I Remember Harlem- Full Documentary/Movie

about how I remember home but however people remembered home and tushy with Harlem negative so I decided to go back far as possible to find out what really made home this community is an American legend Harlem stretches north above New York’s Central Park for more than 50 blocks along avenues called Fish Lennox st. Nicholas convent Adam Clayton Powell Boulevard Jews have lived here in German the Irish the Italians and the Scandinavian today Harlem is the most widely known black neighborhood in the world it is an old city within the city a place where fables still mixes easily with hard facts where trouble blends into hope and joy into style Harlem can be compared to a huge Orchestra its players gifted with a brand ability to improvise under pressure if New York City is the Big Apple this part of town Harlem provides much of its flavor this is Harlem remembered before pilgrims came to the new world the people of the Lenape nation settled uptown as Holland is often called under the leadership of their break chief retroactively the Lenape built homes along and upper Shore of Manhattan and established a thriving fishing village and what is now 119th Street and the East River Dutch settlers asked them to leave the area say the island of Manhattan had been sold not by us directo a consisted he told the Dutch they’d have to pay for any land the Lenape had developed so the Dutch paid menace a nation moved to the Bronx uptown was now called new Harlem after a city in Holland my family thank you alone and dr. Walden I live in life but my great great great great great grandfather was resolved at war but one of the original patentees that developed the village of new polymer 125th Street and the East River by the buffer zone in case an Indian attack though it wouldn’t have to Amsterdam first money was just over the last grams without the guts giving any resistance and called yesterday in New York they tried to change the name of new Harlem to Lancaster Gus being very stubborn and very Dutch decided they couldn’t do that to them and they would never in any other be for any very quest or anything like that use the main Lancaster the new Harlem prosperous that’s Rawlins late to be home and the slaves called out a long road toward lower Manhattan the road was eventually called Broadway Harlem remained a peaceful country town for more than a hundred years after its founding in 1637 but uptown quiet rolling hills were disturbed when America’s war of independence caused General George Washington to write in a dispatch to Congress we are encamped on the heights of Harlem where I hope our troops behave with tolerable bravery and kill themselves to be worthy of the blessings of freedom though experience has shown me that this is generally too much to ask of them but the British were driven

out anyway on small farms now gave way to a community of large estates the Jamel mansion was one Hamilton greens was another both are still standing in Harlem today by the beginning of the 1800s a new class of downtown merchants and businessmen had moved uptown to live many of them traveled between their homes and offices by both on the Harlem and East rivers uptown was now a wealthy suburb of New York City but during the 1880s changes came again to Harlem as the estates were gradually surrounded by a new urban environment that aims steadily uptown just before the turn of the century upper fifth avenue looked like this and up a Park Avenue like this I’m in the home in 1882 father loved the water and took the L to get his rocks until 31 River DC I was born he had this harm address 231 we West a hundred and thirty seconds I was born October first King 82 when we left home I was on his five and a half years old and the tricks that I wish to see my older brothers and examples in the neighborhood do one was to carry a light cord from sample to house and priests were rather high tax at the time and replacing walk I was not to hammer it off which the student wrote much but I saw that to explode several times a hundred thirty second Street whether the last royal houses and a family’s heart of Harlem because I started to build aware on a hundred and thirty third Street and pallidus I was I was getting pretty little clouded for his time real sass boys as I recall with a five and a half years without raising home I didn’t see a colored boy not many colored boys lived in Harlem at this time until the turn of the century black New York was located further south on Manhattan’s West Side in districts like San Juan Hill where New York City’s Lincoln Center complex now and the Hell’s Kitchen district site of today’s Port Authority Terminal this part of San Juan Hill is at 59th Street looking east toward Columbus Circle around 1900s I remember we’re living in Hell’s Kitchen whether I could repairs as as a youngster but I was easily 14 years old before I learned that the Harlem that Hell’s Kitchen was a section which stretched from about 37th Street up to 51st of 52nd Street and from a failure west over to 11th and 12th album the street we lived in was 41st Street and between nine and ten thousand this section of Hell’s Kitchen got its name because every Saturday night assume like all hell would break loose between the families of different ethnic origins for one reason or another those seemed like they could get along today or the other day until Saturday night then for one reason the police would have to then the paddy wagon up and down the street all hours of the

day and night you wanted to walk down 8,000 or 9,000 you passed 40 39 38 feet you had to watch out for a fight on your hands same way when you get to 37th Street the white man had a fight on his name the biggest race riot started later on 8040 50 which is this a block away from where our part of Hell’s Kitchen was and that all started because detectives suspect that the women was standing on the corner soliciting but instead she was standing there waiting for her husband to get off the trolley car he comes coming home from work and he got off the car just in time to Cedars Felicia’s she does detective gravis and that started the fight the fight ended up in Iraq and a drive lasted for three days the biggest you know milk in the back of weeks floor in the house run low of iron fire state in the summer we kill them Alton slept out there but all comfortable the men made hot room for the flat the railroad apartment will yes lighting in live of the house where we live outdoor terrace with gas lights in the holes coal running water of kitchen stove and a large bedroom still kept with comfortable in the widow housing situation was bad so far but being able to expand the only two houses for colored people in our street in the East in us between 8th and 9th Aryan there was a number of houses for coloured but there was no there were no other colored houses in in for a street of none and 39th Street is one or two and 37th Street was the oil College and the troubles that we used to have with the race riots was at Gould Street 37 and 40 50 and then they would jump through to San Juan Hill section in 62nd Street we didn’t have to go far to find trouble anywhere you whatever you wanted to do Harlem there was fine housing and faith to build more life was comfortable here for the community wealthy families who lived in Harlem many mansions along as many spacious boulevard 125th Street now entered a blossoming Harlem business world as a commercial mainstem the famed impresario Oscar Hammerstein lived uptown and urged his aalam neighbors to spend their money there Hammerstein put his own money where his mouth was and built the Harlem op Route 122 see next to a burlesque theater called very convenient which later became famous under a new name the Apollo a monthly magazine published by the Harlem Chamber of Commerce world of this era in the near future the center of fashion culture and intelligence will be found in the ancient and honorable village of Harlem the natural beauty of the region cannot help but attract

people of tape and well with the time Morningside Park and naughty side parks had a beautiful Hill the ramp about 117 for 119 Street down to 110 Street and we still come scooting down there on our slaves this is marvelous none of us really was poor because we’re the same sometimes parents had money sometimes it took sometimes we have meat sometimes we didn’t I was the first one of my families born in this country my two older sisters and my older brother were born in England my father had a little tailor establishment he used to make clothes for ladies our are Street between 7th Avenue and 8th Avenue on 115 Street was made up of mostly Irish kids few Jewish boys like myself some Germans know Italian at the time we lived there and I seem to remember when I was about 7 years old that in the apartment house just west of the library on 115th Street on the left side of the street second house in the corner there was a colored family living there I don’t think we call any other black people in the neighborhood in ps10 when I was in elementary school we had well maybe two or three colored chili and when I went to high school there are only two or three people quickly prepare you for walk up seventh Avenue to 125th Street to the hotel and we worked on 125th Street interfaith a venir to the burlesque theater I walked analytics avium and we worked on past and 1163 we used to go to the Regent Theatre 163 to 7th Avenue what’s the weather like on Saturday afternoon and the Regan theatre either goes up are we gon get or just movies and the low is hundred sixteen feet oh my goodness there’s so many things to do way back in 1911 there was a Finnish social club on 125th Street and Madison Avenue which held about 500 people to sing and dance and act in plays and as the membership grew they finally in 1917 were able to purchase a very beautiful building on the corner of one hundred and twenty seventh Street and Fifth Avenue and we have plays and athletic events my father was a sailor actually when he left the old country at the age of sixteen and every time he was in sure he would like everybody else go to the sin hall and my mother was a very pretty young gal tiny and she would also go to sin hall our maids night out which was every Thursday night then I think this seriously apart small pocket is Mount Morris Park write-offs Avenue rather than 120th Street according to the way mom used to call it and dad they used to call it football skis and boots uparti means kissing part and I guess on Sunday afternoons after they saw a play there or something they’d all stroll there and hold hands and do all the things that come naturally to young people annasaheb u-haul had a billiard rooms in a restaurant and a beautiful beautiful dance floor that’s dumb really Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers could have used it was just gorgeous and this is where many of romance started including my mother and father and that’s where I picked you up good night thanks it was around 1909 I a cigarette that’s the so so much advertising going on and invitations extended begged a real estate people in Harlem that we got

interested in moving up to Harlem there was the house of opening up with such advantages to people that we did not have downtown letters do there were no more real world apartments there were some houses even had elevators feels good goes right up and down on you had that service to of donated service where you could have those groceries pull up to three or five flights but be very indoor toilets the hot and cold water the steam heat with all and invitation to come and move to Harlem naturally to be with a larger group of our own people with the natural invitation and that Harlem was growing by leaps and bounds Nayland Parkers Hutchinson they’re leasing these houses and opening them for colored people such that it was hard to turn down the opportunity to go so we went and moved up to 133 and 134 and 135 for the first two seats opened up for colored people the new uptown is were looking to make the best of a New York opportunity strivers in the big cities promised land they were wide and they worked with some were well-educated others were not but most of them had a dream a music real-estate operators is some blockbusting hearing wiped out and charging blacks the proverbial arm and a leg to get in but Harlem was well on its way to becoming the black capital of America the black were answering thousands more would soon follow good job black with little more than Weatherly Williams Joe here’s the postman became the city’s first black fireman legend have this mental physical exam this hollow might before the job but have broken the back of a weaker man life blood smell amazing uptown and enough trouble to go around down several died we did have racial strife this is nothing new we had to fight I’ve seen men when I was a little boy go into the ball I don’t know hundred twenty nineteen 310 123 for that matter now they would serve you drink what they was insulted why they would break the glass absolutely I’ve known a lot of people some men are still living with noses they are Kurt it says incident that becomes good memory is when old Harlem said let’s go and finish up the wall and there’s a leaders of the 369th infantry and there’s a band that’s going around Harlem advocating men to come and join up for a good cause in the war well of course all the men of Harlem knew that all the girls like a soldier anyway so it was a natural thing to become a member of the 369th three brothers of us joined all at one time but my services were excused because I was looking for the people quartermaster on this side of the water all the boys get grill and practice and finally the ligament grew to a sufficient numbers the wall and blown away but the bathe that they came back is when Harlan was rejuvenated the proud men of the 369th were kept out of American uniforms during the first days of the First World War the US Army was then the whites only column soldiers went overseas though and fought under the flag of France the French were glad to have them they helped make the world safe for democracy came home a highly decorated American regiment like waving people yelling I guess I was

