THE TRAIN We’ll try to convince you that building model railways is fun We’ll ride Hurvínek in The Legends And we’ll explain autoblock in Amazing Recollections Today’s trend is to be slim and young The same is required on Czech railways I’m not kidding and yes, I know I’m not exactly thin But this is not a best fashion show It is another episode of The Train In our first report, we’ll really focus on thinness Namely, the thinnest point in our country Let’s go to Prosenice THE THINNEST POINT We presume that many of you noticed the unusual construction project in Prosenice this April Its result are the thinnest points in the Czech Republic that were manufactured by DT – Výhybkárna a strojírna According to the press, it’s a part of the Přerov station head crossover The new 307m long crossover replaced the original 157m long one This increased the maximum speed of trains going in the siding direction from the original 100kph to the new maximum speed of 160kph In the primary direction, the trains can run at up to 300kph The laying of points using heavy machinery was an extraordinary experience At the time, the media didn’t show how the completed point looks like, what components does it use and how it works The point we’re standing on uses the J60-1:33.5 4000 PHS design PHS is a frog with a movable toe Its total length is almost 132m The point section is 51.6m long The section with the movable frog is 23m long The frog is controlled by three point machines But let’s move 132m backwards to the point section to see how many point machines control the point We can see one, two, three, four, five, six point machines that control the jaw locks in thin hollow sleepers Each point machine has a drive with transmission gear, a friction-coupling that sets the force of the point machine, and a contact set that stops the drive in end positions and controls the point machine’s end positions These are the blade position sensors There are five sensors for each of the two blades The sensors monitor the closed position of the blade using a resistor If the readings are not OK, it is not possible to pass through the point These are the blade heaters that ensure the operation of the point in frost and snow conditions If the point is connected to the central interlock, it can change position in 4.2 seconds thanks to the point machines If we want to set the point manually in emergency, the individual point machines can be set using a lever, or by a cordless drill with a correct adapter The point uses standard safety and interlocking features Minor changes were made at the point machines For example, composite covers As for the jaw locks, they are located in thin hollow sleepers that support high quality tamping After the installation, the point will work in operational test mode for 5 years Especially the mechanical structure of the point will be tested

And because the interlocking system has been slightly modified, operational test of the interlocking system will run for two years as well EXPRESS Brief railway news is here We’ll begin with sad news The movie director Jiří Menzel died aged 82 on 5th September He was most famous for his movie Closely Watched Trains for which he won an Oscar in the Foreign Language Film category in 1967 Well I was surprised but I didn’t notice it that much At that time, USA was far away and Oscar wasn’t such a big thing However, I was thrilled that I can visit the USA Our country was closed You couldn’t even go to Budapest I have to say that the communists weren’t glad that the movie got an Oscar So we didn’t talk about it Dear-loved Jiří, bravest of the brave, Yesterday, your body has left this material world in our embrace It was our honour to accompany you in your last journey You love for me and our girls was unconditional The Prague Railway Day took place on Saturday, September 12th The event included the ride of the Šlechtična steam locomotive, Komarek steam coach, the legendary “Frogmouth” unit, Tornado electrical unit, as well as historical buses, trams and other attractions On 12th and 13th September, the line Liberec-Česká Lípa celebrated 120 years and the cancelled line Jablonné v Podještědí- Svor 115 years Historic motor and steam coaches and buses celebrated the occasion The video shows a train pulled by the steam locomotive 310.0134 “The Grandma”, which served on the Liberec-Česká Lípa line And another anniversary The legendary Merkur construction set designed under the name Invertor by Jaroslav Vancl in 1920 celebrated 100 years We mention it because Merkur made also popular model trains that used the 0 scale, that means 1:45 They were made between 1930 and 1968 Then, the CMEA decided that only East Germany will make model trains And the production was limited to the H0 – TT scale And I think that it was a mistake to leave the 0 scale Because it uses rugged steel models that are ideal for younger kids and beginners In 1989, Merkur was privatized, and in 1993, the company went into liquidation It was saved by Jaromír Kříž then Thanks to his family and his strategic partner, the company still exists If you are interested in Merkur’s history, visit the Merkur museum in Police nad Metují And now for the winners of free tickets to the Czech and Austrian Kingdom of Railways Correct answer to the last question: The Austrian Kingdom of Railways is in Prater, Vienna Free tickets to both Czech and Austrian Kingdom of Railways go to: Slavomír Šárik, Bratislava, Ludvík Žídek, Olomouc, Jiří Jelen, Komárov Why did you want to catch that train man? I would have waited for you I don’t even know what happened, I just wanted to take a shortcut How will I explain it to mom and dad? The death of their child will break them I would take it back I thought I would make it as usual I’m sorry bro, this is really bad

