Andrew Trites – Steller sea lions and groundfish fisheries in Alaska: can the two co-exist

he’s working on very very good interaction between Korean Hamels please come forward there are six years to three males at ten fishers so I would also say that andrew is a person who is not afraid to ask personal questions in provocative ways and has even been known on one or two rare occasions to mix it up so in terms of his academic record he’s got about a bazillion publications a resume tell you one just clips so many more other than that I reckon should be depressed metal he also has spent a lot of time trying to communicate with the public really small groups of people very local communities trying to work with them on what’s going on emails and fisheries to very very big audiences and I was reading from and it goes on talking about the various theories that people see lions and what’s positive flying’s and his fisheries climate change all of these things changing food no doubt he will speak to us actually it’s very well done interview so if you haven’t seen it should we created online but when you get to the end there is a apply from a reader the way you can do now on the rest and take in your feelings right away after beatles and the first quote right after the close it was quote i love it i think this makes me what becomes walla just when I grow up I’m only ten years old right is actually get into a really wide range of folks unlike many people so without further ado I give you oh thank you for that varies Huntington generous introduction why don’t ever sit you ever hear myself what I’m going to be talking to you about is really this question about whether or not fisheries groundfish fisheries alaska sealife headquarters and submit a multi-million dollar question and well I’m going to get you down the path of discovery that I’ve made over the past 19 years of the first start on this and being I thought I don’t think they yourself it when I started I’m not sure even though how I go today how much more we know I don’t quite have the dreariest in fact building senses the c-line community probably just divided today as it was at 19 years ago well ask this question we need to look and get a little bit of background information to sort of put into context I think although the only thing that everybody works as he lines would agree with is the fact that there’s not one to see lines there’s no argument about that and in many ways it almost reads like a murder mystery I’ve been awful because like an any good mystery yes we have somebody who’s this think we also have a person of interest and again the seal our community is unified in guest room looking at the commercial fisherman so let me show you a little bit of biology here to see mother to link the two together for starters stellar sea lions free only on pacific ocean i’m showing here the breeding site starting to california and going across Aleutian Islands do you can check an endowment of Japan and genetically in the united

states are two populations recognized for purchase stocks of the eastern and western stock and they appeared have been separated for tens of thousands of years based on the genetics and there’s some reason evidence affected to make another population which would be that proves to be true the call data center stock and an asian stock and what unifies everything here to the left of the line is that all these populations have declined and they all declined that runs at the same time starting the late nineteen seventies and contrast to that everything on the right side has been going and in recent years has been increasing exponentially and we have a very different situation and so we didn’t in the united states in western song is he played in danger and the other population which is that larger that has ever been known to be in history who’s listed as a price bc the way we go hunt the logic that Vader it’s a green apple the other side of this is how do we know how many see money to their well in British Columbia we fly planes like this and ask the fire light to turn them on their sides with a camera and it’s more sophisticated now in the United States with using very mountain flames high-resolution images it could be blowed up to almost get the bug encounter whiskers on the muzzle of an animal but the council have been done essentially this since nineteen fifty six and the first chance were done and from this we would shine it on a wall at the time using slides and use a pencil to the dog on a piece of paper and count up all the belts and that’s how it’s done and today it’s done on a computer screen in high resolution county team or perhaps but the technique has it really changed years here we have to account for of course the animals that have missed it because other animals on shore and some are at sea at the time of the counts are done but others may come up the correction factor a bite of accounts and smooth I would tell me was there and that’s what I’ve done here to give you a sense of what happened to the west Woodstock this is going from a boat Prince William Sound Westbrook to the end of the Aleutian Islands and the first Casper done in 1956 and based on the limited channels that appears that the population instance about 225,000 animals increase in peaking in the early 1970s and then began this roller coaster nosedive with an inflection point in 1989 and a second wonder of 19 and today over all of a population that be considered stable although within that category of stabilization we have actually slight increases in the Gulf of Alaska but still sipping it declines in the far western pollutions so but not in other words completely that indications of some sign of our clock recovery but certain tournament direction I brought it up the eastern stock we find in fact it now exceeds the size of a western style and it’s still growing and begin to put this defined see lines into context I want to pop up here some data some of the other species that also depart this is showing you fortunate downstair done it’s a heated island near Kodiak the pharmacy agency they to appear to done in those time also in the late 1970s I was signed the Sun recovery these are or the first seal pups on st Paul Island the middlebury CT and you see they also seem to find out about the same time stabilized and ER than I want a very very rapid decline and that’s not understood and here we are letting some counts of sea lions in eastern Asia presence and so you can see that it wasn’t justice us declined its paintings other species as well to come further south to British Columbians would also reflect large what’s going on in southeast Alaska you see that the pens were opposite harbor seals increased by now in Puget Sound area and the George sugar the highest apart our world increases in sea otters increases in stellar sea lions and if i plug the more recent data we’ve got scale in fact we’ve had in the last two years two new roof restart and British Columbia to move it on the weight of each ebook your status that’s one from 305 type of obsessive the Nasir’s so here’s the million-dollar question why are missing is opposite turns wide it is defining elastic and if anybody seeking

