Lec-2 Analysing and Designing Job:I

See one of the responsibilities for the HR department is analysing what are the various jobs which are there in the company and also designing the jobs, if it is a new company you are setting up you have to design the job, if it is a old company which is already operating then you may have to redesign the jobs Because constantly every company is in a state of flux nothing is static; the products are changing, customers are changing, market is changing right, people are changing, new kind of skills, technology is changing So, within the change the jobs cannot remain the same, they also keep up, they have to change So, which department is primarily involved in that and that is the HRM department Of course, in real life it is not only the HRM who does it This is a cross functional team, when you redesign jobs; you of course have to involve people who are actually doing the job, is it not? So, HRM often has a coordinating role But usually when new plans are set up then the HRM would have the primary role of setting of the jobs, and they have to be the driver of this, they have to consult operating people, but they have to do themselves So, let us see concept, definition and meaning What is the job? What is the concept? A collection of tasks is regarded as a regular assignment to individual employees, and which is different from other assignments between one job and the other job A group of positions or modules of work, done by division of the total work, example, you are dividing the whole work of the office let us say into peon, clerical, supervisory, technician, accountant, manager, etcetera So, division of work, why, to make for better efficiency in operations Everyone doing everything may not be all efficient and will not be in fact, usually as efficient as if there is a large volume of repetitive work; you divide it, and make specific people do specific type of jobs; any questions? Job analysis: The process of collecting information about a job It finds out the anatomy of the job; everyone knows what is anatomy? Yes, you know what is anatomy? Anatomy of the job, what does it mean anatomy? Internal… Internal, external, likely anatomy is a term often used in medical, science, and there is a subject in first year of MBBS; anatomy – famous Grey’s anatomy, doctor Grey, he wrote this book many, many, many, many years ago and it has become a classic, Grey’s anatomy, anatomy shows various parts of the human body both internal as well as external So, that is what it means here It finds out the anatomy of the job, various parts of the job, hidden as well as overt It finds out the contents of an existing job, example, what are the duties of a clerk, group-1, what are the minimal skills, knowledge and abilities require to do the job, minimal skills,

after that they can be trained to do higher level jobs So, analysis by very nature you know its disection; you take a whole, you cut it into parts then you put it in a under a microscope analyze What is the opposite of analysis? Synthesis Correct, synthesis, you have various parts, puzzles, your ability to from this part to assemble a whole, look at a whole pattern or a picture, from what seemingly are unrelated events or episodes, that ability So, this analytical ability as well as synthesizing ability both these are important for managers And if you have both of these, if you have the skills of analyzing and synthesizing also, then you have the skill of conceptualization also If things are not there in front of you, you will be able to picture them in your mind – conceptualize Definition: Job analysis is the process of getting information about the jobs Specially, what the worker does; how he or she gets it done; why he or she does it; skill, education and training is required, relationship which is required, relationship to other jobs, physical demands, environmental conditions Well as you can see from the definition, this is applicable and referring to jobs on the factory shop floor essentially or jobs which you may term as lower level jobs not higher level alright, which may be large volume and repetitive Early on after the industrial revolution, when scientific management school came into being; what they did was? Basically the scientific approach to analyzing the jobs alright and then going about ways to find the best methods of doing each part of the job; all with the idea of increasing the efficiency right You have heard of Taylor Frederick – FW Taylor all of you have heard about him; he belong to the scientific school of management and they believed that; that you split the job into all the elements of the total job Then you try to do each of these elements separately in large volumes, repetitively, you get high productivity, and then finally you assemble And this was applied where very successfully? Where did they apply this principle very successfully? Time motion Time motion, but where? Auto mobile manufacture, auto mobile assembly line is a dramatic example of how efficiencies can be increased to make a car by one or more person, but from start to finish, if it took let us say 30 days, the assembly line splitting the work, assigning only one or two components of the work to the individual; you could probably have 100 cars in 1 day; look at the dramatic order of change that is brought about So, they use this method of analysis right to very great advantage, but they found out after some time That there is a limitation; there is a limitation to how far you can increase the productivity by doing it by analytical and scientific methods, and up to a point after that no more Why, why, why no more; why not it goes on and on and on and on; people get tired alright Say this is efficiency or productivity, and this is let us say scientific methods, say automation or mechanization So, it went up dramatically and after sometime it saturated, and then it started

