Week 6: ELD MOOC Live Webinar by Emmanuelle Quillérou and Cesar Morales

wet welcome to the eld MOOC 2015 welcome to this session on stakeholder engagement I am Claudia Musa comp and i am the tutor for this LD MOOC along with Ali salois based in the US now today I am very happy to present two speakers to you first of all I’d like to welcome a manuel killer ooh a manuel killer rube was already involved in the first ELD MOOC and she has written the script of both MOOCs and I think those scripts are the rock that these MOOCs are built on so thanks for i think doing a great job in writing these scripts and sorting out very complex a material in a very handy and well written format for us so in Manuel Killebrew is a scientific coordinator with the eld initiative she used to be with the United Nations University the Institute of water environment and health and dr. kilo rule holds a PhD in augury environmental economics from the University of Kent in the UK so please a man well we’d love to hear more about stakeholder engagement training and capacity building I wanted to say it was something stupid on this foot cruise around because he’s a he’s been a great help and getting this book scraped together and really useful feedback in anything and so I’m really pleased to be here today with you I’m embrace Aria he’ll be more active online so far I’ve has very believe timeline certainly not the only ones and but I’m hoping to catch up that’s getting too fast and I’m hoping to catch up with you soon and discussions and yeah thank you so much for the initial feedback on the discussion forum this really appreciate it really helps up to know what works and what works a little bit as well so it’s it’s really helpful and so if I am if I followed the course correctly you should now be preparing a stakeholder engagement plan reading the core script on the conditions and skills required for successful engagement I knew that some of you have listened to the podcast by the Guardian diaper still linked to on the online discussion area it’s called the biggest story in the world and it covers basically some some of the discussions that the guy in staff team editorial team have had relationship to launching a campaign to try and reach out to their readers in a slightly different way than they used to and I think that this is very good because it shows some of the processes that you might be getting through yourselves trying to put together your stakeholders planned so this presentation will be slightly different but I thought it would be nice to engage with you over the concept of training capacity building and trying to a nun engagement and how they relate together and it’s some kind of self reflecting exercise over the spook and it’s a slightly different perspective but i hope i hope it will you’ll find an interested interesting and it’s focused mostly on education that’s provided as a higher high education training university type of courses lifelong learning training vocational training and not so much about primary and secondary education but these principles may have may apply to these type of settings as my stupid slaughter and I’ll try and make the connection between higher education and some of the research purses and putting together of your stakeholder a gate is land I’m not sure why the slides are

going fast forward it’s not mentally so I’m just going to sue your cartoon that I really like which is really about going beyond appearances for true engagement and that character again i’m not sure why the presentation is not showing as a slideshow and will be n region but this is a criterium that says that the quest it’s a double cartoon unit says before I make my decision I’d like to ask for your opinions it’s meant to make you feel more engaged inverted commas and and you actually planned to listen to us I’m hoping you will look that ran the outside so of course this is not at all what we want wants and true dad left and established and to try and bust some true engagement and I’ve included this cartoon because i think it’s it’s very good ensuring that engagement can take different formats as it could be participation partnership communication extension education of course being one of them and now this particular cartoon engagement isn’t slightly different definition than the one that’s used in this core script because it also includes consultation as a form of engagement and whereas anacor script engagement is a two-way dialogue and requires a little bit more than just consultation with stakeholders there isn’t it beyond and just just pointing out that depending on the people putting together text engagement may have very different meaning to them so it’s worth trying to figure out what people mean by engagement and so it is that education is 11 for both but one possible form of engagement but it’s not this really exclusive one and it could be complemented by parallel activities and this is something that is becoming very important for development activities in particular which try and integrate theoretical knowledge practical knowledge operational knowledge across stefania kanabec disciplines across different economic sectors and they’re trying to mix that so that says to achieve so I hope to have impact and have real outcomes I’ll try and see I can do with the sound so I go they’re here i’m i’m having the soundest fine Emma but I’m not sure whether you’re properly connected to my headphones not connecting so it’s the sound from my computer directly actually that’s louder with okay okay go ahead i switch off my sound and then we shouldn’t have an echo okay thank you sorry about that and so do we want my apologies i said i don’t i don’t know why this is not working when i wanted it to and so the question is now do we want engagement for capacity building or capacity building for engagement the short answer would be a little bit of both and because we we can combine training and a level of engagement to try and increase capacity beyond where we can have without engagement and by capacity here we refer to knowledge and skills but we can also try and combine training and capacity building to try and increase engagement and other processes such as parallel research processes on generally speaking with an issue so this this is something this these increased capacity and increased engagement to to potential objectives of setting up a training program and and this MOOC is saluted both as well so I start Google first one with a few examples now engage my training for capacity building and that that has