yellow the rest of them but I was trying to find my brother I was standing right in front of the Millionaire’s Club and those men from that club that standing in the little members throwing out handfuls of money hands full of money to out on the cloud because they just houses it far back enough from the street that the money never reached the where that the soldiers was but they was nevertheless throwing out their money and don’t soldiers pass by and never better than I never better than I and I stood looking closely for my own brother and honestly III didn’t even recognize him when he did as he told me later he passed by me as close that he could have reached out and touched me that those boys had no attempts to anybody except what they would do that is marching home and the Ceylon boys Komatsu when something mothers guess overthrow some crime some just yelling took Ravens legs it was a sight that Holland will not see again in a long time after the war two major streams of consciousness developed in one in the arts the other in a distinctly political context the arts movement was just beginning in the summer of 1921 when a youngin from Oklahoma when they become our most famous poet upon the subway to this corner at honored ether his feet in Lenox Avenue to take his first look at his creative domain Langston Hughes simply fell in love with Harlem as he began meeting of a book this is young county color and performing artist barnes mills operated the singer and actress ever wanted composers eubie Blake an oval sizzle a rising young star named Josephine Baker and the youthful Empress of the blues who got into town every now and again Betty sniffles they were Nautilus this is Gordon okay when painters and sculptors like Augustus Savage there was Dora Neale Hurston and Jean Toomer and of course has been destined by birch of his own voice call up his umbrella to tense up the street here but as I what I am resigned would be in the basement and the people would come from everywhere cause the great man he was and a thing the poorest who have always time to sing for his people and to do everything in another sense attackable Amathus gobby it was the Harlem of the Schomburg collection you could go in there and you see you saw girls those giant men who would do the mind speaking children I’m talking about the giant the literary giant wev Dubois and James Weldon Johnson Dubois the highly regarded political philosopher was also a published novelist this period came to be called the Harlem Renaissance it’s the most durable art jazz was all but overlooked by the new uptown sophisticates who felt that only serious creative work should receive their attention so while the seeds of an especially dramatic decade of American art history were being sown few masterpieces outside of music would emerge from this Renaissance blacks and whites met in a new climate of social and aesthetic mutual interest and both groups probably came away from the encounters with a very different sense of what Harlem and America were really all about through these years of the

1920s all observed as a spiritual outpost for some people and a mystical state of mind for others colum was especially alive during the golden 20 but uptown life wasn’t an artform for all people black Americans were confronted by racial violence almost every day an urgent political sense came north with reports of southern lynchings but Harlem heard the strong new voice of a charismatic black nationalist from the West Indies who began speaking of an African homeland for all black people and Harlem became the headquarters for this man provocative influence Marcus Aurelius Garvey was born in the island of Jamaica and then Andros in 1917 the travel around the West Indies Island South and Central America every country he went in he found the same condition exist among black people until he decided to do something about it and founded the organization known as the universal Negro Improvement Association my name is James H Thornhill known in Harlem as captain Thornhill I come to the United States from England June the 2nd 1990 live here ever since I was a seaman the first night I come here a fellow brought me from the ship up there and 136 Street and I saw this man out there short stocky black man advocating Africa for the Africans at home and abroad I tell you something that I shook his hand and it was like electricity gone to my body I joined the organization and then I become a member taking literature from this country to to South Central America Africa another country some countries you get locked up for carrying these documents after he had true malaise enough dude from the thousands of members he decided that he was gonna launch an economic program and I wished I had the book here to show you the ship he bought four ships the yamas they Booker Washington the phillis wheatley and the shady side God was interested not only in people to go back to Africa but to be some person here as well Africa don’t need nobody over there Missy I got something to offer the universal Negro Improvement Association bridge for Negro developing himself economically spiritually physically and to not to depend upon no one else for his survival in other words garden movement was for black people who had big initiatives to get up and goose there were more corporations started in with his suggestion than any person that I can recollect and they made money and mr Garvey was been in a hundred and thirty-eight Street between Lenox and seven he had that whole block he built up a a low building from sometimes to Lenox went there and he organized a military auxilary called the African Legion the African Royal Guard the more the course the African Royal Engineers and juvenile court I joined the military artillery become a surgeon then a move Madhavi appoint me captain

and me and the African lead he held a convention the first convention in 1920 that was the old Madison Square Garden it was about about 80,000 people in the place fellow citizens of opera doubt i fleeced you is enabled me to the bursary group Reuben Association and African communities leaves of the word you’ll be asked what organization is that here’s fully quit for view that the universities were proven association he’s an orphan investor that 50 to life into one for his body the form of admission different of the world to link up the 15 ventricle of the United States of America Phillips went to prison because of the West Indies the possibilities growth of tokens of America to the to moderate indigent equal Africa orbit purpose of settling our industrial Caruso radio control so so as political converters told it as it were and they accuse him of use the Mail’s to the phone to gave him two years in prison the high executive that was elected to the convention was standing right there I made statement he said last week aids the tiger and mr. Garvey replied with a handcuff on the back you say you may have caged the tiger but my Cubs are running loose he was deported from here because he was not fit and let’s broke up him but his movement met on livable place it was beautiful place was safe you could go anywhere and make the many friends and good pleasure and simple things and Sunday afternoons it was quite the thing at 4 o’clock to go walking on some sadness and family was a rigid promenade and we put on our long dresses and I like wide-leg one hats and we walk up and down it’s cute and we see each other and talk and then we were stopping to one of the years of ice cream parlors at that time they were many of them but every five is six proxy when you stop and have a ice cream soda or a Sunday and then in the EMU very often we needed each other’s homes at that time it was the same for youngsters to take the piano the violin or something and I remember my family were five of us and three of us took piano and to us to balance and in the evenings and plenty we play all those old-time songs and singing you know we’d have fun and later on the kids got the ukuleles and they would struggle and you how you sing the Beatles now remember the resin places how live right up the street here and his son Enoch Powell the children the other doublespeak and the lettuce people son of a boy to be seen lighter than all lives in the street and sometimes we have these parties associate degree polarization s I got a cardinal at Christmas you know from house to house you start by 10 o’clock and one house you’d have for cocktails and it could have eggnog and the next one you’d have whatever and end up that stuff is somebody’s house with breakfast I know they ended up in my house because they’re old the whole gang of us early this had a good time it was really a beautiful time we’ve been lock our doors we learn from each other out like the side of the cross street they big families – we run until they have just over the door boy is Helen ear you know and they would coming to our house here it was like a big family everybody up and down the street so that this is how I remember Harlem in my youth if I thought it was beautiful every week the last let players you come out with a different show and Abby Mitchell cook was the leading lady a Clarence viewers was the leading man and there’s a pride of coach group which put on excellent plays every week of a different name or different nature and some of them were very entertaining you could just market

calendars I’ve got to be there Saturday night to see a dinner chuckles the Lincoln was in different category and then it did not attract well you’re amongst every group there’s always a section of group of people when they went out to a theater they dress up in and put on the best clothes gold and amongst all the people dressed up but it was customary to be ready for a fight if you went to Lincoln that’s all I can put it just smoothly like that be ready for a fight that’s by the Lafayette here you two walking in Claire I knew so many show people when I was growing up because my mother had a rooming house down the corner from the Lafayette theater and such greats used to be there and down there in the rehearsal hall and my mother’s kitchen and as the waters was one of them Salem cut Whitney Willy brine and oh yes Bev I forgot really bride they’re just really places we resent people like that so naturally I wanted to be in show business so my mother said no you can’t do it but I show came up by the name of eating plastic and one of the performers that was rehearsing in my mother’s kitchen said he was going to take me around there to try to get a part in the swing and mama said no he wouldn’t let you go know what you did no I sneaked around it I’ll do that and father I got thought and at that time they were casting for cherubs and those three books the main character in there and just a whole lot of people were there so I went around and I was selected to do the female part in green fact I was the only woman principal in the show and then I stayed with the chauffeur 7 years I was one of the original cast that made the pictures in California we saw this in store before and this is it all that was meaning telling us oh this is oh that was when I was working in the nightclub and because I picture there that’s when I was in the nightclub days and this is one of the original chorus lines of the Alhambra students but I forgotten some of the other girls you know their names Aziz but this is the way they used to have the chorus at the Alhambra now we had 30 minutes of coursework and then 30 minutes of drama you see and that’s the way the shows were run well you go ahead and face up resist well I’m Vivian Howard and I was born in Harlem and I work all with so many shows let me see now when I used to work at the Cotton Club everything was just beautiful nasty they had all white passengers I had colored waiters and colored entertainers and I opened up there with Duke Ellington and we had nothing but light here we didn’t put any real doctor of the best I had to Emma Smith and and the girl named Duke and they would be on the end buffet would be found and that’s why they supposed they have a chorus with about 16 dancing girls in the bathroom and sugar some would just wear beautiful costumes with the big feathers nearly all the people that ran the Cotton Club or gangsters no semblance of you know and then as they were eliminated gangsterism I have a contract on that was the way that they were denies so therefore there was no more cotton slub in the clothes I was the first one and then they had some more downtown but I was an Indian downtown I was in the Apollo Theater working at that time I had enough of that one I say that’s about five years of work there we had some beautiful times

some white tourists never saw Harlem beyond the comforting atmosphere in it’s entertainment palaces for blacks who lived up sounds even those who didn’t Harlem lights wasn’t just tap shoes and the Ricochet of nightclub laughter yet on some nights it must have seemed that the religious ion forever probably never was coming days of rain in Greece but even as taste changed and politics evolved there would always be a Harlem sound that keeps the time Johnson your work of ladies if there’s a broken heart for every light on Broadway Harlem’s got to have at least one storyteller for every street lamp uptown the story teller speaks everywhere in Harlem the story is long columns in many places many people – some were here and are gone some will never leave by the early 1930s central hollom was almost entirely black as folks from the south and all over the rest of America flocked toward the table above a hundred and ten see the legend of Harlem just kept on growing its street from big-city usek and its avenues became Boulevard where styling and profiling with treasured ways of life when I was a kid far as I was doing it with him off the Harlem did everything that most people called an alley and the other Harlem which is up on top of the hill st. Nicholas Terrace H Krome Avenue and Sugar Hill and for some reason the people up on the hill even be more prominent I guess they had more money but most of the people are for the heroes feeling like they had a different air about this the really looked and walked and dresses stuff like that they would always look great I mean they would come down off the hill I mean it will creamy really them coming down to go to the theater and dancing it was a