So, very good; what happened here; what happened; people got tired; why did not they get tired here – in this zone Repetitive work Repetitive work, so they got bored; bored is it? Fatigued; what kind of Fatigued? Physical or mental – mental fatigued So, what what was what are the process that was happening? You have here a human being who was being de-humanized, he is becoming a robot, and therefore rebels; because he is not a robot he is a human being; rebels, how does he rebel; by setting his own strength at No more; set own standards; not what management sets And any ever work man who tries to go beyond, what is the standard set by the work mans themselves; he will be punished, where? Outside the gate, so this is what happened So, therefore new school of thought came in; out of which? This whole concept of HR and not PM, if we discussed in the last topic Anyway major outcome of job analysis was job description and job specification And what is job description? This is prepared based on the data collected through job analysis It is a narration alright of the contents of a job It is a description of the activities and duties performed in a job, the relationship of the job with other jobs, the equipment and tools required, the nature of the supervision their working conditions and the hazards of a job So, as anyone of you seen a job description sheet; job description sheet no one has seen No one has got any experience here in any organization; you have, what do you think is job description sheet? You have to manufacture let us say a component alright, if job description sheet will tell you all those things which are relevant Usually, it will give you a drawing, let us say this is a component alright, and they will tell you the dimensions alright, they will tell you the tolerance; it will give you the materials, description quantity; it will give you the machine to be used; it will give you the tool to be used; it will give you the interconnecting component with which it will met alright interconnecting component It will also give you the time for batch; so many minutes or seconds per batch and the

batch may be 100 numbers say What is this? When a job comes to you and the quantity to be manufactured; why did they give you this, because today you have first shift you are working, second shift another work will come, third shift another may come, this is a back, these components may be in a production run for 4 days or 5 days, because quite a few thousands of them are necessary are required, so if standardizing So, what is the process which you are trying to do here, job description, standardizing essentially; any questions? Any changes which happen here alright, in any of these will be interrelated on the other say, the materials specification changes alright You have been making out of a let us say this component using making out of mild steel sheet of 20 gaze, and now you do value engineering and say the design department certified, even if you reduce the gaze to 22 gaze, make it thinner, you can still have the same strength and same functionality, but you can save the cost So, moment they change the material specification alright You may find the tool which you have been using has to change; you may find that the number of the amount of material if you have to issue, changes, the time that is taken changes So, all these interrelated things, you will have to be reviving this sheet So, standardization is the reason why you have this Job description and job specification: So, purpose of job description is grading and classification of the job, placement and orientation of new employees, promotion for career path, developing work standards, counseling of employees and delimitation of authority After all in factories you have jobs which are skilled right, job which are semi skilled, job we do not require skill, we call them unskilled sometimes Nowadays modern term we do not call them unskilled, because you say if unskilled why have a man at all So, we call it grade 1, grade 2, grade 3, some other names, but the different grading is there Then placement and orientation of new employees: New employees at from have got certain experience, they have got some qualification So, they have to be fitted into an appropriate job So, if you know the job description you can match it with the qualifications, experience, knowledge and skills, and place Promotion and transfers – how does it come in job description, how is it relevant to promotion and transfers, tell me Yes, so, but I am saying for purpose of job, purposes of job description How job description connecting these promotions and transfers that is the question I do not know No For fitting the person for a suitable job Fitting the person for a suitable job, yes, if you have a job description and you have people who have got, all these qualifications alright, which are more than for this job May be you can consider him to be promoted, you have a semi skilled work man alright; say he is a assembler – semi skilled assembler and you have a skilled assembler, and in the union agreement you have got this job description written quite clearly; he is a semi skilled assembler, it said he shall recognize the necessary components, he shall have the ability to place them properly in the fixture, he shall have the knowledge of selecting the correct fastener, you know screw alright and doing the assembly operations under supervision, then you go to the next, next says all these

