NASA’s Mars 2020 Perseverance Rover – Countdown to Mars

♪ >> AFTER A DECADE IN THE MAKING, NASA IS JUST WEEKS AWAY FROM LAUNCHING ITS NEXT MISSIONING TO MARS WE ARE HERE TODAY TO TALK ABOUT THE MARS 2020 PERSEVERANCE ROVER AND MARS HELICOPTER I’M FROM NASA’S JET PROPULSION LABORATORY IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA I’M GOING TO BE YOUR HOST TODAY SINCE WE ARE SOCIAL DISTANCING, I WILL INTRODUCE YOU VIRTUALLY TO THE PEOPLE WHO ARE WORKING TO GET THE ROVER TO THE LAUNCH PAD ON OUR PANEL TODAY WE HAVE NASA ADMINISTRATOR JIM BRIGHTSONSTEIN DIRECTOR LORI GLAZE WILL DISCUSS NASA STRATEGY FOR EXPLORING MARS DEPUTY PROJECT SCIENTIST KATIE MORGAN WILL TELL US WHY WE HAVE CHOSEN OUR LANDING SITE AND WHAT WE HOPE TO FIND THERE MATT WALLACE WILL GO OVER WHAT MAY BEINGS THIS DIFFERENT DEPUTY ELECTRICAL LEAD HAS AN UPDATE WHAT WE ARE DOING ON THE SPACECRAFT RIGHT NOW NASA LAUNCH DIRECTOR WILL GIVE US AN UPDATE ABOUT LAUNCH PREPARATIONS WE’LL START WITH NASA ADMINISTRATOR, JIM, CAN YOU BELIEVE WE ARE ONLY A MONTH AWAY FROM LAUNCH? >> IT’S PRETTY AMAZING WHAT A GREAT TIME TO BE AT NASA WHAT A GREAT TIME TO WATCH THE EXCITING THINGS THAT NASA IS DOING I WILL TELL YOU, WE HAVE TO REMEMBER THAT NASA HAS AN AMAZING ABILITY TO DO STUNNING ACHIEVEMENTS EVEN IN THE MIDST OF DIFFICULT TIMES I’M IN MY LIVING ROOM IN THE MIDST OF THE CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC I KNOW ALL OF US HAVE BEEN WORKING OVERTIME, WORKING FROM HOME, WORKING WITH OUR CHILDREN IN MANY CASES OUT OF SCHOOL AND IT’S BEEN A CHALLENGE AND WE ALL KNOW THAT BUT THIS MISSIO WAS ONE OF TWO MISSIONS THAT WE PROTECTED TO MAKE SURE WE WERE GOING TO BE ABLE TO LAUNCH IN JULY THE REASON THAT’S IMPORTANT IS BECAUSE OF THE ALIGNMENT WHEN YOU TALK ABOUT EARTH AND MARS BEING ON THE SAME SIDE OF THE SUN, THAT HAPPENS ONCE OVER 26 MONTHS IT’S VERY EXPENSIVE, IF WE HAVE TO TAKE PERSEVERANCE AND PUT IT BACK INTO STORAGE FOR A PERIOD OF TWO YEARS IT COULD COST HALF A BILLION DOLLARS SO THIS IS AN IMPORTANT MISSION FOR A WHOLE HOST OF REASONS WHAT I HOPE IS THAT PEOPLE WATCH THIS MISSION AND THAT THEY ARE INSPIRED THAT WE KNOW THAT WE CAN STRIVE AND ACHIEVE EVEN IN THE MIDST OF CHALLENGING TIMES SO I THINK THAT’S IMPORTANT ALEX MATHER IN NORTHERN VIRGINIA ACTUALLY NAMED THIS LITTLE ROBOT, I SHOULD SAY BIG ROBOT WE ARE TALKING SOMETHING THE SIZE OF AN SUV HE NAMED IT PERSEVERANCE I THINK RIGHT NOW MORE THAN EVER THAT NAME IS SO IMPORTANT AND I JUST WANT TO THANK ALEX TO GIVING US THAT NAME BECAUSE WE ARE PERSEVERING AND WE ARE ACHIEVING EVEN IN THE MIDST OF THESE CHALLENGING TIMES I ALSO WANT TO SAY THAT WE ARE TALKING ABOUT MARS TODAY WE HAVE A BIG AGENDA WE HAVE BEEN GIVEN A DIRECTIVE TO GO TO MARS WITH HUMANS TO ACHIEVE THAT, WE ARE BUILDING AN ARCHITECTURE AT THE MOON WHERE HUMANS WILL SUSTAIN FOR LONG PERIODS OF TIME AND DOING THAT UNDER OUR PROGRAM CALLED ARTEMIS WE ARE MOVING FORWARD WITH THESE VERY IMPORTANT MARS ROBOTIC PRECURSOR MISSIONS SO WHEN WE SEND HUMANS TO MARS, WE KNOW WHERE TO GET THE BEST SCIENCE AND DATA WE CAN GET IT’S NOT LOST ON ME THAT 51 YEARS AGO ON JULY 20, THIS IS IMPORTANT, 51 YEARS AGO ON JULY 20 NEIL ARMSTRONG AND BUZZ ALDRON WERE WALKING ON THE MOVE, THEY DID THE FIRST LUNAR RETURN MISSION HERE WE ARE 51 YEARS LATER GETTING READY TO DO THE MARS RETURN MISSION SO THESE, I THINK, ARE IMPORTANT MILESTONES WE HAVE DONE IT WITH THE MOON, NOW WE’LL DO IT WITH MARS PERSEVERANCE IS THE FIRST STEP IN A RETURN OF THOSE SAMPLES THE THING THAT HAS ME THE MOST EXCITED AS THE NASA ADMINISTRATOR IS GETTING READY

TO WATCH A HELICOPTER FLY ON ANOTHER WORLD THAT’S NEVER BEEN DONE BEFORE IN HUMAN HISTORY HERE WE ARE GETTING READY TO LAUNCH MARS PERSEVERANCE WITH INGENUITY, ITS LITTLE HELICOPTER STRAPPED TO IT I’M EXCITED TO WATCH A HELICOPTER FLY IN ANOTHER WORLD YOU WILL HEAR GREAT THINGS OF THIS EXPERIMENTS AND TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATIONS WE ARE EXCITED ABOUT MARS PERSEVERANCE IT’S A GREAT TIME TO BE AT NASA AND I HOPE IT’S A GREAT TIME TO WATCH ALL THE THINGS NASA IS CAPABLE OF DOING >> THANKS, JIM, IT IS AN EXCITING FIRST STEP FOR ANYONE THAT WOULD LIKE TO SUBMIT A QUESTION, USE THE ASK NASA HASHTAG UP NEXT, PLANETARY SCIENCE DIRECTOR LORI GLAZE WILL TALK ABOUT THE PERSEVERANCE ROVER ADVANCES NASA’S EXPLORATION OF MARS >> THANKS IT IS MY PLEASURE TO BE HERE TODAY AS WE BEGIN OUR COUNTDOWN TO MARS AND THE LAUNCH OF THE PERSEVERANCE ROVER AT NASA OUR VISION FOR SCIENCE IS TO LEAD A GLOBALLY ENTER CONNECTED PROGRAM OF DISCOVERY THAT ENCOURAGES INNOVATION, POSITIVELY IMPACTS PEOPLE’S LIVES AND A SOURCE OF INSPIRATION AND THIS MISSION DOES ALL OF THAT PERSEVERANCE IS THE MOST SOPHISTICATED MISSION WE HAVE EVER SENT TO THE RED PLANET SURFACE IT’S THE NEXT STEP IN OUR HISTORIC MARS EXPLORATION PROGRAM WHICH HAS BEEN EXPLORING MARS AND UNLOCKING ITS SECRETS FOR DECADES WE COULDN’T BE MORE EXCITED ABOUT IT SOME OF PERSEVERANCE’S MAIN ACTIVITIES WILL BE AN ASTRO BIOLOGY, THE STUDY OF HOW LIFE COMES TO BE, THE ENVIRONMENTS THAT CAN SUPPORT LIFE AND THE SEARCH TO SEE IF LIFE EXISTS ANYWHERE ELSE BEYOND EARTH THIS IS THE FIRST ROVER MISSION DESIGNED TO SEEK SIGNS OF PAST MICROBIAL LIFE BY COLLECTING ROCK AND SOIL SAMPLES THAT WILL BE RETURNED TO EARTH THE ROVER’S INSTRUMENTS WILL LOOK FOR EVIDENCE OF ANCIENT HABITABLE ENVIRONMENTS AND MONITOR ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS WHICH WILL HELP US BETTER UNDERSTAND HOW TO PROTECT FUTURE HUMAN EXPLORERS THE ROVER WILL STUDY THE RECORD THAT’S PRESERVED IN THE LAYERS OF ROCK, LOOKING FOR THE ROCKS THAT FORM IN WATER AND COULD HAVE PRESERVED EVIDENCE OF THE CHEMICAL BUILDING BLOCKS OF LIFE THE ROVER WILL DEMONSTRATE A KEY TECHNOLOGY FOR USING NATURAL RESOURCES IN THE ENVIRONMENT FOR LIFE SUPPORT AND FUEL, LIKE PRODUCING OXYGEN FROM THE CARBON DIOXIDE ITS LANDING