different type of column I mean hustle and bustle and those are the kids in Tunisia that in will shoeshine box needs to go up under the plra fairness you know you made yourself a couple of dollars in but there was always some kind of way you can make sure go you know one time these they have all these photographers on the street corner they would take you picture on this white pony I had a white pony did the guys at the tree station day you know that block in Holland became the world and the community I’m known as billboard I’ve been in Harlem for about 52 years and during that time I’ve really seen Harlem chains I’ve lived in the house 31 East two doors away for about 37 years but I was a kid if you left 5th Avenue going east you could count the blacks on your fingers that was in that era of 126 feet and mob Meyers the blacks been going down when I was a kid for fear that it would get beat up by the Irish or what have you all of these streets up in Central Harlem in East Harlem 124th Street all the way up to Alexa literally brought in streets all in the side streets when I was a kid going to school in the 30s you would see signs dangling from the soup saying apartments to let and they would end big letters say fight only and no one made a protest they just walked away and look for another building that would say ten attornies colored or either tennis wanted and and no description of who they would want and that was a way of life they had the theatres segregated the lowest Victoria Theatre was strictly for white and the Lord seventh Avenue was for many black people and for black I would walk to our Lord’s Victorian they would tell them that they were all sold out that the same picture was playing Oh Lord some families and the people would gently walk away but if they were to stand at the curb they would see a white couple come up get a ticket and go right in and they had the child respond I believe on a thousand one and finish the street where they didn’t tell you that they didn’t serve blacks or colored but if you went in to eat you would just sit there and just wait and wait and wait until you got disgusted then you would walk out 125th Street when I was a kid the black people were allowed to purchase items in the stores but they were not allowed to work as perks in the stores and the blood women were not allowed to found hats they would have to know what size hat they would were and it was put on that hat and he would have to buy and over on the west side of Harlem over by the st. Nicholas project that was predominantly white and the games would chase the blacks out from up in that area they had a game that was called a lot sale and Hancock Street gang and we got chased one day and we didn’t have time to stop we had to jump over the big big cape and a big fence in that Park in order to get away but once we could get over the other side of 8th Avenue we’d be safe there going that was black territory East Harlem was an Italian community for a number of years some parts of it still renamed keeping their own time their own mood spanish-speaking folks started moving into this part of Italian Harlem during the 1920s a lot of the Uptown story belongs here and it’s still being sold and Peter Pascal I remember Harlem as I grew up on a hundred and twenty First Street where I

was born in 1914 mean hombres SRL Mendez Ricardo hull when Davina reveal paper so Rico and BIOS in your meal the cientos venti cynical we moved to 26 Lenox Avenue and then we would be such a spanish-speaking people moving to that house for Rican and the lady come and ask me what do you come from I say welcome Puerto Rico oh my you people moving in hello very so if they yes more calming and very wait lot of people belief begins to move from the building for Ricans people we used to move in the house we buy in the thirteen hundred and fourteen and seventh Avenue that used to be a synagogue and was closed for many many years so we get it on credit so the first Spanish real church was that one for me like Rosa was when I come from Puerto Rico I come to the soonest explain of seven E and there was that I where I met my handsome horse stance I will marry there in that house 26 Lennox and those days we wouldn’t have the accommodations that we have today we’re living in Coldwater flat and we would go out and get the wood get the ice for the icebox and we conducted a lot of problem slowly with you immigrants coming rings and that’s me but my father was scary at the turn of the century and I had always spoke nothing but a time and as time went on we moved from one Street to another finally moved on 116th Street was two adjacent to the settlement house it’s gotten a two-room apartment and 1888 and the whole movement was to help that particular time the Italian immigrants because they never won they couldn’t speak the language and number two they had to become American city we have to really be on our way when we were in the street and we have an awful lot of problem at that particular time and I don’t know if a lot of Irish who lived in the early and it seemed that the times were moving into the area to a displace he has his people as I’ve done and then we had an awful lot of batwake and there were street fights in those days in order to survive however the years went on we started to adjust our first what was left of the Irishman who practically chased them all out of the area that particular time I was born at 24 37 8th Avenue was baptized in st. Aloysius parish and my wife Peggy Peggy rig was born in a hundred and forty second Street and 8th Avenue and baptized in st. Charles Parish as a younger child I spent practically every summer day in this park st. Nicholas Park in 1926 I started grammar school at st. Joseph’s School on 127th Street and Morningside Avenue this was a very bad period economically and money was short but 125th Street was a great opportunity the window shop of course I was never in the market for a diamond ring or a wristwatch you go past Howard clothing store $22.50 to buy a suit my first job was delivering a Bronco moon we could believe that my first route commenced at 120 60 and Morningside Avenue and went east to say Nicholas Terrace and then up the necklace terrace to 128 this has a significant attachment this was a black neighborhood and I was a white news boy delivering the Bronx all news since I was born our laboratory was out in the hall shared by our next-door neighbor so we moved uptown to 130 50 and Amsterdam Avenue known as vinegar hill and got a private bath and steamed

he rather than cold when I was a teenager we had the Blessed Nihal which was an Irish dance hall which really rocked inviting and Saturday and Sunday night the Preston Hall conducted dances for really the people who were born and brought up in Ireland we didn’t have gangs in those days and we as we know the word gangs today but I belong to the pepsi-cola boys and we could click a boys that hung out on the corner of 135th Street in common Avenue just three blocks from this present site and it was a camera store in a corner and a candy store right next to us in the candy store was the focal point of our attention where we started out each evening making a purchase occasionally a cigarette at a penny apiece and then we eventually wound up on the corner we did not have too many hobbies but I got a box camera as a gift and I always like to take 50 some of the other clicks were called the planning and boys in 135th Street in Amsterdam we had the old Broadway group and any Street had a clique there was a social thing fellowship we hung out together we played together we competed together it was really competition we played the other groups basketball baseball football I talk in roller hockey stick for box ball on my left is the High School of Music and Art which has given us many many great musicians and talented students in the music and art field on my right is one of the first buildings that City College constructed and in between is Jasper oval and I am sitting in Westfield I am sitting in right field one time our older son and I were on the AIT Broadway subway and the train slowed down when it left 125th Street Station and we were standing up against the door and I said would you believe it Bruce I lived in that house I down there when I was 12 and he looked at me and he said you live there mother and I said yeah I was there in fact I don’t even live in the apartments upstairs I live down in the cellar and he couldn’t get all the basic you know and he’s always known as the Bourbon life my mother would ever have lived underneath an elevated and in the basement besides the reason we moved into New York and we’re living in Holland was because the discretionary ZL in fact we lived in that house when Roosevelt became president and I remember the stores the Moylan am your grocery putting up NRA signs when the National Recovery Act you know we all did our part and the Eagle came out they had a Hooverville down by Riverside Drive along the shacks where people used to actually live that were in the Jensen without jobs but it was a good time you could walk down a hunting twice history and black or white or anybody they’d laugh and talk to each other and you know just say hi and nobody nobody lived in fear of anyone else and yet we were we were all pretty you know put human skin of every color was bruised by the Great Depression a lot of pockets contain nothing but empty hands uptown the Blues just Sam like a second national anthem it wasn’t that hope was ever completely lost in Harlem but sometimes it could get squeezed all briefing chops with 19 cents a pound you get four Swim Shop of course you buy the quarter you could buy potatoes rice you use a Headroom bread and you could buy Pfizer source of greens and people are not going to tell how they did it and they what sizes were the bacon is to give their green seasonings and therefore four people could sit down and have a decent dinner so this is how we made it go into depression so we’ve been making it a nobody in the United States working beat us maybe to go either making this P whatever been said since they’re less

making now don’t let me tell you that Harlem was a paradise there was a Harlem of hunger acid I know you would say with the father divine this is the kind of Harlem that made for the divine so strong so so meaningful to the community and people look at him up totally negative because they didn’t agree with his religious potential every time I see here before desiring in the parade and over following divine power and these ladies all dressed up and life when I was about seven years old my mother took me down to the father divine restaurant on 2060 and equal as told me to go down and get food for the family and she gave me 50 cents as I ran of the is man greeted me with the word peace brother he’s truly wonderful and I went into this tune like a whole and all these tables were lined up with people and everybody was even on his white tablecloth with silver dishes and things and over the corner there was a town in which you can take out dinner and at the counter for 50 Cent’s I had enough money fifty cents for four plates of food actually I couldn’t get over has greater Manifesta of scientific truth as it was both on your psyche man at once named George paper in Harlem he became a living God and said feed the hungry give clothing to the naked provide shelter in its own way the work O Father Devine was a modern miracle he fed Americans who were starving in the nations collapsed economy there was divine coal for their freezing winters and divine work in hundreds of self-help business as he started for his faith and Horace faithful but I want to say far tonight anything he was creature and Jobin worshiped by a flock that refused to hear of a churchman who saw nothing godly and father divine father defined the Negro God of Harlem is the center of attention in this country and abroad now as his various heavens increase in number the cult leader is charged with felonious attack in connection with a stabbing of Ray his arrest precede his return to face charges in New York is there anything you would care to stay at the Sun I don’t care to making a statement just now I’ve made my returning even to the prison his people follow him in such a scene as hard-boiled police have spelled him witness read on bail he has leaders have unbounded enthusiasm the faithful filled him with the coat and put him through the throng then it’s off to Harlem then he’s never actually been born who had combusted himself into life one morning at the corner of one hundred and thirtieth Street and Lenox Avenue well but to these witnesses he was the true Savior he was jailed briefly on charges that his church created a public nuisance in court his followers insisted he was God the judge who sentenced him mysteriously dropped dead weeks later though apparently in excellent health I needed to do it I’d father divine from his jail cell this man who made himself divine in Harlem passed away on September 7th 1965 what to the Angels in his various heaven