funding you come up with lots of reasons why they did why and of all the melted also put out people are studying every one of these things on and at the end of the day though it comes down to a couple of key ones that are still on the table and I’m going to take you through one piece of evidence we have to sort of which ones of the most likely which ones are for clues so when I started in the early 90s this was the information we had the first was information about body size and it turned out that elastic prohibition game had shocked a sample of animals in the 1970s because that’s what biologists did that time that you shot your animals dissected love the stomach knotted reproductive props and the 1980s they did the same thing the game and it was at a time when I don’t think even realized the population was declined but in hindsight going back to prepare these two data sets discovered that the animals the 1970s the growth curves were physically bigger than at was the 1980s so their period of engine stuff near broke it correlates the plenty of seam lines look at reproductive tracts of these two samples one of the curiousity notice was as your sample animals born from december january march warning this phone we’re discovering a lot of aborted fetuses very help people can just like this one burned in the winter and they have noticed at this time that that when you look the reproductive tracts that as you went closing closer to the time of puppy that few of the animals were still pretty much so pretty important to send reproductive family that appeared to be possible time periods but the most intriguing thing is that animals the 1980s that were nursing a pop they had lower crime series and so again perhaps our fellow containing cruising milk therefore bored with fetuses but that’s what we have for evidence so the third piece was when it would that be age structures of the two samples what was notice is that the animals that I can Amy’s that large thing the young animals were missing and there a cure compliment and so I polished before word there’s a high mortality that’s something that we needed and so out of that then there is the epoxy stick was high or Jewish Bible School the fourth beast comes with diet and what is shown across here starting again to subscribe the time when I first got into this is that the information you have the nineties mrs. frequency of occurrence such as president absence in this this time is people samples you see that eighty-five percent of a dive was gadgets which would be premier the Cobb Paul E flat fish made up about thirteen percent and at the far right is what i call the flash these were things like Caitlin and sand lance think the think of being the small school and more efficient but the curious thing is goes back in time and here going to take you back inside of the daddies but you see as we come down here Scotian eighty-five percent that was 16 and 30 June to you in fact octopod were very rarely seen in the fifties and sixties in this case was in the stomach to vanish on flatfish we seen a similar pattern here of something that was more prevalent in recent times something that was reported at all and the reverse towers look at the flanges but that is at the time the population was healthy is what is most advanced so those are the four clues in the back to this estate so what is it and I think most people picked up whether something going on food and the most likely explanation is something to do with fish and so there would be fishing is able to keep pray and was a bit smaller they can’t milk important pieces young amateur stuff so that’s what we set out to test but all the way restarting ticket information about other chains needs a system not only things connected supergene ships you know a lot of people here you doubt it looking these sorts of questions there’s gonna be some leakage is to prevent that change in diet are they need so much manage today yes there’s a big fishery on us that maybe something changed the ecosystem the other two things on the other table 1 is predators little kid oils particularly oh there was a period of time here she charms and more recently there is a special wherein hypothesis and I’ll just touch on that very briefly to go through I’m not going to touch on the other things they say they’re basically off the table but these are the Centers of three major ones that work force the

nutritional stress the word is headed about and pops about and for most people they get word attritional stress they think of starving animals and anomie you type effects in summary later good showing and we think about being later to overfishing and the major species that are caught ultimate is brown fish and there is declining and involvement very scene / metabolic Pollock Pacific College will further west prog most revolutions so those are the three species of focus on and that there it goes he put it back to us for clues well there must be fewer fishing the fishing public officials go deeper they get harder for the sea lions to capture them with young animals see lights must be down nourish the juveniles are dying in a meeting in wintertime and as soon as you probably need low and fish politics and other policies so all these things were put together and stay at almost like facts because it fits some of the ideas we had about how we can seem important and the result of this there are regulations put into place to try to move fishing further away from or seal interbreeding to move fishing on over time they spread out to the division season so it was less of a pulse effect but the thing is that all these regulations they were based on data they’re based on these assumptions it will show you what these assumptions are all false but that’s what we started from and that’s what Regulation Commission one of the affected area business I did and we were up in 1992 Peter Larkin was to correlate the not sufficient to nations and also look at stealing partition size of rates of change now seemed a book they did find estimate the number of guns shooting other things and I didn’t find anything that made any sense in fact the book too slow were stealing should be most heavily impacting based on information ahead of both diets and dislike and denigration endless sea lions is that so nice Alaska should have been the most impacted and the least impact of words of these human activities of the Western illusion every time exactly groups so I can find anything back out of these six analyses and my impression heavily curious during other houses right now give they look like anything that makes any sense there’s a pattern that hasn’t come forward that can be six only one person has found a correlation with him and this correlation essentially is tied into the time of the regulation for Erica 1989 and 1999 remember the defining herba show those are the two inflection points in the rates of change of C line numbers and unfortunately when recognition put into place we’ve put in a place of very seniors we have those bond every gene chips and a source confound it there are no controls and so one might think there’s two in actions I think actually environment but related devices so what should have happened of course is that should have read maybe the textbook like Carl Walters or others I both need to buy some adaptive management principles you can actually learn a bit of you a fisherman action that’s gather some data to the exact same time and of course there is a one-size-fits-all attitude we don’t do experiments with the species another one and as a result they think absolutely nothing to learn through fishing management you know they would not and just address briefly here about you know are the story ended i’ll be over fish because along which i read about most fish the world indicates that’s been a pattern but from alaska things i think the managed differently there’s one of touch quicker hear about the Marine Stewardship Council and their method of fighting in event of the SS fisheries and using their body label system to reward those the others environmentally responsible and you know fisheries Alaska been certified of the salmon following the Gulf of Alaska Oregon Aleutian Islands masih sibuk on kasturi in duchenne times emergency this name will been updated since it put the spine to get so survey from some independents there appears to be public seems to be entirely relevant at Shea captured the hounds manage so i think when barry argue there’s been no volvo stock production the question comes that what about on the scale that ceiling speed could immobilize depletion and this is something it’s very difficult answer outright except i’m making a point to and say well you know fisheries

