE OPPORTUNITIES FOR A RANGE OF INVESTIGATORS AND ENGINEERS TO EXPLORE LOWER EARTH ORBIT AS AN ENVIRONMENT FOR INNOVATION, FOR TRYING NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN THE

SPACE ENVIRONMENT SO THOSE OPPORTUNITIES RANGE FROM COMMERCIAL MANUFACTURING CAPABILITIES ALL THE WAY TO SUBCOMPONENT TESTING THERE ARE A VARIETY OF OPPORTUNITIES THAT ARE OUT THERE NOT ONLY FOR THE EARTH OBSERVATION MARKET, FOR SATELLITES, BUT ALSO FOR DEVELOPING NEW CAPABILITIES TO DEVELOP NEW AREAS OF RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT IN LOWER EARTH ORBIT AND CASUS IS GLAD TO BE PART OF THIS >> THANK YOU THANK YOU VERY MUCH NEXT UP I’D LIKE TO WELCOME DR GARY RUFF PROJECT MANAGER AND CO-INVESTIGATOR FOR THE SPACECRAFT FIRE SAFETY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT KNOWN AS SAFFIRE I KNOW IT’S A DANGEROUS THING TO HAVE A FIRE IN A SPACECRAFT CAN YOU TELL US WHY YOU’RE GOING TO INTENTIONALLY START A FIRE INSIDE A SPACECRAFT? >> SURE THE BIG PICTURE OBJECTIVE IS TO LEARN SOME THINGS ABOUT FIRE SAFETY IN SPACECRAFT THAT WILL HELP US TO PROVIDE THE RIGHT EQUIPMENT AND THE RIGHT PROCEDURES AND EVERYTHING FOR ASTRONAUTS AS THEY GO ON LONG DURATION MISSIONS FOR SAFFIRE ONE THAT WILL BE LAUNCHING TOMORROW NIGHT THE OBJECTIVE IS TO LOOK HOW LARGE A FIRE CAN GET IN SPACE IF IT WERE TO START ON A MATERIAL, LET’S SAY A LARGE PIECE OF MATERIAL, HOW LARGE IT CAN GET IN SPACE, HOW FAST IT CAN GROW AND WHETHER IT REACHES A STEADY SIZE OR CONTINUES TO GROW IN SIZE AS IT PROPAGATES OF COURSE, WE’VE DONE COMBUSTION SCIENCE EXPERIMENTS ON THE SPACE STATION BEFORE BUT THEY’VE BEEN THE SIZE OF A NOTE CARD, IF EVEN THAT ON SAFFIRE ONE, WHAT WE’RE GOING TO BE DOING IS BURNING A SAMPLE THAT’S ABOUT THAT BIG SO IF IT WERE†– IF THIS WERE TO BURN ON A SPACECRAFT, IT WOULD BE A BIG DEAL SO THE APPARATUS, THE SAFFIRE ONE APPARATUS, HAVE A VERY SMALL PROTOTYPE MODEL HERE THERE’S TWO CHAMBERS, A FLOW CHAMBER AND AVIONICS CHAMBER WE HAVE TWO FANS ON THE AVIONICS BAY AND THE INLET AT THE BOTTOM IF YOU COULD BRING UP THE STILL IMAGE, IT’S SHOWN HERE ON THE SCREEN YOU CAN SEE THE SAMPLE CARD WHICH WAS THIS SAMPLE SITTING THERE INSIDE THE FLOW DOCK AND THE OTHER PART OF IT IS THE AVIONICS BAY IF YOU COULD ROLL THE VIDEO WHAT YOU’RE GOING TO SEE HERE IS, YOU KNOW, THE SAFFIRE EQUIPMENT, EXPERIMENT WAS LOADED ON TO CYGNUS IN JANUARY, AND IT’S GOING TO GO UP TO STATION AS THEY SAID ONE OF THE IMPORTANT THINGS ABOUT OUR EXPERIMENT IS WE’LL STAY ON CYGNUS SO THE CREW IS GOING TO OFF LOAD THEIR CARGO, ALL THE EXPERIMENTS WE’LL HEAR ABOUT AND THEN LOAD IN TRASH AND THEN OUR JOB REALLY STARTS ONCE THEY DEBERTH IT WILL MOVE CYGNUS WILL MOVE FAR ENOUGH AWAY FROM THE STATION AND WE’LL HAVE ENGINEERS IN DULLES AT ORBITAL ATK’S FACILITY SENDING COMMANDS TO START THE EXPERIMENT AND SO IT WILL RUN THROUGH THAT WHOLE EXPERIMENT IN ABOUT TWO AND A HALF HOURS IS WHAT IT WILL TAKE TO GET ALL OF THE DATA WE NEED WHICH IS GOING TO BE PRIMARILY VIDEO THERE’S OXYGEN CONCENTRATIONS, CO 2 CONCENTRATION AND VARIOUS TEMPERATURES WHAT HAPPENS WHEN†– ALTHOUGH THE CYGNUS VEHICLE WILL REMAIN IN ORBIT FOR ABOUT EIGHT DAYS WHILE THEY’RE GETTING ALL OF OUR DATA DOWN THE EXPERIMENT IS VERY SHORT BUT IT TAKES A WHILE TO GET ALL THE DATA WE NEED BACK DOWN TO EARTH AND THEN WHAT WILL HAPPEN IS WHEN WE’RE DONE, THEN CYGNUS WILL DEORBIT AND DESTRUCTIVELY DEORBIT INTO THE PACIFIC AND SO JUST TO CONCLUDE, I MEAN, A LOT OF THIS†– THERE’S A LOT OF INTERACTION HERE BETWEEN NASA ENGINEERS, ORBITAL ATK, ISS TO MAKE THIS HAPPEN BECAUSE THIS VEHICLE WASN’T INTENDED TO DO EXPERIMENTS LIKE THIS IT’S BEEN GREAT TEAM EFFORT AND FUN WORKING WITH THEM >> ALL RIGHT WE’LL TAKE QUESTIONS FOR DR RUFF AGAIN, PLEASE RAISE YOUR HAND AND WHEN THE MICROPHONE COMES TO YOU STATE YOUR NAME QUESTION UP HERE IN THE FRONT JUST A SECOND >> HI I HAD A COUPLE OF QUESTIONS IS THAT THE ONLY TYPE OF MATERIAL THAT YOU’RE TESTING OR WILL THERE BE OTHER TYPES OF MATERIAL THAT YOU’LL BE TESTING? >> THIS IS THE ONLY ONE ON SAFFIRE ONE BECAUSE WE DON’T GET BACK AND YOU NEED MORE DATA POINTS WE CONSTRUCTED THREE OF THESE THERE IS THREE OF THESE UNITS THAT WILL GO ON 0 A 5 AND SEVEN WE HAVE NINE DIFFERENT SAMPLES, THERE’S A COUPLE OF THIS KIND OF

MATERIAL SO WE CAN LOOK AT HOW†– VARIATIONS IN SIZE AND HOW THAT IMPACTS THE FLAME SPREAD THERE’S NO MAX AND SOME OTHER MATERIALS THEY USE ON STATION >> IS THIS THE LAST PART OF THE MISSION BEFORE IT GOES OUT OF ORBIT? I KNOW THEY’RE RELEASING THE CUBE SET SO IS THAT GOING TO BE BEFORE OR AFTER THE SAFFIRE TEST? >> IT WOULD BE BEFORE I DON’T KNOW WHEN IN THE TIMELINE, BUT IT’S BEFORE >> HI, I’M CURIOUS, ARE YOU GOING TO BE MONITORING THE ATMOSPHERE BESIDES THE MATERIAL ON THE FIRE? ARE YOU GOING TO BE MONITORING THE ATMOSPHERE AT ALL? >> ON THIS EXPERIMENT WE HAVE†– WE WILL BE MONITORING THE OXYGEN CONCENTRATION AND CO 2 AT THE INLET TO OUR DOCK ORBITAL ATK HAS A SMOKE DETECTOR IN THE VEHICLE WE’LL BE MONITORING THAT THAT’S ALL THAT WE’RE REALLY GETTING ABOUT THE CABIN ATMOSPHERE IN THIS EXPERIMENT >> NOT ANY RESIDUE FROM THE FIRE ITSELF THEN? >> NOT IN THIS SERIES OF EXPERIMENTS >> WHAT ABOUT IN THE FUTURE? >> IN THE FUTURE WE’RE PLANNING RIGHT NOW THREE ADDITIONAL SAFFIRE FLIGHTS THAT WILL ESSENTIALLY†– WE WILL USE THIS TYPE OF HARDWARE FOR FLAMMABILITY EXPERIMENTS THEN WE’LL USE THE ENTIRE CYGNUS CABIN AS PART OF OUR TEST BED WHERE WE WILL MONITOR THE COMBUSTION GASES AND CLEANUP PROCESS AND THE PARTICULATE THAT’S PRODUCED >> VERY GOOD, THANK YOU >> YES, MARK GAUCH, CAN YOU TELL ME, SIR, THE ISS AS IT STANDS NOW, HAS IT BEEN DEVELOPED AND MADE OF FIRE RETARDANT MATERIALS? ALSO, KNOWING THAT EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE AND HOW FIRE REACTS TO IT, HAVE THERE EVER BEEN ANY PREVIOUS TESTS IN TERMS OF THE CONTENTS IN SPACE’S ATMOSPHERE AND HOW IT WOULD REACT TO FIRE INVOLVING YOUR TEST? >> OKAY THE FIRST QUESTION ABOUT FLAMMABLE MATERIALS ON ISS, ALL MATERIALS THAT GO UP ARE TESTED USING TERRESTRIAL FLAMMABILITY TESTS TO FIND OUT WHICH ONE CAN PROPAGATE A FIRE AND WHICH DON’T YOU TRY TO USE MATERIALS THAT DON’T BURN IN THOSE CONDITIONS BECAUSE PEOPLE LIVE THERE, YOU’LL HAVE SOME THINGS THEY HAVE TO USE THAT WILL BURN AND SO FOR ANYTHING LIKE THAT, THERE’S A CONFIGURATION CONTROL REQUIREMENT AND ISOLATION FROM POWER SOURCES AND ALL OF THOSE THINGS TO HELP, YOU KNOW, MAKE SURE THAT IT REMAINS SAFE THE SECOND QUESTION†– >> HAVE YOU LOOKED AT EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE IN TERMS OF ITS OXYGEN CONTENT, HOW A FIRE CURRENTLY BURNS, HAVE THERE BEEN PREVIOUS TESTS DONE IN TERMS OF EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE AND HOW IT WOULD REACT? >> THERE HAVE BEEN QUITE A FEW COMBUSTION EXPERIMENTS IN 21% OXYGEN AND OTHER OXYGEN CONCENTRATIONS THEY’VE STUDIED IT BUT IT GOES TO SMALL SIZES WHAT WE WANT TO DO IS START TO GET TO A MORE, I GUESS, DANGEROUS FIRE IF IT WERE TO OCCUR IN A SPACECRAFT >> LOOKING FORWARD TO HEARING THE RESULTS >> THANK YOU >> HI, BILL HARDWOOD WITH CBS NEWS YOU HAVEN’T EXPLICITLY SAID IT YOU DON’T EXPECT THE FIRE TO GET OUT OF YOUR CONTAINMENT VESSEL WHY NOT DO IT ON THE SPACE STATION WITH THE CREW TO WATCH IT? IF THERE’S A SAFETY THREAT WHAT IS IT? >> YOU’RE RIGHT WE MADE IT SO THAT THE FIRE COMBUSTION GASES WILL COME OUT, THE FIRE IS CONTROLLED AND STAYS INSIDE OUR BOX BECAUSE ORBITAL ATK LIKES TO REMAIN IN CONTROL OF THEIR VEHICLES IT NEEDS TO COME DOWN IN THE PACIFIC THE REASON WE DON’T DO THIS ON ISS IS THE PIECE THAT WE’RE NOT DOING ON CYGNUS WE WOULD DEFINITELY HAVE TO DO ON ISS IS CLEANING UP THE MESS THERE IS NO CHAMBER BIG ENOUGH ON ISS TO BE ABLE TO BURN SOMETHING THIS LARGE YOU CAN BURN SMALL THINGS AND A LOT OF THAT COMES TO PROTECT THE CREW, BECAUSE IF YOU’RE GOING TO HAVE IT ON ISS THE CREW HAS TO INTERACT THEY’VE GOT TO GO IN THE CHAMBER AND YOU HAVE TO BE ABLE TO CLEAN

UP THE MESS THIS ONE WE’RE NOT BOTHERING TO CLEAN UP THE MESS THE MESSIER THE BETTER >> WE’LL TAKE ONE MORE QUESTION >> IS IGNITIONS FOR THE EXPERIMENT, ARE THERE ANY SAFETY CONDITIONS HAVING THAT DOCKED TO THE STATION FOR A WHILE? DID YOU HAVE TO THINK OF ANYTHING THERE? >> MANY THINGS THAT’S THE FIRST QUESTION WE GET IT’S AN ELECTRICAL IGNITER AND TECHNICALLY, WE’VE GOT THE EXPERIMENT IS POWERED THROUGH FOUR RELAYS THEY’RE ALL INDIVIDUALLY†– CAN BE ALL INDIVIDUALLY CONTROLLED AND MONITORED BY ORBITAL WE CAN’T, SO OUR AVIONICS IS POWERED ON TWO SETS OF RELAYS, THE IGNITER IS ON TWO MORE THEY’VE ALL GOT TO BE CLOSED BEFORE WE CAN START THE SOFTWARE TO INITIATE THE EXPERIMENT SO THEY’RE MONITORING THAT THROUGHOUT THE MISSION >> ON THE ISS HAVE ANY INTERACTION WITH THAT A SAFETY SWITCH THEY HAVE TO THROW AS IT LEAVES TO ENABLE IT? IS IT ALL SOFTWARE CONTROLLED? >> IT’S NOT ALL SOFTWARE CONTROLLED THERE’S NO SWITCH THEY HAVE TO DO OF COURSE, ORBITAL ATK HAS TO COMMAND THOSE RELAYS THE ONLY THING THAT THEY HAVE TO DO IS NOT PACK BAGS AROUND OUR INLET AND OUTLET YOU SAW WE’VE GOT A FLOW THROUGH US WE’RE COORDINATED THAT WORKING WITH ISS AND THE PACKING ARRANGEMENT WE SHOULD BE GOOD >> ALL RIGHT WE’RE GOING TO MOVE ON TO OUR NEXT SPEAKER THANK YOU VERY MUCH, DR RUFF UP NEXT I’D LIKE TO WELCOME DR AARON PARNEZ FROM NASA’S JET PROPULSION LABORATORY HIS WORK IS ABOUT CLIMBING ROBOTS CAN YOU TELL HOW THEY ARE GOING TO STICK WITHOUT BE STICKY IN THE HARSH ENVIRONMENT OF SPACE? >> YEAH, MY PLEASURE OUR WORK IN MY LAB IS ALL ABOUT ROBOTIC GRIPPERS WE USE THESE GRIPPERS AS THE FEET ON CLIMBING ROBOTS TO GO UP CLIFF FACES, ACROSS CAVE CEILINGS WE CAN USE THESE GRIPPERS ON THE HANDS ON ROBOTIC ARMS WE’RE INSPIRED BY ONE OF NATURE’S BEST GRIPPERS, WHICH IS THE GECKO FOOT THEY STICK WITH LOTS OF TINY HAIRS ON THEIR FEET THAT ALLOW THEM TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THESE FORCES IF WE COULD BRING UP THE FIRST PICTURE THIS IS A GRAPHIC PUT TOGETHER BY BOB FULL AND HIS TEAM AT UC BERKELEY YOU CAN SEE ON THE TOE OF THE GECKO ARE FLAPS YOU CAN SEE THESE WITH YOUR EYE ON THOSE FLAPS GROW THOUSANDS OF TINY HAIRS CALLED SITAE AND AT THE TIPS OF ALL OF THOSE HAIRS IS FURTHER BRANCHING, THE NANO STRUCTURE THESE ARE MUCH, MUCH TOO SMALL TO SEE WITH YOUR EYE THAT’S WHAT ACTUALLY MAKES CONTACT WITH THE SURFACE AND THAT’S WHAT TAKES ADVANTAGE OF THESE FORCES IF YOU BRING UP THE NEXT SLIDE, YOU CAN SEE OUR ROBOTIC IMITATION OF GECKO SKIN WE’RE NOT QUITE AS ADVANCED AS WHAT THE GECKO HAS ON ITS FOOT THAT’S LIMITED BY CURRENT MANUFACTURING CAPABILITIES YOU CAN SEE ROUGHLY THE SAME SHAPE IT HAS A DIRECTION ALITY TO IT IF THE GECKO PULLS DOWN IT’S STICKY IF IT DOESN’T PULL DOWN OR PUSHES UP TO THE SIDE, IT’S NOT STICKY AT ALL THIS IS A GOOD THING IF YOU’RE CLIMBING UP THE WALL VERY QUICKLY AND YOU’RE USING SOMETHING LIKE DUCT TAPE IT MIGHT BE JUST FINE TO GET STUCK ON THE WALL BUT YOU’RE GOING TO HAVE TO PULL WITH A LOT OF FORCE TO GET IT TO UNSTICK AND THIS IS A BIG DEAL IN SPACE WHERE THERE’S NO GRAVITY, NOTHING TO REACT TO THOSE FORCES HAVING THE ABILITY TO TURN YOUR ADHESION ON AND OFF ON COMMAND IS POWERFUL THE OTHER THING IS, IT’S A VERY REUSABLE ADHESIVE YOU CAN IMAGINE IF A GECKO TOOK THREE OR FOUR STEPS AND THE FOOT STOPPED WORKING THAT WOULD BE A BAD EVOLUTIONARY DESIGN WE’VE TESTED OUR ROBOTIC GECKO SKINS IN THE LABS 30,000 CYCLES ON AND OFF WITH NO DECREASE IN PERFORMANCE WE’VE TESTED THEM HANGING ON THE WALL FOR A YEAR AND THEN REUSED THEM AND WE’VE TESTED THEM IN A THERMAL VACUUM CHAMBER BECAUSE THEY RELY ON FORCES, THEY’RE NOT SUSCEPTIBLE TO TEMPERATURE, PRESSURE RADIATION, SOME OF THE THINGS THAT MAKE USING CONVENTIONAL ADHESIVES LIKE DUCT TAPE AND SUPER GLUE NOT FEASIBLE IN THE SPACE ENVIRONMENT