he lived before the whites came into the number business it was known as the Black penny game think of the year 1929 her bank of that stretch of that time was Caspar Holstein they kidnapped him and they asked for the total sum of $50,000 and the money was there the next day that open up the eyes of the white gangster said that’s not a pay any game and a man can come up with a $50,000 cash money and quick the numbers is a business and it employs thousands of people people depend upon it as you depend upon your daily job it’s a derivative from the Louisiana Lottery Louisiana Lottery that’s what it was and this man and it provides it and we used to take the reports from the New York Stock Exchange and went along I think up until 1928 I’m speaking from 1920 I know what the numbers and the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company come out with a protest that the blacks were taking the insurance money and claim numbers with so they got to the powers-that-be of the stock exchange and to see it today that the stock exchange numbers up mostly their deals in even figure zeros so therefore that was no good they’d taken from that and they started using what they call the US trade balance and some of the slickers found out that they cat could get hit a day in advance and so naturally that next then they came up with the New York or call it mad New York 20 pari-mutuel betting if it is this honest is gamble that the poor man for his nickels and dimes can have or the poor man’s stock market I’m sure people hear that phrase now they have bad eggs and anything raise millions of dollars but the basic number writer has as much integrity to bring you your money if you get as any broker that will give you your dividends from your investments on the stock market those thousands of people in Harlem don’t play them but it’s a common thing I’ve taken numbers out of necessity and I’ve made a living out of number bottleless because what because of the gap I had a good reputation if he hits the ruler you gonna get paid I know other men the same I can name you I don’t want to mention their names but I know smoothness that they do but just as honest and as much integrity as any Mandic wawk wawk God’s green earth I’m not gonna limit it but the numbers weren’t about to save everybody uptown or even most folks like the rest of America facing a depression Harlem needed job the job that we had nobody wanted and there was no jobs no place else anybody would start fighting us for our jobs so we had to have something so then we’ll come up with relief situation so this is why in only in urban America that we are the dominant factor and the release equation because the amount of money we get as being on relief from the depression there’s not enough money as the fella once said to buy at arising naked if they made it in short please you could spend a half a day the line would go from Fifth Avenue to Madison and a husband forth and go around the corner to a hundred and fifty that was the life and you will go through the basement and come home with it the big pound of butter a little coffee flour oat man the word fair day healthy people the most I can you know President Roosevelt’s relief situation included the worst projects Administration the WPA a program offering several reasons of hope to disillusion people across America Harlem

folks picked up two and went out to take care of him now wake up boys get out on the rock it is a springboard for class oh no no no pop you know that ain’t the plane what’s he talking about give the table if you say does be a hot mess SBA the WPA was only a cafe American dream in a mighty frontier strong young I know the Harlem when education was at the premium irrespective of age every night you could see people walking up the hill to City College you could see people trying to have the subway going down to 43rd Street to the Mechanics Institute trying to get dragged in a cubicle as well as mechanical drawing you can people see people going up this YMCA and YWCA to take courses all kinds of educational courses and I don’t mean just teenagers I mean I mean people who are as much as 70 80 people who had retired so to speak we’re going to get education education was a month among the African Americans from the south and the African Caribbean people from the Caribbean and those from the north right here teachers wrote notes to the parents and was the Harlem where the parents told you up if you did bad in school and will take it as school and tear you up in there and category existed the arts project which included painting sculpture anything you wanted to learn you see had the opportunity you know in churches schools yet poetry you could go to the theater and some of the people who ran the Satan projects with people like Orson Welles Joseph Cotten and later I I was teaching in Harlem because they set up what was called a Harlem Art Center was placed on a Colorado and 2015 Lenox Avenue it has a gallery and about 15 rows places that taught ceramics we are making wheezing lithography and sculpture and today some of what I know io2 WPA iron cause I think I cannot fight a magic man who’s on the highest the other said it’s obvious linen business over mine my wife and children harvest in this contribution to the American theater and in other projects under the worst program we have set all feet on the road toward a brighter future but the dream ended maybe the government was embarrassed by the need for a WPA in the first place hood was dismantled and closed down the frontier lights just faded so take my festival a kazoo dusty don’t mind the hall too because when your games here get a think business must anyways three little letters that make level games it was the Harlem of course of the protest movement had started the voice of course the words of Garvey had started at it from the turn of the century but it had gone on beyond that it was a Harlem of the Ben Daley the attempt of the Communist Party of America to get a good foothold in Harlem because it was the harm that we were coming out of this cut borrow pay cut for brother’s case and so the Boys Clubs in the different clubs that cream of the LPD American Labor Party would be to mock Antonio the rise of Adam Powell of course the Harlem labor union coming out of that this problem 25th Street to make the various white stores there open their doors to serve african-american people to serve and as an insert to get a job easier just to serve it was the Harlem that you even have to fight to get back to red and the upstairs but you know there used to be this two-story bus and we could write down there but we could write ups easily open things and then there was

the campaign to get black people on the subway as subway attendants and then motor men and so forth at one time you get a job on hon 2015 I wouldn’t care if he had a PhD you’ll be the part but you couldn’t be yourself and this gentleman by the name of Sufi he came from Chicago he stated don’t die where you can’t wait jobs were scarce and the racial scene was ugly when harlem’s anger spilled over into street violence during march of 1935 the battle was on between Harlem and Rollins Authority it all started when a 16 year old black youngster named lino Rivera was rumored to have been beaten to death by a couple of floor walkers in a Harlem department store well I came out of the fear at four o’clock and went to the five intensive school I picked up the knife and put it in my pocket the fall-off of caught me he put the knife back in his place and then he starts shoving me out the store so I told him that’s the quit show but he says don’t get fresh kid so I’ve told him all right well don’t push me anyone he says to the elefante commonness Allah and beat the heck out of it so after that the police officers came they took my name and then they sent me home at 2:00 a.m. they called for me again and I didn’t know anything about write anything but they thought that I was dead in 1935 a bigger conflict was getting underway and for many folks living uptown the issues and the responsibilities were very clear there was a very strong feeling in the United States among Americans of African ancestry sensibilities people united against the war that was a fascist war against people of Africa we had a mod from 23rd Street in Harlem which brought in about one hundred and fifty thousand people this was a united effort by all people it wasn’t just a black mark this was a market trade unionist social workers religious people of other ideas interest something features really behold and for the first time the myth that African American and African Caribbean people had no relationship with the Africans at home in the continent that myth had been dispelled blacks were proud of being black for the first time in a long time what you ate was down it 37 37 what did you wait a lot of stop the columns height five foot three just what is your profession position position then why would you want to go in Ethiopia well I’ve seen it’s my duty to give my profession and if necessary my life in the cause of Ethiopia and I desire land be happy to die for the defense of entire Africa including Abyssinia but fine Zion radio the dotted line Hubert Julian a professional soldier of fortune from Harlem trained troops to defend the small African country from Mussolini’s invaders the rest of the world seemed to be turning away from the Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie appealed to the League of Nations for help the league offered none world war two was in the wings that’s radio I was born in Harlem Hospital in 1924 when it was a very different place and it is now for many reasons my father came to New Orleans and I

became to Maryland we will affect a southern family a fellow Community Rating just living from the land you know having raised that way Southern Miss reasons typical bird opens Africa in the sense that every body’s child belong to the community they were all comfortable for each other and Harlem was up then the entire black community the Finnish people even down two blocks away Italian boy to the next door where the grocery store and he and I for every single campaign of history of the attacking war to this usually one cause when she was having a mother in school no one tells you anything about the history every house cub about poverty washing you know who is vaguely when she who as there was not at all marcus garvey not at all after that not at all in fact I mean us growing up officially speaking I was lucky savage we’ve been saved by the Christian who come to Africa to save me Mia my uncle that’s what we were taught and stubborn I wonder somber collection why I went to the summer collection and he could see I never know Blair went there and I met and we sing in every book I know this because our safety that give me a call to go downtown with myself up to Harlem library very closely and this history at work you know what make of it when I’m ready anyway Davis and closing 2047 see I’m awaiting 42nd Street library the cop practica head to thirteen-year-old boy yes forget it are you gonna stay in town where you belong and then I began to blend it in another way about my country living again when I was back to my background ten love ten I looked at you know I was a kid maybe in some I realize the world which I was born and was not my first real apprehension no mother and my father was going through I do this for the first time I got frightened my brother Louis following him I’m lashing out with his left hand every now and then and there was a hard left Morris came back and gave Louis a holistic right end to the jaw Louis just put up his from telling them flow and Pfizer bring up our right of a pop sensation but he missed and came upon the cider losers head and then smelling sub-sites and stuck a high wife’s hands are Louis’s dog with landed flush and made Louis step into the plane and Jonathan’s awesome Melling got over two more like Tim Lewis his jaw and made Louis tip down and they’re telling

waiting that Louis with hard right hand left to the jaw yes pasta Louis and Louis in town hanging to the rope here’s a fairy is Homer he is freaking his eyes the night I was graduated from high school I was walking through Harlem I was completely dejected because my family had no money I didn’t it didn’t seem likely to I’d be going going to college even to one of the city colleges as I passed a bar an Italian chap was sitting there with the chair tilted by and just as I got there he jumped to his feet he smacked his fists into the fall of his other hand he says at last they got that black son of a of course I ran I was always a quick starter and I thought that he had something against me for some reason but all he was talking about was Max Schmeling as parently knocked out Joe Lewis he’s been listening to the radio Doh Lewis carried many of aalam dreams along with him every time he climbed into the ring when he lost to that tough German heavyweight Max Schmeling every punch that landed on Joe thagard Harlem – no one ever had the same win for us Joe win for those of us who tried so damn hard but never seemed to win anything Joe New Holland did Ruth it was weighted I’m waiting for Joe Lewis the lift column spirits up hi again rabid baby me what make you these AIC like hold on I’ll hold aside peaceful does would be he was only here oh he had then Jojo is qualified everybody in Alma including my Sanctifier on what in heaven he was kidding pants fine and when why

national collector’s myth is releasing engine King Schuester which was one of the early stores may open on salad Avenue they went over to 71,000 2015 and had to buy the building before they could get into the business itself it was the Harlem of course of the protest movement this trouble at 125th Street to make the various white stores there open their doors to serve african-american people to serve and Addison and instead to get a job is near I’m CUBAN my birth I came to New York in 1927 with the anticipation of becoming a civil engineer I had heard a great deal about liberty freedom and equality and because of that I became interested in the welfare of my fellow men around me and seeing the serious situation that was about in the community at that time of the merchant community was treating the people of the community in a very shabby way and the knowing Adam Powell for sometimes I got together with Adam a philip Randolph Lloyd I and we set up what was known as the Greater New York Coordinating Committee for employment at that time 135th 25th Street was a very thriving business community and many times as I go down to 86th Street and see how it’s alive today that was 125th Street in Harlem and in the days of old we asked the merchants after many many efforts to employ black people’s men with male and female and they refused to the only available positions were those of menial areas they were is so that what we had to do was to develop tactics the phone company was turning to the dow concept and instead of an allowed the dials of maintain itself we were able to get thousands of people to dial feel that it disrupted their work and they had to put on more people to do this kind of to respond to the dialing you see and later on they saw the wisdom of what we were doing and they also felt line con Edison would not do anything and we did the same thing with them only in a little different way we’d carry your bill was a thirty dollar bill with Larry three thirty dollars worth of pennies and have them count these pennies out we’d have them send people to check car the meters and we carried on a lot of harassing tactics which were necessary and they saw the wisdom of this and they of course immediately but people are that was not enough and the churches together with the community and civic organizations we got together and decided on an action day so to speak well we were able to turn out about five thousand people who became a picketing body maybe carriages senior citizens people from the theater and the nose 826 people’s live with theater and action