changed quite a bit the way we do education has changed quite a bit to the east over the past decade it’s teased a little bit before but it’s changed a lot over the past decade in particular in relationship with and you take the development of new particular online technologies that allowed to create new format and this is matching the parallel evolution and research processes and there’s been a change for the approach to learning and teaching with learning that was handed down from a professor to instructor that training which is somehow represented on the bottom left of the slide with somebody in a crowd lower than the presenter shouting out you can engage it engages bedded down here and that has changed to something that is that requires more active participation and engagement and that is more learn it’s learn a sentient so it’s it’s more than a change in the format and it actually matches a change in the philosophy behind how we see education what when we see education should be and how it should be run it’s a deeper deeper thing is called paradigm change and with that part I’ve changed there’s been a diversification of the teaching and learning models that have been used to try and make learning and capacity building more effective in particular so there’s a traditional on-campus model which which means that you go to university campus to learn something and it’s based on face-to-face interaction which library and read textbook text books em and then is the off campus mode which is what this MOOC is is about and so that involves steps to self study that was part of the traditional way of learning and teaching but now increasingly this is learning of online open courses other various forms of teaching and as a new concept that emerged a little bit recently and it’s called blended learning I like this definition which I think it captures very well what well it’s meant to do and it’s it’s the design and delivery of the right content in the right format and using the right mix of media and this is really something that doesn’t apply just to learning and teaching that could also apply to the way you build our engagement plan which has to have the right content in the right format using the right mix media and this is something that can combine on your face-to-face teaching and learning as well as online learning it’s it’s not constrained by a specific type of interaction but it could mix mix all of them and that has led as well to the development of lifelong implication or training courses because you’re not constrained by a timeframe when you have to have a lecture you can just listen to it online this will be the same push away from this week’s presentation to transship them next one so this is an example taken from a paper that’s published a note and an opening journal and it shows you the different resources that are used by the university of london and and if there’s a colleague holding here the red red resources other ones are examined Wilkinson people they had taken actual exam and the ones that orange are provided and by default it was just in a systematic way but they you know people tame your course can choose to do them or not and then the green ones are things are provided as an extra that it don’t have to do it of course the more you cover and the better the chance can get to grease your exam grade and your water bright and and of course it’s it in a way is this MOOC is structured in a similar way and with a core script and with different quizzes and activities that Annie Claudia and Nicko have set up meant to help you with your with your work and then you have the assignments which are the way this