TECHNOLOGY WILL HELP INFORM FUTURE HUMAN MISSIONS TO MARS IT’S THE FIRST STEP IN THE FIRST EVER ROUND TRIP MISSION TO ANOTHER PLANET IN OUR SOLAR SYSTEM SCIENTISTS HAVE WANTED A SAMPLE OF MARS TO STUDY FOR GENERATIONS WE HAVE METEORITES ON EARTH THAT CAME FROM MARS BUT IT’S NOT THE SAME AS GETTING A SAMPLE OF PRISTINE ROCKS AND SOIL TO STUDY NOW WE CAN ATTEMPT THIS AMAZING FEAT SAMPLES HAVE THE POTENTIAL TO CHANGE OUR UNDERSTANDING OF THE ORIGIN, EVOLUTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF LIFE ON EARTH AND ELSEWHERE IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM EVEN NOW NASA CONTINUES TO STUDY MOON SAMPLES BROUGHT BACK BY THE APOLLO PROGRAM MORE THAN 50 YEARS AGO WE EXPECT SAMPLES TO PROVIDE NEW KNOWLEDGE AS WE STUDY THEM WITH STATE-OF-THE-ART LABORATORY EQUIPMENT WE COULDN’T POSSIBLY TAKE TO MARS RIGHT NOW THE PLAN IS MULTIFACETED AND COMPLEX IT REQUIRES MULTIPLE SPACECRAFT AND OUR PARTNERS AT THE EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY WORKING TOGETHER LET ME SHOW YOU HOW FIRST, PERSEVERANCE IS GOING TO DRILL AND PREPARE SAMPLES FOR RETURN AND CACHE THEM ON THE SURFACE OF MARS IN 2026 A ROCKET WILL BE LAUNCHED INTO ORBIT AROUND MARS ANOTHER ORBITER WILL RENDEZVOUS AND CAPTURE THOSE SAMPLES FOR SAFE DELIVERY TO EARTH

IF IT SOUNDS COMPLICATED, IT IS NASA’S INVESTMENTS IN DEVELOPING ROBOTS AND LANDING LARGE PAY LOADS ON MARS HAVE LAID THE GROUND WORK FOR A SUCCESSFUL RETURN CAMPAIGN WE ARE THRILLED TO BE WORKING WITH THE EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY AND PARTNERS FROM SPAIN, NORWAY AND FRANCE AS WE TAKE OUR NEXT STEPS IN EXPLORING THE SOLAR SYSTEM YOU PROBABLY WANT TO KNOW MORE ABOUT HOW PERSEVERANCE IS GOING TO ACCOMPLISH ITS MISSION AND FOR THAT KATIE IS GOING TO TALK ABOUT OUR LANDING SITE WHICH IS A REALLY SPECIAL PLACE ON MARS >> THANKS, LORI IN ONE MONTH’S TIME PERSEVERANCE WILL BEGIN ITS JOURNEY TO MARS IT WILL BE A CRATER ON THE INNER RIM ON THE SURFACE OF MARS WE’LL HAVE ACCESS TO SOME OF THE OLDEST ROCKS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM, AS WELL AS A RECORD OF DIVERSE PROCESSES ASSOCIATED WITH WATER AT THE SURFACE AND SUBSURFACE THAT CAN TELL US ABOUT HOW THE PLANET EVOLVED OVER TIME WE THINK IT WAS HOME TO A VARIETY OF POTENTIAL HABITABLE ENVIRONMENTS WHERE PERSEVERANCE CAN BEGIN ITS SEARCH FOR THE SIGNS OF ANCIENT LIFE ON MARS IT’S HOST TO ONE OF THE BEST PRESERVED DELTAS THEY FORM WHEN RIVERS ENTER OPEN BODIES OF RIVERS THEY ARE ONE OF THE PRIME TARGETS FOR THE PERSEVERANCE MISSION ALSO, WE SEE CARBON MINERALS AROUND THE INNER RIM OF THE CRATER BASED ON WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT THEM, WE THINK THEY ARE ANOTHER REALLY IMPORTANT POTENTIAL TARGET FOR THE MISSION WE’LL HAVE A CHANCE TO EXPLORE THE CRATER RIM WHICH EXPOSES SOME OF THOSE OLDEST ROCKS IN THE FIELD SITE AS WELL AS POTENTIAL HABITABLE ENVIRONMENTS THAT MIGHT HAVE FORMED AS A RESULT OF THAT IMPACT EVENT ITSELF AT EACH ONE OF THESE LOCATIONS, WE’LL SEARCH FOR BIOSIGNATURES, PATTERNS, TEXTURES OR SUBSTANCES WE DON’T KNOW FOR SURE WHAT THEY ARE GOING TO LOOK LIKE BUT WE CAN LOOK TO OUR OWN EARTH ROCK RECORD WHAT YOU SEE HERE IS A 3.4 BILLION-YEAR-OLD ROCK FROM AUSTRALIA THIS IS A FOSSILIZED MAT EACH ONE OF THESE LAYERS REPRESENTS THE GROWTH OVER TIME IF YOU LOOK AT THAT ROCK, YOU WOULDN’T KNOW FOR SURE IT WAS A POTENTIAL BIOSIGNATURE YOU COUPLE THE TEXTURES, THE CHEMICALS AND DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC CARBON, YOU CAN BUILD A CASE THAT COULD ONLY HAVE FORMED UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF LIFE THIS IS THE THING WE DO ON LIFE TO MAKE A CASE IN OUR OWN ROCK RECORD AND USING OUR INSTRUMENTS, WE CAN DO THAT ON MARS USING THAT DETAIL COUPLED WITH THE CONTEXT, WE’LL DO OUR BEST TO IDENTIFY, COLLECT AND DOCUMENT THE MOST COMPELLING SCIENTIFIC CACHE OF SAMPLES WE CAN TO ADDRESS BIG PICTURE QUESTIONS, FUNDAMENTAL QUESTIONS INCLUDING HOW DID THE SURFACE AND CLIMATE OF MARS EVOLVE OVER TIME, HOW DO ROCKY PLANETS FORM AND WAS LIFE EVER PRESENT ON MARS TO ACCOMPLISH THIS, WE ARE GOING TO USE A SCIENTIFIC PAY LOAD OF SEVEN INSTRUMENTS SOME OF THEM ON THE END OF THE ROVER’S ARM WHICH PROVIDE THE MAPPING CAPABILITIES AS WELL AS RIM FACTS THAT USES RADAR ARE BRAND NEW WE NEVER SENT THEM TO MARS BEFORE OTHER INSTRUMENTS LIKE THE SUPER CAM ARE UPDATED VERSIONS OF INSTRUMENTS WE FLEW ON CURIOSITY THEY REPRESENT CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATORS AND WELL SUITED FOR HELPING MARS 2020 ACCOMPLISH ITS OBJECTIVES WE ARE PREPARING FOR FUTURE HUMAN EXPLORATION WE ARE USING INSTRUMENTS LIKE THE MOXY WHICH TAKES CO2, CONVERTS IT TO OXYGEN WHICH IS RELEVANT FOR LIFE SUPPORT AND CREATION OF FUEL WE HAVE THE META INSTRUMENT, THE WEATHER PACKAGE THAT MEASURES TEMPERATURE, PRESSURE, HUMIDITY, WHICH IS PIECES OF INFORMATION THAT ASTRONAUTS WANT TO KNOW SO WE ARE STILL EIGHT MONTHS AWAY FROM PERSEVERANCE LANDING ON MARS WE ARE PRIORITIZING OUR MOST IMPORTANT SCIENCE QUESTIONS, TRYING TO FIGURE OUT WHERE WE WOULD GO TO ANSWER THE QUESTIONS AND THINKING ABOUT WHAT SAMPLES WE WANT TO PUT ON OUR SAMPLE