of the push much further away and also from what we know no now no but of folksy lines appear to be to land on average it seems unlikely that perhaps medical education but nevertheless it’s not impossible testing this is a map showing you in the critical habitat areas and is abundant red book across here and that’s what is the official habitat first ever see us the most imagine actions that based on and of course a what it wasn’t drawn with a whole lot of native activities and what I’ve over they there’s in fact the covers as some other work that I did look at Gregor’s defined to incorporate information above sea lion Dean Dean come up with such as something that isn’t a hard ass pounding it looks more the probability distribution of sea lion space intensities and based on bottom dedicated Peter and distribution from land so if we show that an alternative and see if some areas on there from our model identity probably aren’t used by Siemens that protected and other areas that are lawless if it’s safe probably should be more generous infection than what the Kirk reservations overall appears the Attic emails do peak was ashore the juvenile statement closer individual other way from London back to feed them and so there’s little need for them to go hope to see with the mothership and the people symbols we did experiment keep animals of the back to return of a lot there also we have one set up in facebook or Polly it’s the end of the floor and we have pre swimming animals we have five animals based okay and this is one experiment we did which was partly to test the assumption of time that fish were dug deeper and young animals going to get down and so what we did is we took her animals out to the desert very deep and we set up here we on a boat and in the carrier metabolic equipment connection is your option exchange determine how much energy costing to feed a fish or to die brother we have this diving platform in the cage the devil comes in with that you sample the air and animals that have been trained to dive down the place of different depths and we’re actually of sending fish out at different rates when a sailor in schools of fish and we set up sometimes two tubes at different depths busy trying to get in the head of the ceiling figure out how do they make their decisions but the interesting thing is doing this experiment is the discovered that it actually costs you a lot more energy to go these deep dollars and this week the difference 10,000 when the postdoc came back and said notes of what is turns up because that is at the plate sike forget it pork and glass of water they trying to push it down and respond to quote that I can surface but the deeper goes such a there’s no longer any effective on the buoyancy and just broke my long it’s not actually they have just been more energy trying to save challenges they do going down to keep things and I’m going to put a 2 by using feeding tube the different apps different rates it’s the animals are very flexible very adaptive portion strategies such that as long as prayer presence in Graham life with this invention of any difficulty in terms of malnourished animals nobody in announcement how many hours I odors the different groups outlook and sea lions nobody’s reported any star communities and I know from those studies that we do it guys who are apparently a community food we can recognize very very quickly when an animal’s getting less than adequate food because you see the hip joint receive as its subtle things occur far good fire before starvation but nobody has yet reported any sign in the defining starting nowish fans to what we were expected to see but the other side of this nutritional stress the gay most people think of as just being animals that can’t get enough to eat go fishing is a possibility in fact that there’s an over London’s fish at the frame and for a lot of people are first hear this its kind of intuitive it doesn’t quite make sense and how good a padre should be defining a sea of plenty and it’s been termed the junk food I Pappas’s and I regret in hindsight that it ensures a better name for which in fact we called nutrilite o’clock because when you are talking about gentle you think of high-calorie food that makes us fat unhealthy but for a sea lion junk food is the opposite it’s actually leaning fish it’s the white-fleshed fish it doesn’t contain