course will be assessed and it just combines different forms of engaging with you more or less the course credit doesn’t really engage with people just you read in it but discussions in the online forum so that the group’s themselves to try and do the assignments might have a higher level of engagement so we don’t have this really the same level of engagement across the board we’re just trying to have different activities different resources that people can use which record which will have different levels of engagement I’m going to try and foster the amount of things they are learning out of this module and which links the question of how do we measure this and one possible indicator of effective capacity building which is the outcome in this case of the engagement process or some engagement persons would be to go beyond learning expectations for instance the y LD Secretariat had the survey last year for the emd MOOC and they found that people perceived at the beginning they had some kind of an average level of knowledge and sustainable and management Atlantic rotation Spanish three centered around as they’re like green bars of the diagram but at the end there felt they had acquired a lot more knowledge on system online management in the gradation since more four out of five the dark green bars in the diagram and you know this might show that is a some capacity building that has been taking place by goings by going beyond prior expectations of course this indicator is not perfect and it should be complemented by other ones i haven’t really found any that i could show you today but this is again something you’ll be confronted with in your own stakeholder management management plan and we’ll have to engagement plan and we’ll have to think about including them allowed to shift to the other other side of the coin till the other the other perspectives that we can have training capacity building to try and increase engagement and other processes and I’ve structured these slides along the five principles for engagement by and from the paper by Mike Reed and his colleagues written in 2004 and that that has the first one being the designs you can design engagement in the way you design a training program and that will have to do with the you know you can choose between format media and timing of activities and to try and include engagement activities in the design of the course so for instance the format could mix different textbooks and have key references different scripts different lectures tutorials quizzes discussions Kirk assignments presentation and again not everyone will have the same level of engagement for each of the eight victories and you can also choose different media’s it can be face to face it could be computer may communicate communications through a computer it could be communication that happens at the same time it’s called synchronous and it could also be communication relay time delay and that’s fully synchronous and you can also have different combinations so you can have a little bit of a thief a sort of computer-mediated communication live synchronous communication with asynchronous communication and some gap doesn’t up to you not not everyone will answer the same way to leave these participants it’s something you can work on with try and balance the different aspects of it now the timing of activities should match ideally a progression of the discussions of the critical reflection and braces you can have an introduction to the concepts are necessary to the discussion since leveling the discussion field which has been highlighted as very crucial to start off an engagement process on the right foot and that could be done by more top-down approach in textbooks and key references scripts lectures tutorials impression analysis and that includes this this MOOC script and it could also be done through establishment of a common language through active participation and that has to discussion group assignments and presentation how you time them you might want to have them at the very beginning of the

process at the middle of the process can only continues basis throughout the process or you know mix and match you can have a little bit at the beginning a little bit less throughout and then another big peak at midpoint and you know another little bit throughout and this is up to you and again different people will react differently to how you set set it up and will lead to different engage in levels of engagement now the the represent concept that requires the identification of a target audience for establishment of the learning objectives and intended outcomes and teaching and learning in particular doesn’t know that they can be a little bit of stakeholder mapping but it’s really defining the your intended target for you for whom we write the material and then this will shape the content that you’re providing and and you can try and design different courses for different target audiences but will then what course it will be very difficult to try and have everyone represented in one good that’s one limitation in that perspective the third principle is engaging and that includes a clear identification of responsibilities and you know the the script right writing could be the responsibility of academics the moderation could be the responsibility of professional moderators and Claudia is doing a very good job in it and and you know the the assignments the building up of the assignments is ultimately your responsibility and making this explicit might might have but also deter some people you know different people have different psychological profiles and some people would thrive in that way of learning and others want and it’s all about choosing and making these choices explicit to them down there also needs to be some clear establishments of establishment of the rules for the discussion and you know it could just be that will agree to disagree because part of the engagement process to create a safe space for everyone to me to have a dialogue into contributed Lee which even though we don’t have we’ll all have to agree on one thing and again depending on how the ruler let’s set up an enforced and you might have different levels of engagement from different people and this is also the way or it also relates the way groups are established and the establishment first comforts of theses around common interests around when if friends already if they’ve done enough better go order of names / geographical location if the group is made as a one-off or if you allow possible changes for dysfunctional groups later again it will have different levels of engagement I know some of you are have already pointed out a few drawbacks of using group works to do the assignment in that few people may be free right and this is something that happens in real life unfortunately and you know you don’t always choose the people you work with and sometimes it’s about trying to find a way to make it work even though it’s not it didn’t start off well and sometimes it’s also about letting the possibility for people that didn’t contribute much at the beginning to contribute later you have you all have different sets of strengths and skills and some people will be very good content providers and ie as provided some people will be very good integrators to try and put it together and plan and some people will be very good edges so it’s about identifying who’s who’s doing what and how how you let everyone express themselves to use their strength to build up something income and how how do you measure the engagement with the course and again this is taken from the University of London course and the paper that was published at it and I’m highlighted that the first three resources are the most frequently used other ones their example but right afterwards if resources in green which are provided foot up to them to you up to the students taking this course to have a look at and also the black diagram in the middle of resources that people go and look for for themselves and that could be an indicator that engaging with the course material they want to know more and you know what they want to have a different perspective and compliment Drake to