WHAT WE’LL DO FOR THIS EXPERIMENT IS HAVE THE ASTRONAUTS TEST FIVE HAND HELD GRIPPERS THIS IS THE LARGEST OF THESE GRIPPERS AND THEY†– IT’S A MEDIUM AND SMALL SIZE AND TO OPERATE IT, YOU SQUEEZE TOGETHER TOUCH DOWN TO THE SURFACE AND NOW IT’S STUCK WE’VE GOT SPRINGS THAT ARE LOADING THAT MATERIAL IN THE PROPER DIRECTION BUT TO TURN THE STICKINESS OFF, YOU SIMPLY SQUEEZE TOGETHER AGAIN YOU CAN DO IT OVER AND OVER AGAIN WE’LL MAKE THE ASTRONAUTS DO IT 30 OR 40 TIMES THEY’LL BE MEASURING WHAT THE STICKING POWER IS BY PULLING ON DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE GRIPPERS WE’LL LEAVE ONE GRIPPER IN PLACE FOR A FULL YEAR TO TEST THE AFFECTS OF LONG DURATION MICROGRAVITY THIS EXPERIMENT IS A PRECURSOR TO FUTURE CAPABILITIES THAT WE’D LIKE TO SEE MOVE UP TO THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION AND OTHER ACTIVITIES IN LOW EARTH ORBIT THERE ARE MANY CENSORS WE’D LIKE TO USE THAT REQUIRE A PRELOAD, EDDY CURRENT CENSORS, MAGNETIC FLUX LEAKAGE CENSORS IN SPACE, YOU’RE PUSHING INTO THE SURFACE IS PUSHING YOU AWAY FROM THE SURFACE USING A GECKO GRIPPER TO REACT TO THE LOAD WILL ALLOW US TO USE THOSE KIND OF CENSORS, REPOSITION THEM IN DIFFERENT PLACES A LITTLE BIT BIGGER IN SCOPE, YOU CAN IMAGINE USING THESE AS THE ARMS ON THE ROBOTIC ARMS TO ASSEMBLE THINGS IN SPACE, REPAIR SATELLITES, GRAB SPACE GARBAGE AND DEORBIT IT MY FAVORITE APPLICATION IS TO PUT THESE ON THE FEET OF A CRAWLING ROBOT AND HAVE THE ROBOT GO AROUND ON THE OUTSIDE OF THE SPACE STATION, INSPECT ORBITAL DEBRIS, IMPACTS, INSPECT MEET ORITE DAMAGES DO ALL THE THINGS A ROBOT WOULD BE ABLE TO DO WE’RE INTERESTED IN THESE APPLICATIONS, SPACE BASED APPLICATIONS, BUT THERE ARE A FEW COMMERCIAL COMPANIES THAT ARE LOOKING AT MAKING GECKO ADHESIVES VIABLE HERE ON EARTH EITHER IN A FACTORY FLOOR SETTING WHERE YOU MIGHT BE WORKING WITH SOLAR PANELS OR CEREAL BOXES OR IN YOUR HOME THIS WOULD ALLOW YOU TO HANG YOUR FLAT SCREEN TV ON THE TO THE WALL WHEN YOU’RE READY TO MOVE, YOU CAN TURN THE STICKINESS OFF AND PUT IT ON A DIFFERENT WALL THAT’S A SUMMARY I’M LOOKING FORWARD TO YOUR QUESTIONS THIS IS OUR FIRST EXPERIMENT GOING UP TO THE SPACE STATION, WE’RE VERY, VERY EXCITED >> THANK YOU PLEASE RAISE YOUR HAND IN THE ROOM, USE†#ASKNASA PLEASE STICK TO ONE QUESTION, IF WE HAVE MORE TIME WE’LL COME BACK FOR MORE QUESTIONS >> YES, SIR MARK GAUCH, HISTORICAL SPACE IMAGERY CAN YOU TELL ME, SIR, THE GECKO GRIP THAT YOU CURRENTLY HAVE THAT YOU SAY THE ASTRONAUTS ARE GOING TO TEST IN SPACE, RIGHT NOW, HERE IN EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE, HOW MUCH WILL†– WEIGHT WILL THAT PARTICULAR GRIP SUPPORT FOR HOW LONG AND HOW ARE YOU EXPECTING THAT TO DIFFER IN THE ENVIRONMENT OF SPACE? >> YEAH GOOD QUESTION SO A GRIPPER THIS SIZE CAN SUPPORT ABOUT 15 POUNDS ON A SMOOTH SURFACE AS THE SURFACE ROUGHNESS GOES UP, THE HOLDING POWER DROPS DOWN THAT’S BECAUSE WE DON’T HAVE ALL OF THOSE COMPLEX LAYERS THAT THE GECKO HAS WE EXPECT IT TO BE THE SAME IN SPACE IN 15 POUNDS OF FORCE IN ZERO GRAVITY IS A LOT BECAUSE THINGS DON’T WEIGHT ANYTHING YOU’RE WEIGHTLESS YOU CAN MOVE AROUND BIG OBJECTS AS LONG AS YOU KEEP THE INERTIA FORCES LOW BUT WE HAVEN’T TESTED IT THAT’S WHY WE’RE GOING UP THERE TO DO THE WORK AND MAKE SURE THAT THAT’S ACTUALLY WHAT WE SEE >> THANK YOU >> HI, KEN KRAMER, TALKING ABOUT ROBOTICS, ANOTHER APPLICATION I WANT TO ASK YOU ABOUT IS WHAT ABOUT SENDING THESE TO PLANETARY BODIES LIKE THE MOON AND MARS TO GO UP AND DOWN MOUNTAINS, HILL SIDES, CRATERS, LARGE ROCKS, THINGS LIKE THAT? MAYBE SEND ONE TO THE 2020 ROVER >> YEAH SO PLANETARY BODIES TYPICALLY ARE MUCH ROUGHER SURFACES WE HAVE DIFFERENT GRIPPING TECHNOLOGY THAT WE USE FOR THOSE ROUGHER SURFACES THERE’S ANOTHER TECHNOLOGY CALLED MICROSPINES THAT ARE BASICALLY LOTS OF SHARP HOOKS IT’S ALSO A BIT BIO INSPIRED THAT’S WHAT WE USE FOR OUR ROCK CLIMBING ROBOTS IT’S ACTUALLY PART OF THE BASE LINE FOR THE ASTEROID READER X MISSION WHICH IS GOING TO GRAB AN SUV SIZED BOLDER USING THAT KIND OF A GRIPPER

IF YOU GO ON YOUTUBE AND SEARCH ROCK CLIMBING ROBOTS OR YOU SEARCH CRAZY ENGINEERING GECKO GRIPPER, YOU’LL FIND A LITTLE YOUTUBE EPISODE THAT JP ELLIS PUT TOGETHER ON THE DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES YOU’RE FREE TO POST THOSE ON YOUR SITES AND ALL OF THAT >> MY NAME IS SHANNON STUART MY QUESTION IS, WHAT’S THE BIOLOGICAL BASIS FOR THE GECKO’S HIREARCHICAL SPINE STRUCTURE COULD THAT INFORM THE TECHNOLOGY YOU NEED TO IMPROVE? >> GECKOES HAVE THE HIERARCHY IN ORDER TO CONFORM TO THE SURFACES IT FINDS IN ITS ENVIRONMENT WHICH AREN’T SMOOTH COMPOSITE PANELS LIKE YOU’LL FIND ON THE SPACE STATION THE HIERARCHY IS NECESSARY TO GET ALL THE TINY NANO STRUCTURES IN GOOD CONTACT WITH THE SURFACE AND IT’S ABSOLUTELY INFORMED OUR DESIGN THERE HAS BEEN A NICE COLLABORATION BETWEEN THE EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGISTS AT UC BERKELEY AND SOME OF THE TECHNOLOGIESTS THAT ARE TRYING TO MAKE ROBOTIC VERSIONS OF THESE WE HAVEN’T CAUGHT UP TO NATURE YET WE’RE HOPING TO >> WE’LL TAKE ONE QUESTION FROM ASK NASA >> DERRICK ASKS ABOUT APPLICATIONS FOR OTHER MISSIONS BY SAYING, IS THE GECKO FOOT TECHNOLOGY TO BE USED ON THE ARM MISSION? >> YEAH SO THE ANSWER IS IT’S NOT A GECKO TECHNOLOGY BUT IT’S A SIMILAR KIND OF GRIPPER SO IT’S ALSO WORK BEING DONE IN OUR LAB IT USES CLAWS SO THE GECKOES USE LOTS OF TINY LITTLE HAIRS BUT IF YOU THINK OF HOW A BEAR CLIMBS A TREE IT’S USING CLAWS WE HAVE A TECHNOLOGY THAT’S INSPIRED BY THAT KIND OF CLAW BASED GRIPPING CALLED MICROSPINES THAT’S WHAT CURRENTLY USED FOR ARM >> THANK YOU THANK YOU VERY MUCH AND NEXT WE HAVE MICHAEL SNYDER WHO IS THE CHIEF TECHNOLOGY OFFICER FOR MADE IN SPACE AND HE’S GOING TO TELL US ABOUT THE SECOND GENERATION OF A 3 D PRINTER HEADING TO SPACE MR SNYDER, WILL YOU TELL US HOW THIS IS NEW AND BETTER THAN THE CURRENT ONE? >> SURE FIRST OFF I’M THE CHIEF ENGINEER, JASON†– NO PROBLEM SO OUR AMF IS THE RESULT OF A FOUR YEAR EFFORT THAT START WOULD NASA SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATIVE RESEARCH GRANT WE WERE FORTUNATE TO BE AWARDED THIS PRINTER IS LARGER AND A SUCCESSOR TO THE PRINTER THAT WAS LAUNCHED IN 2014 AND OPERATED SUCCESSFULLY ON BOARD >> A LOT OF LESSENS WE WERE LEARNED WERE TO MINIMIZE CREW TIME AND MAKE IT ACCURATE AND FUNCTIONAL FOR THE PARTS WE’RE PRODUCING WE CAN PRODUCE A LOT OF DIFFERENT MATERIALS WITH THIS WE’RE LAUNCHING THREE, WHICH ARE ALL PLASTIC BASED FIRST ONE IS ABS WHICH WE’VE PRINTED WITH THAT’S LIKE LEGO BRICKS THE SECOND ONE IS A GREEN HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE THAT’S LIKE WHAT YOU FIND IN FOOD CONTAINERS AND AN AEROSPACE GRADE POLYMER THAT CAN SURVIVE A VACUUM FIRST PART WE’LL BE PRINTING IS AN OPTIMIZED TOOL IN PARTNERSHIP AND LOWE’S WE HAVE A SCANNING TECHNOLOGY INSIDE WHICH CAN DO GEOMETRIC VERIFICATION OF THE PARTS THERE’S HARDWARE INSIDE, SOFTWARE FROM AUTODESK CALLED MOMENTUM IT’S COOL WE CAN CHECK THE C.A.D WE SEND UP TO SEE IF THE GEOMETRIES MATCH THE PART OF THIS PRINTER IS WITH CASUS WE’LL BE OFFERING THE SERVICE FOR ANYBODY TO MAKE EXPERIMENTS, PARTS, STEM ACTIVITIES, IT CAN ALL BE PRODUCE WOULD THIS PRINTER THAT’S OUR HOPE IN THE FUTURE GOING FORWARD IT’S MAKING THE PROCESS BETTER AND EASIER FOR ANYONE TO USE >> WE HAVE TIME FOR A FEW QUESTIONS ABOUT THE 3 D PRINTER HERE IN THE MIDDLE RAISE YOUR HAND AGAIN, SIR >> CLEARLY THERE’S A LOT OF TESTING THAT GOES INTO PARTS THAT ARE USED IN SPACE, SPACECRAFT IS THERE ANYTHING WITH THE DESIGN THAT HELPS YOU TEST THE OUTPUT OF THE COMPUTER TO MAKE SURE IT DOESN’T HAVE INTERNAL FLAWS? >> WE CAN BRING A PICTURE UP OF THE PRINTER IT’S A LOT BETTER LOOKING THAN I AM THERE IT IS SO PART OF THAT IS THE GEOMETRIC SCANNING CAPABILITY, AS WELL AS WE HAVE REALTIME VIEWING OF THE PART THAT’S BEING PRODUCED