much bad at assigning protein and so the theory goes there’s too many low energy praying God appalling a neat system effectively in your diet and now none of the fatty fish things like sandbags in here and to put on a human skin it’s basically saying so as he learned today in the field of sembly and perhaps and you sort of get the idea but there are some types of food that we can actually eat in abundance and that we not get electrician and a lot more than just a second so a lot of the studies that trying to sort out the different offices that based on trying to compare across the line so British Columbia southeast Alaska’s uns are healthy abundant increasing what’s different what makes them go up compared to the Gulf of Alaska the Aleutian Islands some way is going to collect their fecal samples and volunteers and most of my foot is chris is this and we can look at the diets are merely but also now looking at hormones and also DNA work as well forget other information that we’ve done the arrow observations I’ve had an undergraduate student so when somebody to the winter spring summer that some sites occupied to a four year plan document aspects of the lives that we didn’t know before in fact things that we assume went to task internal and there’s been a number study so that we’ve been involved with a more done so by an efficient service and that’s perfect fishing game in tracking animals at sea in front understand how long they born feeding trips my conditioner so there are a number of assumptions made about what we expect under an older fish and offices and these were the two primaries first is you know and these are based on what we’ve seen for the sub American see modern sense of their converse eels that during any new years from the prayer bomb those animals all very elongating trips looking for friends and population supplying and the time to turn toxic early on short day trips in terms of the weights of their props for population decline months of magic often and answer pumps for the pups are licensed groaning and with bucket healthy living nothing surprising so this was in the metal kicking of late 90s this is what we went out to test we’re all quite condensed to be very easy to show miss and show the fact that prey is missing and so the city is important a few sites but we had behavioral oxidations set up to farm sites there were animals captured an instrumented and sent out and pops her way in different sexes work and so here was one of the studies and the results were here this is using telemetry and the small number of animals that it was motivating the stomach temperature to know what items that actually fallen prey and so on the very first one that is he expected while feeding trips the trips are in fact seven and a half hours on average and we’re expected that could be short incubation do about 14 hours long in terms of the first being events measured by the strong and stomach temperature is called adverse fish less than an hour for the population is declining and almost five hours novel the expected flawed experiment via observations we could actually for the feeding complaints of market females without the same thing short trips the declining population long trips of interest so the instrumentation is what the abominations not only a little puppets exact opposite of me and so the simple explanation here is in the declining areas here all because a major part a very high abundance of the females were finding lots of it short trips coming back producing walks alone for the pups and getting nice feedback cops increasing population other hand their diet is some calling in it but mostly salmon salmon salmon and jus bridge fish but apparently the best of it overall sorta multiply me and therefore spent less time nursing the cops confused lighter homes but the probably the information will receive presented by any indication of the shortage of grade English quantity hungry look at their diets it’s true sea lions eat probably over 100 different species but these are seem to be consistently in the top 10 or 11 species there in San landscape let’s

smell Sam and Pratt fish called rockridge active our octopus rib and solvents and probably both literally sample most these pieces to craft the Sultan’s unless you’re aliens and their kinetic great soup but for most part 13 species that humans also i’m going to show you that there’s a bit more structure to some HD fines and maybe what that overall smooth curve i indicated and this map here it is showing the distribution fear of the rookeries and a goal and illusions and what i’m going to do is show you hear some of the population trends which i’m very lambda and this is through the 1990s and essentially anything is about of this line there landed one was the population of with it below are those that then you see that there are some networks almost had a break-even point during the 90s and others that were quite severe decline and below much going to put an indication of what the size wise the insights on those populations nesco goes down to 1,500 attack but the point of it is to see that they’re covering to four areas hearing that both are excellent populations and rates of decline the rides are slightly negative perspective positive and interesting is that there’s metapopulation structures who here and others at Point M and when you compare care to the diets and i’ll show you here some summer winter dying with more detail but you won’t look at right now but there’s also structure here in the diets that seems to line up with some of the changes in population science so such a dish clusters of species that see the food together it should consistently in people 1720 and when you look back and seeing that some of these be sequestered seeing the timer some of the major passes through the illusions and other use a lot of oceanography that explains why some skis who are there what a short of science the sealons group fears just to show that at the macro is the primary specie everything west of the multipath and everything east is primarily have caught all from other quality but the point is that smell the pass is one of those major dividing lines in a highway and there’s also consider strong potential between the type of Secrets one of the earlier studies would give a lot of credibility to die change factor was punished by dec mary is part of his original HD pieces and what he did was to plot on the y-axis the rate of change of the cement populations and on the x-axis subversive the diet we took these different species of prayer and eat them in a set of categories so sea lion ate from all seven food groups would have an index of seven at the eighth of only one of the seventh valued one and when you find these up for the different areas he came up have a fairly nice correlation we went on to test his theory that there is something new that the more diverse your diet was the better your state was that at least and those at least diversifies declined the most so in southeast Alaska with population had a positive pre-calculated David I diversity and found the point of cure that had a Bellanca credibility to the morning worship diet was better off of course if the thinks about what’s the mechanism is it just diversity or something comes through a month step further and we try to calculate the energy content of the die and work with how much booty in which would mean and so during the same y axis but fear from one of our bioenergetic models we worked out based on the tires how much wooden ceilings happy teachers regions and what you’ll see is we further aggression here is it’s the opposite but sea lions in southeast Alaska shown on the rent on the left being able 16 kilograms of food per day on average and the right of the decline in the Anthony’s more about 20 and so probably the explanation for this diversity really tight back to energy content of prey in size back to stomach capacity the reason the animals and southeast mean even less is because of more energy in the food for those in the far right kind of people were because they other than fish another thing about that more detailed was forced to sit here both dietitian the two areas and this is showing you here out of the Gulf where we have some really nice information interest rate of population decline and what I want to do is to compare the British Columbia where we seeing this very rapid rise to see my numbers and so