build a critical thinking out of it and I thought that was I could be one indicator of the level of engagement again because it’s not a perfect indicator you need another one and so another one could be also the compiler comparison between the actual time spent studying so what at the beginning of the MOOC last year and most people thought they would spend less five hours a week on the on the course and asking not quite the same people at the end but roughly will be worth at finished they more than half of all said that they are spent more than five hours in the course this difference could be linked to several things including the fact that it might be a different crowd answering the question so it might be the fifteen percent they were willing to spend five to ten hours a week at leading that remains in the course of the end who presents five percent people left but I’d like I like to I’d like to believe that this is because people actually enjoyed the course and wanted to provide more inputs in particular to the assignments we’ve had very good assignments last year classes that we see that in this course already which is great and possible indicators of engagement with the courses that number of group assignments are completed and online online teaching or learning is often linked with a high drop of rate so again this is from last year’s book and we were down from 47 assignments completed and the assignment to down to 27 which is a little bit less than a fifty percent drop off rate which is pretty good for that type of interaction mode of interaction and this is a group assignment so it lasts this a lot of people individually dropped off but the assignments themselves will carry on and that was thanks to a few key individuals that took responsibility for them and made it made it happened and but that was there was a really good you know for us it’s really positive to see that people are staying on and completing the assignments and and enjoying them and that was the first principle which is to generate impact this is where really and capacity building and training I can see they’re the stick getting over to you progressively bored of staying with us and this is where you know you can generate impacts through occur generation of products and that could be group assignments you’re working on like and have relied value hopefully and be made into proposals or plans and be brought forward by yourselves and it could also be through the timing and that’s the timing within the course itself in this case which is partly determined by the set time for the webinars and different activities but it’s also partly determined by yourselves when you decide to work in your assignment when you think you have more time and also the timing in the wider context that the guardian campaign is linked to the conference of the party of the United Nations Framework Convention for climate change unfccc in paris in december this year but the issue of sustainable land management can be tied to between 15 to 20 15 being the International Europe soils but also to different national initiatives such as Germans one world one hunger initiative and again working on this type of issue and engaging with people in this type of issue would be very very prominent your timing would be critical and and the last step which is reflected sustained the fifth and to reflect is to learn as you get along and adapt accordingly next vetted for the traders or the moderators but also the participant themselves it’s a learning is an ongoing process it’s not something that you can decide to start an end we pretty much learned throughout our lives and so this is important to sometimes stop and reflect on it and see what you’ve learnt and when you’re still missing with innocence and and in relationship to sustain again this is where the stick is definitely headed over to you because a big share of the response need to continue initiatives and from your world momentum lies with a participant themselves if they’re