AND GOES IN AND OUT WITH THE STATION SIGNAL ACQUISITION WE’RE ABLE TO OPTIMIZE THAT PROCESS, ALSO THROUGH SOFTWARE IN TERMS OF FINAL INSPECTION AND IT’S ACTUALLY MADE MODULAR WE CAN SWAP OUT SYSTEMS INCLUDING THE ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS AND THE FILAMENT AND THE EXTRUDER SO WE CAN UPGRADE†– [†NO AUDIO†] [†NO AUDIO†] [†NO AUDIO†] [†NO AUDIO†] [†NO AUDIO†] >> WE’RE SENDING FOUR STIMULATES UP THIS IS A SIMULATED STIMULATES THIS ISN’T WHAT WE’RE SENDING UP YOU CAN SEE IN THIS CLEAR TUBE, WE HAVE THE MATERIAL RIGHT HERE, AND ON TOP WE HAVE THE DEVICE WHICH WE CALL THE ENTRAPULATOR IT HOLDS THE MATERIAL IN PLACE WHEN THIS IS LAUNCHED UP TO STATION, DURING LAUNCH, LAUNCH VIBRATIONS, THIS STUFF WON’T MOVE AROUND WE’RE SENDING THE MATERIAL PRESORTED BY DIFFERENT SIZES WE DON’T WANT MIXING OR ANYTHING TO HAPPEN UNTIL WE ACTIVATE THE EXPERIMENT WHAT WILL HAPPEN THE ASTRONAUTS, VERY LITTLE THEY HAVE TO DO EVENTUALLY THEY’LL PULL IT OFF OF CYGNUS HOPEFULLY BEFORE SAFFIRE STARTS AND THEY’LL PUT IT IN PLACE IN THE EXPRESS RACK LOCATION AND BASICALLY PRESS A FEW BUTTONS AND THE ENTRAPULATOR WILL PULL UP AND GIVE THE MATERIAL ROOM TO MOVE AROUND THAT’S WHAT WE’RE INTERESTED IN WE HAVE A CAMERA THE SIZE OF A CREDIT CARD LOOKING AT EACH OF THE TUBES WE’LL BE TAKING IMAGES OVER THE COURSE OF A YEAR WE’RE ON STATION FOR A YEAR BECAUSE WE’RE BASICALLY INTERESTED IN THE MICROGRAVITY ENVIRONMENT THAT STATION OFFERS IT’S SIMILAR TO THE MICROGRAVITY ENVIRONMENT YOU’D SEE ON AN ASTEROID IT WORKS OUT NICELY FOR US YOU CAN GO TO THE NEXT PICTURE THIS IS A PICTURE OF OUR STIMULATES AS I SAID, FOUR DIFFERENT MATERIALS THIS IS THE FIRST ONE, AGAIN IT’S GOING IN A TUBE LIKE THIS, NOT A JAR LIKE THIS THIS IS THE SIMPLEST MODEL THREE DIFFERENT BEADS MADE OF SILICA GLASS FOR MODELS, THIS WILL BE THE EASIEST TO ANALYZE AFTERWARDS EACH TUBE GETS MORE COMPLEX IN ONE OF THE TUBES WE HAVE SIMILAR MATERIAL BUT TAKEN AWAY THE SPHERICAL SHAPE AND WE HAVE SHARDS OF GLASS WE HAVE ANOTHER MATERIAL, A TYPE OF METEORITE AND WE HAVE AN ACTUAL METEORITE THIS IS THE SAME TYPE OF MATERIAL THAT MAKES UP ASTEROIDS IT’S PARTICLES OF DIFFERENT SIZES FROM DUST FINE DUST TO MUCH BIGGER PIECES ONE OF OUR TUBES IS FILLED WITH A METEORITE WE’VE CRUSHED UP AND PUT INSIDE WE’LL GET ON STATION AND BASICALLY LOOK AT HOW ALL THESE DIFFERENT SIZED PARTICLES ARE MOVING AROUND WE’LL UNDERSTAND WHAT’S HAPPENING AND GIVE US A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF THE DYNAMICS, SOMETHING WE HAVEN’T STUDIED BEFORE TO THIS POINT AND LAST BUT NOT LEAST I WANT TO PULL UP THE LAST PICTURE AND SAY THAT WE HAVE A GOOD TEAM OF SCIENTISTS, ALL THE EXPERTS ON OUR TEAM THE EFFORT WAS LED AT JOHNSON SPACE CENTER BUT WE HAVE PEOPLE FROM ALL OVER WHO HELPED DECIDE WHAT TO PUT IN THESE TUBES OVER THE NEXT YEAR WE’LL BE GETTING BACK DATA WE’RE INTERESTED TO SEE WHAT WE LEARNED ABOUT BEHAVIOR IN MICROGRAVITY, THANK YOU >> ALL RIGHT WE HAVE TIME FOR A FEW QUESTIONS START OVER HERE >> YES, MARK GAUCH, HISTORICAL SPACE IMAGERY CAN YOU TELL ME, WOULD YOU BE LOOKING AT THIS EXPERIMENT IN TERMS OF LOOKING AT IT, MAYBE BONDING IT INTO A BUILDING BLOCK, IF IT WERE, FOR THE FUTURE IN SPACE? MAYBE IN COLONIZATION? >> SURE, IF YOU’RE TALKING ABOUT THIS IN PARTICULAR, WE’RE INTERESTED IN THE ACTUAL INTERACTIONS, FORCES IN WHAT’S GOING TO HAPPEN IT’S SOMETHING WE REALLY HAVEN’T STUDIED FOR MORE THAN 30 SECONDS AT A TIME ON A PARABOLIC FLIGHT WE’RE INTERESTED IN THE EFFECTS OF THEM INTERACTING WITH EACH OTHER WE HAVE INTERACTIONS WITH THE TUBE WE’RE TAKING INTO ACCOUNT WE’LL LEARN FROM STRATA-1 AND BUILD UPON THAT AND DECIDE WHAT TO PUT IN EACH OF THE TUBES >> INTERESTING, THANK YOU >> AND WE HAVE ONE HERE IN THE MIDDLE >> HI, IN TERMS OF ASTEROID RERACK MISSION, FOR THE COMPOSITION IN THE TUBES, DID YOU LOOK AT THE ASTEROIDS AND MAKE THE COMPOSITIONS BASED ON THOSE? >> THAT’S A GREAT QUESTION SOME OF THE FOLKS ARE INVOLVED IN ASTEROID REDIRECT MISSION ONE OF THE TUBES IS A CONDRITES ARE METEORITES BUT THEY’RE REPRESENTATIVE OF ASTEROIDS THIS ONE IN PARTICULAR IS AN ORDINARY CHONDRITE IT’S THE MOST COMMON TYPE OF METEORITE A LESS COMMON TYPE IS A CARBONACEOUS CHONDRITE THIS IS REPRESENTATIVE OF THE BODY THE MISSION IS BASE LINED TO GO VISIT >> KEN KRAMER, I’M WONDERING ABOUT THE VOLUME HOW DID YOU DECIDE WHAT VOLUME, I DON’T SEE A LOT OF FREE SPACE THERE THIS IS WHAT I WAS WONDERING WHEN YOU WERE DESCRIBING THIS LAST WEEK FROM THE†– >> YEAH >> THERE’S NOT A LOT OF SPACE, I’M WONDERING, DOESN’T IT NEED MORE? >> SURE, THAT’S GREAT POINT WHEN THIS MOVES BACK IT GIVES IT ABOUT AN INCH, INCH AND A HALF ARE SO LIKE I SHOWED WE HAVE A PICTURE OF THE SCIENCE TEAM MEMBERS AND SO A COUPLE OF THOSE FOLKS ARE COMPUTATIONAL PEOPLE, AND SO THEY’VE, YOU KNOW, OPTIMIZED, YOU KNOW, THERE’S SOMETHING CALLED A NUMBER THAT YOU TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THE EFFECT OF THE COLLISIONS PARTICLES INTERACTING WITH EACH OTHER AND THE DIAMETER OF THE TUBE THERE’S A WAY TO CALCULATE THAT HOPEFULLY THAT HELPS >> IT’S PLENTY? >> JUST RIGHT, IT’S PERFECT IF IT’S NOT WE’LL LEARN AND FISH IT FOR STRATA 2 WE HAVE PUT A LOT OF THOUGHT INTO HOW MUCH VOLUME FOR THE SPACE IT WILL HAVE TO MOVE AROUND YEP >> HOW DO YOU ANTICIPATE YOU’LL ACCOUNT FOR THE MOVEMENT OF THE

SPACE STATION ITSELF? THE ORBITAL MANEUVERS, BOOSTING, WILL THAT AFFECT THE EXPERIMENT? HAVE YOU NORMALIZED FOR THAT? >> THAT’S A WONDERFUL QUESTION IN FACT, WE ENCOURAGE THAT ANY SORT OF MOVEMENTS OF THE SPACE STATION, ANY SORT OF ACCELERATIONS, THE DOCKING OF THE VEHICLES IS GOOD FOR US IT’S ONE OF THE REASONS WE’RE THERE FOR A YEAR WHEN YOU’RE ON THE SURFACE OF AN ASTEROID YOU’LL GET IMPACTED ALL THE TIME WE’RE INTERESTED IN THOSE TYPE OF THINGS ON OUR EXPERIMENT, WE ACTUALLY HAVE SOMETHING CALLED SAMS, AN ACCELERATION MEASUREMENT DEVICE WE DESIGNED IT SO THEY CAN TAKE THE DEVICE AND MOUNT IT ON FRONT OF OUR PAY LOAD WE’LL GET MEASUREMENTS DAILY OF WHAT KIND OF ACCELERATIONS STRATA IS EXPERIENCING WE HOPE FOR THOSE VIBRATIONS, THANK YOU >> DO WE HAVE ANY OTHER QUESTIONS? OKAY THANK YOU VERY MUCH AND NEXT WE HAVE MICHAEL LEWIS WHO IS THE CHIEF TECHNOLOGY OFFICER AT NANO RACK STARTING WITH THIS MISSION, NANO RACK WILL BE ABLE TO PROVIDE OPPORTUNITIES TO DEPLOY CUBE SETS FROM CYGNUS DIRECTLY AFTER THE VEHICLE DEPARTS FROM THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION SO HOW DOES THIS EXPAND THE KIND OF SCIENCE THAT’S AVAILABLE TO THESE SORT OF CUBE SETS? >> GREAT QUESTION THANK YOU THANK YOU EVERYBODY HERE FIRST I’D LIKE TO TALK A LITTLE BIT ABOUT OUR CURRENT SATELLITE DEPLOYERS AND I’LL GET TO THE EXPANDED CAPABILITY MANY OF YOU KNOW WE’RE ABLE TO DEPLOY SATELLITES OFF OF THE THE SPACE STATION MY COMPANY HAS DEPLOYED NEARLY 100 SATELLITES THIS WAY VARIETY OF SATELLITES SHOWN HERE THERE’S TWO PLANET LABS DUBS THESE ARE EARTH OBSERVATION SATELLITES THAT TAKE PICTURES SO LOOK AT THE NEXT SLIDE, THIS IS A ORBITAL VEHICLE, AN OLDER CYGNUS IN THIS MISSION, IN THAT SILVER AREA, CALLED THE SERVICE MODULE, WE ARE BOLTING A SATELLITE DEPLOYER THERE AND WE’RE GOING TO DEPLOY SATELLITES AFTER CYGNUS LEAVES THE SPACE STATION TO ANSWER YOUR QUESTION, THIS EXPANDS OUR CAPABILITY IN THAT WE DON’T HAVE TO BRING SATELLITES INSIDE AND OUT THROUGH THE AIR LOCK, BUT ALSO OPENS THE WORLD UP TO POSSIBLY MORE HARMFUL MATERIALS, SUCH AS PROPELLANTS WE COULD HAVE SATELLITES THAT COULD PROPEL THEMSELVES ALSO, THIS GIVES US THE OPPORTUNITY TO POTENTIALLY HAVE HIGHER ALTITUDE WHICH IS GOOD ARE FOR OUR SATELLITES IT INCREASES THE LAB TIME SHOWING ANOTHER SLIDE HERE WE HAVE†– I’M SORRY SO HERE’S THE CYGNUS YOU GUYS ARE FAMILIAR WITH WE HAVE A LOT OF STUFF GOING ON INSIDE OF THIS, IF I MAY TAKE THIS OPPORTUNITY TO TALK ABOUT SOME OF THAT WE HAVE A TOTAL OF 29 SATELLITES ON THIS MISSION MANY OF THEM ARE GOING INSIDE AND THEN LATER WILL BE

DEPLOYED OUT OF THE AIR LOCK SYSTEM WE ALSO HAVE A TOTAL OF EIGHT EXPERIMENTS THAT ARE GOING INSIDE THEIR VERY SMALL SCIENCE MODULES ACTUALLY, NEXT SLIDE, PLEASE THESE ARE OUR NANO LABS WE HAVE FIVE, WITH A TOTAL OF EIGHT EXPERIMENTS ONE IS A JAPANESE STUDENT PROJECT, TWO THAT ARE FROM AN INDONESIAN HIGH SCHOOL AND A NUMBER OF EXPERIMENTS FROM VALLEY CHRISTIAN HIGH SCHOOL AND CARAMEL HIGH SCHOOL IN CALIFORNIA THEY’RE DOING A VARIETY OF SCIENCE, IT’S FASCINATING THE CAPABILITY THEY’RE ABLE TO DO IN THESE SMALL CUBES EVERYTHING FROM WATER FILTRATION EXPERIMENTS THERE’S A FERMENTATION EXPERIMENT THIS HAS ENABLED†– IF YOU’RE LOOKING TO PUT SPACE IN YOUR CLASSROOM OR YOUR CLASSROOM IN SPACE, I RECOMMEND YOU GO TO DREAMUP.ORG >> WE HAVE TIME FOR A FEW QUESTIONS, RAISE YOUR HAND AND WAIT FOR THE MICROPHONE TO COME TO YOU PLEASE STATE YOUR NAME BEFORE ASKING YOUR QUESTION >> GOOD AFTERNOON, RAY OSBORN CURIOUS WITH THE MICROSATELLITES, WHAT ARE THE LIMITATIONS IN REGARDS TO†– BECAUSE THEY’RE SO MUCH SMALLER THAN THE NORMAL SATELLITES WE COULD TYPICALLY SEE WHAT ARE THE LIMITATIONS WITH THE MICROSATELLITES WE SEND UP? >> WE’VE BEEN BLOWN AWAY BY THE AMOUNT OF TECHNOLOGY THAT YOU CAN PUT IN THIS FORM FACTOR THESE ARE ABOUT THE SIZE OF A LOAF OF BREAD THOSE ONES I SHOWS THERE WERE IMAGERS AND THEY’RE ABLE TO GET

AMAZING RESOLUTION YOU KNOW, THEY WON’T DISCLOSE HOW MUCH IF YOU GO TO PLANET LAB’S WEBSITE YOU CAN SEE THIS INCREDIBLE RESOLUTION WITH ELECTRONICS GETTING SO SMALL YOU’RE ABLE TO DO VALUABLE SCIENCE IN THIS WE’VE SEEN A VARIETY OF IT I’D SAY THE LIMITATION MORE IS†– YEAH THE CREATIVITY OF THE DEVELOPERS >> ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS? ALL RIGHT THANK YOU VERY MUCH THANK YOU EVERYONE FOR JOINING US WE WILL BE BROADCASTING THE PRELAUNCH NEWS CONFERENCE TODAY AT 2:30 AND THEN TUNE IN TOMORROW NIGHT FOR A LIVE LAUNCH COVERAGE AT 10:00†P.M ON NASA TV YOU CAN NASA.GOV FOR MORE INFORMATION AND FOLLOW ALONG WITH THE RESEARCHERS ON INVESTIGATIONS AT NASA.GOV/STATION THANK YOU [ APPLAUSE ]

Marcelo Gleiser y Pavel Kroupa: Foro Enciende el Cosmos CajaCanarias 2016

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es la mejor solution Yama’s is reality possibly say about some principles of practice pedo por favor can be face Romero a la primera parte course image the rest of later develop with regard to mismo get allocated thank you I’m afraid I have to speak in English and I would like to begin with a little presentation it helps me personally to to find the words so freaking kids have the presentation yes okay so as you the question I’m asking is we are coming to a limit on this planet and these limits are due to our existence and in particular to our civilization so first of all we have to understand what is our civilization what is it based on and so which values are fundamental for its sustenance that is an important question to ask if you want to consider the question the issue of how to solve the problems because we have to identify are they solvable within the civilization we have and can these values be sustained so it’s a two-part question can civilization be sustained can the values which make this civilization be sustained so there are three threats which I see to our existence and those are uncontrolled resource usage self saturation I will explain what that means in and inherent cultural religious quality so concerning a we know already from along for a long time that we have an uncontrolled resource resource users so since ten thousand before Christ our population of humans has been increasing exponentially and if you now take so exponential growth is the natural process this is something which is completely normal in in ecosystems which have a certain amount of resources in which living creatures can develop if they are no low compensating factors and so in this book by pointing we have basically now this exponential growth up until the year 2400 today we are here at eight billion people on this planet and if and we know that given the land mass on earth we know that we can feed approximately 10 to the 10 so 10 billion vegetarians today we have 8 billion people or 2.5 delink omnivores so we already are in the situation that we might we can’t provide enough food for humanity if not everybody eats only vegetables this is just just the land mess which we have to grow to grow food and this is what Marcelo gleiser has actually emphasized I think is an extremely important point if we now consider the usage of other oil reserves and we have to remember that our civilization is exclusively I would say based on the one natural reserve which is oil that is the sort of most important commodity which we have and we know that our oil usage has been increasing significantly so this is you from this review and if we assume that oil usage stops here at that level that we can predict that by the Year 2300 we run completely out of oil which means there is no oil on the planet of course when 50% of it is used up economy will go haywire because oil prices will already have increased significantly if however oil users continues to grow rather than being constants and this is more more more more more natural then we are already basically at the limit because then because of the exponential growth in population we have the the cut off so the depletion of the reserves goes incredibly quickly we have 50 percent left and the next generation is all gone it goes much faster than any of one can even realize so uncontrolled resource usage means that is my personal view so we are very very close to have messed it up thoroughly we are massively living off the credit which earth is providing in terms of hundreds of millions of years of providing their natural resource and we have no means to pay it back it’s just like global warming are no game to risk playing we should not even discuss these risks they are a very major risk to our existence self saturation just means that our theories underlying our technological civilization may become so complex

abstract that very few young people if any can continue so for example we have quantum mechanics special relativity quantum field theory string theory generativity and maybe other theories at some level they become so complex that a new person can simply not not not acquire the knowledge anymore and therefore it might lead to stagnation in further technological advance because and this is something we have to remember our technological civilization is absolutely based on exactly these theories without these theories we would not have mobile telephones our cars would not drive aeroplanes would not fly first review we are still very far away from this limitation but a larger social issue motivating young people to get to go into theoretical physics is a problem and a challenge and it is also an important challenge is to avoid dogmatism so if we artifact for example in string theory or in journal tivity and we are not allowed to think beyond that we have stagnation in her own cultural adjust quality this is too third threat the question I posed is which cultural backgrounds or fertile soil is necessary to foster the technology good civilization there are two examples for example a slave based economy has little need for machines so the Greek examples are Greek or Roman civilization which were based on a slave based economy while our economy is based on oil the oil economy and many God’s culture cannot describe the laws of nature because anything that happens example when a flood is may happen because a river God becomes / Fable ill a storm which destroys crops happen because of the gods were fabricating something like Thor’s hammer or all they were having a fight and there are no underlying ideas of laws which which might exist so human that’s what I’m saying is that once we have visited as an intelligent species like humans it is wrong to think that it will immediately it will imply a topological civilization one it’s much much more to have a technological civilization than just intelligent beings so it is it’s pure chance that technological progress appeared on a large scale only ones humanistic notions emerged and this I think is a very critical point to understand the quality of our civilization so requirement of culture reduce preconditioning so are the concepts equality of all humans which means everyone can contribute empathy which means we have a sound social system and social stability forgiveness and tolerance which means keep we keep experienced people even if differences mistakes occur no lying no suicides no killing of others it blinds a stable society with trust an individual in the individual so are these concepts Center for developing a technology good civilization I claim they are absolutely central and if we understand that we will understand the threats which our civilization we undergo so clearly the quality of the religion in that sort of sense which historically always defined how humans interact with each other how they see others and the world is central so the quality of our engine is absolutely central I think to the capability not only to develop a technological civilization but then to also save it from self-destruction is monotheism’s essential i already sort of asked that so many gods there’s no laws of nature but evans do two decisions fights between gods every event is due to some god however if we have one single god the concept of the single gods there are rules and these rules imply give us the concept of laws of nature I think this is a series I like to put up is that only in a monotheistic religion is the cause is it possible to find the laws of nature such that we can develop a technological civilization so requirement of culture reduce preconditioning here so my personal judgement here is that the political and cultural developments in the Christian based Western societies are not encouraging at this very moment not this loss of day of Our Strength’s advantages the Western society has says it does not understand its own strength basically this is the overall impression one gets we for example allow mass migration into these societies with political and social intellectual destabilization with visas in a number of European countries on happening at this very moment and