the limited data we have indicates the back of the 50s smells and take the make up above fifty percent of an ayah and it’s not reported that I’m joining the lines out here not indicators will linear decline but just draw your attention to two points sometimes obviously the same thing of cup green links and as we come across here to cod five fish airing Sam violence salmon and here’s a big change here with increases in salmon and what would call this is a summertime dying and this is where the bugless you find what about in British Columbia our population is really low we notice all apart because it fun but the fact is that after college stomper population ability which have been talked a long time so what were they eating when the violation is low turns out they’re being locked issues to find more recently and walnut cormorant used to be the part that I helped a mole population and that was very rarely found in the diocese five fish bone fish salmon he and here’s what really change lots of sandbags and lots of hammer and so it’s consistent but it seems that the high populations reading matter fishes and the populations alone and need more always and some assorted with this change also line up with some of the storage pool like a fisherman remember being uppity Kodiak people y’know 60s if you lots of shrimp and seeing this change the codfish payment and then such the birch station Fisher flatbush talk Pollock feed on the train also interesting to compare some of the traditional knowledge and this is one recourse a really caught my attention which covers a 1961 by anthropologists and she don’t cover almost I’ve knowledge of the sea lion verbs diminish 1873 now they’re very common that chemical was a known actively 1475 and appeared unexpectedly and either save and so the point of this and there’s other quotes and other things other sources that point out that this is not the first time 2c minus eight o’clock it wasn’t period 1817 with the most recent decline and also it’s interesting to see that prawn at the macro could also have changed in 115 m and working with anthropologist or art galleries rather also come up with information look at some of the millions in Alaska and picking up its Eli zagat it’s the trigger time have been more abundant than today also period finally compressible and I think this is important perspective in mind that our view of time is very limited a lifetime was short and to go back into history realizing some of the metra seeing today have occurred a challenge of course is trying to sort out what is natural to what has the compounded of the kingdom actions now you sure talk about some of the capital work we’ve done at this case of a Vancouver Aquarium and trimming and I think more require animals there was a metapopulation of fur seals you’re doing studies book and it really is trying to understand what is the effects of changes in diet this was so we published in two thousand actually both testing the generated offices and what we did is we had young sea lions years of age at the time and we were feeding them Harry and without the mean as much as they wanted rohini both five percent of the one degree per day restricts them then 40 two weeks on the palmer and they’re representing both five and a half percent for dead body then put them back on the herring and see the increase of suction dislike so overall before another huge change in consumption they just recognizing what happened to the body rates are very nearly gave up 12 kilos per day but while they’re on there are you can eat all right they were losing weight but point five kilos per day in fact our badasses to stop the experiment instead of unethical to juniors and get us to safety cops but a strange thing is that the animals are not eating more to make up the back of a hand this was the first external evidence it really was something to this junk to the pharmacy and so we’ve done other things we’ve booked at simulation efficiencies the feeding at just the efficient solution to the size of fish and you put all together it turns out that’s comparable inherent in IV summer between thirty five eighty percent more forward Harry to get the same amount energy in terms of the roberio fish is which is why they sum to the important turns out once we got samples from different monthly discovered the worst thing you could have better fish within the will Graham

they very little energy left the best fish from using our experiment Turnipseed one can fall because the vision of beating all summer is a storm of it the best venture into spring and so we actually feed them both energy possible we did some other modern we’re looking at how much food again can see my knee sober six year old it needs about seven percent of its body weight per day in terms of the automotix energetically expensive the fossa janine under what happens in the harbor seal original ver de Wet Seal I stoic cityscape they have a one-year-old animal turns out it needs about twice the energy and what we paddled what fourteen percent of its body so we set up another experiment we could call the sea lion are you bought a study and basic cook food oh because one of the existence of the earlier study was maybe that was a hand in effect because we had trainers offerings much Bishop and perhaps her son source ecology so we set up another study will put these beating trays out and we set up a friend of laundry fish energy fish they gave it the option every day of our second date based on a mediator and someone and what we discovered from this is the sea lions can actually get cold weather you can go and this isn’t a big surprise a lot of people the way mammal feel that an electric pole you don’t pay twice for humans you know your son was one how much he beat the trip over sea lions the same thing and so we discovered that imagine such an a sixteen to eighteen percent of the body weight remember her model says that on an average type native of fourteen percent but turns out that if you only offer them values that that are on the study were actually ate the maximum and cannot assume there the closest to be Laura losing weight so it turns out that a low-energy fish they would have to be consuming mr. case is posted twenty-five to thirty percent of the body and this was on physical and moral here is that all Trisha Autry’s and for RC line of a rain amo sempre nutrition better than it’s not common fresheners so for the juveniles then energetically they are living on the edge and it seems that in this case here that could then lead to early they may well end of this integral the native later agent for Ferb increase the risk of disease appreciation and here’s your other work have done that the range the point is you stick with Devon burn extra two or three years because the adults have a stomach if they’re not limited many young animals are a dynamic identity oh that’s the most expensive part of living and the adults who fish bone can actually do perfectly well young and mr. Nam trying to understand a bit more about why it is that there is so much that give me so much Gavin’s in the c-line diet and this ties back I’d be true them to be a sort of commotion climate and the music here so you could get oscillations sort of make the point that it’s look back at this time period over the past hundred years there been major shifts here what it’d be good we’ve seen refer to more berries too cold back to war an interesting with the sea lion data is we really ever to look at in two Germans the start is dying seal on it when you were high they were sending a period of low and you have to keep in context that we’re to starting point once this is where the main animal the first point is I think it’d be six and resolve as become her records and that’s where he thinks he might even get action without recognizing they’re probably in shifting an abundance from longtime right position i met a woman who grew up on Marvin Hyman and she broke through the thirties and forties and stayed on ensuring all the time we just know some ice and that it’s climbing on in 50 see I can get reading there and it won’t able to do speeches and so there are some kunis or is irrelevant that chunk of some of the period of any joint what’s the mechanism one possibility is that in pokkiri that a lot of the farm production stays up and we support a species fear and effort of the water column and during a full period may well be transferred and so that’s one possible mechanism is a dire study being from a stranger to be focused on testing some of these hypotheses or warmers full and by understanding of the mechanisms that promises I think someone has ultimately