the chorus girls and the business person who was in sympathy with us well we had a picket line from the river to river and we closed every single store on 125th Street that was honor about the 5th of August 1938 that we did this and it had a tremendous impact all across the country but what happened was that on the August the 6th in the 8th we sat down and agreed on a holland compact the holland combat said that we would not throw white out of jobs but that as they leave we wanted our people placed in there were a number of jobs open at the time and we had our people are placed in these jobs at first they were worried about who we would set in and they would say to up enough the lights once and we said we’ll tell you what we have and we sent you dark wanted lied once together because it were all human beings and all God’s people even so that effective where there are we were able to for the first time integrate black people into the economy of the community and by so doing into the economy of the city of New York Adam Clayton Powell jr. was the son of a noted Harlem Minister young Powell followed his father into the pulpit of Abyssinian Baptist Church and he also took another path for himself through the world of politics he was the first black city councilman in New York and later served Harlem for over 20 years in the United States Congress some folks thought he was too flamboyant in his personal style or maybe too Ansem or too ambitious but Adam as everybody in Harlem called him made life different in his community he took on the powers that had made discrimination a habit even along the symbolic hard line of Harlem 120 Fifth Street Adam fourth and he won later in his life the House of Representatives censured him and that was a defeat but for the years he was able to Adam took care of home for his time 125th Street was a hundred and twenty-fifth everything was happening and there was no no hassle of you D and all the theaters were making money to al hammer which on play six and seven the Harlem Opera House on hunt winces the even the lows Victoria Mac the Palo then we had the Orient here and the Franklin down here all these theaters and everybody on you know another theater we forgot he’s coming back to me on Mac the Lincoln on on 27 35th Street you remember the Lincoln and the talent till the day now you have a lot of talent today but it was so overwhelming then everybody was multi-talented it wasn’t just known for one thing as though they were great and was hard to choose who was the best Pete Peterson Duke was the classiest act in children and there was the Miller brothers of Lloyd’s now Alex Whitman was the dancing this woman at that time they were comparing the witness with Ruby Keeler and Eleanor Powell I know I’ll call it loose they were top names as advance and then that stumping stumpy and dynamite hooker an erector would be one of the greatest world has ever known and Oh like I don’t know if you heard the Nicholas brothers they will fantastic – they spend a lot of time over you up to you snake hips caca so that you wouldn’t think he had a bone in his body he when he walked when he danced all these guys was down who you run into him anytime down the little since closed they all done it practice it been the sweatshirt and they dance all day and go that night and do this show or do their gigs of the club another fantastic and it’s bull dangles the Rob’s and he was a star his own right there and what about topics black stars do you know he was able to run faster backwards than average prison

food crumpets he runs backwards and he never walked apt on his shoes one hundred and twenty fifth Street never quite became heaven but one of us entertainment palaces was a bright and glittering star headquarters for black performance from clues to bebop from show dancing to real black comedy was the Apollo I was called the voice for the upon fifth I used to stand backstage and make all the announcement of the incoming shows that was to be in the Apollo that I also worked on the stage with every comedian that came to be found this is crack shot and myself doing scene from one of the gifts that we had at the time that’s a wicked it was I work with them Rochester George looks at Sally’s Idol King be and will be Apollo was really going great because it midnight chill with all the big dogs Apollo to come up and help us out everybody you could name it we have it free meaning they have used to have an amateur hour every Wednesday night at Apollo I guess everybody heard but that amateur was international tell me and they had a guy there that used to run the amateur out called Puerto Rico here in Puerto Rico well I’m at Puerto Rico when we were first appeared they I heard about this Puerto Rico man he gets hit with the hook in army and I want to see him in action he come out of doors paint him full around to that he was banned there was it was fairly well that’s second about these love for Tariq the second balcony in the power in the to know they would really he had to get multiple factors hours and hours and hours why because the competition was so soon I don’t know if they had to have a child with the way to kids on a date I don’t even know if they paid any money to let him go and do this thing but at that time you had to come right you had to really come right or second bout me would cut your paycheck American music and the great band playing it have drawn inspiration from our a great force of style was always here an artist of the Statue of Jimmie Lunceford you Gillingham Count Basie Louie Armstrong Roy Eldridge Earl Hines and the drummer Chick Webb left their individual and powerful influences uptown and around the world I’m not gonna know what’s playing which it was so I went up there every night because it was building the band over the radio though there was no television anime Annelle officially we have sweet boys that sweet disposition she was a baby 17 18 years old and I live in in the suburban from a 2 4 kloie morning all the crew secured Big Apple Jerry book you know my first place that’s the reason I play like doom 41 42 43 they were eating mobile with a was pure light and there was a combinational intersection within American Harmon Josh was creating United States by black but there was something missing that we have I know that Blackburn across sixties they cope with something that was black to live in a big part of the country if we make a combination there was a platform I realize I was a man and they received that off or a black guy and why and Chinese whatever there was a fellow that was jumping all over the place they make you sure that make you give you the best because I work for respected they had a tree outside of the hookers club we call it the tree of Hope you might have heard is that if you touch that tree you’ll be successful in children maybe rub and they rub all the bark off the tree people pay you hey they’ve the rub and they come from all over the East Coast to rub the tree of hope they’d walk always monthly fifty all the way up till mistakes with Europe that are you hoping for they went on especially the Amateur Night at the Apollo so that was a suspicion and they all the

way up to they tore the flap it down and then they uprooted the tree of Hope and they planted it up here on the seventh M and people still rub it I guess Google daily rub in this trio let me explain one thing in coming up in house a lot of people say well it was hard time can think what hell it was hard times when it was good time right that’s all it didn’t make no difference we noticed a change in economic ladder cause Newark is one stationary flat house the ones in the war came along is changed ever but the next operation and food we have never heard of raced it so they had blue stamps for dairy products red stamps for meat by Anita forget milk blood or the egg the men went away to war women went to work in the defense plant the second world war reached into Harlem and tightened its grip on the men and women of the community uptown people served America with much patriotism and again they were segregated in the Armed Forces in 1941 near LaGuardia thought that there should be a USO in Harlem and he drafted me from the position of business manager of the YMCA to set up a branch of the u.s or in Harlem we selectively building renovated the building finished it with offices dining room recreational library commentary and real goggles for dancing we had a staff of about 17 and volunteers of about 400 who assisted doing the entertainment of as many as 30,000 men and women of the Armed Forces a month Lena Horne was a frequent contributor to that program a little I’m Marty I know we both the Uptown scene was crowded though there were soldiers on leave checking out the legend and workers with that defense plant paycheck just letting the good time bro I know it’s 1943 the guys from our 2016 and I win the same shaking life and this lot we usually played a little walking the smirking against the Japanese somehow the dark out with the Japanese in the late guys with Americans but rather than playing walking we used to play baseball that was a biggest sport in the baking life but one day while I was pictured for the team we heard this gunshot and all the guys from the team dropped the equipment and climbed over the fence and he ran up for the Braddock hotel so we looked in a hotel lobby and we didn’t see anybody lying down but what we did see was a white policeman in this black soldier have an argument this woman ran out of the hotel said oh he shot my son he shot my son so the guys from the corner they ran in there to see what was going on and then he saw a cop and it’s a soldier

standing in and the little guy named poovu climbed in the window and he discovered that the bullet wound was in the soldier’s shoulder so they chased the cop inside the elevator and by that time a lot of people start running into the hotel to find out what went on though then the word got out that it’s a white policeman a captain black soldier well the whole day up and down the street you told people wondering and finally what had happened the policemen they came and rescued you have it policeman I did it out of the hotel that day and they brought him down and understand that they took the soldier to sign him hospital but by that time somebody he said that the soldier was dead they thought he had died and I didn’t know any better but the thing that happened my mother said eight come upstairs and get off the street because things look like they’re getting ready to break out that night looking out the window you couldn’t see things Eclipse can recall all cooling the night you give me a glass breaking gunshot – shoot me that that’s all you hurry people running up and down screaming on a secret stuff like that then we kept hands you know people talking my water nana-chan – soldier may laguardia’s leaves shot the mayor later declared most of all of off-limits to servicemen uptown folks were in surprise certainly the man on the left was Walter White of the n-double a-c-p knew about nightstick justice so did Harlem when the war ended columns celebrated along with the rest of the country democracy has been preserved again of course the term democracy meant many things uptown I went to the YMCA in Holland simply because it was the cheapest the safest place for me to stay I remember Henry parks the park sausage was there Leonard Evans used to run Tuesday guy named Booker Brown Selenia was a photographer and most of us were broke and we would find a waitress and drive away Chris that’s why we ate I’ve got a breakfast and lunch issue there are memorable days and I never will forget the wirings day and save my life several years now remember harder than the 40 we just chilling around to be up on a rooftop we should bring our blankets up you have nine to do IPA 4:30 5 o’clock it’s got a