In addition to doing what a semi skilled assembler does, he shall have the ability or he shall work independently from drawings under supervision Then you go to the next highly skilled assembler and you say in addition to what is for the skilled assembler, he shall be able to guide other assemblers in doing out complicated assemblies and also to be able to trouble shoot and correct wrong assemblies done in the shop floor You see the difference? So, depending on the job description, the promo ability is coming in So, someone who semi skilled and say look I can do from drawings I have got the skill, you promote me now to the skilled workman, because in the skilled workman it says shall work from drawings, semi skilled not from drawings under supervision only Then the word independent those who can guide others, these are highly skilled So, those who have it will be promoted So, that is the relationship Any other… Counseling of employee Counseling of employee, tell me, someone tell me how job description alright come into counseling of employees; we just said if you want a semi skilled assembler alright to learn something to be told how to do it right, you already built it to the job description of the highly skilled that he shall guide others correct mistakes So, we need not ask an engineer to come and tell, we can always give this job to the highly skilled, and say look you gone counsel them; why he is doing wrong, analyze it, because that is part of your job description So, you need not send the very highly qualified B. E or B. Tech or M. Tech to teach it to the semi skilled assembler So, it has a roll job description has an applicability in counseling of employee also; any other questions? Last one – delimitation of authority, who will answer this to me? Tell me, delimitation you are limiting some of authority, some workman’s authority, tell me Yes, you have not spoken, tell me, you are limiting authority; in other words say you are a semi skilled workman, I am limiting your authority, how, by job description, what authority, to guide other workmen Say I come I am taking a round, I am production manager on the shop floor and I find you a semi skilled assembler is in the work station offer skilled assembler then I ask you what are you doing; no sir, he had a problem so I was telling him I said who are you to tell, I have limited your authority; you are not suppose to tell; he suppose to tell you why you left your work place; clear? I am limiting it the authority by describing the job Now, for higher level do we have this detailed job description, usually no Say a general manager we not have a job description, but very large organization may have that also It will be more broad based Say there general manager shall be over all in charge of all activities and functions of his department or factory, broad He shall be he shall for see possible problems that may arise in relation to his factory and take proactive steps to see that these problems do not arise or if they do, they are solved initially without much damage So, some broad line you can or deputy general manager and general manger you can delimit delimit also, is it not or limit by job description But usually it is not done, because it is so broad based, it is difficult to pin point and write down all those things which you should not do, very difficult, as you go higher up the hierarchical ladder But for lower it is very, very important to write it down And particularly when we have the unionized factory, because the pay, the perquisites

or the remuneration packages are connected very much to the job description and job classification, and all the dispute that arise are usually based on this job description and job classification There are so many nuances there Often there will be a dispute, sir he can do this job, management says I know he can do this job, but he is not doing it So, who is to blame, you are not giving him the job, management says I cannot give it to him, because I do not have the orders which are so much of this type of job that I can give it to him, I already got employees who know that So, I sympathize with him, but I cannot promote him So, all these sort of issues come So, job description is very important for lower level particularly, when you have unionized jobs; any other questions? So, this is giving your like I was trying to tell you for a shop floor A job description of a component: He has the broader one A statement containing items such as job title alright, the last one which I showed you was a job meaning a work piece on the shop floor This is the job meaning the work to be done by an employee; that is the difference Location, job summary, location means where you are sitting which office, is it Delhi based, Bombay based, is there a two factories, is it sitting in the Powai factory or Borvali factory Job summary, duties, machine, tool, equipment, material and form, supervision given or received, working conditions and hazards And then as we said the job analysis give rise to two things right; one was job description and the other was job specification So, what does specification state? Statement of human qualifications, one was job related, this is the person who will do the job specification, necessary to do a job Usually contains such items as education, experience, training, judgment, initiative, physical effort, right physical skill, responsibilities communication skills, unusually; unusual sensory demands such as sight, smell, hearing Any question here, unusual sensory demands, what does that mean? That means certain jobs like you are in the navy let us say alright In the navy many of the or why go so far, say you are a driver, you are driving a vehicle alright, if you are color blind alright, you may not be given the driving license, because you cannot distinguish between red light and green light, you drive through So, if job description of a driver; so, you have the company we have got 50 buses writing job description Then unusual sensory demands such as sight, you have to say the driver shall undergo test to be certified that he is not color blind; that is a specification – job specification; any other questions? So, the job specification therefore, does not really focus on the job, but on the person doing the job It states the minimum qualification skills, physical and other abilities, experience, judgment and other attributes require to do the job well And the purpose of job specification is for personal planning, hiring, performance appraisal, training and development, job evaluation and compensation, health and safety, employee discipline, works scheduling and career planning Think about it, all this is easy to understand or you have some questions to ask What about the hiring? Hiring, so you say for instance you have seen these advertisements; the advertisements you