this is a book on this by Paul Collins be discussing exactly this issue and this threat to our civilization so lots of the values which underlie the capability to solve problems nd so if this happens and we lose our civilization in the sense that the countries become destabilized we will not be able to solve the previous threats a and B and then we will absolutely have a major problem and probably a crash so in summary the Christian based Western civilization does Empire technological program continued and even back strong exponential growth and this leads to rapid destruction of Earth’s habitats this can be solstice in the civilization because it’s rationally based today and however now address is now rapidly expanding strong religion or compromise of their capability to solve the problems by increasing paralyzing those who could attempt to do so so to develop technologies and in particular to leave the planets if you want to consider the concept of leaving the planet respect patience we need a civilization which sustains this and this has to be a global effort it cannot be an individual country because leaving the planet on a major scale is an incredibly huge effort I think we have an imminent collapse a potentially complete loss of our civilization for example the Easter Island collapse of Bronze Age civilizations and many others so all of this has already happened quite a few times and do we learn from these events we ate people and societies are remarkably tolerance to the point that they do not notice decline in potential collapse of the world we are living today as if nothing is happening and yes we are completely destroying our environment and with impact in a generation the situation can be so bad that the societies will completely collapse the edge is very very clear and nearby and we might not actually see it even the Mayans and Easter Islanders probably did not notice the significance of the size of their societies relatively rapid decline this is a a quote from the synopsis of Christ promptings a green history of the world can go that I would think of it like the end thank you [Applause] hola todos mis pantalones muy bueno por tanto geography you prefer blood and englishdom yin but it’s not a very important y’all mucho strain of austerities okay so I would like to offer a counterpoint to those arguments which is perhaps a little more optimistic in Outlook otherwise we’ll all be very depressed tonight and I think it’s good to kind of have this balance of perspectives and there’s no question that we are right now at a very important point in our global history where cultural barriers and Geographic barriers are crumbling very fast and so there is a clash a cultural clash that is impacting the world in good ways and in very bad ways as well as we all know especially here in Europe and of course with the elections in the United States which is where I live you know what’s going on there anyways on the point though is that Pavel was talking about religion in our Christian based religion as a possible way of giving us a moral way of thinking about the future of humanity and I think it’s important to emphasize that the crisis between science and religion which is a very old crisis right there is a whole movement within scientists which are 80s right which are non-religious people right and they would argue that they are very moral people they do not need to follow a religion in particular to be a moral person to know what’s right and what’s wrong they would argue that quite the contrary that it is when you start to look at the world from the perspective of a single religion that you start to separate yourself from other ways of thinking about the world and once you do that you start recriminate and judging those who think differently than you do so perhaps one of the problems that we face we have faced this throughout history but I

think right now we face it in a very different way because everybody has access to information very quickly and so we face this in a very obvious way which is that we tend to surround ourselves with people that share our values our tribes so to speak and if you do not belong to my tribe right then you’re my enemy and this has been something that has been very valuable to humans when they were hunter-gatherers 10 15 20 thousand years ago the tribes help people survive right because as a group you could collect food together you could defend yourself from the other tribes and we have this value system very deep into our veins and of course nowadays we have different tribes that we are part of and we have systems that help us not go to war all the time for example football right football is really important if if there were no football Brazil Argentina would be a war right now right but they can do it in the soccer field and life is a little easier and so in a sense sports are warfare under control and people paint their faces they let their defending their tribes and if you’re not for Barcelona who are you you know you must be some crazy person and this URL Madrid I guess and and so the point being here that one of the shortsightedness of humanity is that we tend to protect ourselves within certain value systems and once we are part of that value system we become blind to people that think differently than we do and instead of and it’s not enough to be tolerant of differences you have to be open to listen to the other person even if the person offends your value system and this is extremely hard to do especially when there is violence involved as we know right but I just wanted to point that out as something that should be discussed tonight and in fact I think every day in schools included but the idea of planetary predation and pavo was giving a statistics of an article that I wrote where you know if you do the calculation of how much a Greek culture the planet Earth can sustain it could sustain in optimize mechanical other culture as we have it today about 10 billion people if they are vegetarians if they are meat-eating people then you can only sustain about 2.5 billion people and we are right now at 8 billion people so there is a problem and the problem is there are lots of people hungry in the world obviously and there are lots of people in the world yes which is another problem as well so there is a saturation in that sense and we are going to come to a point in about at about 2030 where we’re going to reach eight point five billion people and nine billion people soon after that and the question is will be able to develop technologies to optimize our agricultural output in such a way that we’ll be able to feed all these people and furthermore the fact that more people have access believe it or not the medium income of the world is improving and when people get more money they want a car they want air conditioning and a refrigerator which means an increase in the consumption energy so where’s this energy going to come from if it’s only from fossil fuels we have a problem right not just because as we said there the fossil fuels curve is going to go down but also because of global warming right so all these problems are happening right now and we are for the first time I hope more aware of what’s going on empires go up empires go down the colonial European empires that you know to care of Africa and the Americas you know they went down with the first world war the world changed at that time right now there are other things happening there is shine arising and that’s a different kind of dynamics in the world right meanwhile and I want to talk a little about the universe in astronomy because after all that’s what we’re here for right a little bit and meanwhile there is a more optimistic I think where

you’re thinking about this which is coming from astronomy we now know and we didn’t know this 20-30 years ago we now know that most stars that exist in the universe have planets moving around it we suspected that was the case but now I have proof now if you look at our galaxy where our Sun is right the Sun is one star in the Milky Way our galaxy right and that means there are about 200 billion other Suns in our galaxy alone so if the majority of these planets have excuse me the majority of these stars have planets moving around it we have trillions trillions of worlds in our galaxy alone and you have to remember that planets is there not enough because just the planet Jupiter has 64 moves or more so you have to think not just of the planets but of the moons so the number of world in our galaxy alone is enormous staggering which begs the question is earth a special planet or are there other planets out there you know and if there are other planets out there like for example I remember when we’re talking about the event tonight somebody was saying what do you think about Stephen Hawking’s idea of planetary Exodus of you know we screwed up planet Earth let’s move somewhere else and then screw that place also up right there is absolutely wrong mentality right the point that we have right now is a whole new awareness you’ve given the fact that we have all these different worlds out there what is very important to understand is this planet is a very very special planet right so could there be other planets in our galaxy they have properties similar to planet Earth sure water maybe some carbon and oxygen but that is not enough planet Earth is a very special planet for many reasons here I give you a couple we have a big moon the fact that we have a big moon you know that the Earth spins like this right like a top tilted by 23.5 degrees so it goes around like this in many thousands of years but it’s tilting its spinning like this because of this we have the four seasons and the only reason this tilt is stabilized is because we have a heavy moon if you didn’t have a heavy moon planet Earth to do this we wouldn’t have seasons water would not stay liquid so long and life as we know it wouldn’t be possible earth has an atmosphere which is very thick compared to other planets that protects life on the surface from ultraviolet radiation Mars doesn’t have that and that’s why you don’t see anything on the surface of Mars and in fact if you look at all our neighbors in the solar system you realize how amazing it is and then you go to other planets and you’re going to find out that to combine the many properties of Earth the magnetic field the earth has the protect us from radiation coming from outer space plate tectonics that circulate the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and in the oceans all these things are needed to have life for a very long time in a planet so even though the s there may be all the planets out there that may have life possibly possibly even intelligent life that’s another question somebody can ask afterwards that we can talk about but what we are learning right now is that this planet is very very unique and very very special and that I think should be the grounds for the development of a new morality there has nothing to do with religion there has to do with our awareness as a species that we are made of the same things that stars are made we are made of cosmic dust of stars dust and we are animated Stardust that is able to think and to think about who we are and to ask questions about the universe and to ask questions about origins and to understand the importance of life so given all this new information especially the young generation and I’m looking at you guys out there right now

they should be developing a new morality which I call a planetary morality where we become not the Destroyers of life but the Guardians and the preservers of life is this possible maybe even your topic possibly because there’s so many destructive forces in the world but if you look there is some change there’s a lot of growing interest in alternative fuels a lot of more people are eating less meat because meat not just is bad for you but it’s also very bad for the environment right do you know that in United alone this is true 80% of the antibiotics are given to cattle and to poultry 80% of all the antibiotics are given and what happens when you give too many antibiotics to animals you eat them the bugs develop defenses against that that fear of evolution and then the antibiotics don’t work anymore and you are exposed to new kinds of illnesses right but the point that I’m trying to make is that there is a very strong destructive conflict in the world right now but there is also this emerging new way of thinking about where we are in the universe and how fundamental our planet is that we at the individual level should start taking very seriously so that we can create ourselves not wait for the government for the leaders nope each one of us can start doing something at our own individual level and perhaps things will change faster than we think [Applause] you with our rice bed about Casa Bella contrary on poco porque si si be a believer okay now I need you and I speaking too fast yes si si me gusta legal commentary center vosotros dispose West Rose forum as de entender West are limited in us a possible you know the protocol loss so de pasar los carros sanema Ipoh despair winter ahead reverse otros not pregnant wait okay this well no let’s start go ahead yeah so the the Loretta I think a very very interesting issue that is religion versus versus rationally so versus atheism I think it’s extremely important and I completely agree with you on on it would it being preferable if we could get into the if we could have evolved into the stage where religion simply doesn’t play a role because it is not wanting to offend anybody but in a certain degree it is irrational while we can have rational arguments to to base our decisions on of course that’s much better I fear that this is too weak the rational arguments are simply always far too weak compared to religious arguments I don’t know why it must be some something to do with the psychology and so is for example in an issue right you might have a group of people came into a problem with food and rational irrational on based on rational arguments for the group to survive somewhat longer they might want to eat one of themselves right this would be rational arguments and but a religious argument would maybe counter that and say you simply not allowed to because these are higher being who will know this and you will punish those who actually do it and so they will actually not gain anything it might actually be better than to not eat somebody because in front of this higher being you know they would actually have a much better situation they would end up going to heaven rather than to hell if they would eat rice oh so I think I think this is an interesting issue and I’ve been also wondering myself how important is religion and I I’ve come to the conclusion that religion is incredibly important although I don’t necessarily really like it but I’m afraid by resorting to a higher being we resort to higher forces which can have an important influence oh nothing I do think that the religion has been driving our evolution very significantly now I think in the West we are the Western societies we are beginning to transcend this as you were saying we have a set of rules based on moral rules and which are not religious anymore but there’s to derive from religion then and this would be of course a wonderful if you could

transcend this but I’m afraid that the region is simply too strong how can we overcome this problem basically yeah no it’s absolutely a problem but remember that the many countries like Japan and Vietnam and other countries in Southeast Asia as all that that do not have this issue of religion as much as we are facing right now here in Europe I guess but so there are two points right they basically you’re saying which is kind of a sad thing but it’s probably true that humans need babysitters right there’s a big father up there that says don’t do that I’m going to punish you and okay okay all do it you know and that’s kind of a sad state of affairs that after 3,000 years of monotheism we still need this right and when you don’t have that you have instead that strong leader here on earth like with the fascist governments there was a clear transposition between you know whatever was happening up in the sky with the religion to the power right here I control everything I am the dictator and I’ll do this and and but there are also other countries where you can have religion and state in a more balanced way and it is true that so many people religion is absolutely essential and I completely respect that in fact I understand the need for religion from a community and identity based perspective right because people a lot of people there are religious they’re religious because they want to belong to a group that shares their values and that’s perfectly fine the problem with all this is when religion becomes violent and threatens the life of other people but that is even though that’s very visible now that is nowadays a minority of people in the world they are violent and there is a minority of people who use religion to the end of killing others but the vast majority of religious people don’t do that so that is where the problem lies in a sense is not so much that you know religions are good or bad is what you do in many other faiths and you know an extremist behavior is bad in all ways bad both ways atheists who are extreme are as bad as the religious experience with the difference that they don’t kill people why by Orthodox Jews don’t kill people either in general and they are extreme – right and they do bad things and they live you know I’m saying this I’m Jewish so I can but um you know but they live in a way in the 16th century and 17th century in many ways right but they’re not a threat to others so the question here is the value of human life right and at what point we lose that and how is that possible how can we create value systems where it is allowed to kill others in the name of a faith this was okay here in Europe well in Europe you know a few centuries ago not so many in fact right and it’s back happening in the world and that is perhaps one of the problems I think your point in there right apology and that is the issue right but that is really not about planetary survival I mean of humans in the planet as a whole so there you know you asked about resources right and clearly you know we are cutting down we have cut down most of the big forests in the world there are a few that survive but they’re still there because why because you need cattle and people need to eat and so they cut the forests so that they can grow careful to eat right that’s what happens in the Amazon for example right and and the problem is that we have a tension between the more educated and the last educated people in terms of birth control right so where is the population of the world growing the most in the poor areas that can lead sustain people so that’s an issue so what do we do well you know I’m an optimist and I believe in education and I believe in interactions you know and so I think that there are two parts to this question can technology save us now because people always say all we are going to develop genetically modified rice and so that it’s going to be the right that is has vitamin A so the children will eat there there won’t be

blind anymore etc and and yes there is the aspect but then there’s a backlash against genetically modified foods especially here in Europe is very very strong and scientifically it’s somewhat unjustified believe it or not right but it is very strong too because people say wait you’re messing up with my foods well of course people have been changing foods forever you know the corn that we eat is not the corn that existed in our thousands of years ago it’s being completely modified and that is true of everything pretty much that that we have eaten you know hybridized the dogs that we have do you think we had poodles 200 you know 100 thousand years ago we did not have fools 100 thousand so all these things have been changed you know by people by combining different genes and doing things and hybridizing plants and animals for a very very long time so this has been happening so there is the faith in technology and the question is is that faith justified can technology save us from ourselves like it has before if you think about it by the developments of medicines in the in the turn of the 20th century so in the early 1900’s life expectancy in Europe was 50 50 years old that was your life expectancy in Europe in the year in 1905 changed a lot why well because of Technology medicine right that science working so now we live much longer and you know more mothers and babies that don’t die immediately because you know hospitals are cleaner etc so this is one thing the mechanization of Agriculture and the optimization of factory work has led to this Industrial Revolution and now the digital revolution that we live in so that is all technology right so this is so people have a lot of faith in technology which is a very dangerous game to play in my opinion right and it is not clear that we’ll keep inventing ways to accommodate the growth in population and the energy needs and if any and the feeding needs that all these people are going to have so that is in a sense why we have to develop an awareness of these issues to more and more people yes I’ve done that nothing ready to oppose what you’re saying maybe just just this wonderful statement going maybe again to smooth the negative side if you like we must not make the mistake of thinking they might be solutions so what other things we have to be careful not to think we are safe if we they might be in it’s really an imminent disaster coming right so we really often in strategy what one does is one has to consider the worst possible case in order to to develop strategies to deal with the worst possible case of this I think is what we have to do we cannot we do not have the we do not have the now will freedom to to risk our future by thinking that we might just somehow survive with genetically modified foods it might help a little bit but on the exponential graph growth I’m not sure how many percent we can gain is so I always choose to rather think of the worst situation then of the perhaps more positive situation because one might then find hopefully find solutions is not sure if we can I don’t think there’s any solution to the problems we have currently you you did mention the issue of what we don’t think we should one continue this issue with religion too much further because it’s going to side which is maybe a little bit not so much the topic here although it’s actually very fundamental I think that’s how we try to stress but concerning the the earth I think you brought up a very very important point and that is that the earth is exceptional which is why we need to take care of it now why is it exception already mentioned the the issue of having a moon but I’d like to just strengthen this and that is that the it is not it’s not only that Earth has a has a mood and imma give you’re completely aware of all this off of what I’m going to say but just just for the audience to realize that the Sun is actually itself a fairly special star the typical star in the Milky Way is as