little cool went up on the roof sat on down and took it easy you guys that pigeon coops on the way they come up feed the pigeon Mayflower kite fly kites kite and everything you know you dad the girls come up you know girls are come up to take a flying lay down make cruise and they’ll make lemonade and all this stuff you know we handle kool-aid and we eliminate and we used to say theater than anything nor lunar night I can’t say what all action that went on but no and they couldn’t stay in a whirlwind the fire escapes and then cause when the cops you should chase your crew for your hips and fire escapes you know where to go you get like an abandoned building you ducking the wind and go down the sand copies of the for your own sake and fight your dad lazy you know him with something at night go ahead it’s nice a bit out of just kid what you want to do when you grow up stuff like that you know and and so focal not everybody could be running out the Coney Island oh you too far corner we could go to Jeff zaboo we gonna grow up the high bridge we need that decoder colonial wait a minute and when we went to Gloria pool all the gangs used to be a bit and you see a group here group there grew clearer behind each other like this now I remember the other side we couldn’t take the trolley car 120 15 after that magic with an Irish Dukes was up to us right and then 124 Street and Lord ow oh yes you talk people about that I see what all Broadway they don’t know nothing about it yeah because these were the things the Italian kids had had a club over there called the Red Wings and they would stuff they had all kinds of clubs and these clubs would do battle if you come in that time I saw okay okay but he lost Fifth Avenue have you gone Fifth Avenue you’ve got a well on your hand everything was relegated to your territory the women a suppose about the territory you don’t goes you had Stephen had truce time players on Sunday morning our church state no gang buses no nothing all attorney party yes now when you come back home and get into your plain clothes something go outside without physicality different the war loss the wars on when you look of this the game would you I’m alright a lot of fellows lost a light veneer you know for what for nothing but when you look back in the years you look back like this here it’s either you had a survival I had to survive in offense and when your main reason I could say this to you because I have I was involved in it but thank God I’m still here activity became a hard fact of uptown life with fathers and uncles and big brothers off to the war and not around to say no a lot of Harlem kids took to roaming the streets in search of their own kind of combat I had no idea how I would find a gang leader I really do but I’ve always started taking a chance room I knew a friend that there’s name was Jimmy Morel he was a detective up at behind 35th Street precinct so I won’t have to see Jimmy and Jimmy says look no guy meters gonna risk his neck by being photographed by Life magazine he’s not going to expose himself with police I said well I should have known that I think I got to do this story Jimmy he said well I want to do you about that time a kid walks in is he had sort of red curly hair and circles and a tough-looking chin and a pug nose looked like a plug you know and it was about sixteen years old and he went up to the desk cited anything to get that this started hell he used some language that I couldn’t possibly use here and I said who is that and Jimmy had just walked back on a mission oh that’s red Jackson he said that’s the guy you need he said he would toughest leader at all ha I said well yeah he said that you wouldn’t do it I said well I’m not sticking around so red was complaining about a got a friend of one of his boys have gotten killed a night before thrown in the East River so finally he came over and sat down next to me and he said what you in for I said that is very tasty you detective I said no I said my name is Gordon Parks and he said my name is red I said live red I got a problem I said I promise to do a story for a big magazine or life and I don’t know how I’m gonna do it he says what’s life I said it’s a magazine he said never heard of it oh I said I got one here I’ll show it to I showed it to him listen you know so why should I be stupid enough to put my picture in that magazine so I said well Jimmy and Mara told me that you want to pick up your gang and that the police were trying to help him he said yeah that’s

how my guy got killed last night he said because we wasn’t protecting him because we thought the police was going to pick up the gang I said well what I can do for you is kind of help break up the gang and as well as get my story and we’re both you good shape he said no I’m not gonna do that so I rode home with him and he liked the feel of doing and they like the feel of having a chauffeur and what gang we did in Harlem had his chauffeur was Buick Roadmaster hit other ways so we got harm and 116th Street he said look I’ll talk to the guys about this and he said I’ll talk to the war counselor if they agree it’s okay with me but I can’t do it without them he said you come back tomorrow and I’ll let you know so red came to me and said we’re gonna Rumble tonight I said oh he said I want you to do me a favor I said what’s that he said I’d like very much to have a trench coat like yours and some dark glasses I said red I have another one at home I’ll give it to you so that was a mark of authority you know and that night I was very excited because I never seen the getting rumble and we went upon 136th agreement between 135th Street 136th Street as for the other gang or not and they cornered those guys in one of the basements and he said who spit on my sister just like that so the guy looked at one of the other guys so red walked over to him pulled his shirt open put the knife right over his heart so you know the clutch it gives it out just like that then he took the knife and just about it needs not be flashed and right across his chest like that now don’t you ever spit on my sister you tough kids joined the gang to protect themselves against other games and really had a mother who was very worried all the time that one of them was going to kill because his brother fought with another gang but then another Rumble when other kids were killed and so we were going back to see him at the mortuary there in Harlem we saw the kid had been beaten up and red actually lifted the kid’s head up off of the mat in the coffin checked his bruises and decided that he was going to mete out the same thing to them when he caught them you know I wondered about him you know he he could have been a great leader because he had that natural talent to be a leader but it just sort of wasted you know in a way but I’ve run across kids like that from home several different times who if it had a chance something better with an education with some cares and spiritual nourishment if they would have made it I had tried this outside Chicago for many years and now I fish acog Oh is too small I want to go where first-class things are I want to go to Harlem I came to Harlem and instead this is Harlem I jumped out the car let’s be welcome to speak loud this is how just couldn’t believe it just like ice come to happen it was a beautiful place been here ever since but had a sign of the Wonder dancing and people would stop in to see about listen and count on so well with with my system I said well not that to get more people here so I can show Harlem but I’ve done that I’ve done in Chicago so I saw on the streets 125th Street and see the girls and boys pick out very nice-looking girls very nice-looking boy a lot of them with the boys would come and run some schools throw rocks and things and at Myint and fellow bad things they run out and one day I grabbed them I said now why you wasted all of that energy up coming here trying to molest me I says if you had any sense you’d come in there and see what that woman can teach you I think come in there I’ll teach you how to dance and

won’t charge you one thing I said can’t you get a group of together we’re so sorry lady we did this you teach us how to tap dance asserted we’ll teach you how to tap dance not only teach you how to can’t dance to try to act too because I do drama and piano and dancing those are the things that I teach so sure enough a group will go through bad boys from the school gained by near and started what they called ellos Club and the print of the boys didn’t have no food to eat and no place to stay we’d put in nickels and dimes and then we go a bit go out and got up and get red beans I put a big tub red beans and cook them red beans and rice between now and they stay right here during my dance but they take advance but the main time to exhibit this matter rhythm that they had they had to learn these steps they had to learn discipline because then get out there and dip up the boom the baman and it’s alright but not showing that it had any train this young girl you see in the front here dancing a father brother together and she was about 12 or 13 at that time she’s become quite a famous theatrical named Josephine preemies and some of the greatest little dancers greater two actors but out of that group a barrel street boys that least come up here as the little bad things and run out as many giants in the Performing Arts in the 1940s bebop was pioneered in an uptown nightclub with Miles Davis Lester Young Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie John Coltrane and Thelonious Monk Max Roach and blood Powell were among those who improvise with inspiration and changed the world of music the man who broke baseball’s color line played for the Dodgers in Brooklyn but that never mattered Tom Jackie Robinson was always one of Haarlem very own so were other great athletes like say hey Willie Mays [Applause] [Applause] Sugar Ray Robinson who just might have been the greatest fighter in all of ring history was Holland to the bone all these people meant a lot to Harlem because they represented the quality of excellence and in Harlem excellence was clearly understood as so many people that you talk to now will tell you when they’re out in the hinterlands and the sticks I mean my sister and I we’d hear Jimmie Lunceford on the radio and Claude Hopkins a band and something like everything for one day one day we’re going to get sailing and I think people from all over the United States and possibly all over the world have that in mind when they’re young that one day I’ll get to Harlem one day and well I came to Harlem in the 50s and my office was a telephone booth because I was representing a syndicate of 16 black newspapers that was one of my required to get in the arm and get a good story and each and every day naturally coming from Ohio I did not know too many people I came in and I found that everybody was hanging out to Teresa bar 125th Street and 7th Avenue Teresa hotel bar and of course one of the people who helped sway at that time was Willie Bryant female Harlem but he will run on disc I can’t play with effort one of the members daughters and Sarah I went out to Willie and I said to him look I am a newspaperman here at new in town I can see that you know everybody at the bar and everybody who comes in here and I wonder would you be good enough from time to time to introduce me to people

who are here well known people who are possible news stories news sources so wrong Willie Bryant turn to me and it’s too poor waited and he said hey you’re a new kind of dude and I said he said I said what do you mean he said well I mean most newspaper men come up to me and say I know everything and he said well you come as I don’t know any I wanted you to help me he said you know something I want to help you and from that day on really Brian became one of the greatest sources of news to me that and he helped me to build a music career at that time they began to call that TV Lane from a hundred 450 down past one of his recent 226 that short block because everybody I mean everybody who was somebody in the black world he basically world famous people always got up to Harlem where the hand of fellowship was usually being offered after all paalam had its own royalty it’s Duke it’s count it’s lady day so queens and emperors and more than one pope have all felt right at home in Harlem and when Cuba’s Fidel Castro felt in 1960 that is accommodation that a downtown New York hotel just didn’t suit him he brought it up town to the famed Teresa and with Castro in Harlem uptown became a third world capital there was a great festive attitude and a great feeling of being recognized by the people of the community because here they were playing part in the real international role was a very very powerful government this to me was an event that I had not seen historically in this community and may not see this community for a long time to come [Applause] paalam celebrated not only for Casco but for itself and for those few days uptown was bigger maybe than it had ever been before but the bright lights dimmed eventually and hollom wasn’t glowing in the aftermath there were pains that refused to go away wounds that just wouldn’t heal and enemies that made Harlem shout how long how long something was growing fat in the street in the room in harlem’s air throughout the 60s when the people in the community saw it breaking down the people went out and demanded police officers they wanted people the captain’s in charge of the prison because they saw that’s something that happened no one cared any longer so when the community went to Mayor wasner it started there and after the riot and other things like that no response and I was a member of one of these committee the community went back to ask about the drug situation no response we will assign a commission or somebody will appoint mr. Sol semilla so to come and most of the time the mr. Sundstrom is also didn’t live near the community musters in the community and didn’t really care and when we asked the people like seelye because I was in the committee to get a captain Seeley who has been a flight captain meaning that he had no prison just went from one prison to the other working under another captain and we were told that he had to wait and is the role for the civil service role and we know that Morgan and other people like that over the years had been taken out of all

kinds of the service rank and been appointed to job so we demanded and finally I said couldn’t happen so we then we say well we could be responsible for what’s gonna happen to the community that afternoon it happened he was appointed but what happens when you get the series you got the RT Hills you got the Johnson and so forth to run the preset three weeks later or four weeks a month six months later don’t sing captain that they told us by virtue of civil service another thing could not take over suddenly became inspectors and as the Bohemian spected they were move out to this community and again we didn’t have the people my oldest son is a victim of drugs now you I say that because people would say in Harlem this and that happens I have nine pterence only one of my tieran I could say that I’ve lost wirless and the result was for my was drug drugs not as a boy nine years old or 10 or 15 but as a boy a man 20 years of age at Columbia University still the drug environment took my son with all the books and think he had the same exposure to the books at all that experience of course others went on to become doctors and lawyers but that one child you see this father couldn’t mop up and still cannot markup because it’s still his sons in a living son Geron a controlled substance just flowed out of control through Harlem on its way through veins all over America that terrible white horse couldn’t be broken and monkeys jumped on human backs and stayed there Ghana’s late Kwame Nkrumah speaks to a crowd in Harlem that knows it’s teenagers are being exposed to an evil time there is pain there is great need and maybe more than anything else Harlem is looking for leadership for Direction a man seated behind in chroma waits to speak to Harlem the man’s name is little to the world he is Malcolm X [Applause] attention Americans without prescription drug coverage in the 60s a blood of America is spilled the gains in these years can be measured quickly the losses will always be painful this rally in Harlem is part of an enormous effort some Americans make to redeem the National promise I have never in all my life than so proud of Harlem as I am tonight when corn flick first got together two days ago and talked