CACHE WE CAN’T WAIT TO GET PERSEVERANCE TO THE SURFACE OF MARS I WILL HAND THINGS OVER TO MATT WALLACE WHO WILL TELL US MORE ABOUT THE ENGINEERING SIDE OF PERSEVERANCE AND TELL YOU SOME OF THE CHALLENGES WE HAVE HAD TO OVERCOME >> THANKS, KATIE PERSEVERANCE IS A BIG ONE METRIC TON VEHICLE IT’S A CAPABLE SYSTEM AT FIRST GLANCE IT LOOKS LIKE THE CURIOSITY VEHICLE WE HAVE BEEN ABLE TO LEVERAGE A LOT OF THE INVESTMENT THAT WAS MADE TO BRING CURIOSITY TO THE SURFACE, THE LANDING SYSTEM HAS SOME COMMONALITY THIS VEHICLE IS A NEW MISSION A NEW VEHICLE WITH NEW CAPABILITIES KATIE TALKED ABOUT THESE ENHANCED INSTRUMENTATION WHICH WE ARE TAKING WITH US AND TECHNOLOGY EXPERIMENTS I WILL MENTION A COUPLE OF THE ENGINEERING SYSTEMS STARTING WITH THE WHEELS AT THE BOTTOM OF THE VEHICLE, THERE ARE SIX WHEELS, THEY HAVE BEEN RUGGEDIZED SO THEY ARE CAPABLE OF DEALING WITH THE SURFACE OF MARS AND ANYTHING IT CAN THROW AT US WE HAVE A NEW POWERFUL COMPUTER WE HAVE ADDED IT’S DOING DOUBLE DUTY ITS FIRST TASK IS TO HELP US GET ON TO THE SURFACE OF THE PLANET IT’S TAKING IMAGERY OF THE SURFACE DURING THE DISSENT ACTIVITY AND PROCESSING THAT IMAGERY AND FIGURING OUT WHERE WE ARE, UNDERSTANDING RELATIVE TO THE DIFFERENT HAZARDS IN THE CRATER AND DIVERT THE SPACECRAFT AWAY FROM THOSE HAZARDS IT’S A VERY INTERESTING SCIENTIFIC TARGET THAT’S GOT A LOT OF RELIEF, ROCKS, CLIFFS, HILLS, THINGS LIKE THAT WHICH ARE GREAT FOR SCIENCE BUT THEY ARE ALSO CHALLENGING FOR LANDING A SPACECRAFT ON MARS THIS NEW SYSTEM WILL KEEP US SAFE IN GOING TO THIS EXCITING NEW SCIENCE TARGET OF THE CRATER WE USE THIS COMPUTER TO HELP US PROCESS IMAGERY ON THE SURFACE MORE RAPIDLY BY DOING THAT, WE CAN LOOK FOR HAZARDS AND AVOID THEM AS WE ARE DOING OUR SCIENCE MISSION THAT ALLOWS US TO DRIVE TWICE THE SPEED CURIOSITY WAS ABLE TO DRIVE IN ADDITION TO THE COMPUTER, WE HAVE NEW CAMERAS ALL OUR MISSIONS CARRY A LOT OF SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING CAMERAS TO BEGIN WITH WE HAVE SOMETHING NEW WE HAVE TAKEN SOME RUGGEDIZED COMMERCIAL CAMERAS AND DISPENSED THEM AROUND THE SPACECRAFT THOSE CAMERAS WILL BE TAKING HIGH DEFINITION VIDEO OF THE SPACECRAFT DURING THE ENTRY, DISSENT AND LANDING ACTIVITY WE SHOULD BE ABLE TO WATCH THIS PARACHUTE INFLATE, WATCH THE ROVER DEPLOY AND TOUCHDOWN ON THE SURFACE IT’S EXCITING, IT’S THE FIRST TIME WE HAVE BEEN ABLE TO SEE A SPACECRAFT LAND ON ANOTHER PLANET WE ARE LOOKING FORWARD TO THAT IMAGERY WE TAKE A LOT OF CAMERAS WITH US TO THE SURFACE OF MARS AND WE HAVE ON PREVIOUS MISSIONS A LOT OF EYES BUT WE HAVE NEVER TAKEN EARS THIS TIME WE ARE TAKING A COUPLE OF MICROPHONES THEY WILL BE ACTIVE DURING THE ENTRY, DISSENT AND LANDING ACTIVITY WE SHOULD BE ABLE TO HEAR THE SYSTEM AS IT’S GOING THROUGH THE PROCESS OF LANDING ON MARS WHEN WE GET ON MARS, WE’LL BE ABLE TO TURN ON THE MICROPHONE, LISTEN TO THE WHEELS TURN OVER THE SURFACE ON THE ROCKS, LISTEN TO OUR DRILL OUT ON THE END OF THE ROBOT ARM, SAMPLE THE ROCKS, AS WELL AS WIND AND OTHER THINGS THOSE ARE ALL EXCITING NEW CAPABILITIES WE HAVE YOU DON’T GET THROUGH A DEVELOPMENT OF THIS COMPLEXITY WITHOUT A FEW PROBLEMS I WILL JUST MENTION A COUPLE I WILL START WITH A COUPLE OF YEARS AGO DUE TO AN ANOMALY ON A PARACHUTE TEST PROGRAM, WE HAD TO TAKE A SECOND LOOK AT OUR OWN PARACHUTE AND THE DESIGN WE HAD FOR THAT PARACHUTE WE MADE THE DIFFICULT DECISION TO MODIFY THE PARACHUTE, STRENGTHEN THE CANOPY, GIVE US MORE ROBUSTNESS DURING THAT SUPER SONIC ACTIVITY THAT’S NOT EASY TO DO BECAUSE YOU HAVE TO TEST THIS PARACHUTE TESTING PARACHUTES ON EARTH IS DIFFICULT YOU HAVE TO PUT IT ON A SOUNDING ROCKET WHICH WE DID DOWN IN SOUTHERN VIRGINIA TAKE THEM UP TO THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE AND DEPLOY THE PARACHUTES IN THE UPPERSPHERE SIMULATE THE MARS ATMOSPHERE

THIS IS A SLOW MOTION VIDEO OF ONE OF THOSE PARACHUTES INFLATING THESE ARE DIFFICULT TESTS TO DO THIS IS THE FIRST TEST WE HAVE DONE IN ABOUT 40 YEARS FOR THE AGENCY AND THE PROJECT WAS AGE TO PULL OFF THREE PERFECT TESTS AND SO THAT WAS ONE OF THE CHALLENGES WE HAD KATIE MENTIONED AND OTHERS MENTIONED THE SAMPLING SYSTEM WE HAVE ON THE VEHICLE OUR SAMPLING SYSTEM IS COMPOSED OF A LOT OF DIFFERENT MECHANISMS TO MOVE THE ARM IT’S VERY DIFFICULT TO BUILD MECHANISMS FOR A ROVER THAT HAS TO OPERATE FLAWLESSLY A HUNDRED MILLION MILES AWAY WITH NO HUMAN INTERVENTION BUILDING THOSE GEAR BOXES AND THOSE MOTORS IN AN ENVIRONMENT THAT DROPS DOWN TO MINUS 200° FAHRENHEIT EVERY NIGHT THAT’S EXPOSED TO THIS FINE DUST AND HAS TO DEAL WITH OTHER ENVIRONMENTS IS ALWAYS A CHALLENGE OUR SAMPLING SYSTEM WAS PARTICULARLY CHALLENGING IN THAT WE ALSO HAD TO KEEP IT VERY, VERY CLEAN THIS IS PROBABLY THE CLEANEST SYSTEM WE HAVE EVER LAUNCHED TO MARS AND THE REASON WE NEEDED TO DO THAT IS THAT THE SCIENCE COMMUNITY, AS YOU JUST HEARD, IS LOOKING FOR TRACE SIGNATURES FROM BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO, TRACE CHEMICAL SIGNATURES WE DON’T WANT TO CONFUSE THE SEARCH FOR THOSE ANCIENT SIGNS OF LIFE WITH CONTAMINATION WE TOOK WITH US TO MARS AND BROUGHT BACK THAT REQUIRED A LOT OF EFFORT TO UNDERSTAND HOW TO GET THE SYSTEM BIOLOGICALLY AND CHEMICALLY AS CLEAN AS WE NEEDED IT THOSE ARE SOME OF THE CHALLENGES, SOME OF THOSE COME ALONG WITH THE TERRITORY I WILL SAY A FEW MONTHS AGO WE WERE FACED WITH SOMETHING WE NEVER EXPECTED AS WAS THE REST OF OUR COMMUNITY AND THE REST OF THE COUNTRY IN THE WORLD AND THAT’S THE PANDEMIC IT BEGAN TO FOCUS IN MID MARCH, WE WERE AT A CRITICAL TIME ALL THE ELEMENTS WERE AT KENNEDY SPACE CENTER WE HAD TO ASSEMBLE AND DO THE FINAL TEST YOU CAN’T MAKE A MISTAKE AT THAT POINT AND, OF COURSE, THE ENVIRONMENT MADE THAT MORE DIFFICULT WE HAVE A SHORT VIDEO TO TALK ABOUT THAT FINAL PROCESSING AND HOW WE APPROACH THOSE CHALLENGES RELATIVE TO THE COVID-19 SITUATION ♪ >> THIS NEW ROVER WILL SEARCH FOR SIGNS OF ANCIENT LIFE, TEST NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND GATHER ROCK SAMPLES WHICH MAY BECOME THE FIRST PIECES OF THE RED PLANET RETURNED TO EARTH >> TODAY WE ARE NAMING A SPACECRAFT THAT WILL GO TO MARS AND THE NAME IS PERSEVERANCE! [CHEERS AND APPLAUSE] >> WHEN PERSEVERANCE WAS FIRST SELECTED, I WASN’T SURE ABOUT IT, TO BE HONEST ♪ >> WHEN THE PANDEMIC STRUCK, THE FUTURE WAS CERTAINLY UNKNOWN IT WAS LIKE WALKING INTO A BLIND, DARK ALLEY YOU DIDN’T KNOW WHAT WAS IN FRONT OF YOU, WHAT YOU WERE GOING TO HAVE TO DEAL WITH IT’S SOMETHING NOBODY EXPECTED, SOMETHIG NOBODY COULD PLAN FOR RATHER THAN FIRST PRIORITY MISSION SUCCESS, YOUR FIRST PRIORITY GETS DISPLACED AND IT’S NOW THE SAFETY OF THE PEOPLE IT TOOK A LOT OF WORK TO PUT STUFF TOGETHER TO KEEP MOMENTUM GOING AND KEEP PEOPLE WORKING SAFELY, KEEP THEM HEALTHY AND KEEP THE PROJECT ON SCHEDULE >> WE CALLED THE PROJECT MARS 2020 SAFE AT WORK THE OBJECTIVE WAS TO KEEP THE TEAM SAFE OR SAFER IF THEY WERE NOT WORKING PUTTING A SPACECRAFT TOGETHER GOING TO MARS AND NOT MAKING A MISTAKE IS HARD TRYING TO DO IT DURING THE MIDDLE OF A PANDEMIC, IT’S A LOT HARDER >> THERE IS NO DOUBT THAT WORKING IN ISOLATION, NOT VIRTUAL ISOLATION, BUT IN PHYSICAL ISOLATION FROM EVERYONE ELSE IS A CHALLENGE >> HARD FOR ME, I HAVE TWO YOUNG KIDS SOMETIMES I’M NOT ABLE TO FOCUS OR LISTEN PROBABLY AS WELL AS I WOULD WANT TO >> A LOT OF OUR WORK WAS OCCURRING IN A CLEAN ROOM ANYWAY THAT MEANT BEFORE WE ENTERED, WE HAD TO FIND WAYS OF ENSURING WE WERE NOT PUTTING OURSELVES OR OTHERS AT RISK >> WE ARE DOING SOMETHING THAT’S