willing to continue on their own for their own benefit and getting organized accordingly and and that was something that came out of the yachty whoop 2014 some of the participants request that the platform would be maintained to allow for continued engagement between them and I think it has been but I haven’t seen much activity on it after the course ended and again this is up to the participants to continue then use the tools that were provided to them if they wish to and this is it so if you have any questions I’ll be happy to answer them or be more than happy to discuss things with you thank you thank you mr for sharing your thoughts on training and engagement thank you very much let’s see some hands clapping here very nice and thanks for bringing LD milk 2014 back in a new fresh context I’d be happy to take some questions each either in the chat or in in an audio if you want to pose a question and have a headphone I could take your audio questions if you wish to do so please raise your hand and then I can open your microphone so if you have any questions then I’d be glad to take those before we start with our next speaker I don’t see any raised hand so far but I hear some songs so if we have somebody who would like to talk otherwise okay Emma will be available i think we are with hay fever it’s always exhausting to talk for such a long time so I think we let Emma go and if you have questions please write them in the forum and a might be glad to take but I we can take that questions from Ephraim before I introduce you to seize our holo scissor Emma there was one question regarding the slide number eight about the output being a reliable indicator and go just beyond hello hello beyond expectations and I would you like to take up on that I think we’ve got the question here okay am i answering in the chat so i think we’ll take the opportunity and introduces our morales welcome says are good yeah i’m glad that you could make it so we are ready to listen to your presentation i will switch off my audio in a minute but let me introduce these are at first so welcome scissor Morales says a morales is a consultant with o’clock the economic commission for latin america and caribbean he used to be a regional project director with o’clock before and holds a PhD in the study of Latin

American society so please welcome with me Cesar Morales hello morning afternoon hello two years hello Claudia and Ally well preceding my presentation it’s about the stakeholders engagement they’ve contribution to establish the cause of the relational and innovation and drought it’s wasted in some experience set from Latin America we have made some studies from there for a minute in America the presentation is based on these studies of experience of this system first of all I can say that Latin America has area of 21 millions of square kilometers where leaves a population of around 630 million people which from which around 180 millions Eric poverty from this this total 70 millions are extremely over or are in envision see a quarter of the total area of the region correspond to pirate and semi-arid and rights equivalents that is called violence untok quarter of a percent of addition problems where leaves around 83 million people most of them living in poverty to some examples in Brazil for instance violence cover more than one 300 million square meter square kilometres and where leaves say 33 34 million people around half of the living imported below the airport glam in Argentina more than 2 12 of victory touring are drylands a where leaves around 19 of people in Mexico drylands cover sixty percent of the territory and we’re leaving more than 30 million people in Chile around 62 of the country is affected by some kind of erosion and degradation problems a significant part of the rhetoric Nicaragua Ramallah and in Salvador and Central America is affected by product of land derivation do you mainly the intensive deforestation process um a almost all the governments are involved with in one way or another in combat acidification land elevation and drought and concern about the social economic impacts on the affected population we need to know or to have an idea about the course of the depravation randomization route in order to compare this with action course to decide the most efficient economic and social investment that can be done to combat derivation justification are drought in spite of these very few known about implied cause of losses do the certification and the relational drought and the causes are made in the lack of information the discussion about the genre accepted mythology to measure it eternal table we can say that the calls are significant mainly if we consider the impacts we are the impacts of climate change in Rylands under vulnerability we have made the following studies in Bolivia Paraguay Peru as a country understand and a specific study for the Builder region in the north in Chile between the regions for 27 real that means the north on the central and central south part of chili in Ecuador in Costa Rica Nicaragua and Guatemala in recently made or studies in course I in Chile a more betrayal starving and we’re into the making right now and started to update the selling of cost of acidification and an elevation and we are making local level plans to combat desertification land elevation and drought in 10 counties between the