about having a mass march and rally in Harlem people said oh don’t do it because if you get that many black and white people marching in Harlem you’ll have a fight there’ll be a race riot I told them nonsense this is the real Harlem in Harlem gotten up by big with middle class with bullets with criminality in a white area now the mobs are broken out in a very gentle manner attacked the Honorable mother or the Harlem is not only suspicious of police there’s no real suspicion let me give you a picture a boy grows up in Harlem he sees the police take money from on his feet he sees the police take money from the number writers he sees the police these people who have done nothing he sees the police lie when he goes come to court it is not that he is suspicious of them it is that he loves them that he has no respect for them and that is to say that he has no respect for what we call law and order he cannot objectively have it we want to welcome you to our rally our unity rally for a United black front the uniting all sex is about people do you need every one of this play million so-called Negroes into one group and you’ll notice whatever the white man things that we like to call a rally to knock a long time you see him hand out here you want to hear us say something against King or he burn sir II wanna against someone of our own time as long as you have attacked each other or talk about each other or he scorn and ridicule the horny stutter the white man gets his kick butt when he knows that we’re going to come together in unity and harmony he won’t get it you will get it my personal political philosophy was black nationalism which means that the black man should control the politics of his own community and control the politicians who are in his own community my personal economic philosophy is also black nationalism which means that the black man should have a hand in controlling the economy of the so-called Negro community he should be developing the type of knowledge that will enable him to own and operate the businesses and thereby be able to create employment for his own people for his own time and the social philosophy also is black nationalism which means that instead of the black mentoring the for construction to the Society of the white man we should be trying to eliminate from our own society the hills and the defects and make ourselves likeable and sociable among our own time do you consider yourself militant I consider myself Nelson and I saw his insolence there is vividly on the night that one of his members mr. Hinton was a bi thought of being robbed by the police or lettuce Avenue and they beat him up aware what a disturbance that happening they took him into the 28th precinct and this happened around about oh I say 10 11 o’clock and I was home in bed at 2:00 and one of the police officers are high right to the police officer called me or my house in Queens and asked me if I was coming back to my office in Harlem and I want to know what they told me that situation had arisen and at that situation which was documented by I think the ferret Evening Post so the stories in there upwards of 4,000 black Musel had to rounded the 28th precinct and they were surrounding this precinct in a manner that was as peaceful as anything you could see but it was a nominee if there’s anything you could have a think of because the sisters were all there and they’re right and they were standing in the gutter of the street both sides and four other precincts all the way down from 7,000 to 8,000 123rd Street and the the Muslim men they were standing on the sidewalk five deeps behind them and they know nobody with Santa words and it was a pregnancy not into this not a mob you

know I refused the close of the Bobbsey but these four thousand people standing there just staring in the doctors at the fair through two doctors after 20 treatment so they wanted to know and had been trying to get Malcolm X to move these people and so they asked me if I would use our relationships to see what Malcolm would do would he do it so Malcolm came in and we sat down the forwards and I’ll never forget Walter on who is white he made the big mistake he said he said now I would like to tell you something the sex we wanted to sit down and talk with you and get your views on this situation he said that I want to tell you that my presence here as a deputy commissioner and another deputy commissioner indicates that we are not begging you we are telling you we want those people move and at that model of Malcolm X in his well he had this with a KU mannerism he simply got up from his chair that he was sitting in and started to walk out without saying a word and I can hear his heels going down the the sitting room of the Amsterdam news which is of maybe a low so it’s the 60 feet all the way darling its banks banks fame Malcolm X walking I walk on looks and being said where is he going he didn’t say a word so that mathematics that works and I said he’s obviously leaving and Magnum says where you told him that you could work the situation after I guess he’s letting you work it out he said he said can you stop him can you stop them ethics and that’s what I’ll try so I left my desk and walked halfway after the sex can I speak to you a minute he turned around to building yeah so I said look I mean oh can you see your way clear not believe now I said obviously the man is concern now so well he said if you ask me to come back I’ll come back laughter would you please come back so he came back in and he sat down and then by that time Walter on had agreed to let Bob Mann who was dragged speak it yourself Bob then went on and diplomatically said to Malcolm that look we would like to know under what terms you would consider moving your people well the upshot of it was Malcolm told him that when our drug has been beaten up by the police he is now in the 28th precinct in jail we don’t know how badly he was beating but we want to see we want to see him ourselves and determine whether he needs medical treatment and if he needs medical treatment to see that he is taken to Rossville and so he walked offices at all he said after all so Bob Angleton I think that’s fair enough when I said so do i so we walk from there over to the 28th precinct and through this both sides of tree lined up I mean theythey people just not moving a half and it was obvious man Lin in the cell there with his head smashed in that he needed hospitalization as the first thing well Malcolm said this man should be in a hospital and inspect amazons looked at him and apparently that was the first time he’d see he said I agree with you and he said let’s get him an Oscar then Malcolm came to the door of the suite when 8th precinct and he stood girded or McDonough standing beside him and I was standing beside McGann and as I previously said I mean there was for five thousand Muslims in the streets by this time and the precincts in the middle box and he simply stood there raised his arms and gave a signal like that and it was eerie it was eerie because these people just faded into the night it wasn’t the most orderly movement of 4,000 or 5,000 people I’ve ever seen in my life they just simply disappeared and right before eyes I mean it got out of that block and my darling inspector MacDonald was standing there he looked at me he said do you see what I see and I said yes and I think this was possibly a slip on his part because I interpreted as he said to me he said that’s too much power for one men to have so instead of legislation in my opinion it takes education if the whites up to be re-educated so that’s the racism that they have in their heart can be eliminated and be and our people have to

be reg know how to do something for ourselves instead of waiting for others to do it for us all the time in visiting New York City during this period I want to make it very clear that I wholeheartedly endorse the demands of the unity committee already delivered to mail Wagner and I made this clear to mayor Wagner in my conversations with him I endorsed this committee as representative of the Harlem community and of course our urge mayor Wagner to deal with the Unity Committee as being representative of the community talisman power what must Waggener do between now and Election Day to get your support Wow first thing is got a good on a Negro EE Peace Commission which we’ve always had secondly civilian review board so they can try themselves all things first we start firing means how the inspectors in Harlem let violations accumulate and for five a ten dollar bill or the does winning a bottom not my church was given to apartment houses the other day on 37th Street please and how wonderful and the lawyer check into it and found out there were 100 violations on the two of course more will remove the violation than to have bought the property at this point xxx plan to actively campaign against me legs oh I wouldn’t say that at this point a new broad invasive leadership comes to Adam Powell’s home turf activist Dick Gregory student leaders rap Brown and Stokely Carmichael join men like James farmer and Roy Ennis of core in challenging the world to see Harlem and black America in the light of a new day but words and demonstrations cannot stem all tides this Harlem mother mrs. Annie Powell has just learned that her son James age 15 has been shot and killed by a New York City police officer it is the summer of 1964 police virtually all of them white March into Harlem like an Army of Occupation entering a foreign land now the jails filled with young men who themselves are filled with rage police stand watch over Harlem and angry words rush in the halls future come on South Lee I can look back and see men and women leaving from New York City going to Mississippi but today you don’t need to go to Mississippi you need to take a ride to home and look at the situation you can’t hold back the truth boy you can’t hold back the truth the situation down south help absolutely Christopher girl now New York City has become Mississippi New York City has become al abama New York City has become just took it New York City has become this mr. Tennessee New York City has become the state of North Carolina because let me tell you racism and classism is on the rampage in America no wonder you are hit high off of these various chemicals because for the first time you become satisfied but let me tell you one thing they have please the room with the dope did you know that they are placed along with the dope and if you don’t think genocide is going on in America especially upon the oppressed black poor you got you get the shock of your life you don’t know what history is all about the ruling classes in America is calling for your head we need you to put your body’s all desire and stop stepping and driving on your body star in your help star your mind they call prison while the man can come in and pick us off one

at the time nobody is being put on trial for hurting us nobody’s being put on trial for killing up but you know they ain’t nothing new they did the same thing that you did the same thing to G just it is adjusted it and I’m not touching illegal change it ain’t go change didn’t go change you can’t speak to a child when a dolt who is undrugged there’s no reasoning there there’s no logic there’s no feeling for the family no feelings for self and when that broke down the great feeling for self even the sixty the nineteen sixties that brought about the new the reason aware awareness of self the songs I’m black and proud the buttons and all of this it was an attempt to regain what the drug had already start to break down and since those of us who are not law enforcement people what no control of what is going to happen with a drug who had been screaming who had gone to the mayor’s mayor after mayors trying to get a relief from this situation found our children the children who had been going to school now these same children the younger ones no longer want to go to school to be on the subway to become now involved in this crime well we had the street gun gangs the Harlem of the street gang the street gang was war between teenagers were not a depth of hatred of self it was war between territories but with drugs it became a war of hatred of self the destruction of self that which didn’t work you can kick some drugs and that will finish it and from that point on no longer what I told you originally no longer were we able to go under roof in the summer and spread the blanket and sleet and have a picnic to go to Central Park for the bicycles with the family one of the difficulties with crime in this city is that the police watch us in Harlem but they guard the property of the people downtown that’s one of the reasons I suppose that when we have riots and during which we want to show our exasperation our frustration and all the rest against white society we do it in Harlem on the theory that whites owned most of the property here instead of doing it downtown where it would be greater damage greater impact and greater notice taken the assumption is I believe that since the cops can guard that property so careful you wouldn’t get an opportunity to do very much about it when we destroy Harlem we’re trying to say in effect look you’re white people downtown you want to ignore it you own it you want to destroy it in your way we’ll do it now away in the hopes that perhaps it will be built up to something better but that’s a fallible argument also because most of the civil rights struggle which are resulted in any progress have resulted in progress for the middle class people who get a few token jobs and that’s about it they’re kimby and this is one man’s opinion there can be no real social development until there is real economic development I mean it’s the key I’m the the president of the Commonwealth holding which is a subsidiary of the column Commonwealth Council and as the chief executive officer I’m over all of the Corporations subsidiary corporations which is 14 that the council own we’ve been able to improve that we can own and operate businesses that not only provide services for the community but on a national basis you know I’ll steal the souls all over the world founded provide services throughout the cities and states and it’s just an indication of what can be done we just we’re just kind of a token thing showing an example of what can be done with the right resources pull the right way you know I think that we as black people can solve a lot of our social problems if they understand if they just deal with our own economic basis I’m saying give a same shot as anybody else have economics we can do the same things you know if we have our own forward foundations and we have our own General Motors kind of corporation thank you the finances of the community and I think that’s coming about now it has been coming about for some Haarlem business people especially those being helped by government financing but attorney Cora Walker is a hollow mite who knows that some corporate dreams wake up disappointed the idea dawn upon me and really starting in the question of the ride