have to write down a job specification First you start by telling all these, we are a ISO 9000 and one company alright; engage in manufacture of highly sophisticated switch gear and motor control gear with factory is in 5 locations in India; we are a industry leader in our industry Then second para, after giving the Powai of the company what do they say? We have vacancies open for experienced mechanical engineers alright, qualification required, post graduate from preferably IITs with specialization in thermal, type of jobs, then it says previous experience; previous experience not necessary if from IIT, other institution 1 to 2 years preferred and so on It is giving the person, what is his age, what is qualification, what is his experience, what types of experience, sometimes this advertisement say that 10 years experience out of which at least 3 years should be ahead of a section or department That means even the managerial and administrative experience which you have apart from job So, this is for hiring, this is very important In fact, you may get it in the test a question, write down the job specification for hiring general manager of this, this, this ,this company So, you have to then write it down, design it down and write it down; any other questions? What is work scheduling? Work scheduling alright, scheduling of work that means there are certain time periods in which you have to do the work, is it not So, purpose of job specification we will have to say that he shall be required alright, he or she shall be required let us say it is it is a job offer company doctor, he shall be required to spend time equally in both our Powai factory and in our Borivali factory And he shall be called upon when required to visit to make home visits to company’s senior officers So, it gives you an idea of the job specification in terms of the work with that company doctor has to do schedule If some doctor does not want to go home visits any time during the night and all you, will not apply for this job or he is he has his own clinic in the evenings which is near Powai, he may not be interested in going to Borivali So, for work scheduling this is necessary, any other alright So, we have seen job analysis alright and from the job analysis we saw two out comes; what was the first one – job description, second one – job specification Now, you see job evaluation It is a comparative process of establishing the value of different jobs in a hierarchical order Again you say is evaluation; evaluation means good, bad So, there is judgment, and value; value of different jobs in a hierarchical order, for instance, if I ask you that in the factory alright you evaluate the job of personal manager, training manager, production manager and sells manager Do you understand? It is not a easy thing to do, because you have to see the value which each of this position is adding to the overall benefit of the company, each is important job, but you have to provide, because in order for company to fix remuneration packages and so on, they need to know it There are many companies where they do not have at the board level; it is just after the M. D, next level of the company They do not have let us say a vice president alright of personnel or a vise president legal,