fourth region that means around for Hannah kilometer from Santiago to the north and the important region that means said region around Santiago that is a capital and in the fourth region that means around 200 kilometers from san tayo to the south the problem piece is we made the studied for national regional or local authorities or we may notice a mistake but we are we made standing with natural real Oregon authorities that is quite important because if we may stop with natural local and regional authorities with all kind of stakeholders they study it’s much more powerful I would like to present a one experience that we have made in Peru in the north of Peru in the puter region the period region is a very important region and very emblematic region because it the most effective region probably in peru by the certification land elevation mainly by salinization absolve of soil it’s a reason we’re between pura and we’re killin em adore it originated the phenomena of the El Nino current according the fourth national report to the unccd one-third of the Peru surface it’s in some state of the certification that means around 3.8 million actors and in total that reads 30 millions of actors that means around twenty three percent of the territory of Peru here is a map that we can say the in the brown areas the erosion problems the stiff acacia is the gray areas and in rare de Solis dessaline sated areas as you can see in the north in the stream north of Peru that that is pure I am showing pura is probably one of the most effective part of peru by salinization in numbers in the case of pewter we have around a total area of face 7700 around years 70s south 100 actor of affected area as you can see that one of the main problems are salinization a problem with drainage area of the certification caused by high concentration of salt and sodium it’s around fifteen percent that is quite high Darcy landscape the why force in Peru the affected areas in the puter real and I would like to share the methodology that we may reply with the wittiest a holder with Paul say holy the approach we’re organizing workshops first to be find out like content a metaphor jelly of as mythology of the savvy with a rerun government with regional specialized agencies with the German Corporation for sustainable environmental program and with a clock a placket economic commission for latin america and caribbean when i said two workshops which calif i modified informants at national regional and local levels and we create an inter institutional coordination body with a participant of all involved agents in organization academia in pure national level two and qualified informants at whole lemons before the information we get

information from the regional government from the Ministry of Agriculture lots of our irrigation from the national meteorological services from the GRC from the you the European Union you are see the joint research center we get high resolution maps from them from the national institute of statistics from seven o’clock and other institution the type of information were time series of production Jill’s area macro data from agricultural census population gender poverty and consumption service the ghana vertical a approach the methods to estimate the losses we use a condom ethical approach basic in production functions jails function concrete’s productivity index replacement cause erosion caused all of them for affected and not affected areas the idea was to compare effective with non affected areas in terms of productivity in terms of gross product the reference world was in file such as in losses music maps high-resolution mass from the GRC the most important part workshops with qualified informants to evaluate methodology information and results I would like to highlight these for validating the methodology the information and the results the motivation workshops which the local stakeholders one of the key activities for perceiving the status objectives was the whole workshop with local technicians and producers and the purpose of this meeting was to collect data from the local stakeholders on production and acidification that is because not always information provided by the ministry or by the local agencies agencies are a good information and we need to review this information and to compare with the with all these cars finalized with a local stakeholders tweleve a data collected or produced by deploying in line with the stakeholders knowledge and perceptions that is quite important observe in situ area from for which local stakeholders perception diversion from the veteran obtained for the project we many times or sometimes at least we finalize correcting the information the original information with the contribution based in the good evolution of a este hole we organize it three workshops in the peerage one of them in the coast the other one in the middle region and the other one in the mountains the puter regions cover from the coast to the mountains he we come with support of the gic program the meetings the workshop meters were very very very interesting so on some photos of the sum of these meetings we obtain it very valuable information for instance one of the most important experience it was in the course in the first so the first the workshops one of the participants showed to us that the satellite information was not correct because the satellite has difficulties to distinguish color the green color was showing in one County call it Delta Y on surface affected by degradation but according the people that lives in this area the area was much more significant and the reason why was because a plant can grow only when the content of salt is quite height so the satellite only see the green color and high the real situation we after that the after the workshop we visit the bay area and we confirm that the affected area was much more significant than original we observed from the