a small low mass star which has maybe 1/10 to 100mm rösti of the Sun so the Sun is a fairly exceptional start already then to the that the earth has a heavy moon is crucially important for stabilizing the rotation axes but how does such a moon come come to be because we another solar system that other terrestrial planets so this is milkier Venus and Mars do not have such heavy moons now we know from the the properties of the moon that it must have been formed when a mars-sized proto planet collided with the earth about four billion years ago and and that particular collision was extremely exceptional it was highly unlikely it happens now we also of course in a preferred situation because we live on this planet so obviously the planet must exist with all its properties but if you take any type of star it as far like the Sun to have a planet like the earth at the proper distance in a normal planetary system disorder so where the planets are not going haywire because most of the planetary systems we found are very disordered where the planets are going on very very strange orbits so they have such a systems may be fairly exceptional it’s not so clear but it’s looking like it’s not so much the rule then to have the earth at the right distance or planets at the rightousness is already a rare event most likely then to have a collision which makes a heavy moon just at the right distance is extremely unlikely so unlikely I think that basically we might very much be alone just alone on this on this particular argument because this collision must have been just in the right way such that the planet largely disintegrated so the early very young proto-earth disintegrated formed a disc from which it reformed and part of the disc made a number of moons some of them fell back to the earth maybe some others were lost and one survived and and they’re interesting situations that this moon is just at the right distance to be exactly the same size or nearly exactly the same angular size on the sky and I wonder whether this might not have been in important for the development of civilization or it seems to help of the Sun so the angular sorry so so imagine that you have intelligent beings also our forefathers and once for a while the light went off during today yeah and to do with another heavenly body which was the moon of course this is again linked to religion what was happening up there that sometimes the Sun just goes off and everybody knew that the Sun was the spender of life and so that the earth has has the the just the right angular size as the Sun is itself extremely unlikely we don’t we do not know which role is played in the development of civilization but as far as I know I might be mistaken but essentially all higher cultures we had on this planet had the moon and the Sun being extremely important objects associated with deities which were always playing somehow together and so this might be an important factor the other important factor is that the earth as you already say it has plate tectonics Venus as far as I know and Bailey has plate tectonics because the crust is somewhat too thick so the earth has just the right thickness of the crust for plate tectonics to which is essential for the for the gas cycle on the surface of the earth and the fact that we have liquid water that we have an atmosphere as we have it which sustains life is the consequence of this but then there are other other issues like the amount of water on earth if the water had this is something I once heard in the documentary had a quiet half the amount of water which it has it would have been a dry planet if it had acquired two times as much water it would be a water planet so we wouldn’t be here so the earth not only had an impact which made the moon but it then afterwards this can only have happened afterwards because and when the moon was formed the whole then-existing atmosphere was way to vaporize it afterwards acquired just the right amount of water to make the mixture between continents and oceans we have today and that alone again is extremely unlikely and then we have the other issues once life arose because of the favorable conditions we have the situation that there were mass extinctions like each mass extinction which is a random event very unlikely I mean you know that extension happens is not unlikely but the fact that when they happens a lot of species disappeared new ones arose and without these events we would of course also not be here because the last Evans wiped out the dinosaurs and they would have probably just been existing happily and uncle this day if the past event had not happened for that haven’t happened just at the right time for later the applied tectonics to be an a crucially important act in making our species in the East African Rift Valley if the East African Rift Valley was

opening up just at the right time when our species was very young and starting to diverge and part of that became of our immediate forefathers without that tectonic activity we would most certainly not be here and there are many such events which which are so unlikely if we all take them together that I think that we might be so incredibly special that we might even be in alone in the entire universe there might be no other technological civilization in the universe now this is a bold claim because they are an incredible number of planets including number of stars equal number of galaxies and nevertheless I think the likelihood of having such a sequence of evidence to end up the technologies of a civilization after Hubble time of after the Big Bang I think is so incredibly small that we might be indeed the only intelligent species and through us the universe became self-aware and this is something which we are think should value we should not just consider this as a sort of non religious a theistic inside I think this is some somehow deep to think that it is through that is that the universe itself became South away through us because only it especially we are part of the universe as you say the atoms come from stars the atoms which make us all and it’s and through us universal self away and maybe maybe there is some some deep future which we might indeed be able to to fulfill this goal that brings me back to what I was saying that I do think that our civilization and I’m now particularly concentrating on the on the on the on what we are experiencing here the fact that we have mobile telephones electric lights we can build some spaceships to go to some distances just yesterday again a robot landed on Mars and so we have capabilities and I think we will be able to develop this much much further I mean we’ve only touched under you you might be much more knowledge around this because this to do with theoretical physics and the origin of space time of meta itself I think we have to scrape the surface of what we have yet to discover in terms of the synthesis between space time and matter once we understand that much better and this is in the future it might be that we might be able to build technologies which we simply can’t even imagine today just like a hundred years ago when Einstein was developing quantum quantum mechanics as well as special relativity and then relativity nobody had the idea that we would want they have mobile telephones or communication satellites which are able to locate us to the centimeter on this planet all of this is a consequence of the workings of Einstein would love the foundations of theoretical foundations to make this possible so I think there’s an incredible amount of possibility which we will have we can’t even imagine today just like in Einstein’s time it was impossible to think we might have mobile telephones it was inconceivable and yet I do think and this is what I’m so sad about is we are at the point when our when these possibilities are very very much at threatened it’s not only threatened through our exponential growth and the resources which we are using far too far too much but it’s also threatened by ourselves as I was trying to indicate that we should not make the mistake to think that the fact that we have electric light today means that we will have electric light in in say five years this is this might be a wrong thing thinking we have to make sure that we got our civilization and the values which underlie it and I’ll see that this has gone lost I think basically nobody today knows anymore what underlies our civilization what carries the civilization I do not think that any human culture can make such a civilization as VF which we are really experiencing and actually also enjoying today right espero que bonito es muy muy importante es otro especial meant a loss interesa mucho Matisse’s rocky l me a logo do era para hablar de llamada losses trucks limited class individual de la posibilidad de super VAD nurse Roberta Cambria dokey sir okay pensaba que vamos a pintar leis llamo Sakon tarsal oh my a lo posible siempre Nicole vida que que hos que no se individual omos human chordoma xenoestrogen des moines we limit odd Oh pero lo que creo que vivir diamo central un poco es el futuro so meta sa future el perentie s future so be todas nuestras petit sabemos todo que esta pasando italico estamos abbas gustaría a vosotros tense erase a future o realmente tenemos nosotros el Preta yo sabe more cuatro Cinco Bill Miller Daniel yo Sol acaba con nosotros revolutio Muammar Chando seguro que pasa por afuera same ol agua bazaar pero en sus cuatro cinco millas de años que es mucho tiempo los otro vamos a kebab on des con la vegetation Oh Michael a vida

Oh Connie Perdita yeah say goes che posibilidades porque el anime’ ASDA fuera esta muy Flair albion asteroid al golpe y y ahora Quentin Luba empezar otra vez evolutionary Tallyho al posea sir pero ESO no gustaría say posibilidades tiene la a specimen exhausting especially x’ que somos intelligent a sparrow somos pasión Al’s poor Ysidro simplemente Giacomo vase nuestro few todo es su DNA’s a practicas Sen algo que podamos compartir animos sure so so let’s talk about the future of human species so one thing that we do know for a fact and I just want to mention one thing we know one thing for a fact that we are the only humans in the universe that is amazing there are no other creatures exactly like us anywhere in the universe and the reason for that is that we evolved under a very specific set of circumstances in this planet and they’ll store the history of life in a planet depends on the history of the planets life that means everything that changes on the planet and how you talk about mass extinction if anything had been different you wouldn’t be here so we’re here we created this civilization we have the technology so what is the future so here’s an interesting perspective I think anyways we are changing right now in very deep ways we are becoming transhuman so it is quite possible and if you ask too many scientists and thinkers what is going on with us right now is that we’re becoming hybridized we are combining more and more with our technologies I’ll give you an example imagine this Fallin situation you a couple morning you’re late for school or for work and you forget your cell phone at home now you have no cell phone then you go to work and you’re stuck in traffic and you can talk to anybody and you start getting really desperate if you don’t have your cell phone you are not yourself anymore because the cell phone is part of who you are is an extension of your persona in fact every cell phone is very unique because the apps that you choose to put on your cell phone yours sort of like a fingerprint of who you are only you have those apps nobody else and that is because that cell phone is an extension of your person so we are not the pure humans anymore you know okay we had glasses before and that’s true but this is very different because those technologies are transforming humanity are transforming the way we relate to each other and to ourselves so that for example children now have a familiarity with digital technologies that older parents are like how the hell do you know that you had to push this thing and you’re like not understanding you know and I remember my father when he saw and this is going to be very for some people a videocassette for the first time he was confused and I don’t want to deal with this technology too complicated so now we have something quite different because the new digital technologies are expanding yourself through expanding memory through contacts to the capability of communications everywhere with everyone in the world so this is this is a trend that is becoming more and more pervasive so that if you extrapolate this kind of interrelation between carbon-based life form and digital based technology is going to become more and more a part of who we are and so if you ask who are we billions of years forget it that is complete nonsense nobody can talk about that we cannot even talk about 200 years we may not even be able to talk about us in 50 years because if you look back 50 years from now 1960s black-and-white televisions telephones they had to do this for dialing a number and now and we had one telephone per family imagine that right and now you have your own thing you have your own telephony for 12 years old if you don’t have a telephone you’re like a loser right you need to have one too so basically our integration with technology is redefining the kind of people we are and the kind of ways in which you relate to one another and that

is extremely important just to go back a little bit too far those darker side the way certain extreme Muslim groups are doing propaganda is using precisely the internet and the telephones that we have right now to access people that thirty years ago we impossible you have to send a telegram how the heck is going to recruit somebody you know you know from a lapper to London but you know that’s not possible but with the Internet’s piece of cake you just know it’s Facebook or whatever it is and you do it so that is changing the world and it’s changing the way we relate to one another and that trend is going to become bigger and bigger and there is a conjecture called the singularity and the conjecture of conjecture has multitude with spacetime singularity in the digital singularity and the idea is the following is that our computers are becoming faster and faster they can do about 10 to 18 operations per second right now 10 to 17 so that means a one with 18 zeros operations per second you know in a few years they say maybe in 10-15 years they’re going to reach about 10 to 20 or so which is about the same number of operations per second that the human brain can do so the conjecture is the following that by the year 2040 so you know 25 years from now so machines are going to become largest intelligence but more intelligent than we are and when that happens some people and some very serious people conjecture we as a species become obsolete so the end of humanity could be happening in 25 years is not because of religious tensions in the world is not because we ran out of food is not because of a global warming it’s because machines are going to destroy us and we are inventing them so in a sense we are creating our own destruction if you are the pessimist if you are the optimist that some people also say this is not our destruction this is our transcendence because we are slaves to the body the body makes us miserable we get fare to get feeling we get old we don’t want any of that we are just information essentially so in principle it is possible that you can transfer all this information to a machine and you become immortal because you just you know as only to back up your data right you have to back up your data you can always go and transfer yourself to other machines and hence the idea of humans will be obsolete in 40 years or so so that’s the future of humanity according to this perspective it’s almost well I I a poco más Alta Vista well no that’s the point some people say that this is wonderful this is the destiny this is the future this is how we are not we are creatures that reinvent ourselves all the time so we are basically going to be reinventing who we are when we connect with machines in this way now I’m not defending this point of view and just bring it out so that people can think about this as a real possibility and when you look at your cell phone again and start pressing theory and asking you know you know how do I guess I don’t know to be near home Beach or something like that then that’s what we did today which was very beautiful by the way then you start realizing that that thing is part of you now and you’re just different than you were twenty years ago and the trend will continue and you may think that’s wonderful depends who you talk to so I just you lucked out on this that I completely agree yeah so this is what I was saying is we have an incredibly potentially bright future in fact I would actually see brighter if I if I stick to our civilization I do think that we can do these things we can go beyond that citizens between machine and human is already partially there if you’ve explained it and it’s evolving and becoming even even more even stronger and I do think that artificial intelligence will appear and it does not have to be detrimental it does not mean that once we have intelligent machines that they’re necessary we’ll have to destroy the humans there I’m actually an optimist it all depends on how these machines are designed and that’s in our hands if we get that far this is the point this is the big if this is what I’m sort of trying to say I do wish we get that far this is very much something I really do hope and I really want to but in order to get that far

we have to make sure that our civilization survives and the exactly the point is was what I was trying to to put forward that we need to carry our civilization forward to achieve these wonderful achievements go beyond them to send intelligent robots to explore the solar system to mind for us example we might be running out of resources on the planet but the the solar system is huge we can mine the solar system and humans don’t actually have to go there we could have intelligent robots doing this so I think this is all achievable but we need to be aware of the strengths of subversion we have to really really guard our civilization to make sure that it survives to that point right so professor Sanchez wanted us to talk about planetary Exodus as well is this the right time to mention that will be a sort of date already like no because right right Dante que no soy Sucre intake reagent AZN electro in catalysis our Olivos las cosas sake a very podemos por que fuera mucho pay or exactly so this idea of going somewhere else is completely absurd from a technological point and from a moral point I think I see and so from a technological point it’s very easy to argue we can even go to Mars right with people only with robots which is a wonderful thing and the technology is absolutely spectacular and we should be amazed every day that people can actually remote control a machine a robot to go from Earth not just to Mars but to land on a comet that is just incredible right that we can actually do that actual thing it was self decision based on to the robot was deciding by itself already yeah yes so they sell out Tomica so it’s kind of it’s not intelligent let me and of course I could go on and talk about why actual intelligence is impossible to but that’s another story right but let’s pretend it’s possible right now right there’s a whole argument why it really won’t work but but that’s a different one but let’s assume we work but the point is we can even go there with with humans right now there’s severe technological obstacles for sending humans into space for very long going to Mars the problem obviously being there’s a lot of radiation in space if you shield the spaceship against radiation is to have you need so much fuel it can go and if you have astronauts going they’re going to probably get cancer and die on the other hand and this is something amazing about humans you probably know that there was this open-ended invitation to how many volunteers would go to Mars even if it’s all your one-way flight right do you know how many volunteered anybody knows over 100,000 people volunteered to go to Mars knowing that they’ll never come back now that’s talked about Columbus going across I mean this is serious Ida he thought he was going to go around and come back these people know they won’t come back right and so that tells us about the human spirit of invention and then it’s it’s sort of it’s heroic but it’s also very dramatic right that you can do that but the point is we are so far from that kind of technology that to think about a planetary exodus of billions of people leaving it’s complete nonsense so the point then becomes all but we will only send a few and who is going to make the decision who is going to go are we going we’re going to go of course but what about you guys right and and and that’s the problem who is going to stay right and who’s going to go the chosen ones are going to go and Noah’s Ark across space to another planet right and that is a real problem so planetary exodus is complete nonsense we need to take care of our problems right here and right now because for the next hundreds of years we are not going anywhere in large numbers so is what I would like I would like to undermine under the blindness underlined this yeah I also think that massive coyote Exodus is technologically not possible but I do think that it is it might be possible to to colonize the solar system we have to have factory outside of planets to actually have colonies on the moon on Mars even on the on the on the moons of Jupiter and settle I think this is this is indeed possible today we already see that the technology is nearly there and until in principle we

can design spaceships which can take us there we know of the threats of the problems we know more or less what to do and I think it’s technologically possible – right but it’s a problem of timescales yeah you know we are talking about problems here on earth there on the timescale of decades and these things I agree with you will develop the technical call an eye the solar system we may even go to another star although let me give you an example of this right so our nearest stars is this alpha beta Centauri there’s a whole cluster of stars this is the nearest star from the Sun is about four and a half light-years away so it takes four and a half years for light to travel at 300,000 kilometers per second to go from Death Star to us so what’s two hundred thousand kilometers per second is a really ridiculous speed so just give an example if you blink your eye light goes seven and a half times around the earth poof seven and a half times around the earth right anything takes eight minutes for light to travel from the Sun to us which basically means that if the Sun exploded right now it won’t but if you did explode right now would only find out in eight minutes and will be the last thing we all know because the earth will always will be destroyed but that’s the idea so it takes four and a half years for light to travel to the nearest star if we use our fastest spaceships that we have right now to try to go to those stars our neighbors right there it would take us about 100,000 E so interstellar travel is extremely difficult technologically speaking it’s really sci-fi is science fiction possible of course it’s possible right in the future we’re talking again time scales of hundreds of years and we have so many problems right now which on timescales of decades like overpopulation scarcity of energy resources global warming these are problems they are affecting us right now and we’ll keep affecting us for the next three or four decades more and more dramatically that could think about oh yes it’s okay you know let’s just not worry about what’s going on here let’s just go out there it’s just ridiculous demography on the other hand it might it might be strategy to to consider that founding a colony on moon or maybe the on on Mars which is which might be self-sustainable might be might be something to consider given given the problems on earth which which I’m not sure we can solve again I think you’re right the time scales are playing again but us so 10 10 10 to 30 years to shorts but at times for 50 years we probably could do it and today the rule the gravity in the moon is 1/6 the gravity on earth how can you stay there I mean you’re just collect all your bones everything they have they developed to be on this planet with this gravity to go to the moon it’s kind of nice to see the astronauts going boom boom boom they can jump high enough volleyball the model be very exciting can go like 10 meters to hit the ball and stuff but the point is that it’s it’s not a long term the moon is not a long term basis it could be for a little bit but you have to come back because otherwise your body gets destroyed very quickly – do you think the human cannot actually survive on one-sixth gravity or could you have a population of humans living under that under that gravity who would not be able to come to earth anymore because it would break I don’t think humans can survive in 1/6 gravity unless your create an artificial gravity sphere and you live inside a sphere that is rotating due to the biological processes which stop functioning at that lower your bones are going to break bodies that I would say would become weaker but sufficiently strong to withstand that gravity no III never alone is the other way around it’s two-week training it’s a drag down the moon it’s little and over eyes right so so that is not a problem but say the next generation living on the moon maybe you can genetically engineer humans they have a different bone structure to be on the moon but then it won’t be us again it exactly you’re sure you’re not going to do something else and that’s all like out there you know like we’re like writing artistic lark science fiction well we have these issues right here right now for the next few decades that we need to deal with and that so important one thing doesn’t exclude the other of course it should keep exploring the solar system building bases everywhere we can that’s our future and that should