TRANSFORMATIVE AND TRYING TO UNDERSTAND WHETHER OR NOT LIFE EVOLVED ON ANOTHER PLANET THAT’S THE FUNDAMENTAL OBJECTIVE OF THIS MISSION >> WE ARE EXPLORERS OUR JOB IS TO GO INTO THE UNKNOWN THIS IS ANOTHER EXAMPLE OF THE UNKNOWN, HOW TO MAKE THIS JOB HAPPEN WHEN YOU ARE DOING IT LARGELY THROUGH A COMPUTER SCREEN >> EVERYBODY THAT I HAVE TALKED TO THAT’S ASSOCIATED WITH THE MISSION HAS SAID THE SAME THING WHICH IS YOU COULD NOT HAVE COME UP WITH A BETTER NAME THAN PERSEVERANCE >> I’M A CONVERT PERSEVERANCE IS THE RIGHT NAME >> IT’S AMAZING WE GET TO PERSEVERE THROUGH WORKING ON PERSEVERANCE >> I THINK IT NOW IS AN IMPORTANT SYMBOL OF HUMANITY HOPEFULLY PERSEVERING THROUGH THIS CHALLENGING TIME WE HAVE RIGHT NOW >> SO YOU CAN SEE IT WAS A CHALLENGE FOR US TO OVERCOME THIS WE UNDERSTAND THE MARS 2020 COMMUNITY WAS NOT THE ONLY GROUP FACING THIS AS I SAID, THE COMMUNITY, THE COUNTRY AND AROUND THE GLOBE, EVERYBODY HAD TO DEAL WITH THIS I ASKED THE TEAM A COUPLE OF MONTHS AGO IF THEY WOULD LIKE TO DO SOMETHING TO SYMBOLIZE AND MARK THESE CHALLENGES WE FACED THEY DESIGNED SOMETHING WE CALLED A COVID-19 PERSEVERANCE PLATE THIS IS A PLATE THAT’S NOW AFFIXED TO THE PORT SIDE OF THE ROVER IT HAS A SYMBOL OF A GLOBE REPRESENTING ALL OF US THAT FACED THIS CHALLENGE TOGETHER THIS SPACECRAFT LEAVING THE EARTH ON ITS WAY TO MARS AND ALL OF THIS SUPPORTED BY THE NOW FAMILIAR STAFF AND SERPENT OF THE MEDICAL COMMUNITY THE MEDICAL COMMUNITY ON THE FRONT LINES KEEPING US SAFE THEY INSPIRED US THROUGH THIS PERIOD AND WE HOPE THAT THIS PLATE AND WE HOPE THAT THIS MISSION IN SOME SMALL WAY CAN INSPIRE THEM IN RETURN THIS HAS BEEN A TEAM EFFORT ALL ALONG IT’S A BIG GROUP OF PEOPLE THAT’S REQUIRED TO DO THIS TYPE OF MISSION AND IT’S NOT JUST THE PEOPLE ON THE TEAM, BUT IT IS THE PEOPLE THAT SUPPORT US FROM THE PUBLIC AND TO MARK THAT WE ARE CARRYING THIS PLATE THAT YOU SEE HERE IT HAS THREE MICROFICHE, THEY HOLD THE 11 MILLION NAMES OF THE PEOPLE THAT SIGNED UP TO TAKE THEIR NAME ALONG WITH THIS SPACECRAFT TO MARS WE ARE VERY APPRECIATIVE OF THAT INTEREST AND THE SUPPORT THAT WE HAVE AND THAT’S PART OF WHAT MAY BEINGS THIS JOB SO EXCITING I MENTIONED THE TEAM AS I SAID, IT’S A BIG TEAM THIS IS JUST THE TEAM HERE AT JPL THAT ARE PART OF THIS DEVELOPMENT IN FACT, THE TEAM SPANS EVERY CENTER IN THE AGENCY PRETTY MUCH AS WELL AS OUR INTERNATIONAL CONTRIBUTORS AND OUR TREMENDOUS INDUSTRY PARTNERS THAT HAVE BEEN PART OF THIS EVERYBODY HAS WORKED TOGETHER A LOT OF DAYS, A LOT OF NIGHTS, WEEKENDS AND HOLIDAYS TO GET US TO THE POINT WHERE WE ARE AT TO TELL YOU MORE ABOUT THE INTEGRATION AND TEST ACTIVITY THAT’S BEEN HAPPENING AT KENNEDY SPACE CENTER AND THE FINAL STEPS TO GET US TO THE PAD, I’M GOING TO HAND IT OFF TO LOUISE >> THE TEAM STARTED ASSEMBLY OF THE SPACECRAFT AT JPL IN JANUARY OF 2018 THE TEAM IS THE TEAM ON THE PROJECT THAT’S ENTRUSTED WITH PUTTING TOGETHER THE FINAL FLIGHT VEHICLE WE TAKE COMPONENTS FROM ACROSS JPL, THE U.S. AND WORLD AND START POPULATING THAT ON TO THE SPACECRAFT AND TESTING THEM TO MAKE SURE EVERYTHING WORKS PROPERLY WE ARE TALKING ABOUT RADIO, FLIGHT COMPUTER, ALL THE INSTRUMENTS THAT ALLOW THE SPACECRAFT TO DO ITS MISSION ONCE IT GETS TO MARS WE SHIPPED THE SPACECRAFT IN PIECES ALL THE INDIVIDUAL STAGES WERE SHIPPED INDEPENDENTLY, THE STAGE, DISSENT, BACK SHIELD, HEAT SHIELD WE DID TESTING TO MAKE SURE NOTHING WAS DAMAGED IN TRANSPORTATION THEN WE BEGAN TO ASSEMBLE THE SPACECRAFT FOR THE LAST TIME AS THE DEPUTY ELECTRICAL AND TEST LEAD FOR THE TEAM, MY MAIN

FOCUS IS ON INTEGRATING THE ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS WHILE MAKING SURE THAT THE PERSONNEL AND HARDWARE IS KEPT AS SAFE AS POSSIBLE IT’S A HIGHLY STRESSFUL, HIGHLY DEMANDING ENVIRONMENT, BUT EXTREMELY REWARDING TO SEE THE SPACECRAFT PUT TOGETHER LIKE THAT AT THE MOMENT WE ARE IN THE PROCESS OF ELECTRICALLY INTEGRATING THE HARNESS THAT CONNECTS THE SPACECRAFT TO THE LAST STAGE OF THE LAUNCH VEHICLE WHICH WAS JUST INSTALLED LAST NIGHT AS SOON AS I’M DONE HERE, I’M GOING TO HEAD IN TO CHECK THAT OUT AFTER THAT’S COMPLETE, WE’LL BEGIN ENCOP SOLATION OF THE SWAYS CRAFT IT’S WHERE WE CLAM SHELL IN BETWEEN ITS TWO PAYLOADS AS YOU CAN SEE THE SPACECRAFT IS A SMALL PART OF THIS LAUNCH VEHICLE, BUT IT’S THE MOST IMPORTANT PART WE ARE HOPING SHE GETS THERE SAFE >> THANKS AND I ACTUALLY HAVE A COUPLE OF QUESTIONS FOR YOU WHAT ELSE IS LEFT FOR YOUR TEAM TO COMPLETE ON THE PERSEVERANCE ROVER? >> SO ONCE THE SPACECRAFT IS ENCAPSULATED, WE’LL LIFT IT TO A TRANSPORT VEHICLE, IT WILL TAKE IT TO A FACILITY WHERE IT WILL GET CRANED TO THE TOP OF THE ROCKET AND WE’LL DO SOME FINAL CLOSE-OUTS BEFORE WE LIGHT THE CANDLE >> I HEARD YOU STARTED AS AN INTERN FOR THE CURIOSITY ROVER WHAT IS IT LIKE TO WORK ON THIS NEXT GENERATION ROVER AS IT GETS TO THE LAUNCHED? >> I STARTED AND IT WAS INTERESTING MOVING FROM DAY-TO-DAY, WEEK TO WEEK TASKS WHEN I WAS A STUDENT TO BEING A LEAD ON THIS IMPORTANT MISSION AND TAKING A MUCH MORE STRATEGIC