Do not enter the tracks! You are risking your life! MODELS Did you know that the first locomotive model was made before the first locomotive? In 1804, Richard Trevithick wanted to test the function of a steam locomotive before building an actual steam locomotive Therefore, he built four models of various sizes In time, model railways became a worldwide phenomenon and large factories were built for their production But let’s be honest A model railway is much better when you build it yourselves In The Train, we have already shown you how model trains are made Today, we’ll see how the Ostrava Railway Modellers Club makes model buildings There are two main materials from which buildings and other things are made First, there are plastic houses or construction sets Originally designed in East Germany, they are still available today and can be modified to fit in Czech landscapes Currently, very popular materials for railway model buildings are molded paper and other molded materials These can be based directly on Czech designs As for the plastic construction sets, it is necessary to remove the plastic look of the parts Plastics look unnatural and disturbing on the model railroad Therefore, it is good to paint the parts before gluing Use any matt or patina lacquer to achieve the desired effect So simply paint the parts to achieve worn look Patina lacquer will achieve this Some manufacturers already deliver the parts in matt design But most of them use just glossy plastics that need to be prepared before subsequent processing This applies to all brick, plaster, or wood imitation materials There are plenty of paints that you can use There are various manufacturers and product ranges But the result of most paints is similar or even identical Maybe you find it curious that I paint the pars without removing them from the frames But it’s more convenient this way because fresh paint is susceptible to damage Therefore, it is better to paint the part in the raw condition And to make corrections after removing it from the frame When the paint is dry, you must cut out or break out the parts from the frame The individual parts must be carefully cut out from the frame And then it is necessary to file out any remaining burrs When making buildings, it is easier to make individual sub-assemblies first That means, for example, join walls with windows, doors, frames, etc and assemble the complete walls afterwards Patina coating follows after assembly There are various techniques and possibilities I will demonstrate the use of powder pigment There are many techniques and powder pigment is just one of them You can use oil-based paints, you can also use paints to simulate cracks in the walls Just remember that each method has different fixing procedure For example, I will have to use clear varnish after the powder pigment At the entrance of engine houses, there are traces of smoke like soot, coal dust and dirt You can use black pigment to paint the soot

Begin with thinner layers less is more The amount of soot depends on the usage of the engine house Molded construction sets are a modern alternative to plastic sets They can be divided into two major groups Painted sets are better for beginners You get a complete set of parts ready for assembly Unpainted sets must be painted before assembly to achieve the required look before processing The unpainted sets are more difficult because they must be painted You must be careful, because the paper is softer and absorbs more paint After painting, the material needs to be secured and care must be taken when removing the parts from the frame or when applying adhesives and other materials Various materials are used for the sets Paper was used in the past but manufacturers are more inventive today They use, for example, wood-based materials for more authentic look It is good to use dispersion adhesives when gluing the molded materials A quicksetting glue can leave noticeable residues on the surface A dispersion adhesive is intended for paper Most of the sets are made of paper to which the dispersion glue better adheres The latest technology for model building is 3D printing It uses melted plastics or resin cured by UV lamps This technology enables to create a 3D model of the required part and print the model in the real world The model can be printed in the colour of the plastics or painted afterwards as a standard railroad model The size is limited by the printing area of the 3D printer But you can print more parts and assemble them afterwards Did we manage to increase your confidence and are you prepared to create your own models instead of buying finished ones? That’s great! Send us photos of your creations if you make them We will publish them on our social network We wish you a steady hand and a lot of creativity THE LEGENDS Hi everyone If I say historic motor coach, everybody, including railway fans and common passengers, will think of the red M131.1 motor coach nicknamed Hurvínek Despite being a common sight in our country, it is always nice to ride with it Thanks to their popularity, simplicity and reliability, Hurvíneks are the cornerstones of almost all railway museums When the state railways planned the development of their fleet after World War Two, it was clear that it is necessary to reduce the number of types of motor coaches With the rise of motor coaches in the interwar era, many types of motor coaches were created in very small series So after the war, simple two-axle vehicles with air-cooled engines were chosen for regional lines The air-cooled engine was selected to enable the use of motor coaches in the winter season without parking them in depots This was impossible with water-cooled engines Tatra Kopřivnice was tasked to develop the new vehicles in 1946 because they had rich experience with the production of T111 engines for trucks They made over 4,000 engines before 1945 These engines were modified for railway operation and labelled as T301