continue obviously and now of course you have the whole private enterprise that is changing the space race right but it’s becoming a commercially interesting business because NASA is contracting private companies to fly rockets to launch their own machines out there so the whole idea of State’s race is going to be changing you go from governments to capital and that can be very creative and very expensive very quickly you know but still it what is the damage to the ecosphere if a lot of spaceships take off it’s like it’s commercialized and you have one launch off to another it must have an effect right because is a very energetic process I don’t think you have to be very I mean it has to be a very I mean look at all the nuclear bombs that have been detonated on the surface surfaces they are much worse than spaceships taking off and we’re still here when people detonated the first hydrogen bomb they thought it was good there was a possibility of pairing the atmosphere apart at least they thought so right I would tell the others it didn’t happen and then people did many others so I think we will be safe from that perspective you know but maybe not from others so here’s another question perhaps you know the answer to this band I heard this once in a presentation in in the physics Institute in Bonn and that is that the energy consumption we today require has a certain is a certain amount I don’t know what the amount is but it’s rather large and and it’s based largely on on fossil fuels and so that’s the energy source now the idea is to change this into sustainable renewable energy sources sustainable in order to not damage environment further and renewable is it continues to be there it’s that possible actually to replace our energy needs with sustainable renewable energy and I heard the answer the answer is it is impossible we are using far too much energy to be able to to develop sustainable renewable energy on this planet so I don’t know the details of the argument but I think impossible is a very strong word to use in science where basically the idea is that in order to build the devices one is energy yeah and then they live for certain count time they have to be maintained for that one each energy and resources and so the the net sum is ends up being essentially negative but I again probably that’s probably assuming a certain efficiency for before for for using this energy which is by itself assuming certain levels of technology which I think would be optimized and in a room and you could use lenses and mirrors to focus more solar power to earth in order to increase the efficiency so there would be a technological obstacle and I’m okay with technological obstacle my problems it really is and I think yours is not really the technology is the moral obstacle that is the real proud of you manatee is not the technology we are very creative creatures we can do all sorts of things but morally we’re still in the cave really we haven’t evolved much right what’s mine is mine and yeah we share a little better than we used to ten thousand years ago but not enough well I think we’ve gone a long a long way actually began a concept of empathy is around for maybe two thousand years and this is one of the most important institutionalization into human society which has ever happened it was a revolution to have empathy as a as a as a concept in in inner civilization it didn’t exist in that sense before I mean empathy between humans was always there but a bit like in an institution right as a state form is incredible right and so this is really a remarkable DeLaughter it’s kind of sad because my wife was telling me a story about this baby elephant they had a friend human friend a child and the child was in the water and the baby elephant thought as a child was drowning so you went there and you have to know the trunk around it the child to save the child’s life so that baby elephant has more empathy perhaps than humans had before you know and but so I think that we in that sense yes of course things are better in awe when you talk to people like Steven Pinker you know he would say that we are much safer now than it used to be in the past in the world less people die now violence than ever in history before per capita right which is probably true but you know that the moral transition is going to be that any person that dies because of violence is too much and that

transition is a discontinuous moral transition there hasn’t really happened yet you know and that’s really about the human the value of human life and that is where I think things are darker means absolutely so different cultures blends different values on the different values for different cultures human life has different values throughout history this was evident even and I believe even today the scene this may well be the case yeah but all those different cultures have armies they kill one another doesn’t matter so the point is that we just have more efficient weapons than we used to you know we don’t hunt too cute Spears anymore but we’re still killing one another we’re just more advanced technology right and and so to me that’s why when I say you know we’re still in the caves that’s what I really mean that we still have the armies they are fighting one another and they’re still killing one another better and so to talk about the future of humanity long term that is really what we have to deal with you know just to go back to to planetary survival and the existence of other intelligences made something called Fermi paradox in the search for extraterrestrial intelligent life Fermi paradox and what we don’t have enough time but basically the idea is that the galaxy has ten billion is about ten billion years old it’s a hundred thousand light years across which means that other civilizations if there were other civilizations that developed on our galaxy a million years before we did because a million years is nothing when they’re talking billions of years they would have had plenty of time to colonize the entire galaxy and so the question is where are the aliens you know maybe they built the pyramids of gamar I don’t know risky but so the question is where are the aliens right and so there are many answers to the paradox the Fermi paradox right and one of the answers which is a very Cold War inspired answer is that any intelligent civilization that reaches nuclear capability self-destructs so meaning we are here we just invented this technology 60 something years ago we’re still surviving but it is an incredibly unstable situation where we have the power to destroy life on Earth many times over with the nuclear weapons that we have today right and this something nobody else talks about have we we don’t talk about this anymore but there are still thousands and thousands of nuke weapons in the United States in Russia and in England and in France and in Israel there there and in India and in Pakistan maybe in Iran at some point so that is the real problem so we talked about boys playing with sticks and now we have boys playing with nuclear bombs at some point the whole thing vaporizes so that is an issue that is not discussed very often about the future of humanity and that is one of the arguments I’m not saying it’s a serious argument about the Fermi paradox but it’s something that invites reflection about humanity with this new capability of self-destroying right so in essence when a woman uses a table saw a key de una forma weighs sobre el sistema que tenemos par Alimentum no no la cadena lament area yo D go hasta que punto somos consciente ser ser humano desica Deena lament area sack a punto C somos Atomos see somos materia ordinary ax y cada Elmas SE NOS habla de que somos estamos at our asado por la materia ahora hasta que punto nos no somos pedido decidir sobre la cadena lament area lo que podemos conveys no podemos comer para sobre vivid see nosotros somos Atomos también en que momento hemos recibido nosotros y la forma de a lament a nose paulo aura critic our que no podemos comer carne okay no de comer tanta carne Oh Casey Novak abar see nosotros save Angelo mosso Hagan dose concrete a la pregunta por que si los acaba yeah bueno so lo queria saber si nosotros somos co-responsible a basic Edina lament area see so most part red is van okay well the argument was enter say because you said you know everything is made of atoms so we Sunita but then we BRE deserves to so vision grid Pippo you have to stop breeding because

areas made of atoms and that’s not good so I think the difference is life you know and what kinds of life you have and it’s true we need we we are animals so we need to consume energy in order to metabolize it to actually exist and and I think you’re right people are mostly not aware of where our food comes from and how its processed you know we go to the market and you see the little package of meat or tomatoes and it looks like it’s magically there right of course there is a whole long process from another animal that was killed and it’s cleaned and packaged and brought by truck to the market and everything so that you could go and buy that and the same with the tomatoes you know they’re not well you can think about killing or not killing vegetables but then what are you going to do right so people you’re right people are not aware of this and and and I think that is a big problem what is the environmental cost of I you know of creating the kinds of foods that we create that just will give you one number which is sort of an interesting number one hamburger hamburger sir please okay one hamburger consumes about let’s see 1600 liters of water in order to produce a single hamburger you need 1600 liters of water where is this water coming from well it’s river is right and and so the point is the environmental cost of producing certain kinds of meat is enormous and basically what we do is we feed we feed vegetable protein to animal protein so that we can consume the animal protein and you don’t need that you can just consume the vegetable protein without the animal protein and be pretty healthy too that’s why when Pavel given that the statistics that we can sustain 10 billion people they are vegetarians but only 2.5 billion people there are omnivores they also eat meat it’s a real point so that’s and I think people don’t know that and they don’t think about that and they take it for granted that the meat is there in the supermarket and that is just ok it’s like there is no history behind that and there is a history behind that now you mentioned Big Bang and atoms I’m not quite sure what the question was do you remember the dark matter don’t you talk about dark matter so I don’t you approach that maybe it’s a big topic I know would you like to hear a little bit about talk meta so doc I was saying up to a point we can ok microphone open up over in the dirty negro for being a mess America via na hora es ahora siendo kc nosotros vivimos del v1 y somos una tomo O’Berry Sato Mo’s Padrino des o yah nosotros an echo para comer carne pescado todo ESO nosotros no lo vemos el ejido NK momento de la creación assist IDO elf año para que nosotros tenemos que lament are ENS Acadian aliment area que unos comemos a otros a tener que ver un FeO new momento por que no sang creado a see no no sang credo nosotros no no hemos le sido la forma de sobre Vivi’s David ear sido Sade falta el OCC no para peer are in essence falta comer la a goon testa Clara yeah okay agar senses are Lovato ansiedad Novoa can yamir keep it ago so we-we’d there was no grand design in what we would be eating we our diet is a consequence of our evolution and today we still eat more or less something comparable or similar to what we were eating a hundred thousand years ago some meat you know vegetables whatever was available now which we found and that’s still the case today so today we have of course much more sophisticated means of producing food much more efficiently because we have to feed a huge a much larger number of people but it’s it’s still more or less the same because our

digestive tract is is made to consume a certain type of food which arose with us in our environment while we were developing so I don’t think there’s any particular strangeness there and I’m sure we are not eating dark matter okay yo drop preguntas que si de la Vega Rica a gorilla Miguel gerousia sobre por totally hotel and aliens artificial air – Dermott impossible simplement kidney right I said well impossible is a very bad word in science it’s extremely difficult it’s better just because impossible sounds like you can never happen but so artificial intelligence the idea is that you can create a machine that can be self-aware that has a consciousness of itself right one thing is a computer like the ones we use that you put in a program and it it said it runs over a series of commands and then does its job the other thing is to have a machine that is not just doing that but it’s also creating new commands and asking questions about itself and where it fits in the world and the reason why that is a very difficult thing is that we have no clue from our understanding of how the brain works right now how to create a between neurons and the way neurons interact with one another which is what’s happening in the brain and how those neurons and their connections create a sense of self okay and so it is possible to create a machine that is going to be sophisticated enough to have some level of self-awareness but not at the level of the human brain and it’s not yet and people say but you know you can study the human brain and create a matrix that has a technical term called the connectome which is a map of all the neurons and how the synapses connect all the neurons and maybe if we understand all that we can then create something that looks and works like a brain but the problem is that science is limited as an enterprise we can only know so much about a certain system that we’re studying and the brain is no exception it is an incredibly complex system that we only will have a limited amount of information about so to recreate a brain you’re going to recreate a brain with that limited amount of information and it’s never really going to be like a human brain it may be something else you know and that’s the problem so one of the provinces is called we it’s we don’t understand consciousness or subjectivity in the same way that we understand vision or you know how you smell something which is a very different kind of process so these are the main obstacles that artificial intelligence so impossible we don’t know but certainly very very difficult so maybe I could also say something to this and I completely agree with what you were saying with we will we do not understand the emergence of consciousness at the moment but it’s thought that it’s an emergent phenomenon possibly so above a certain complexity of the computer or of the java voters let’s say that the computer it will begin to be self-aware and we might not understand exactly how this happens it’s a similar it’s a similar there’s an analogy which might allow one to understand this a little bit better that is example if you get a single atom we cannot talk about the temperature which the atom has but if you take a lot of atoms together we get thermodynamics the laws of thermodynamics and the emergence of thermodynamics from the atomic nature of matter is even today a subject of mass research and so it’s quite possible that artificial intelligence that means also self-awareness of the machine and then we might we should not call it a machine anymore I suppose that that is emerges it’s a property of the system above a certain complexity and the least interesting ethical questions would we then have to consider this entity on the same level as a human being because if it’s self-aware then we would have to at least this is what I would think right we would not be allowed to call it a machine anymore so the scientists who turns off the computer just really

become self away with BIA a killer right very good point but it’s much more probable that the argument I was making before about transhumanism that before we create an artificial intelligence machine we are going to expand ourselves through machines and reinvent who we are that’s a much more you know concrete possibility as you interpret that okay yeah one which 1,009 and Kruger so people are very very concerned about terrorism today so but still that at for example last year in Brazil we have a big company that completely destroyed a river killing some people and destroying the life of many others so my question is if you are addressing the real question the real important questions because you know like we are putting a lot of money to to go against terrorists but in the same time you have big companies that destroy the environment and destroy the life of many others and they think if somebody put a bomb in that place in Mariana in Brazil to provoke that to destroy that River if you we would not concern much more about that you know and think think about how the models of company and the models of business are affecting our society and how changing that could save us right so because I can maybe say so right this is a very important point and there is a new movement in corporations are now called corporate ethics and so it’s beginning you know and there are quite a few important companies are developing a new ethical code of behavior there would not do such things and and what’s interesting about this is that people can invest you know because corporations are interested in the stockholders the people they have their stocks and in and how much money they make but you as an investor you can make choices of only investing buying stocks from companies which are socially just so there are funds investment funds right now which are socially just funds they only invest money in companies which are ethically behaving and this is a growing movement so the only way you can break a corporation is if you stop buying their product right and so I remember when I said before that yes you can talk about government’s and things like that but we as individuals also have some power you know in which we can mobilize and we can start doing things to change this kind of culture which is I would call this corporate terrorism if you want you know and so there are ways in which things are beginning to change through this corporate ethics and becoming more and more that like for example what happened with the Volkswagen diesel right and that was an outrage right I mean a German company I mean evolved very go you know and so how could that happen and so and this kind of public outrage is what I think is going to start changing more and more in this culture I again I’m being optimistic but I do see the trend is growing and there are many people in business schools right now which are specialized in this issue of corporate ethics so maybe I could add I think other than extremely important points and I think one of the problems this problem may be due to the liberalization of the market so the concept that the market regulates itself is simply a wrong concept it’s based on capitalism and you know the stronger survives so sort of Darwinism but I think in terms of the human society and this is related to morals and religious issues they should simply not be happening I mean this should not be happening yeah but it is happening and this should have consequences and the people who are responsible should be punished and but which instance does that that’s the government the government should be doing it if the government is too weak because it’s maybe been forced to allow companies to be completed liberal and do whatever they like then that’s the consequence and and it’s the voters in the end so that’s also related to what you were saying it’s essentially the people who select the governments who who have to you know who have a hand in deciding so if this is happening in Brazil maybe they have to ask if the Brazilian is not partially responsible for this because they allowed this to

happen in Brazil in their country I find this obnoxious absolutely it’s it’s destroying a part of our heritage and it can never become brought back another issue is is your Bureau for example rather than doing what it does destroying itself essentially now it should provide policies to to to ensure fair trade with Africa so so rather than the rather than forcing African destroying African marketers I understand the situation it should make sure that the people the farmers in Africa get a fair price for the product and maybe in Europe we would be paying a higher price for for agricultural products but currently I think the situation is extremely unhealthy and very bad and I do not receive the European governments doing what they should be doing and at least in my eyes unless I understand the situation it’s a very complicated situation situation overall but I do think and I’m very happy to hear what what you just said that there is a movement now and the development of a morale in India in the economic sector I’m a little bit pessimistic that it might not be enough because money is always very strong right if you can gain if you make a profit then it’s always a strong argument on a strong social strong driver and this and this is where morale and religion comes in if you have a religion which says you’re not allowed to do that you have a better argument to stop these sort of processes but I think we’ve lost that actually but that’s where public opinion cow absolutely yes sure yeah of course public opinion is a bit dangerous because if if the one company can provide a cheaper product by by writing the environments it will be it will be both right well unless unless the the the consumer is aware of this and has high moral standards and buys the more expensive product yeah I draw the consumer do this so you know this is actually something to total whole audience I don’t know how much meat you eat per day but it is up to you absolutely to decide to eat much much less meat per day perhaps just once a week would already probably sufficient and it would really help the environment and the animals which are being mistreated to provide the foods so you’re absolutely you know welcome to make your decisions and change your diet from today to tomorrow and tell your friends about it directly GND and here good night and my question is from your personal point of view which would be the first steps that human being as a species should take to ensure a future survive for surviving in in planet Earth should only maybe shortly so the first from our point of view the first step would be to ensure that our societies remain stable because this without stable societies will we can solve our problems it’s comparable to the aeroplane if the aeroplane if you’re sitting in aeroplane the aeroplane pressure drops the rule is that you take your mask first and only then you help your neighbor even if it’s just the child because if you don’t do that you might become unconscious and help nobody so that’s basically the rule so we have to make sure that our societies remain stable and functioning and once that is given well then we can address the problems and I think we have the Turk logical mean so I’m actually a optimist I’m a pessimist that we can stabilize the source of our societies I think I’m not optimistic there but if I assume we can and say Europe continues to survive and even might become a consolidate itself I say as a stable environment and and civilization then I think we can solve many of the problems we have and go far beyond even into space C&D un problema con respeto abandon a llama Neto Sega Tetris porque la nota a t’lorra na abandonado inclusive analyst on pro-trade opana manitos retreat ray entonces DePrima en el viaje en mi mo sistema solar que el cuerpo mano no está acostumbrado estar en gravis arrow vitro gravida y no está acostumbrado al retro Manetti mo monado’s ray okoma connie ventoso ass yo soy un problema de sentido inclusive marte tendría que una Cuevas con una hora que de prata hera yo untaken tenido los sistema paseo no funciona area for tech mentor sistema de portes de prata simonetti to say yo ha partay s ollanta portage endo Connelly o pasilla C sabemos de la la pau SIA en a supuesto ya interested so Tony Syria movie period OCAD Mucha problema SATA hora en de comment Arcana muchos simple a segunda academic n final astronauta ante on follow Lassonde