tie interest and what happens overseas killer whales what more was a plane I think they have a disagreeable but not in the way you think they’re as we have commercial whaling alesis myself and others of our evaluators to fasten a connoisseur’s but it just doesn’t match up with what we know and the other areas so number killer whales and diets her habits and when the customer world similar the women prohibit you didn’t see any sorts of things but I don’t think about a positive supportive but because of a love the fact that killed us would still be very important system and I make that fun i’m going to show you and people think this a model that the silicon that was in charge of putting together we did it here for the Aleutian Islands and what we’re trying to do was essentially fit some smooth camps here of service here through the through the 60s out to 2001 look at these different factors fishing killer whales large flat fish and also put an environmental factor essentially built along using fingers you know and so putting all these factors together we’re able to not surprised me about like a good fit and then the interesting I’ve decided just to come back now and we will need to be started from long see how we change the predictions for example early march blackfish you discover that you don’t see much change so very have in this suggesting that if original packaging system enter slightly more see lines from fishing again see nothing character McBride the decline the suggestions that may be something that be different in a pen killer whales they not bribery decline but suggesting that have a much bigger effective and finally the major driving force behind this as we plan turned out is what disruptive pattern here is this case you’re using p but appear sent from this model which are you drawing said potion fireman appears to be the major driving force but is victory and non prediction is get to the tail and most of the prohibition can have that a large effect on small populations I think that makes good sense it’s really equated to your mortgage that got a nice big comfy mortgage beginning of it paying off the interest payment you’re not touching your principal at all when they get out of the camp into some temptation so hoaxes upgradation probably has a big effect a small monthly should come online and the other by motor maker this is that the grace of predation commentary by reach level my step and the summary to kick them adventuring sound and putting it here there seem to be five rails that specialize in fiddled with on stellar sea lions but elsewhere they appear to be others DC and sealing spell appear to be a partner dies how does it all work let me put the pieces together I think to do this you need to almost think of an evolutionary biologist and think about some of the basic biology of sea lions so of course a thing about the biology it’s also important to rethink through some of them used to think of a customized by only function or the like history well wonder I mean by that well originally when i first started by my first screen record for decent amount in november and december to document meaning sea lions that we’re starting that’s what all the ceiling biologist at the time that Edith e that was the thought and so bored manoj not only lost great that Mitchell’s you didn’t say a single see Miami just a few things one wasn’t saw sea lions I’m catching fish young ceilings here props or merely playing the fish but we were signing of an extra small and we also saw the starbucks I’m sure that if I still know from other females and by the time I was kind of strange you know why don’t they just go and eat fish does it build it cash it but they weren’t human another forward that is when we brought sea lion pups in the first time included burning another 90 94 push group and beginning you know based on the Vista decided okay january first this is when they need in the wild that’s we took them all off to milk bottles but by fishing with them to kill the playing with them did there’s nothing but skeleton and questioning a tank it wouldn’t swallow any we then trying to force people and they were bigger without the one swallow it some kind of a gag reflex forbidden swamp find that and put it in clanton up shop massage the throws a great way to link