PICTURE VIEW OF INTEGRATING A SPACECRAFT I HAVE TOUCHED AND TESTED EVERY FORM OF HARDWARE ON THIS SPACECRAFT I APPRECIATE THE WORK NASA DOES TO PROVIDE INTERNSHIPS TO STUDENTS HAVING GROWN UP IN SOUTH CENTRAL LOS ANGELES, I NEVER THOUGHT I WOULD BE WHERE I AM AT TODAY IT’S AN HONOR AND PRIVILEGE TO WORK WITH THE BRILLIANT PEOPLE ON THIS TEAM AT JPL AND NASA I’M LOOKING FORWARD TO LAUNCH DAY >> THANK YOU THANK YOU FOR ANSWERING MY QUESTIONS HITCHING A RIDE ON THE PERSEVERANCE ROVER IS THE MARS HELICOPTER WHICH HAS A NEW NAME, INGENUITY IT WILL ATTEMPT TO BE THE FIRST POWERED FLIGHT ON ANOTHER PLANET THE PROJECT MANAGER HAS AN UPDATE ON THIS EXCITING NEW TECHNOLOGY EXPERIMENT >> AT THIS TIME IT’S FULLY INTEGRATED IT’S STOWED UNDER THE BELLY PAN OF THE ROVER AND CHECKED OUT TO BE FUL OPERATIONAL IN THE CONFIGURATION THAT IT’S GOING TO BE LAUNCHED OUR TEAM IS PREPARING FOR OPERATION AFTER LAUNCH UPDATING SIMULATIONS AND H REHEARSING THE SCENARIOS SCENARIOS ALL THE WAY THROUGH THE FIRST ATTEMPT AT FLIGHT SEEING THE HELICOPTER GET LAUNCHED IS EVERYTHING WE WORKED FOR AFTER ALL OF US WORKING REALLY HARD FOR OVER SIX YEARS, IT’S GOING TO BE OUTSTANDING TO GET TO ATTEMPT THE VERY FIRST ROTOCRAFT FLIGHT TEST ON MARS AND ON ANY OTHER PLANET OUTSIDE OF MARS >> WE ARE JOIN WITH AN UPDATE >> HELLO THERE HELLO FROM FLORIDA WE ARE 34 DAYS FROM LAUNCH AND THE THINGS THAT ARE GOING ON HAVE BEEN TOUCHED ON HERE THE SPACECRAFT WILL UNDERGO ENCAPSULATION IN THE COMING WEEKS THE LAUNCH VEHICLE, IF THEY CAN ROLL THE TAPE, THIS IS ACTUALLY THE ROVER COMING IN AND THIS IS MISLEADING BECAUSE THAT ROVER, THAT’S ONE PIECE OF IT THERE WAS 16 TRACTOR-TRAILERS

THAT CAME IN WITH OTHER EQUIPMENT THERE WAS ANOTHER FLIGHT FOR OTHER PIECES SO IT DID NOT JUST FIT IN THAT BOX THERE IS A LOT MORE THAT WENT INTO THIS MISSION AND THE ASSEMBLY START IN JANUARY BACK HERE THIS IS ACTUALLY THE ATLAS BOOSTER FROM ALABAMA WHERE IT’S BUILT THE BOOSTER PROVIDES THE FIRST 4:20 OF POWER FOR THE FLIGHT BEFORE THE SENTAR, THE UPPER STAGE, TAKES OVER AND PUTS US INTO ITS FINAL ESCAPE ORBIT FROM THE EARTH TO MARS ALONG WITH THE FIRST STAGE BOOSTER, OUR FOUR SOLID ROCKET MOTORS, WHICH YOU SEE BEING ASSEMBLED HERE, THOSE WILL BURN FOR APPROXIMATELY 1:50 PROVIDING THE INITIAL BOOST TO GET THAT COMPLETE STACK OF THE FIRST STAGE AND THE UPPER STAGE, CURIOSITY, THE PAYLOAD FERRING THAT WILL GET US ON ITS WAY WE ARE LOOKING FORWARD TO JULY 20 FOR THAT 9:15 TIME TO GET THEM GOING SO THAT THE BOOSTER CAN DO ITS DISSENT AND LANDING INTO MARS IN FEBRUARY ON BEHALF OF THE LAUNCH SERVICES PROGRAM HERE, WE LOOK FORWARD TO IT WE ARE LOOKING FORWARD TO FUELING THE VEHICLE THIS COMING MONDAY AS PARTED OF OUR REHEARSAL AFTER THAT, WE WILL BE PUTTING THAT ENCAPSULATED ASSEMBLY OF THE SPACECRAFT AND FERRING ON TOP OF THE BOOSTER AND DOING THE FINAL PREPARATIONS FOR INSTALLATION OF THE POWER SOURCE THAT WILL POWER THE ROVER FOR YEARS TO COME SO FROM BEHALF OF NASA AND LAUNCH SERVICES PROGRAM, IT’S A PLEASURE TO DO THIS LAUNCH 34 DAYS FROM NOW WE’LL HAVE SOME HAPPY FACES HERE >> THANKS FOR THE UPDATE WE ARE LOOKING FORWARD TO THE HAPPY FACES NOW WE ARE READY TO TAKE MEDIA QUESTIONS REMEMBER TO PRESS STAR 1 TO GET PUT IN THE CUE WE ARE GOING TO TAKE QUESTIONS THROUGH THE ASK NASA HASHTAG FIRST IS BILL HARWOOD FROM CBS NEWS >> THANK YOU VERY MUCH I APPRECIATE THE TIME TWO QUICK QUESTIONS I HAVE AN UPDATE FOR LORI, WHAT IS THE TOTAL COST OF THIS MISSION OR WHAT NUMBERS SHOULD WE BE USING? AND FOR OMAR AND MATT, HOW MUCH RESERVE IS LEFT IN THE SCHEDULE TO HANDLE ANYTHING THAT GOES OUT OF THE ORDINARY? DO YOU HAVE TIME FOR UNEXPECTED ISSUES? THANKS >> THANKS FOR THE QUESTION SO I CAN TELL YOU THAT THE COST FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PERSEVERANCE ROVER ALL THE WAY UP THROUGH LAUNCH IS ABOUT $2.4 BILLION AND THERE IS ANOTHER 300 MILLION THAT WE’LL SPEND TO OPERATE PERSEVERANCE AFTER ITS LAUNCHED, ON ITS WAY, LANDINGS AND DO THE SURFACE SCIENCE ONCE IT GETS TO MARS I WILL TOSS IT OVER TO OMAR AND MATT >> RELATIVE TO THE SPACECRAFT, THE KEY MARGIN THAT WE HAVE IS IN THE LAUNCH WINDOW ITSELF WE ARE TARGETING THE FIRST LAUNCH DAY AS JULY 20, AS OMAR SAID THE WINDOW, IN FACT, LASTS UNTIL AUGUST 11 SO EVEN DURING THOSE SINGLE DAYS WE HAVE MULTIPLE OPPORTUNITIES TO RECYCLE IF THERE IS ISSUES WE THINK WE HAVE SOME ROBUSTNESS THERE WE HAVE GOOD ROBUSTNESS IN THE LAUNCH WINDOW RELATIVE TO THE VEHICLE LAUNCH PROCESSING, I WILL TURN IT OVER TO OMAR >> RELATIVE TO SCHEDULE, WE ARE A GREEN LIGHT SCHEDULE FROM HERE ON OUT IN OTHER WORDS, ANYTHING COULD AFFECT THE LAUNCH DATE BUT WE HAVE PLENTY OF WINDOW OR RUNWAY AHEAD OF US WE ARE NOT WORRIED ABOUT IT I’M SURE FLORIDA WEATHER AS ITS, IT’S BEEN PERFECT THE LAST COUPLE OF DAYS

WE’LL RUN INTO SOME NOT SO PERFECT DAYS THAT COULD SET US BACK THE TEAM IS FLEXIBLE ENOUGH TO BE ABLE TO HANDLE A THREE WEEK WINDOW, I WOULD SAY WE HAVE ANALYZED THAT UP TO THE 11th OF AUGUST IF NEED BE IN THE ANALYSIS, PROVIDES US ADDITIONAL MARGIN, WE MIGHT GET OUT TO THE 15th OF AUGUST NO CONCERNS FROM OUR PART >> NOW THE NEXT QUESTION IS FROM MARIA FROM THE ATLANTIC >> REPORTER: HI, EVERYONE THIS IS QUESTION IS FOR WHOEVER WOULD LIKE TO TAKE IT THERE ARE SOME SCIENTISTS THAT THINK NASA HAS GIVEN A LOT OF ATTENTION TO ROBOTIC MISSIONS TO MARS AND THEY WANT TO SEE OTHER MISSIONS TO MOONS WHERE THERE MIGHT BE LIFE NOW WHAT DO YOU SAY TO PEOPLE THAT MARS IS OVERSTUDIED AND WE SHOULD BE FOCUSING ELSEWHERE IN THE SEARCH FOR LIFE? >> I WILL BE HAPPY TO TAKE THAT QUESTION THANK YOU I WILL TAKE IT YEAH, I, FOR ONE, AM A FAN OF OUR ENTIRE SOLAR SYSTEM I LOVE EVERY DESTINATION WE HAVE THERE IS INCREDIBLE SCIENCE ACROSS THE ENTIRE SOLAR SYSTEM MARS HAS BEEN A FANTASTIC PLACE TO REALLY EXPLORE IN DEPTH THE PROGRAM HAS DONE AN AMAZING JOB AT MARS THERE IS STILL A LOT OF WORK TO BE DONE THERE BUT