robotic ax yes ricado son latin autumn appropriate puro pedo contra costa banana en ninguna funcion scientifica yeah go out into interstellar travel girl via problem but we shouldn’t be worried about that right now I mean we we still have to stay no solar system for a very long time and even within our solar system like Mars des evam a magnetic Feud anymore so it doesn’t have any protection there so going to Mars you already have a problem right there’s no so this thought I re I completely agree it’s a huge problem but I would say the following if tomorrow various governments come together and and get the best engineers and scientists together and have a program which would be funded by maybe the whole world to go and colonize Mars I’m sure this can be done at least within a century it’s a technological flower it’s not a conceptual problem yeah where’s the CNT Rahul fella when cuando los pastores Vinci say reunion para hablar sobre su cuñado sobre como esta a la cosecha no se espera bond que llegar a lo hey bro KO y terminar an connect edu do que habia y el premio no VLT mathematica see say que el futuro de la moneda SE juega en la tierra en el paseo no se Lagado al umbral yeah disturb my non-duality Rio yo D NEC Endora de que los científicos do today in vienna sierra tierra de gente my dad a cialis Terrier seiya a lumbar para Nessa situation is rebel esta todo ese conocimiento aqui en la tierra Gracia I think yeah I think that so busy all night long that the problems are here right now I mean y-you can still do your space exploration you know days we always talk about the size of your cake you know there’s a big cake a little slice can go to space exploration the rest it’s about earth preservation but I would I keep Asahi Ola when I started and my question was is it that it was it wasn’t really sensitive to go and live in another planet those the conditions may may not be technology technology technology possible and moral as well but I don’t see another way to to keep to keep up with a civilization because if we stay in the planet it’s actually a clock a watch time we’ll go ahead and the Sun we will go over so what would you say is the best way to people right that that is you should not be worried about that don’t don’t lose your sleep or that one so the Sun is a wonderful good start to us and yes it’s going to become a red giant in about four or five billion years four or five billion years right is about the same time that it has existed and with all the problems that we have right now which are in the decades or hundreds of years we shouldn’t worry about Astrophysical event one point larger piece of Astrophysical event which is dangerous is I think professor Sanchez mentioned that is the collision with an asteroid or con but even there you know we are much smarter than the dinosaurs you know this really was a problem for the dinosaurs 65 million years ago but we now can send spaceships to comets and asteroids to intercept them and perhaps nudge them just a little bit so they they get out of our orbit of collision as long as we see them so it is possible there right now a meteorite hits the caja canarios and we are history little one it doesn’t have to be big can be little the little ones you don’t see right but that’s it’s not going to could happen right but you won’t happen but a big global impact they call it a global killer we’ll probably know with more than 1 or 2 years of time and we should be able to do something about that so I think from that perspective as a civilization we have say for a very long time we our problems are the ones we create I would just maybe you’d like to add on this one

that I completely agree as a civilization we are safe as long as we have a civilization to track the bodies if we lose the technological capabilities it will come and destroy humanity without us being able to do anything about it so we need to come up keep our technological civilization for our self-protection yes karaoke is loud you are a goon top of it yeah how to focus always give for a very loud in a pregnant hi thanks for the talk and I will not know if how do you take out the out of the equation the surface selfishness of human beings because if you want to save the earth and you have the short-term view then how you take that into account and say okay everything will go on we’re good nobody can do it right nobody keep because we are that’s why I kept saying that morally we’re still in the caves right but I think that we also are learning to share more and the mention that the fact that I mentioned our new morrow plane of understanding the value and the rarity of life and of planet Earth I hope you may take a few generations but I hope it’s going to percolate through society and it’s going to change a little bit the way we think about who we are and why we’re more important than the person sitting by your side you know may take a while but I think we’re making some progress that way and it has to start with old people telling young people to wake up and start doing something about it so one thing is to say oh this is happening this is happening this is happening and do nothing about it the other phase the other thing is this is happening and I’m going to do something about it so that my goal in life is to live the planet a better place than when I found it and that should be the way everybody should be thinking it’s very easy to point fingers and to say this this is wrong and that is wrong it’s much harder to try to find solutions and individually try to make a difference to make the place the planet and society and your community a better place and that’s where the work starts it starts at home with each one of us and then it spreads ups okay studies Cooper and Pete okay [Applause]

42RH / A500 Transmission Rebuild: Part 1 – Tear Down

so first we’re going to remove the torque converter here this thing is pretty big is that of a big truck transmission so you just support it so it doesn’t put any side load on the axle or the out the shaft in there and then just pull it out and we’re just going to take this and put it to the side now it’s it’s it’s very good practice to always replace the torque converter during a transmission rebuild I said that for a couple of reasons the first reason is you know that there’s still lots of transmission fluid in there and when you do rebuild you want to have nice fresh fluid you could drain it but it’s really hard to train it if you flush it with new transmission fluid but the other main reason is that the torque and there’s a clutch in there for the torque converter clutch when you get to high speeds it causes a mechanical link between this shaft and the engine instead of a fluid link and especially one that’s this old that clutch wears and you’d like to have a new clutch so to get a new clutch you have to replace the whole torque converter it’s just good practice to always replace the torque converter when you do a transmission Remo so what we’re going to do next is we’re going to measure the end play on this shaft if you pull it in and out it moves a little bit and we need to measure that that will give us an indication of what has worn and we if we need to replace washers it’s just a good practice to do measurements before you disassemble things so I’m going to set up my dial indicator to be on the front of this I’ll do that off camera but what I’m going to do is now ideally you should mount this dial indicator on the bell housing somewhere just so that it’s perfectly perpendicular to this shaft because if you measure on an angle you’re not getting a true in and out motion of this shaft you’re getting an in and out motion with respect to an angle I mean you could figure it out but like it it’s just complication so you want to make sure this is as straight as possible with everything but this is sitting by itself the transmission will sort of go back like that and be up in the air so if you can see I put sort of a some stuff underneath the back this sort of proper sort of prop it back up and get it to be flat this way and I’m going to set up the dial indicator on my bench here to measure the in and out the bench has a metal top so I can turn the magnet on and it won’t really go anywhere and that’s how I’m going to do it but I get again ideally it would be best to mount it to the bell housing okay I have the dial indicator set up to be on the face of this so what I’m going to do is I’m going to zero this out okay so I’ve zeroed it up now what I’m going to do is I’m just going to pull this out and what we get is when we pull it out we get a play of fifty five thousands so whenever you take these measurements you want to do it multiple times and see if you get consistent results for every measurement you do so the end play specs for the a 904 transmission is between twenty two thousand and ninety one thousands according to the manual so we are at within spec alright so now we’re going to remove the extension housing of it this came out of a four-wheel drive model so this part bolts onto the transfer case there are non four-wheel drive models where this whole back part looks different but it’s going to be sort of the same thing so first thing we’re going to do is going to remove it out of park by just pulling this little lever forward you know I’m going to make sure it’s at a park by rotating the up shaft yeah that’s done we’re going to remove the bolts that hold this on this is 11 millimeters one thing you want to do and transmission work is that whenever you’re taking bolts out always make sure they’re the right size they’re not the right size keep track of which ones go where especially important for valve bodies can’t really get my impact on that one now here you get these long

extensions to get in there we’re gonna flip her over this is where it gets messy this is where it sucks that’s why I got my little sweetie here I’m gonna focus on cleaning this fluid up until it stops coming out because someone forgot to drain the transmission before he took it out so I’m gonna do this for a little bit I’ll see you guys when I’m done okay it’s mostly stopped flowing it’s only been about a minute or so this is really nice to have on these your benches flat real flat like mine it should be so that you know that would have been zest if I didn’t have I wasn’t prepared so now we can finish getting the rest of these bolts I think there’s only two left this one has a lot of junk on it sort of get all this junk off it these guys are really a pain but really in there pretty much the only thing I can get at them with is a wrench I can’t even fit a gear wrench in there get a better wrench get you guys a little closer here oh alright this one’s being really stubborn alright I finally got it what’s happening is that there was a lot of gunk behind this and it wasn’t allowing any of my sockets or wrenches but wrench heads to go on all the way so I had to really get back in there get the dirt out that I had enough to get this whole thing on and then I tapped on the back of this with a hammer and got it off you don’t want to turn any fasteners unless you get on you know a really good bite on it with most of the wrench so I’m going to finish getting the rest of this out off-camera and end this one I’ll come back I’ll see you then okay there’s that one finally now this one I’ve already loosened so just a tip about removing really stuck fasteners try to avoid this then for these really hard high torque situations because what will happen is that this will actually start to expand like this and then it will go over the corners of the bolt and that’s how you round bolts off so if you go do that you know all you always want the thickest wrench possible do when you’re doing things like that the thicker the wrench this in this direction the less likely it is to expand under torque so it’s always better to use this end because this end won’t expand like this one so try to always use this end of the wrench if you can okay I think that’s all the bolts and now this is going to be stuck on there we’re going to get a soft hammer go don’t pry in here you always want to avoid pry on aluminum especially precisely machined parts like this okay so alright so it looks like we have a small little snap ring right here we’re going to take out and then it’s like we can remove these clutch assembly so here’s the pressure plate sorry about that guys my camera cut out but I pretty much just remove the clutches and steals the clutches are black but all the rebuild kits you get

should come with new clutches and steels you should always replace the clutches and the steals so now looks like we have this snap ring down here holding this planetary in so we’re going to just put a screwdriver down there and take this snap ring out there we go you just want to get it above the groove now we’re just going to go around and just pry it out of that whole groove there we go and remember I’m taking things apart I always set them on the bench in the order they came apart so this snapping is first so I’m putting it all this way this first comes on the bottom all right looks like we have another snap ring and the same groove that one I just took out by my with my hands I just want to point out that the first snap ring we removed from this extension housing is a wavy snap ring and the second one is a flat snap ring that’s important that when you put these back together that you put it so the flat snap ring goes in first and then the wavy snap ring goes in second because we took off the wavy snap ring first if that makes any sense so pretty much put things back exactly how they go all right next we got to take off this little cover here we have two t25 bolts off comes the cover I’m just going to put these bolts back in here so I can not lose them and now we have this snap ring so what we’re going to do is hey let me change the camera position so what I’m going to do is I’m get a reach in here with my snap ring pliers and expand the snap ring out and then the assembly should fall down whoa scare me jeez all right now should be able to just pull this off now if you notice I was close to the edge and that’s because we have these these two tubes here closer that are protruding out and I just didn’t want to put the whole weight of everything on these tubes alright so that’s over we have all these assemblies to deal with all right so next we have the governor assembly if you watch my my video on how automatic transmission work you’ll know that for older transmissions this one was built in 1995 the aren’t computer-controlled this is sort of the mechanical signal for the speed of the vehicle I’m not going to go into that too much here able to tell down by this snap ring so I’m going to grab some snap ring pliers and we’re just going to span this out remove it from the shaft there we go this assembly should come off ah we need to remove the rule valve on the front let me get you guys a better view here’s the side of the governor and we’re just going to get in here with a snap ring pliers and this suit snap ring out alright looks like we got this teeny tiny little snap ring right here going around this bow it doesn’t want to haven’t seen the one I come out so you see if I can take this snap ring out with this pick and see if it’ll pull out

see kind of the farthest part as it goes I got this little snap ring off using just two little picks that I put in the snap ring squeeze and got out still doesn’t want to come out again the manual is really not being very good in terms of directions so keep trying stuff okay flip it around you take this little equip on okay now this part comes out ah huh there we go now you should be able to go little ki way because right here that keeps that from rotating on the shafts we’re going to take the key way take the assembly take the governor and all the snap rings put them aside all right so now looks like we have a another snap ring holding inside that’s the thing about automatic transmissions is there are snap rings galore all right now wish’ has second pair hands here all right there we go now shoes you will come out there it is now should be able to take the bearing off all right okay now the snap ring underneath these teeth it looks like so I’m going to get my screwdriver in there and I’m just going to pivot on one of the teeth to pull it out a little bit try to get my pin behind it my pic pics come in real handy and working out automatic transmissions so as I was taking this out I realized that this whole thing was under spring pressure and I realized that in order to take it out properly you have to sort of press this whole thing down and then take out this snap ring and then it allows you to remove the assemblies this way but I don’t have to press and I already had some of the snap ring out so I just went around little by little with two screwdrivers prying a little bit out of the groove each time so this whole thing popped up which is kind of dangerous so keep your head out of the way and now this whole assembly comes out here’s the one way scrag and if we turn this well we can take out the planetary gearset and turn this around now that there’s no spring pressure we can actually reach in here and get snapping yeah let me get you a better view of that all right so there’s no more spring pressure so we can easily take out this snap ring comes right out and then this all this should come out we got the hope let me zoom out here with all the clutches and steels and just take those out and take a look at them hi and actually these are not in bad shape at all they’re not really burnt up like the other ones there’s still you can still see the red to them on the bottom of this was a little thrust bearing make sure you take note of which direction it goes on the one-way Spragg will just come out like that and I’m just going to put this stuff to the side and we’re going to clean all of this stuff later before we put it all back together okay now we’re back at the other side the transmission we have a bearing right here a little thrust bearing this little lip so the lip goes facing that way and then you pull a little piston out so we’re going to put these two guys to the side okay next we’re going to remove the little sensor right here I already loosened it it’s a one in 1/16 socket or at least that’s one I use on an impact let’s get that out of there alright next I’m going to remove this little shifter assembly here this is an