satellite information and we obtained this similar result in the mountains to in connection with deforestation process the frustration process was in fact much more significant than the maps or the information from the maps give a given area to us as you can see in the photo for instance this is a plant that can growth only when a the content of salt it’s very high but behind the plant and you can see in the white part all over our self this soil it’s absolutely the grave instead by respite off the satellite can observe only the color green if you don’t discuss with the say holder the local say or modify the format’s properly you can make a big mistake assign it to dissolve the condition of non degraded the second one workshop what’s in the mountains in the car Mandela from theta and the problem was more or less equivalent because the differentiation process was very intensive and the satellite difficulty doesn’t show this situation back home which kind of regional institutions organizations participate with us no they’re obviously the regional government through the natural results of the environmental division the national no association to fight the certification and drought the real Institute to support of management what results the autonomous alternative burra gira passing well a lot of agencies local is the german corporation the original direction of agriculture water uses or user organizations from the low medium and high pura sector the irrigation communities from each filing and the regional our local authorities of each Valley all of them participate in the three worship that we have morgan asset in a for relevant information preliminary results and final results after that we made a workshop with the national authorities to discuss with them the results and the impact of a derivation justification and drought obviously with the ministry of environment climate change and the certification division the ministry of a recall synopsis of irrigation and the ministries of Finance and Economic because able to make an impact of this process with it acad we discuss with the Pacific University of Peru their own University of La Molina the University of pura the engineering college on the school of agronomist we discuss with them mainly the results and the impacts to I will have to show some results in the case of a puter when we apply the production and dual function to specify specify from the main agricultural activities for in each productive productive Valley the losses reads 13.7 percent of the agricultural gross domestic product annually and we applied the replacement cost maple losses world where 13.3 percent that’s quite similar and we apply the torque we index index the losses were around thirteen percent so independently mayim it follows you apply to measure the losses more all of them are around thirty percent hmm when we applied one more methodology the ocean cause and the Arusha associated

cause we estimate a little bit much higher losses around fifteen percent base it involve in this the cause of acidification land elevation drought good range according our estimation from 13 to 15 % % of the agriculture a gross about a product but that is annually that it’s a very high cost for this reason a must be noticing that is a cult only inside because offside are all the calls that must be measured in a second stage that’s quite important consider for this region of flora because for the irrigation in an appropriate soils for instance there are a lot of foreign of with the channel of irrigation with salinization etc etc etc in the case in the case of chili we are trying to replicate exactly the same method I really meant for Balaji they we are each to first we have discusses with local authorities at the county level that means he in communal level for each province inside each region and then for the region authorities that in the case of children their radar governments and then with the national government according / results sorry the impacts of or the cause of the land elevation acidification are around more or less the same to around fourteen to fifteen percent it’s quite similar of the case of a puter reader in the case of equal or we have made exactly the same and we have motivated all the intermediate results information on final results with one delegated one presentation for each province Ebola has 27 province located in the coast one of them and the other in the mountains and the others in the region column-oriented and in Costa Rica we have made exactly the same have they made a discussion in any up the county level with national authorities and with regional authorities to and we applied it more or less a mythology mythology replacement cost we have used it econometrica approach index etc etc and all of them more or less which more or less em results a second closure we can say that without the participation of stakeholder in each stage of the of the research we lost a lot of possibility to a curiosity and we lost a warrior or in other words we can make a lot of mistakes it is a quite important because as we as we as I explained before the possibility to correct some mistake for instant or some data or basic information about the affected area can be high because a satellite for instant when we have maps hide the real affected area so independently mythology apply it the stakeholder are proud with a key factor to minimize the mistakes or tall order to get more a better result more a curiosity and better results well that is all I can say we’re trying to do right now a broken plastic on but they sit in these studies and take it into account the cost of flat evaluation on justification in the case of chilly but county-level plans to combat the desertification