I AGREE WITH YOU THAT THERE ARE OTHER PLACES IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM THAT MIGHT BE BETTER PLACES TO BE LOOKING FOR ACTUAL LIFE THAT MIGHT BE PRESENT TODAY OF COURSE, THE MOONS OF JUPITER AND SATURN, FOR EUROPA, TITAN, ARE PLACES WHERE WE FEEL THERE MAY BE ENVIRONMENTS THAT COULD BE CONDUCIVE TO HAVING LIFE TODAY THE ONES COVERED IN ICE, LOW PROBABILITY OF LIFE ON THE SURFACE, BUT BENEATH THE ICE WE BELIEVE THERE ARE DEEP OCEANS THAT MAY HAVE THERMAL SOURCES THAT RECYCLE THE NUTRIENTS AND COULD BE SITES WHERE YOU THINK YOU HAVE ALL THE INGREDIENTS NECESSARY FOR LIFE WE ARE LOOKING FOR GREAT IDEAS FOR OTHER MISSIONS WE HAVE THE CLIPPER THAT’S GOING TO MAP THE SURFACE, ORBITING MISSION THAT WILL ORBIT JUPITER THAT WILL LAUNCH LATER IN THIS DECADE WE ARE DEVELOPING THE MISSION DRAGONFLY WHICH WILL LAUNCH IN 2026 TO GO TO TITAN TO EXPLORE THE ENVIRONMENTS THERE ON THE SURFACE THAT’S THE NEXT ROTOCRAFT THAT WILL FLY AND LAND ON THE SURFACE OF TITAN THOSE ARE EXCELLENT DESTINATIONS WE ARE INTERESTED IN THEM AND PURSUING A VARIETY OF WAYS TO GET THERE >> UP NEXT IS MARCIA DUNN WITH AP >> REPORTER: YES, HELLO THANK YOU I HAVE QUESTIONS ABOUT THE RETURN SAMPLES THE ANIMATION ALMOST MAKES IT LOOK LIKE THE CYLINDERS WITH SAMPLES ARE DROPPED ON THE SURFACE WITH MARS, SCATTERED HOW ARE YOU GOING TO LEAVE THESE SAMPLES FOR PICK UP? DO THEY HAVE BEACONS IN CASE THERE IS A DUST STORM AND MAYBE FOR DR. GLAZE, WHY TEN YEARS TO GET THE SAMPLES BACK? I KNOW YOU WANT THEM AS SOON AS POSSIBLE AND WAITING A DECADE SEEMS LIKE A LONG TIME IF YOU COULD ANSWER THAT, THAT WOULD BE SWELL THANKS >> I WAS GOING TO SUGGEST KATIE TAKE THE FIRST PART, OR MATT >> I CAN START OFF, KATIE CAN JUMP IN HERE JUST TO UNDERSTAND HOW THE SAMPLES ARE COLLECTED AND LEFT ON THE SURFACE WE DO COLLECT THEM AS INDIVIDUAL TUBES WE HAVE THE ABILITY TO DROP THOSE TUBES IN ONES OR TWOS OR GROUPS OUR CURRENT INTENT IS TO DROP THEM IN A GROUPING SO THAT THE FETCH ROVER, WHICH YOU SAW IN THE ANIMATION, WOULD NOT HAVE TO GO TO MANY LOCATIONS TO PICK THOSE TUBES UP SO WE HAVE COMPLETE FLEXIBILITY, THAT WOULD BE THE INTENT AS FAR AS THE DUST STORMS GO, WE KNOW HOW THE SAND AND THE DUST MOVES ON MARS WE KNOW WHAT LOCATIONS TO SELECT TO MAKE SURE THESE ARE NOT AFFECTED BY THOSE TYPES OF ISSUES SO WE DON’T THINK THERE IS GOING

TO BE ANY ISSUE WITH RESPECT TO COVERING UP THE TUBES OVER THE PERIOD OF TIME WE ARE TALKING ABOUT OR FINDING THE TUBES ON SURFACE KATIE CAN SAY A WORD OR TWO ABOUT THE SCIENCE STRATEGY ASSOCIATE WITH THAT >> THAT’S SOMETHING WE ARE STILL VERY MUCH THINKING ABOUT AND GUIDED BY OUR EXPLORATION ON THE SURFACE AS WE DECIDE WHERE AND HOW TO SAMPLE AND WHERE WE LIKE TO LEAVE THAT SAMPLE CACHE IT’S IMPORTANT TO THINK ABOUT WHAT SAMPLES GO IN WHAT CACHE AS THE FETCH CAPABILITIES ARE DEVELOPED THAT WILL BE AN ACTIVE CONVERSATION WE HAVE WITH THE MARS 2020 PROJECT AS WELL AS THE SAMPLE RETURN ARCHITECTURE AS IT DEVELOPS >> GREAT I WILL TRY TO TAKE THE NEXT PART OF THAT QUESTION WHY DOES IT TAKE SO LONG TO GET THE SAMPLES BACK YOU ARE ABSOLUTELY RIGHT, WE WANT TO GET THOSE SAMPLES BACK HERE THEY ARE VERY PRECIOUS WE WANT TO GET THEM BACK HERE SO WE CAN START THE ANALYSIS AND LEARN FROM THE SAMPLES THIS IS A REALLY COMPLEX CONCEPT TO TRY AND BRING THOSE SAMPLES BACK WE HAVE KNOWN FROM THE VERY BEGINNING THAT THIS WAS NOT GOING TO BE A SIMPLE MISSION WHERE WE SIMPLY FLY TO MARS, COLLECT THE SAMPLES AND BRING THEM BACK WE HAVE KNOWN IT WAS GOING TO REQUIRE MULTIPLE STEPS AND LAUNCHES TO GET THE SAMPLES BACK NOT ONLY BECAUSE OF THE TIME REQUIRED, BUT THE COST AS WELL WE NEED TO PACE THAT OUT WE ARE REALLY IN A GREAT POSITION RIGHT NOW WHERE WE HAVE DEVELOPED A FANTASTIC PARTNERSHIP WITH EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY WHICH ALLOWS US TO GET THE SAMPLES BACK BY COLLABORATING, WE HAVE TWO LAUNCHERS FROM EARTH, A EUROPEAN AND NASA LAUNCH IT ALLOWS US TO DO IT IN A SHORTER TIME PERIOD RIGHT NOW WE ARE WORKING ON AND DEVELOPING A PLAN FOR THAT WE ARE PLANNING ON A LUNCH FOR 2026 IT TAKES TIME TO GET OUT THERE, PICK UP THE SAMPLES AND GET OUT OF ORBIT AT MARS AND GET THEM BACK IT’S A LONG PROCESS WE ARE DEDICATED TO AND GETTING IT BACK >> ON THE LINE WE HAVE KEITH COHEN WITH NASA WATCH >> REPORTER: I HAVE A BRAND NEW QUESTION YOU BROUGHT BACK THE WORM LOGO BOBBY BROWN WAS ON 60 MINUTES AND REFERRED THIS AS NASA’S FIRST ASTRO BIOLOGY MISSION NASA IS A PROGRAM THAT’S BEEN GOING ON FOR 20 YEARS IF YOU GO TO THE WEBSITE FOR THIS MISSION, UNLESS YOU KNOW WHERE THE ONE PAGE WHERE IT MENTIONS ASTRO BIOLOGY, THERE IS NO LINKS YOU GO TO THE ASTRO BIOLOGY THING, THEY DON’T KNOW IT’S HAPPENING TODAY THEY DON’T MENTION THE ROVER THERE ARE GOING TO BE FOUR ROVERS ON MARS DOING ASTRO BIOLOGY IT’S A BIG DEAL WHY CAN’T NASA GET THEIR ACT TOGETHER AND HOPING TO HEAR YOU ARE GOING TO GET THIS FIGURED OUT BY THE TIME THE THING LANDS >> KEITH, THAT’S A GREAT QUESTION AND A GREAT POINT I WILL TELL YOU, ASTRO BIOLOGY IS REALLY SOMETHING, IT DEPENDS HOW YOU DEFINE IT, WHETHER OR NOT THIS IS THE FIRST MISSION OR NOT IF YOU LOOK AT WHAT WE DID WITH SPIRIT AND OPPORTUNITY, WE MADE DISCOVERIES WE DISCOVERED ON THE NORTH ATMOSPHERE OF MARS, IT HAD WATER, IT HAD A STRONG ATMOSPHERE AND STRONG MAGNITOSPHERE IT INDICATES THAT MARS WAS AT ONE TIME HABITABLE IT COULD HAVE SUPPORTED LIFE EVEN WHEN WE WERE DOING SPIRIT AND OPPORTUNITY, THAT THOSE MISSIONS WERE ASTRO BIOLOGY MISSIONS WITH CURIOSITY AND NOW PERSEVERANCE, WE ARE BUILDING ON THAT BASE OF KNOWLEDGE ALL OF THAT IS SO IMPORTANT WE ARE, IN FACT, TRYING TO FIND SIGNATURES OF LIFE AND, OF COURSE, WE ARE INTERESTED IN FINDING LIFE ITSELF THAT’S NOT WHAT THIS MISSION SPECIFICALLY IS ALL ABOUT BUT I CAN TELL YOU IN THE LAST COUPLE OF YEARS NASA HAS MADE SOME SIGNIFICANT DISCOVERIES COMPLEX ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON THE SURFACE OF MARS METHANE CYCLES THAT MATCH THE SEASON OF MARS LIQUID WATER 12 KILOMETERS UNDER