They were installed under the floor The transmission is ensured by dry three-disk clutch with pneumatic control and fully synchronised four-step Milius reversing transmission Hurvínek is a two-axle motor coach with a steel self-supporting body It has two cabs that serve also for passenger boarding To prevent passengers from tampering with the controls when the driver is away, the whole control desk can be locked There are wooden benches for up to 48 sitting passengers The benches are for one or four passengers The twelve-cylinder diesel engine provides an output of 114kW (155HP) and nominal 1,600 revolutions per minute It can be accessed from the inside together with the Milius transmission The maximum speed of the vehicle is 60kph It is 12.1m long and it has 16.5 tons The first motor coach of the M131.1 series was handed over to the state railways in June 1948 It cost around CZK 1.5 million and it was used in Ostrava Forty another pieces were delivered the same year Then, it was decided that the coach production in Kopřivnice will stop The next 100 pieces were completed in the Studénka factory But the Kopřivnice plant still delivered the bodies, drives and wiring The subsequent production was fully transferred to Studénka and ended in the year 1956 when the state railways took over the last piece with the number 549 Thus, Hurvíneks became the most numerous vehicles of ČSD If it weren’t for the Soviet Sergejs and today’s 810 series, they would remain the most numerous to this day After initial difficulties, they proved to be reliable and they were used all around Czechoslovakia not only for passenger and mixed regional lines but also for larger tracks or even fast trains Their fall from glory began at the end of 1970s with the introduction of the modern M152.0 – today’s 810 series motor coaches Many Hurvíneks were discarded or sold to factory sidings Part of them became maintenance machines and one was even sold to Cuba The last Hurvíneks were decommissioned in the early 1990s We visited one of the 50 surviving Hurvíneks in Kroměříž The motor coach M131.1454 belongs to the Kroměříž Railway Association Rides with it are organized every year, mainly in Central Moravia M131.1 series Manufacturer: Tatra Kopřivnice Studénka Pieces made: 549 (1948 to 1956) Gauge: 1,435mm Two-axle arrangement: 1’A Diesel engine: TATRA T301 Engine output: 114kW (approx. 155HP) Transmission: Mechanical Maximum speed: 60kph Empty weight: 16.5t Length bumper-to-bumper: 12,100mm Total height: 3,480mm Max width: 3,000mm Places for sitting/standing: 48/21 AMAZING RECOLLECTIONS In July 2020, an accident aroused public interest A collision of a passenger and freight train The track was secured by an autoblock that enables the train to continue past a stop signal Today’s film covers the topic The following train mode on track with autoblocks is completely different from the tracks secured by human factor On these tracks, two and more trains are allowed in a block section However, signal and traffic rules have to be observed Modern procedures are used also for train crews In the past, a guard – signaller – was required at the end of the train Today, there is just a locomotive crew with a train driver and his assistant

In the past, the signaller signalled Stop to the following train in emergency Today, there is no signaller on a train Therefore, stricter rules apply to following rides In Kolovraty station, a freight train without a train crew is ready to depart When can it be allowed to depart? It must have a train end signal with warning lights at the end A simplified train end signal cannot be used If the train is to be used only in daylight, it is allowed to use just end plates for the train end signal or simplified train end signal provided the local railway head allows it When the freight train passes the Vrbno station, the signaller at the signal box 2 finds out that the train end is not properly signalled Only one red light is lit What is the proper procedure? The signaller doesn’t close the departure signal box This signals the fault to the Vrbno dispatcher The dispatcher sees that the departure signal box is not closed and even though he is aware of the fault, he verifies the fault by phone Thus, he checks whether the signaller didn’t forgot to close The dispatcher writes down the report and gives his approval to close the departure signal Then he reports the fault to the dispatcher of the adjacent station Lesná The dispatcher in Lesná stops the train and orders the locomotive crew to remove the fault The train driver’s assistant lights up the lamp If there is a train without working train end signal on a track, the following trains in the Vrbno-Lesná direction can be dispatched only in open line sections Thus, the dispatcher in Vrbno has to stop the following fast train and delay it until receiving phone confirmation from Lesná Only then the fast train can depart This is how it goes without autoblock The railyard in the movie was from the railway modeller’s club in Karlín It was very damaged when moving to Podbaba in Prague in 1979 There, the club survived to this day The dispatchers on autoblock tracks with trains without train crews have also other duties In Lesná, there are several trains waiting in the station The dispatcher in Lesná just received a message that another train is leaving Vrbno It is clear that he has to hold the train before the entry signal He tells this to the Vrbno dispatcher This dispatcher stops departure of other trains to Lesná He must wait until the train waiting at the entry signal is allowed to enter the Lesná station Only then the following train can depart In the operation of trains on tracks with autoblock, the train drivers participate in the control of following trains The train approaches the autoblock section signal that signals Stop The train driver stops and waits

He waits one… two three minutes When the signal Continue doesn’t appear after three minutes, and if there is no train behind the section signal, the driver may proceed to the next signal at Max. 30 kph He watches for any obstacles and he is prepared to stop the train He approaches the next section signal that shows Stop This time, he sees an obstacle, the end of a train What does he do? He stops, of course But this time, he must not continue even after three minutes The train leaves and the obstacle disappears from the view of the train driver The train driver waits for the signal Continue But the waiting is futile and the signal does not change The train driver has to wait another five minutes after the previous train departs Then he may proceed Again, the train must not go faster than 30 kph and the train driver must be prepared to stop immediately And that’s the end Today, the stated maximum speed no longer applies The train driver must stop at the autoblock section signal Then he may proceed according to sight conditions and be prepared to stop This stop signal mode is known as the permissive signal Other main signals are used as absolute signals Next time, we’ll witness the appointment of a honorary and revolutionary train driver STOP BLOCK How to make a convertible train? Like this Stop clearly indicates that the show ends But we also ask you in what station is the thinnest point in our country? Send your answers to the addresses on the screen by 15 October 2020 You can win three The Train t-shirts and three The Train bracelets So see you next month and Long live the railway!