to the book voluntary small and so there’s something here and you now understand that i can say is animal serving fish except isn’t it they’re not going to make it snow and i think that they evolved do this same kind of put up here is to be that the thing was that the animal unit in terms of the bats actually long and we picked up in us because we kept trying to figure out whether they need and one things we noticed up here was this is summertime and you see these bulls bull terriers and some of those have been harems and what we notice is the fact they aren’t protecting meeting areas well the pups are born at these non breeding sites the males are actually propagating all the females over there there’s a lot of sex going on at these sites so it appears then that all the females are getting pregnant here going out to go back to convert or not they stay that they’re juveniles or some cases not pregnant along our current pops and so in the envelope edible 88 rookeries there’s about six hundred always it may these are probably central survival of the species because of my ingredients though not personally and the other thing is looking at reproductive failure a number of biologists I felt included a noted economy as i showed you voted one to be found one venture and so I just one side of critics and weary had students have her hole here they were actually one thing to try to do this count on the pizzas and here’s the site they’re observing and unfortunately even though you there about for abortion to perish then we kind of ate january-february march but the one thing that there are various strategies that they notice that the Eagles are coming in and what company he ever had an English food down but they are huge and the ego for coming regularly is sweeping them fearing the Hall of all the animals and scaring them along and so then we’re actually reporting disturbances caused by Eagles and this is the pattern of the circuits and what they notice there’s also the people for doing and during this career they can see the ego actually dripping up something on the wrong and it appears a complicated i should see them eating the penises have been noted and so out of us appears that in other good proxy for abortions and he’s appeared in december to enter very large there’s a second peak here in disturbance and this was associated with a nest above the hallway and even sometimes you’re swooping off that enough to put it means their peers of the heat over enemy the innocence of appearing during these months but the interesting is that what we discover from repeat the going on is the animals are canadian picture they’re actually leaning in june almost when their four-year-old or poultry and then it won’t care in terms of the food consumption this is actually aim for models of the yellow awning first one to show you what is the food consumption for an animal that’s non-pregnant and you can see a fairly consistent pattern the beginning Carter’s been associated with growth in accidental sighs and then pretty stable afterwards they can see the cost here yesterday for getting pregnant it’s very little you don’t eat that much more food to maintain computers but if you have a pup because of a semi or sent more energy to have that problem and so the strategy entity for the sea lines is evolved that in the CEO gathers it since if he the nursing a pocket humina to this again one year it’s going to talk and people manage another pocket too and they’re waiting to make this happen if you actually keep the pot you can abort the fetus and as a result of long essentially supplementing or making up a change in a deep or pollen cartridge into individual chains until the pump is now big enough of these two or three can so constructed the most difficult so he discovered as meaningless parading summer not butcher and about 12 years old and so I think then we have the strategy that has evolved through tens of thousands of years in city there’s change your honor everything is pregnant we’ve been afford to keep the puck when times are tough and this base time to talk put it down not the difference and that will thank you touch a birthright by over fifty percent and so I think whether the statement early years what the instructor said it wasn’t the pups work with dime so different what about effective body signs this ties and dams gets following a trigger and to do this what it is a kind of student nitrogen and energy gets sea lion Scrolls we

found six hundred skulls for museums and collections of the world and we want to see commercial office about it great both for schools I wonder how many ways be measurable account the port and what we wanted to do was to such a book yet before Africa Asia and what we were expecting to find based on the published paper showing different body size that L get smaller pouring down in fact is that the animal spectator was something that also wrote it’s an adult size but the juveniles actually that bigger act on commissioners it in get smaller and I think the explanation for that is as I stayed with remarks in this field of all of akkad some whisper produces more energy for the growing up faster and we so it turns out that really is actually one of those same team of the skulls is that from 597 strove for 39 measurements and did a discriminant function analysis and then we group them here so the suppose it came from Asia compared to the ones from fishbone get at California and another group here from Alaska and so what we can see is that we’re actually able to classify the self-directed based on your judgment 74 to ninety percent of time so I has credence to the user the genetics the fact that there are these three distinct units and that was something that we had expected full force i studied curiosity and I’m what prevented recent season c3 so finally giving distributed for clues I think if you look back at the evidence as you start adding other dive information from unknown British Columbia we find out as a diet change over time in terms of birth rates again all this data here seems consistent with both the current understanding of biology so that gets to Jupiter survival I think that these data were misinterpreted at the time and the space idea that animals need every year just like a personal done harbor seal and didn’t take no account the fact that animals if they have this play Beijing and so another way interpret it is that they it’s not that they it dives into work more and you come up something saying since there’s a lot more modern work done trying to fit different sorts of assumptions to the declines and appears to be sort of combination would you start remind us of mortality of them delayed intervening and also some of that dick in a very short period of simple palliative panels but appears that the other line think Bubba have the nutrition based associated with fire by side story that was published it doesn’t work these are we look at the skulls and I one of these are realizing going back to the original fairy forces think one reason is the animals and one you’re going downtown in the next decade of every le Pam and it actually a for you measure and will change ISA sighs and turns out because they never collected data for this purpose they didn’t have the same methods I think that’s part of it we’re going to try to do is actually match up some of the skulls but at the ends were measured because I think at the end of home stone those are very firm separate units unlike local sister you kind of measure of pressure so we’re going to try to make one up now what about the evidence of our fishing you know we have any sign of starving animals and any sign of animals that can’t buy enough food all the animals look to be very very healthy to see and there’s no evidence that they’re having difficulty in this case infirm to just over which is the primary partner diet with but I think then the imminence points here division ships cause some change who but the secondary director of deviation of the population seen under solo I think in some areas can go with probably do some serious damage to recovery does the same signs of the diamonds including I think that they’re now planning for a larger fish so final conclusion in terms of what went on the existing has change they do the shiftable requirement it hasn’t collapsed it thinks have to repeated any of the actions of humans the define a sea lion Spears we primarily do the reproductive failure and predation associated with this dominance of going to play energy persistence and in terms of the question posed to both groundfish