they have lower down, they have general manager, but not vise president What is implicit in that? That they evaluated the job and for that company the legal of the personal function alright in terms of and therefore the person who heads that function, is not as important for that company as the marketing or the production It allows one to compare job by using common criteria to define relationship of one job to the other job It serves as the basis for grading different jobs and developing a suitable pay structure for them However, it cannot be the only factor to determine pay structure It is important to know why it is only, because also the pay structure is not only by the job, but also by the person, is it not If a person is highly qualified and at the moment the job he is doing is of lesser evaluation, but in order to retain that person So that in future he can be used on higher post and higher jobs, they may pay him more So, that is why it says not only factor It is important to know the job evaluation is ranking the job and not ranking the job holder; that is the exactly the reason that is I just mention sometimes the holder may be over qualified But for the various reasons he has been asked that temporarily you do this job till we get something better for you So, this concept understands, job evaluation is ranking the job and not ranking the job holder So, some definitions; job evaluation is an attempt to determine and compare the demands which the normal performance of a particular job makes on normal workers, without taking into account the individual abilities or performance of workers concerned Hence the example I give you little while ago of a worker saying sir why you are not promoting me, because I have got the ability I can do the skilled job What does this say? Without taking into account the individual abilities, to determine and compare the demands with a normal performance of a particular job So, if you think, now you are doing a job as described of a semi skilled worker We acknowledge that you can do the job of a skilled worker, but that job is not there When the vacancy comes, we will give you that job and then we can give you a promotion This point is clear, very important point, it is not what you can do is important for the employer, what you are doing that is more important So, if you are in a company where you feel that you are under employed in terms of your qualification and experience, you are doing a lower job and they cannot give you a higher job in a hurry, it is better for you to leave that company, take a job commensurate with your level and by the same token remember, during the hiring policies or many companies have hiring policies where they do not take over qualified people If they says that we want people who are graduates B.Tech and you go with M.Tech they would not take you, because you are over qualified and why do not they take you by the way, is it something foolish they are doing, because you are saying look I can not only do what B.Tech is doing, I can do much more than him, for the same pay I will do it, but they say sorry we would not take you Why? Why, why latter on, why, you are right, but why? May not be… May not be, you start you are having a chip on your shoulder and dissatisfaction will be there from day one All these are B. Tech they are getting say some are getting more also, because they joined few years earlier I am M. Tech and I am not getting So, your attitude will be bad; in the long run both will suffer, your job will suffer that means the employer suffer, and you will suffer, because you will become negative in a in an attitude, it will harm you in your career

So, they say we never take people who are over qualified and there is lot of sense in that Job evaluation is an effort to determine the relative value of every job in a plant to determine what that fair basic wage for such a job would be It is not a very easy exercise, because there are so many jobs, you know which is difficult to determine which is more important and which has more relative value Say a bus driver in a factory and a forklift driver which which do you see has more value or are they same Yes, let us do a little mental situation I am giving you a I am giving you exact, I am saying your, let us say in Larsen and Turbo and they have got drivers there, and they also got forklift operator So, which should be, when you do evaluation you are doing job evaluation which adds more value, the job not the person; how would you go about it One way is to look at it from the others who can do more harm to the company That is one way we are looking at it Therefore, if if there the job when I say who I mean which, there is a job where the risks are such, that the harm to the company which may happen are more, example, you kill the chief minister in a road accident while you are driving on the road What happens? Company is in great problem, driver goes out in the road Does the forklift go out into the road? No, he drives within the premises in a controlled environment where the speed limits are given; he is unlikely that he will kill anyone in an accident, but if he does kind of damage that will inflict on the company will be of lesser order So, there is one way of looking at it Therefore, which has have drop value, drop content, may be the driver who is driving your bus all over Bombay then the forklift operator and so on What are the other? Other there may be other factors on which you will do the job evaluation Is it not? Another factor maybe the skill which would be required, because of the condition in a factory condition alright, he may be working in yards where you have to have maneuver ability, he may be staking material with the forklift So, he has to have some skill, otherwise there will be accidents So, this will be one of the things taken May be in his case you know there are no mechanics who are dedicated to repair the forklift So, in a forklift operator he may require some skills of maintenance or repair in which case that adds value to that job; is it not? So, there are ways of you evaluated right You are having another class You are having another class So, we will make an… We will end here and we will end by saying that differences amongst these three items; job analysis, job description, job specification – 4 item and job evaluation So, job analysis is a process of examining the various components of a job and the circumstances in which it is performed Whereas, job description is a description of the duties, scope and responsibilities associated with the job for the person; no, of the job Job specification on the other hand is the minimum acceptable qualification that the job incumbents must possess to perform the job So, this is relating to the person and job evaluation is again relating to the job not the person A technique used to establish the relative worth of jobs in a job hierarchy Any more questions, no So, we can end to this class Thank you very much