because the ride hit here 64 that in talking to the people on the street they felt they didn’t have anything they didn’t own anything everybody owned something so I then just the coop concept and went out with them started out in November of 66 that if they wanted to they could own something on a cooperative basis so then we took a sound truck got out 145th Street in Athens and said if you were interested in find out how you can buy shares in a supermarket at your own and we will flood it with people they still open June 4th of 68 they voted to name the store Harlem co-op supermarket people used to ride by justice in school but the the beautiful part was the stockholders they really loved that store so if they came in there and they didn’t have salt they didn’t buy us off until we got some the first nine months we made two million eight hundred thousand dollars and it was a threat it was an absolute trip to the our competitors nine months after we were there it arrived somebody made a decision that we had to be stopped and they threw around me so-called picket line and the the picket line really was not a valid ticket line because it was not our workers who was the backbones of it because the coop really cut into the business of our competitors that was in the back of them but the little people of Harlem kept that still open they worked in there they had to go out because you couldn’t nobody would deliver anything you couldn’t get a loaf of bread and they then we had people who would get in their cars and first they started going to the warehouses and picking it up then they got word of that and the course of threats of retaliation they wouldn’t sell it to us so then we director would be our young mother’s program any names but we meet the bread trucks and by pressing the bread trucks and then they bring it in on their in their car and then they sell it to themselves but we had 16 picture windows and those 16 picture windows were broken 15 times the police were never able to find anybody at any time both of my sons at that time were in college and of course when they came home with a summer of set of 69 they were right there to store helping out which other ways they could and they came to me and said that they would had been told that if they did not convince me to walk away from the supermarket that it won’t be without a mother at that point the Panthers with what dying and itching to retaliate with violence and some you know black groups Nasus groups wanted and my concept was use you know the system of death is to establishing and you don’t get a quarter on us you know got caught out I’m sorry they didn’t you know as if I didn’t let him do it on things but the store closed in March of 76 because it had through all of this they just went and ate it with debt and financial failure because not because they couldn’t run a store not because they could not run and supermarkets but because they were not able to deal with the inner workings of the food industry but I was heartbroken because there was a faith of so many little people if justice will prevail

right [Applause] the churches of Harlem are still ports in many storms houses of worship where the spirit can be repaired in the right hand of fellowship is taken seriously and through the leadership of ministers like M Moran Weston columns churches bear witness in other way we started in 1959 trying to see whether a plan could be developed and financed so that the housing here would be going down grade could be upgraded it was not until 1977 that we’re able to complete a package that would have the support of government through government insurance and of course the participation of the banking institutions is easy because the mortgage is guaranteed so they have no risk these buildings were worn out not fit for people to live in what we’ve tried to do is take those buildings because fundamentally the structure was good but the inside was not so we’ve completely redesigned them to create three two and one bedroom apartments of people live in chains a 6-story walk-up building to an elevator apartment us revitalizing the total place from the Schomburg library to the old YMCA the next things of course people who live in them would see these as part of their cultural spiritual as well as a physical Harridge redevelopment has become the magical phrase uptown from fabled nightclubs to grand old theaters breathing with new life Harlem still tells the world that nothing beats our pride for the failure the main dissolved Apollo are from the neighborhood everything is all men you whispering coming from in here we got already it already evolved you so in case you’ll have things but tonight don’t worry about your follow is a landmark in Harlem it’s been here for 45 years and all that God is be here but to her final comedy is like ladies live exam gaddama these doors three weeks ago the day bound healthy old days has a meal and it goes well as a kid I are you come here I hate to say now play hooky coming here because I don’t want the jumps is going to be politicians leading the way to do it but we used to see some of the name in the world yells right here and you felt so close to it because there’s no question in my mind the Billie Holiday was big into me and was only when I got older that have found out to other people in the audience lobbyists Cooper communities bring such money back into the community you feel at every great job for them the ones later tentative is what LRU but you to do those been dad’s money downtown in the belt for been here this is a black hole is down there now and will repeat invite anyone see the sea is sane way to reach out because this is your home away from home can I get up a little desperate yeah you know if you look at any redevelopment area I don’t think it happened it’s very well planned a neighborhood is particularly taken down to the bottom in order for it to be redeveloped and it’s very hard to take a neighborhood I mean I would have a pest problem with somebody coming and tell me they’re going to redevelop Mount Vernon

but situated with people in stores and whatnot so I think that things like the South Bronx and Harlem hasn’t happened by chance I think it’s all part of the plan and for the first time we’ve been in on the plan I see on the drawing board a complete new 120 Fifth Street our shopping mall with the underground tunnels leading into the subways it’s no longer a pipe dream and it’s just a matter of coordinating through the Chamber of Commerce and the various businessmen work portion of it they pick up what portions we pick up through the federal funds coming in it’s not a black move it’s a move that’s being put together by a lot of people blacks and like all over I think the revitalization of the whole Harlem concept will merge as a testimony to the struggles that by folk Quentin and that’s one of the fears that I’ve had last year that we become somehow losing that you know it wasn’t relevant anymore and I think people have to understand that this redevelopment came from that had that not been there there wouldn’t have been a Harlem Commonwealth Council there wouldn’t have been a higher you there wouldn’t be any of these things seemed like some of the city fathers and some of the state fathers and some of the federal cause we’ve gotten the Harlem was one time when the major attraction for tourists coming in now what we want to do is figure out another way to attract tourism back into the community this project that you have in front of us is a what right now is the international trade center that is our general concept of it this is the state office building in which we’re now located that the International Trade Center which is concentrating on many third world nation with a parking facility at the bottom which we’ve already started a conviction center of about 3,000 seats and arts and crafts shops with African Caribbean Latin Americans was being sold with the hotel of about 500 rooms if this would have come about clearly there’s a whole lot of benefits other than new attraction people I mean nobody’s allowed and bachelor to get hurt walking up down the streets of Harlem and your pops will be around and the streets will be clean and I think everybody will do whatever they can to protect the dignitaries that will come up to the seat now located on the eastern portion of state office building site there’s a organizational business our tree of life are headed by mr. tanya is our favorite building this is on the most populous corner of harlem that’s exactly why we have to be here and we got a dynamite thing that’s a strange-looking fire engine out there right and the music comes out of there strain and so it’s like attracts you in there but we have a lot of people in there just because you know they driving by that looks different plain-looking signs of it the home of unusual cook with the knowledge you know but don’t know that you know oh it’s heavy and people come in and once they come in there in black and white rich in poor young and old freed and gay all kind of people this is a people’s universe now everybody has the capacity to open up and become a giant the spiritual giant this little brother right here I can guarantee you if I could take him and instruct him about something he would never again look back because I would wake him up to some knowledge that he already has inside of him he’s not new Oh Yuma man five years old you see and when we came to understand that that might be Malcolm X and in there right there you don’t know Devon now the next thing gone nowhere his work hadn’t been finished so the minute you take the body the spirit comes back and gets another one happen that’s right that’s right what it is I’m serious is waking up the knowledge that’s in him and let him find out what he was born in this life to do we’ve all had a special job to do right here definitely because the only way to heal Harlem is the heal the people of Allah not by putting up new buildings that state office building but make people love themselves any better you love that state autofill now brothers they’d do anything for you now man so the power of the people will save this building which we will save Harlem which we will save New York which we will save America but first save yourself whether it’s clean out the Holy Temple and the course has been a great deal of community concern it’s generally about any building being formed aisle where you have a viable business and that is a viable business where nobody

believes anything to ever be brought back into the story cuz through the history of the problems that we have in redevelopment the problem that we have is this the eastern portion is state officer inside is probably the most magnificent site we have a home transportation terms of location in terms of fire with possible lot of developers and what they have clearly proposed is that whatever is done being must have that eastern corner southeastern corner yes it is because it’s right over the IRT subway line and which is is one of the major ways of getting in and out of Harlem but we were we were prepared to do whatever we possibly can to help out the Tree of Life in fact what we’re proposed is a bringing into the new facility of course the facts are that that state-owned building the occupant is not heavily in the old days to call it squat our leaders have been indicated Malcolm X Martin Luther King all of the lives of everybody’s been to hear the vibrations of all of our leaders past present and future in that building wife tear that down the truth of the matter is far worse than anybody wants to face up to or make it out to be the Harlem has a glorious tradition Allah made a great contribution to America to the culture on that but what I see now is that my column column now is slowly systematically piece by piece being dismantled the city around you is dying you see all these abandoned buildings abandoned Street issues you can walk down Street man where are you used to see children running and playing you can walk down streets man where there’s nothing but bombed-out ceilings look with Roca wears a bow maybe old Harlem stays it wait and watches these are places Allah mites have known it seems forever but people uptown learn early that nothing lasts that long column grows in Harlem though shortly after its grand reopening the Apollo Theater closes down again the crowds now go to other places in this Harlem dream falls apart in Harlem there are parades offering tribute to the past to the ancestors to the days that will not come again for the future well Harlem has its storytellers the speakers remained and the story continues I wanna kill me place it’s still the mecca surprise I’m concerned and the awareness of blacks that is that we got to get a piece of the action this is the one thing that I think makes the future bright and there’s also the fact that the the right world realizes I mean her dog white flight they run the wrong mile on the run here there’s on there and pretty soon they find there’s no place to that’s where they start back well they saw it back and said well what about these bombs down when I go back there now look at it thank you perhaps it it will dim some changes for the better but the places for I hung out the old house that I first lived in still they’re crumbling I walked into it once the bedroom mr. land the rat holes are still there and instead of it being better actually it’s worse and for a lot of people a young people especially it must be much portion was when I was there at least I had some hope now I don’t see hope for

some of those kids that are and the few people have got little jobs and whatnot they’re gonna have to come back and help us with ourselves up a little further because the weak link is the strongest link in that chain and then we need Stokely Carmichael Martin Luther King James Forman Sufi Jill Kelley Malcolm X I used to feel it wasn’t what happened in my day but I think that in my day before I closed my eyes how I’m gonna really be our shining thing here people says is Harlem going or coming Harlem is Harlem it was here before I got here and is here before you got here this gonna be here when you got

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