thank you hello hello thank you cesare thank you for this great presentation on land degradation in Latin America I’m I was really super found it very interesting to learn that stakeholders can not only be integrated in the process of improving the the land management but already in the process of gathering data and that local stakeholders can even help improve data that had been gathered by sophisticated technology as satellites so thank you very much I’m happy to take questions anyone may write a question in the chat or if you want to ask a question and talk in this session please raise your hand and I’ll open the microphone so it was a very clear presentation and I were I was wondering how much do okay here is Ali’s questions which wich country in Latin America can be described as having the most difficult situation so far Cesare well probably I think it in Central American countries such as Guatemala Nicaragua Salvador and Honduras we want to to make any study some more detail in order to have much more robust results but over fast vision it’s that discard is probably be one of the most affected countries there are one more country that have no mention it that is Haiti Haiti it’s by far the most effective currently probably one you’re the most effective countries in the world by liberation from nothing well the other the affected area it’s quite impressive in the case of chili in the case of Argentina and the case of mixing but the intensity VD of the problem could be the world in the case of Haiti and the other countries that have mentioned is for Central America okay there’s another question which is your main Council for stakeholder coordination well I think it is absolutely absolutely crucial to organize from a starting the participation of at a hole in each stage I liked very much presentation of that have made lemon oil so congratulations in the world first cause permit allow us to have basis in fact an idea of the how to organize their much more scientific way the participation of the stakeholders well in short a few words the participation as they hold it must be taken into account from the estrogen to the end of the study when we plan at the study when we define the mental torture when we select the areas when we have there when we when we get to the information when we have the first perimeter results at the end and each state because independently their sophistication of the methodology the sophistication of the tools we need always to compare with the perception provided by people that leaves the

problem is reservations there’s one question following up on that and that is do you prepare different roads so sorry do you prepare different roads different roles roles roles yeah well right now we’re trying to in the case of this time for help making right now at this moment at local level in each county in the fourth region but for the legal access region of the children the children case we are preparing their specific approach for each kind of stakeholder for each county is a very detailed work but it’s very crucial according us ok there is another question you had mentioned about conducting three workshops in different locations whether whether participants that were always invited to these workshops aside from national ministry sir well in the case of least free workshops but in fact for us who have made much more than three workshops I mentioned three in different areas of pewter region because were were the final workshops to discuss with the stakeholders and qualified informants the final results in order to correct or to adjust in a result I mention it that one of them was made in the coast side of a beauter read another one in the middle area and the other one in the mountains but previously we have made originally workshop with the national and regional and local authority to planning to plant the study with the participation of a drama corporation to adhere who have made a final worship in the cabin and element with the Ministry of Agriculture and the Minister of Environment are the main of the sensitive authorities national level to analyze the impact the impact economic and social impacts of this ification and revelations I’m seeing one pressure differentials they’re prepared that were always invited to all of it reverses aside as one we we get the participants with the support of the local program in the region and I look at any agents for that was quite important the support of the original government of Jordan River and the DIC cooperation because they are working in the field always they support the bad we have talked with the representative of the National local and reorganization of producers the small farmers we invited them for each workshops to participate and the participation was very very interesting very active they was written for a thing to put the point of view the perceptions about the impacts the affected areas everything was very active participation okay we’d have time for one last question but otherwise it’s had been a lot very long and at the same time very fascinating session so Thank You Cesare thank you Eamon well thank you to all those who joined us today now comes the fun part we’ll open our webcam so get ready click on your webcam let me open them mmm now is time to say goodbye you need to click on your webcam here we are on your webcam to be visible I see Ali Ephraim ladies where

you to be as hi how are you Evan well bye bye bye bye Liberty Bank was great having you today thank you thank you very much Claudia yeah well come see you again bye bye so there’s some online I see Anatole I see Christine hello I saw you online Kirsten liberty has already left Martin my friend planet on hey thanks to everybody for me oh hello Christine this is mmm good to finally see you okay bye-bye says our bye bye bye thanks very much okay yeah bye-bye okay Liberty is still there okay glad to have you it’s always nice to see friends from the first MOOC in the this session okay thank you by FM okay Christine stood at Teresa still there by panet on study hard I know that you’re doing well in your exams and our exam on Friday I keep my fingers crossed that you do well in the final exams but i’m sure you’ll do a fine job ali wheres your webcam and your microphone there is hey it’s right over here so if you can’t hear be well and everyone thanks a lot for being here and appreciation goes to sizzle and Emma for their informative presentation so far and we can stop the recording I would