THE SURFACE OF MARS THERE ARE SO MANY THINGS BUILDING UP HERE TO SAY THAT THE PROBABILITY OF FINDING LIFE ON ANOTHER WORLD IS GOING UP WE ARE NOT SAYING IT’S THERE I DON’T KNOW THAT IT’S THERE NOBODY ELSE KNOWS EITHER BUT THAT’S WHAT ASTRO BIOLOGY IS ALL ABOUT AND MARS GIVES US THE BEST OPPORTUNITY, I THINK, IN THE SHORT TERM TO MAKE A SIGNIFICANT DISCOVERY WILL CHANGE HOW WE THINK OF OURSELVES AND FOREVER CHANGE HOW WE THINK OF SPACE EXPLORATION IN GENERAL WE CAN FIND LIFE ON ANOTHER WORLD, PEOPLE ARE GOING TO BE SO EXCITED ABOUT THE DISCOVERY AND WHAT COMES NEXT, THAT WE ARE GOING TO BE DOING MISSIONS THROUGHOUT THE SOLAR SYSTEM I KNOW THE QUESTION ABOUT WHY ARE WE GOING TO MARS AND NOT THESE OTHER PLACES, WE WANT TO GO TO ALL OF THESE PLACES WE HAVE PLANS TO GO THERE IT’S ALSO TRUE THAT THE HIGHEST PROBABILITY OF MAYBE FINDING LIFE AT THIS POINT IS GOING TO BE MARS THERE ARE PEOPLE OUT THERE WHO WOULD SAY THAT EUROPA PROVIDES A HIGHER PROBABILITY BUT IT’S GOING TO TAKE TIME WE ARE WORKING ON THAT JPL, I WANT TO GIVE A LOT OF KUDOS AND COMPLIMENTS TO JPL WE CALL IT ONE OF NASA’S CENTERS IT’S AFFILIATED WITH CAL TECH WHAT AN AMAZING JOB, THEY ARE BUILDING THE PLANS AND HARDWARE THAT’S GOING TO HELP US GET TO EUROPA, THAT MOON OF JUPITER WHERE WE BELIEVE THERE IS THE INGREDIENTS THAT COULD POTENTIALLY HAVE LIFE THERE IS A LOT OF EXCITING THINGS IN THE FIELD OF ASTRO BIOLOGY 15 YEARS AGO, EVEN TEN YEARS AGO, IF YOU WOULD HAVE SAID THESE THINGS, PEOPLE WOULD HAVE LOOKED AT YOU LIKE YOU ARE CRAZY IT’S BECOMING MORE REAL IT’S A GREAT QUESTION, A GREAT POINT IT’S SOMETHING NASA THINKS ABOUT ALL THE TIME >> THANKS WE HAVE BEEN GETTING QUESTIONS COMING IN THROUGH THE ASK NASA HASHTAG EVERYONE ON TWITTER IS ASKING APART FROM ENTRY, DISSENT AND LANDING, WHAT IS THE MOST CHALLENGING PART OF THE MISSION? >> I CAN TRY TO ANSWER THAT QUESTION THERE IS A LOT TO CHOOSE FROM THESE MISSIONS ARE VERY DIFFICULT WE TALKED ABOUT THE CHALLENGE JUST IN THE LAST FEW MONTHS DEALING WITH THE PANDEMIC, OBVIOUSLY I THINK FROM A BASIC MISSION PERSPECTIVE, THE MOST DIFFICULT PART HAS BEEN BUILDING AND TESTING THE SAMPLING SYSTEM THAT WE REFERRED TO AS I SAID BEFORE, IT’S COMPOSED OF A LOT OF DIFFERENT MECHANISMS THESE ARE SYSTEMS THAT HAVE TO OPERATE AT A VERY HIGH LEVEL OF RELIABILITY THEY HAVE TO OPERATE AUTONOMOUSLY THERE IS A LOT OF CONTROL AND AUTONOMY IN OUR SOFTWARE SYSTEMS THAT GO ALONG WITH THEM THEY REQUIRE EXTENSIVE TEST FACILITIES SO WE CAN SIMULATE THE MARTIAN ENVIRONMENT AND ROCKS ON THIS MISSION IN PARTICULAR, BECAUSE OF THE SEARCH FOR THOSE VERY FAINT BIOSIGNATURES WHICH KATIE AND OTHER PEOPLE TALKED WE HAD TO KEEP THEM ESSENTIALLY STERILE FROM A BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE AND EXCEPTIONALLY CLEAN, ESPECIALLY ORGANICALLY CLEAN, WHICH ARE THE CHEMICAL SIGNATURES WE ARE MOST INTERESTED IN THAT’S A DIFFICULT THING TO DO WHEN THE REST OF YOUR SPACECRAFT IS REALLY DESIGNED AND INHERITED FROM THE SYSTEMS THAT WE HAVE TO USE IN THE AEROSPACE INDUSTRY AND IN CIVIL SPACE SO WE HAD TO ISOLATE A LOT OF THE KEY CRITICAL COMPONENTS FROM THE OTHER PARTS OF THE SPACECRAFT FROM A CONTAMINATION PERSPECTIVE THAT WAS THE BIGGEST CHALLENGE FOR THIS MISSION >> ONCE WE GET ON THE SURFACE OF MARS, WE HAVE A RESPONSIBILITY TO PUT TOGETHER A CACHE OF SAMPLES THAT IS COMPELLING ENOUGH AND WORTHY ENOUGH TO RETURN TO EARTH AND INTERESTING ENOUGH THAT IT WILL PROTELL AND DRIVE FUTURE GENERATIONS OF MARS SCIENCE WE TAKE THAT SERIOUSLY WE HAVE A TOUGH JOB TO DO ON THE SURFACE TO PUT THAT SAMPLE CACHE TOGETHER THAT’S A CHALLENGE WE HAVE, PUT TOGETHER DIVERSE SAMPLES THAT WE COVER THE GROUND TO GET THAT JOB DONE WE TAKE THAT VERY SERIOUSLY THAT’S A BIG CHALLENGE FOR OUR TEAM ONCE WE GET ON MARS >> THANKS, KATIE MATT, YOU TOUCHED ON THIS IS THERE ANY LEVEL OF AUTONOMY INCLUDED ON THIS MARS ROVER?

>> THERE IS A LOT OF AUTONOMY AGAIN, JUST STARTING WITH THE ENTRY, DECENT AND LANDING ACTIVITY ONE WAY LANDING IS ABOUT TEN MINUTES FROM THE TIME WE HIT THE OUTER ATMOSPHERE TO SAFELY ON THE GROUND, IT’S ABOUT SEVEN MINUTES WE REFER TO IT AS THE SEVEN MINUTES OF TERROR THERE IS NO INTERACTION WITH THE SPACECRAFT DURING THAT TIME IT HAS TO DO THAT ENTIRE PROCESS ITSELF WHERE IT IS FROM A NAVIGATION PERSPECTIVE, IT HAS TO KNOW WHEN TO JETSON THE CREW STAGE, DEPLOY THE PARACHUTE I TALKED ABOUT THIS TERRAIN RELATIVE NAVIGATION SYSTEM, THIS IS ANOTHER LEVEL OF AUTONOMY WE ARE LAYING ON TOP OF OUR HISTORICAL AUTONOMY MISSIONS THESE FUTURE HUMAN MISSIONS AND SAMPLE RETURN MISSION, TRY AND UNDERSTAND WHERE THOSE HAZARDS ARE AND DIVERT AWAY FROM THEM REQUIRES THE SPACECRAFT TO UNDERSTAND, TO DO THOSE THINGS ON ITS OWN THAT’S BEFORE WE EVEN GET TO THE SURFACE WON WE ARE ON THE SURFACE, WE ARE ONLY ABLE TO COMMAND THE VEHICLE ONCE A DAY IT WILL SLEEP AND CONSERVE POWER OVERNIGHT, WAKE UP IN THE MORNING, WE’LL SEND A SEQUENCE OF COMMANDS, GIVE IT ITS SET OF ACTIVITIES TO DO AND IT HAS TO CARRY THEM OUT BY ITSELF IT HAS TO MAKE DECISIONS HOW TO DRIVE TO THE TARGET AND DOT DO E SAMPLING AND KEEPING IT SAFE THER A TREMENDOUS AMOUNT OF AUTONOMY IN THE VEHICLE ONE OF THE THINGS THAT MAKES THE SYSTEM SO COMPLEX >> BACK TO THE PHONE LINES, WE HAVE GINA FROM ABC >> REPORTER: MY QUESTION HAS BEEN ASKED THANK YOU >> THANKS WE’LL GO NEXT TO MIKE WALL FROM SPACE.COM >> THANK YOU FOR DOING THIS THIS ONE IS PROBABLY FOR MATT IT’S ABOUT THE HELICOPTER I WOULD LIKE A FEW DETAILS WHAT YOU CONSIDER MISSION SUCCESS FOR THE HELICOPTER, HOW MANY FLIGHTS DO YOU HOPE TO MAKE, HOW FAR WILL THE FLIGHTS BE IS THERE A POSSIBILITY WE’LL GET SEVEPERSEVERANCE VIEWS OF THE HELICOPTER GOING UP THAT WOULD BE FANTASTIC IF YOU CAN PULL IT OFF >> I WILL SAY A FEW WORDS ABOUT THE HELICOPTER THIS IS