11 millimeter just loosen that up on the little pinch bolt here there’s another pinch bolt right here also 11 millimeter pry this up coming here comes and now this guy’s you just pry right up off of there come on there it is oh boy lotsa gunk at and there’s also a little eclipse on this gonna put my screwdriver in it and just pull it right out looks like that and then there’s a washer and then I believe that’s everything for this little unit until we take up the pan look from the other sides I’m going to put all this to the side clean all this off so next to all that we have the little this is an adjuster system for the band inside here so we need to remove all this to loosen everything up so this is a lock nut and you turn this to adjust the band this is a 19 millimeter oh okay I guess the nuts gonna stay on the shaft then that’s fine so put this to the side you can flip this thing over alright now we’re going to move these pump bolts I’m going to remove them now the manual calls for a special tool to pull this out but I’m willing to wager that similar to the 4l60e I bet there’s a way to just pry this out from the inside when we remove the valve body so I’m going to see if that’s the case I just remove the bolts for now and then we’ll get to pulling this out later so I’m just using half-inch socket just gonna see if all these bolts of the same length yep all the same Lane all right okay so we’re going to flip this guy over on his side get squeezed you ready it gets too bad it’s not too bad right now so now we’re going to remove all these bolts to the pan on the bottom right here then pull the pan these are also 1/2 inch and then oh I missed one up here look at this now this looks pretty good my landlord actually changed the fluid a couple dark times and hopes to fix it so there’s not a huge amount of debris in the pan but he told me that there was when he first opened her up we got three t25 bolts holding this filter in the filter looks pretty new because again my landlord replaced the fluid and filter fairly recently okay so we got 10 hex bolts there’s 7/16 we’re going to remove these remove valve body let’s see here want to keep all the bolts in the same spot just in case they’re all different sizes because I don’t know they are or not well this guy kind of blocking this up here electrical

connector see if I could just bolts alrighty there we go found out what the little dink noise was it was a Czech ball that came out of the valve body okay after looking at the valve body bolts they’re just two different sizes which is really good the longer ones go here here and then one right here on this side is three and then every other bolt are the shorter ones so that makes it real easy okay I figured out where the ball went it wasn’t the Czech ball it was a ball for the this detent lever there’s a spring right here and when you as you turn this the ball goes in these grooves not quite sure how it fell out but I got to keep track of that because I can’t really put it back in there so we’re going to take this hole valve body put it to the side and this this valve body would be a whole nother entity out ended up itself we’re not going to touch it right now alright so we got this little accumulator spring and piston as well as another spring in here it was in like this so this is the little adjuster mechanism for the band when you tighten the rod up here it sort of pushes this down this pushes this up and then the rod pushes this down then it squeezes the drums we’re going to take this little piece out and then now I think think should be able to dry in here let’s try down here ah I knew it there we go what’s out this is the pump there’s a little washer right here on the bottom step that way this out drum looks pretty good it’s not scored it’s really smooth how’s the band look not too bad man does not look too bad at all it’s a little it’s has a little bit of black in there but there’s still you know friction material left we gotta take this out take this apart separately all right we got a 9/16 nut right here so what this does is tension the rear band back here all right next we have these 3/8 bolts on the back okay so looks like we’ve got a snap ring holding this thing in sorry if I get annoying a camera there’s snap ring so now this back part should just yeah just come out now now that all the bolts are out you can take this gasket off all right well I get the rest of this off later okay now for these two assemblies animals missed it so we have this little three tank washer that goes in here along with another thrust washer that also goes on top of the three tank washer and that that part sits up with this part so I can’t forget these two little spacer washers here that’s so now we should be able to remove this the Spragg on the drum we have the the band this is band doing a

little worn down here at the bottom it’s black you can see it it’s kind of black right here but then you could you could see the friction material on these two guys some ways Spragg there we go now you go remember the orientation of this when you’re putting it in this thing looks like that not like that and there’s a difference so if you look at the shape of these guys you sort of have this little point thing on the right hand side and that goes into the case like this if you flip this around that point with now that little point right here you facing to the left it’s very important you put these back in the same way they came out because what these do is the these allow rotation in one direction and lock and the other one so it’s designed to lock in one direction and spin in the other if you put it in reverse it’s going to flip those two things around and it’s really good you’re going to really have problems so whenever you’re taking out these one-way sprags be careful and just note how it goes back in all right so now in the back you can pull out this little pin here pull that out now there’s bolts here remove this little to this remove this steel holder that the sprags is on there’s no real reason to remove it it’s just solid steel you know we’re going to clean this case anyway and there’s just no reason to remove it so I’m going to keep that in there next we need to remove the these two accumulators so I’m just using a c-clamp to compress this accumulator just a little bit then I’m going to get in there and remove the snap ring go snap ring loosen this clamp a lot of the times what you can do is you can actually use compressed air to blow into the passage behind this I don’t know which passage is what I’m gonna try anyway or at least I got that on camera okay I tried to reassemble sort of how it was supposed to come out you know instead of flying on my face so you have this top part then we have this big spring and then we have this little part right here it has a little valve in it so you can take this apart further we’d actually wait to do that until a later time clean all the stuff Assembly’s later all right this little rod is really coming up with this thing so you see if I can get the snap ring out and there can you laid it out without taking it off snap ring top part take out the spring let’s put the spring and we have this whole assembly right here I might have to get this out just pull it forward and flipped it out like that this shafts not coming out I’m just going to leave this in here it’s really not a big deal there’s really no point to take it out I’m going to clean this whole thing anyway so uh alright okay believe that’s everything in the main case so we’re going to put this to the side also a little side note when you’re carrying castings like this like the case be really careful because there’s a lot of sharp burs and stuff around the corners of things so all around here is all very sharp and I have had unfortunate

happenstance of picking one up like this one time and slicing all across my hand it wasn’t very bad but it could have been really bad so be careful a couple more assemblies and then we’re done tearing this thing down so you look in here this is snap ring let’s see if I can get my snapping pliers in there there we go so now the forget what chef this is input keep it shaft then get some shell here planetary assembly here in another shell there’s some select there’s some washers in here I’m just going to put those in there another snap ring and this assembly go just take that out you got another selectively spacer right there and we’re pretty much taking all these apart so we can clean it much better for now I’m just sorting to keep them together so that when I clean them I know exactly how they should go back pull those four washers up here let’s keep all the washing and stuff straight there we go take this guy apart I just want to show again how this three-pronged washer goes in here it seems like it only goes in one way these aren’t symmetrical and then we have this washer that goes on top right here and that’s on this unit okay now these two clutch packs we’re going to wait to redo rebuild them in another video because uh I need to make a special tool that I can use to compress these things for both of these so these will be in another video the disassembly of the pump will also be in another video okay here’s the whole transmission laid out in future videos we’re going to redo rebuild the two clutch packs you know the pump and the governor assembly that’ll probably all be one video and then we have the valve body it’s a whole nother animal so that’s it for this video make sure to watch part 2 and thanks for watching

Model and Analyze Serpentine Belt system in Adams

so hello everyone and welcome to today’s an atom’s webinar my name is agent Vann and I am the product marketing manager for Adams and eb-5 so for today’s agenda first to those who are not so familiar with Adams first we are going to give a very brief introduction of what is Adams and including what is Adams machinery and then we’re gonna talk a little bit more about the belt module in the Adams machinery bundle because that’s our focus today and then after that we’re going to introduce a little bit about the design of experiment analysis capabilities in Adams after that we are going to the demonstration part in a demonstration part first we will show you how to create this whole model from from scratch and then we are going to show you how to perform some of the parametric studies of this serpentine belt system and at the end we will also perform another analysis to see what is the critical tension in the belt to avoid the the slippage in the belt system okay so first what is Adams as stands for an automatic analysis analysis for mechanical systems it’s basically a multi body dynamic tool so with Adams usually people ask what is the difference between a fitting Adams and other commonly used FDA software so I would say the advantage of Adams has the following few reasons first with Adams beauty engineers can analyze them there are mechanism or product from a more system level point of view because you know manage problems stem from the component interactions not only of the cracking of a certain like a lower control arm itself but rather for example the interaction between two subsystems or interaction between two components for example their natural frequency frequency response vibration things like that that would cause them the problem of the product or the whole system so with atoms you can analyze the motion the moving mechanism of the different interaction of the different components and the second thing about lot of Engineers use atoms for accurately predicting the dynamics loads so as you probably all know for the FDA analysis the accurate loading is very important as a boundary condition so if you get in there very accurate dynamic loads you can probably get a more you can probably get a better FDA results or the fatigue fatigue analysis results so and also static loads are very easy to see you predict by the dynamic loading it’s far more difficult to to study so that’s why atoms can help the can help achieving a very accurate accurate and dynamic dynamic loading which can be put into the boundary condition of the FDA the further FDA analysis or fatigue analysis and of course we can use atoms to analyze you can use that to optimize the geometric configuration also to perform the vibration analysis as well as you can use atoms to integrate with other control software’s like eb-5 or MATLAB Simulink to study how the mechanism the mechanical system is being controlled furthermore one of the advantages of using atoms is that it’s much more efficient solution for problems with moving parts as some of you might have the experience if you are trying to solve a moving mechanism using fvh solution it would just take you hours and hours or even days to solve even a purely simple moving mechanism but using multi body dynamics it can be solved within minutes and also the good thing is that for those critical components that you feel it’s necessary to have a sexual to have the flexibility in there you can ensure the flexible part into the Adams model and which would increase the fidelity of your MPD solution and then last but not least you can use Adams and to perform some of the design study design experiment and a parametric study in a course optimization so Adams is the tool used by over 10,000 companies within

around the world and it’s being around the industry for 30 years in the we’re still keep updating then and put a lot of strength and the resources into developing the new capabilities and also including updating upgrading it solver and make it more fast and robust and Adams as you probably know ms is also a tool that provides a lot of dynamic simulation solution across industries so next and Adams machinery so what what is Adams machinist machinery is a our new analysis software package that is specifically designed for them either the machinery industry or any other industry that uses those mechanical components in their design so not that we cannot build those components before it says it’s much easier now to build this than before for example as some of you might know some of the proficient at user might know in order to build a gear model with the detailed geometries previous previously it will require you to create those models in the CAD system then then then you need to import that into Adams now you can tree the whole detailed gear mechanism or model just waiting Adams using this new or the new bundle and also for the belt and chain Kable previously using the traditional method you need to write a macro script in order to create any kind of belt pulley belt system or the sparking linkage system because there are a lot of different and small components you need to define the position of this components and also the how they are connected together now with Adams machinery it’s much easier process previously what talk to you about two weeks to do now you can finish that within half an hour and we’re going to demonstrate later so those are all the models available on modules available waiting Adams machinery so today we’re not going to cover all the different modules we’re going to talk more about the belt module and also demonstrate a serpentine belt model so for the belt module you can see there are different modalities different modeling methods for different modality requirements so for example for the simple master you can choose the constraint and for the and we have 2d and 3d Ling’s methods so all those so the 3d and 2d and 3d methods is actually developed the pulley belt system is constrained to a certain thing said it’s just that for a 2d method the plane needs to be parallel to the global axis but for the 3d links you can put it at any angle that you want and for the reason Adams 2013 got to release we have introduced another method for the smooth balance that is the non planar method which you can see here in the animation below it allows the pulley offset and some pulley misalignment study so what promise does it fall first you can use this module to step to avoid the transmission failure by and wiring the many different behaviors within the belt system and then you can predict the load history of the pulley some users have been asking me I wanted to just get an accurate joint load of the booty before I want to perform any kind of FTA analysis he asked me whether or not you can do that in this a machine rebound oh yes the answer is definitely yes you can do that and also you can analyze the impact of the belt slippage and also study the effect of the belt dynamics so do you know is it has been around Adams for over ten years and we have to keep been keeping up we have been keeping updating that functionality so within atoms and also some users as me asking me with do I need another software to perform the design of experiment study to integrate with Adam stipple to perform those two parametric study the answer is you can use another software like sheet like

optimization tool and also for the design of experiments study or the parametric study you can also perform that analysis whipping Adams environment so okay now let’s go to the demonstration section so first I’m going to show you how to create a serpentine belt system using this Adams machinery capability so as you may see this is the interface for the Adams and to those who have not been using Adams before and there are a bunch of different ribbon tabs here listed so there are different taps ribbon texture and there’s one called machinery with the machinery ten you can see the there are different modules listed here so today we are going to use them to belt module excuse me so the first thing we need to do is decree the ponies for the belt system and so there are basically two ways to do that so this is a wizard approach model creation process for the first time user you can go through that step by step and choose personnel or choose the belt types and other parameters within this model also if we have created one belt system before you can save all the settings Esther went absolutely deep ion under this no wizard you can just click this safe so so because previously I have created a belt system so now what I only need to do is to open this wzd file which would load all the settings for the parameters so as you can see here is there’s the first we’re creating in the pulley so this is the product of a DD file so by opening that WD file we are actually loading all the parameters that we have input into the system when we created this surfing about the previous time so we are using the poly B group and this is no ordinary using and two readings so all those parameters is what I have put into the system earlier and now when I opened this when I want to create this serpentine belt model again I only need to know those those parameters so you can define for example the geometry of the pulley and also the material of the pulley and then this is the connection between the pulley and the other components and this is the outfit you want to choose so after the completion of the pulley there are the tensioner different definition so there are fixed tension that you can choose our translational tension and there’s also the rotational tensioner and the material of the tension itself and the connection of the tension is so after that the party creation process is complete so as you can see here we have created a bunch of police and also those are the tension is the next thing we’re going to do is to create the balance the same process as we did before we can either input those parameters from from scratch or you can just know the previous settings so we’ll click the belt so as we go through the different tabs you can expect to see all the parameters already loaded into this wizard approach and process we can define the geometry here the geometry of the belt the belt segments you can define the mass property of the belt the contact parameters and also the friction parameters between the belt and the pulley but erection orders you can also know the previous settings so here you need to mention in order to write the system you need to do it in a clockwise row and after it’s defined the system will automatically create a bunch of

different belt segments which consists of a single the whole serpentine belt and this might take just a couple of minutes depending on the how fast your computer is the processing speed so as you can see this is how the belt the host of the things out model is created so previously a mechanism like that will take proficient Adams engineers weeks to do that and now can be finished within just so for the output requests here you can get the results from each segment you want for example I want to get the the back segment 25 here and that the reference part we can define as the ground and then it’s complete so this is how you create the certain imbalance in Adams environment using the Adams of scenery and then we are going to so next you can go ahead and wrong accumulation here we can define the total duration and then the duration for each and and how many steps you want for dissemination so next we’re going to briefly go to introduce some of the results can get here so first let’s say that take a look at the simulation so these arrows represents the that you can the forces exerted on the pulley and between the pulley and the Bell so on the right hand side you can as you can see can get the angular velocity of any of the pulley so you can get the friction force between the pulley and the dalvik stuff and also you can if you want to click here the belt system if you want to get the joint force on the pulley for example you can click either pulley and just click the join force so this is how you can get the contact force between the pulley and the belt and also if you want to view the results from a frequency domain you can perform the use the FFT functionality to transfer these results from time domain into the frequency domain and analyze things like the resonance frequency and stuff like that so those are all the results you can get from the amp simulation ok so next we are going to talk about how you can perform the design experiment results analysis or what you can order my requires the parametric study so for example in order to study for exams I want to study how the belt tensioners like the the belt tensioner stiffness can affect the whole system I will study the sensitivity of this parameter in order to study that I will basically first I will create a design variable in the design exploration tab which you can see this listed on their goal you can create I’m going to create a variable called the stiffness here and after you have created all the different variables you can find it in the model tree listed here so this is the first thing first thing you need to do and the second you need to replace the previous parameters within the cell filtration process so you need to replace all the parameters with those design variables and after that so after that you basically I created a measure for example I so I want to study how this stiffness on the attention that can affect this about slippage so I created a measure in this design exploration measurements I created a measure of the rotational speed of this particular pulley and as you can see it can be seen here this is the measure of this the rotational speed at this point so and then what I need to do is to go to the design evaluation tool like this so you can perform a design study is on experiment all the

optimization analysis for example go on perform the design experiments I can choose I can choose from the different design variables for example I can choose the stiffness the damping and the preload together and I can run a full factorial and our Theory analysis to see what is like the maximum the maximum rotational speed of the pulley or the minimum speed and rotational speed up fully so in order to study whether or not the pulley is there’s a slippage between the pulley the pulley and the belt you can simply just study the average value of this rotational speed for example so and then you can click start after you were on and found a bunch of analysis for example I don’t I just attested and effect the sensitivity sensitivity of the stiffness to this rotational speed of the pulley so those are the five result I got and as you can see for some of the settings you can actually expect there’s a slippage between the pulley and belt but for other configurations you can see the belt is running smoothly with the pulley ok so let’s see the animation going in so in this particular scenario because they actually there is no slippage between the belt and the pulley itself and this is one of the ideal situation okay so this is some things you want to mention about if you want to mention when you are performing the daily analysis and the next thing we’re going to do is to perform another special study of to see what is the critical loading or the critical tension in the belt system in order to avoid the belt slippage that we are going to get that critical about tension so yesterday will open this model and just why in the after this demonstration there will be a Q&A session so there in a Q&A session we will have Anthony could you know he is the product designer for Alex machinery so if you have any questions regarding Adams or Adams machinery you can just type them down in the Q&A window and we will be glad to have those answered so this is the about slippage analysis model and we’re gonna to or then demonstrate so in order to perform this analysis the first thing we want to do is that we want to apply a motion on this rotational tensioner so as is shown here this motion one is the a very very tiny motion that we applied on this tensioner it’s from zero from 0.5 seconds to two seconds and actually it’s it will take about five degrees this rotational tensioner and as you can probably see with the counterclockwise a rotation of this tensioner it’s actually exerting more force into this belt system so that the hope we can expect the tension in the belt is increasing so now we are we will go to the post processor she found the results so in the right chart here you can see there are two trips the red curve represents the angle this particular pulley so previously what we did is we as we added a friction torque between on this pulley and so this is the angular velocity of this point and the blue curve is the tension and torque of this hardest time on the tensioner so we are going to study what is the critical

tension of time needed to avoid the belt setage so let’s take a look at the animation okay so as you can expect for the first point for the first period of time the whole system is this there is a slippage between the foot and the belt so this pulley is not moving and when it reaches a critical tension and torque the quality starts to move so in this way we can study and again this critical part that needed to drive the whole system to make the whole system work so that is how we can use Adams machine we need to run those type of analysis and helps you achieve things like reducing the Paras and the parasitic loss and increasing the efficiency of your mechanism so those are the other demonstration parts so now you’ve learned how to create this serpentine belt system using Adams machinery and perform some of the theory analysis and also perform some of the belt slippage analysis within the system and so before we go to the katrinak immunization we have a field kindly reminders so first if you want to get more if you want to know more about this app’s machinery once you try some of the examples yourself there’s actually there’s there will be a few free and workshop events going on in the US and also in in the some of the European countries so we have two we have three events going on in Michigan and Ohio in December and so if you are interested and you can just type in this link and get to know more about this adverse machinery workshop events