fisheries and sea lions and a to coexist I think that the science indicates the sea lions can and are coexisting and groundfish fisheries unfortunately science tends to be ignored or discounted if it doesn’t agree with personal use and prepare referring to the person we spoke you and I think about how the world works and of an Apophis to be true when I first after this but what I learned over the years is that the filtering use of science it’s about what science you want to accept or no such a basic our views about how we make the world actually works in this case lot of use is the score basis I think and I kind of a garlicky what is pristine until issues came but looking back won’t return back so as a result I think this court system this one and it’s not just the large whales recovering so quickly than that whales is one of the people are now between two is also somewhere company fin whales in some areas and they’re consuming polanco the door productions and it just really a ton of another having effect is when under ingredient and destinies of the abundance deposit and we can go get in some sense of a better parent populations in the case compaq presario factor coming into play that people are being directly to counter them another factor of a large box ish give it everything founder and oh that’s something that and only this my person said this was in the late nineties for the i equal path model when rather just so shocked to see the perfect level of response my official level very close to the ceiling and so the share very similar time I think that’s another factor other side I think I’m always there you know George hunters is picked up on that also first yet so i think that much flatbush and terminal populations are other things that can compare recover some and in convincing argument I think about the whole the portion of privacy at some point probably you are boring and it may be very different for that really okay from that that it is a really long term strategy Patrick couple decades or maybe an extravagant large relation fluctuations in the past before we have any information in there for but really don’t have to worry about population not much as reality because it that way and the concern is more that what creates cockpit again what people call it lack of recovery babysit what’s going to cause an increase again for something else yes and I think you know so let’s say that i’ve got a great does that mean is broken of all these clothes airers division and that’s should not be the take home message because Gramma’s says we’ve talked about the effects of purification but as they see my part that you can follow there are actually three years and so i think one has to be more cautionary as you get them to lower levels and do some assessment although even in the more recent work i know i did of population viability analysis few years ago and things are looking good and more recent mass is done using more recent data suggest do a lot of stability give me a lot more complex so one thing is to keep aware that at low levels there’s greater risk of things happening doesn’t mean just to touch on replay it is is depression about this abortionist and haven’t evolved and you know written that mind it was wow that must be tied into animals reversing that this pressure lactation subtle makes the

Phenom before except that there’s no sign we worship a very intimidating februari it probably not serving any fish at all young ones until maybe the earlies might be equal pain and so what’s the mechanism and I think part of it might be when they’re being around sup requirement you can actually produce in an animal hydroponic Harry to animals have looked on the outside to be physically identical both tongue cost but actually booked at the competition the one that a partner only had a little bit of battle results on a tissue and the one of the parent had started off on that although it’s the other sides are either both again and I think that there’s something there the so probably if Tina’s already sense the environment and so it’s probably a function of ownership if it catches Carey combined with the pressure of yours so I think there’s probably a hormonal changes positive but they were something i was some of the prenatal specialist at the hospital at coover president is any indication or the human literature everything else that might but to me this is one of the missing gaps they don’t know we’ve never tested experimentally for moving on ethics committee village do it but I think that’s another piece here to come in but I suspect that those females that this is the mechanism it’s their young that would reproduce their long as you want those it kept going to each year additional tests on so I think that they have involved yeah that yourself blinded see lines and assisting in the age of me as we some adaptive function and they got helps to shape it look back you’re sort of effort in making sense I think all the pieces come together and partly all makes sense but the eastern BPS is showing a very very humanity and yeah they don’t between these there is a big difference is ray look at the diet nowhere near as much Paula refining for example imagistic British other things that have a huge amount of sardines in the diet the animals lotsa hironaka sentiments the diet really have been United day between areas although more recently refinished ship in the diet and forage and for the species coming into that system and so much I’ve not been seen in quite a lot at the finances I think if there are shifts that are occurring the only convinced the sardines miss the best thing about starting one major change they are but other things like sand lance and herring or lessee salmon dental braces whether our subspecies and agganis tend to be more wintertime States another one which overconfident realign the diets of the sea lions are very markedly from the beaches and after so that those are reflecting some indications what getting for sampling from weapons there great yeah we have an honor student and he tried to test them and so we have a walk to the door opens up and you have as one side the precision user you squared pairing ceremony and Paul and essentially did it two ways one is and the cycle Bishop course were different and so essentially the only have a choice of one to one they would surely big / small so salmon all right Aaron bridge but if you put up people weights so be the same elf amounts they were choosing a salmon herring public square back not a psychic squared I read one animal just refuse they part of it I’m not directly balance and so we never went any further with this but we did that simple choice experience or see past against we didn’t see an increase in Sweden I can comment on the Holocaust squid isn’t a huge part of the diet of sea lions octopuses be a bigger component and for example prefers his food is much more important Summa cetaceans as well in terms of the energetic cost of a gesture it turns out that it’s difficult for them to digest maybe they want water out there but energetically not getting as much and

it’s actually the batter fish are easier to digest in the near species and so actually so there’s twice to get your calories us have to burn more energy it justice oh yeah