SOMETHING THAT’S CUTTING EDGE AS THE ADMINISTRATOR SAID, THIS IS SOMETHING THAT’S NEVER BEEN ATTEMPTED BEFORE FLYING IN MARTIAN ATMOSPHERE CONDITIONS, IT’S 1% THE DENSITY WE HAVE ON EARTH AND TRYING TO CONTROL A SYSTEM UNDER THOSE CONDITIONS IS NOT EASY IN FLIGHT THEN YOU HAVE TO LAND IT SAFELY IN AN UNKNOWN TERRAIN THESE ARE ALL BIG CHALLENGES THAT’S WHY THIS IS A TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION PAYLOAD THIS IS SOMETHING THAT WE ARE TAKING WITH US SO WE CAN LEARN HOW TO DO THIS FOR FUTURE MISSIONS SO THAT’S REALLY THE OBJECTIVE IS TO GET THE HELICOPTER, JUST TO BE ABLE TO ACCOMMODATE ON THE VEHICLE WAS A BIG STEP, GETTING IT TO MARS, GETTING IT SAFELY OFF THE VEHICLE, WE’LL LEARN A LOT JUST THE VERY FIRST FLIGHT WHERE THIS HELICOPTER SPINS ITS ROTORS, WE ARE GOING TO LEARN A LOT WE ARE LOOKING FOR AN EXTENSIVE AND AMBITIOUS RETURN FROM THIS TECHNOLOGY, WE ARE LOOKING TO LEARN THE FIRST FEW THINGS WE NEED TO LEARN WE SHOULD BE ABLE TO IMAGE THE HELICOPTER WHILE IT’S FLYING WE’LL HAVE A SAFE STAND-OFF DISTANCE 50 METERS OR SO WE HAVE POWERFUL CAMERAS THAT WE HOPE WILL CATCH THE FLIGHT WHETHER OR NOT THE HELICOPTER WILL SEE THE VEHICLE, THE PERSEVERANCE ROVER, WILL DEPEND ON ORIENTATION AND HOW HIGH IT GOES AND THOSE SORTS OF THINGS >> THANKS NOW ON THE LINE WE HAVE LAUREN GERSH FROM THE VERGE >> THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR TAKING MY QUESTION I THINK THIS IS FOR KATIE POSSIBLY SEEING AS HOW PERSEVERANCE IS ABOUT DECIDING WHETHER OR NOT

MARS HAS LIFE, I’M WONDERING WHETHER YOU HAVE FOUND EVIDENCE OF PAST LIFE ON MARS >> THAT’S A GREAT QUESTION IT’S ONE WE THINK A LOT ABOUT ON THE SCIENCE TEAM OUR BAR IS HIGH FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF A SIGN OF LIFE ON ANOTHER PLANET AS IT SHOULD BE WE DON’T WANT TO MAKE THAT DISCOVERY LIGHTLY BUT AT THE SAME TIME WITH PERSEVERANCE AND ITS GOAL OF SEEKING SIGNS OF ANCIENT LIFE, WE HAVE TO OPEN OUR MINDS TO POSSIBILITIES OF WHAT LIFE COULD LOOK LIKE AND LOOKING FOR EXAMPLES OF SOMETHING THAT’S SIMILAR TO WHAT WE SEE IN BIOSIGNATURES AND OUR OWN EARTH RECORD WE ARE LOOKING FOR TEXTURES AND SIGNS THAT WE WONDER HOW COULD IT FORM OUTLIFE COULD IT HAVE FORM IN AN ABIOTIC WAY I THINK THAT’S WHEN WE START TO SAY THIS COULD BE A POTENTIAL BIOSIGNATURE IT’S IMPORTANT TO REALIZE THAT VERY LIKELY WE’LL HAVE TO RETURN THOSE SAMPLES TO EARTH TO MAKE THAT DEFINITIVE CONCLUSION ABOUT WHETHER THESE SAMPLES CONTAIN LIFE IN THEM FOR THE PERSEVERANCE SIDE, WE SEE IT AS OUR JOB TO IDENTIFY POTENTIAL BIOSIGNATURES, THINGS WORTHY OF STUDY HERE ON EARTH I THINK THAT’S HOW WE’LL APPROACH THAT QUESTION ON THE SURFACE OF MARS >> UP NEXT WE HAVE ANTONIA WITH FLORIDA TODAY >> REPORTER: THANKS FOR TAKING MY QUESTION I WAS WONDERING AS CASES OF CORONAVIRUS IN FLORIDA CONTINUE TO RISE, WILL NASA ASK THE FOUR WATCH THIS FROM HOME AND WILL IT PROVIDE A VIRTUAL EXPERIENCE SHOW LIKE IT DID FOR DEMO-2? THANKS >> FOR THIS PARTICULAR MISSION WE ARE ASKING PEOPLE TO FOLLOW THE GUIDELINES OF THE GOVERNOR OF FLORIDA, WE WANT EVERYBODY TO PRACTICE SOCIAL DISTANCING AND IF YOU ARE WITHIN SIX FEET, MAKE SURE YOU ARE WEARING A MASK, THOSE KINDS OF THINGS WE ARE NOT TELLING PEOPLE NOT TO VISIT FOR THE LAUNCH WE ARE NOT SAYING THAT WHAT WE DO HAVE TO MAKE SURE WE DO, WE PROTECT THE WORK FORCE AT THE KENNEDY SPACE CENTER WE HAVE THE ENTRY, DECENT AND LANDING OF THE CREW DRAGON THAT TOOK OUR ASTRONAUTS TO THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION WE HAVE A LOT OF OTHER ACTIVITIES SO WE ARE NOT GOING TO OPEN UP THE KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, BUT CERTAINLY PEOPLE ARE GOING TO TRAVEL WE ASK PEOPLE NOT TO TRAVEL FOR DM-2 WHICH WAS THE LAUNCH OF THE FALCON 9 ROCKET WITH THE CREW DRAGON AND DOUG HURLEY AND BOB IN THE CAPSULE WE ARE ASKING PEOPLE TO FOLLOW ALL OF THE NECESSARY GUIDELINES TO KEEP THEMSELVES SAFE WE ARE TRUSTING THEY WILL >> UP NEXT IS DAVE MOSIER WITH BUSINESS INSIDER >> REPORTER: THANK YOU FOR TAKING MY QUESTION GOOD LUCK WITH THE LAUNCH YOU MENTIONED THE CAMERAS WHAT RESOLUTION WILL THEY FILM IN, WHEN WE MIGHT EXPECT THAT SEVEN MINUTES OF TERROR IMAGE TO GET BACK TO EARTH I UNDERSTAND THIS IS A DISCRETIONARY PAYLOAD >> THOSE ARE ALL GOOD QUESTIONS I WILL TRY TO ANSWER THEM IN SOME SORT OF ORDER TO START WITH, YOUR LAST QUESTION, THESE ARE NOT IN COMPETITION WITH ANY OTHER PAY LOAD ON THE SPACECRAFT THEY WERE SELECTED VIA THE NORMAL PROCESS AS WE GOT FURTHER DOWN THE ROAD AND GOT MORE MATURE, WE REALIZED WE HAD AN OPPORTUNITY WE HAD RESIDUAL CAPABILITY TO INSTALL THESE THEY TAKE VERY, VERY LITTLE MASS AND VOLUME I DON’T HAVE THE NUMBERS EXACTLY BUT THEY ARE ESSENTIALLY UNNOTICEABLE AT THE SPACECRAFT LEVEL AS FAR AS RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS GO THAT’S BECAUSE WE DIDN’T BUILD SOMETHING NEW, WE DIDN’T BUILD SOMETHING THAT WAS PARTICULARLY SOPHISTICATED WE WERE ABLE TO GO OUT AND USE COMMERCIAL OFF THE SHELF

AVAILABLE PRODUCTS SO THAT MADE IT EASIER TO DEVELOP THEM QUICKLY AT LOW COST AND TO ACCOMMODATE THEM RESOLUTION-WISE, I HAVE TO CHECKMENT I BELIEVE THEY ARE 10 MEGA PIXEL CAMERAS, 40 FRAMES PER SECOND BUT WE CAN GET THE EXACT NUMBERS THEY PRODUCE A LOT OF DATA THE DATA IS NOT GOING TO COME BACK IN REALTIME WE HAVE LIMITED TELETRI WE’LL BRING THAT BACK DURING THE FIRST COUPLE OF WEEKS ON THE SURFACE >> UP NEXT IS PAUL BRINKMAN WITH UPI >> REPORTER: THANKS FOR DOING THIS OBVIOUSLY, THE MARS ROVERS HAVE SURPRISED IN THE PAST IN TERMS OF HOW LONG THEY HAVE STAYED OPERATIONAL I’M WONDERING WHAT IS THE OUTSIDE LENGTH OF TIME THAT BOTH IS OPERATIONAL DO YOU KNOW HOW MANY FLIGHTS THERE MIGHT BE FOR THE HELICOPTER? THANKS >> SO I CAN RESPOND TO THE LONGEVITY QUESTION WE HAVE A PRIMARY MISSION DEFINED FOR THE VEHICLE OF ONE MARS YEAR WHICH IS ROUGHLY TWO EARTH YEARS THAT’S SIMILAR TO THE DESIGN REQUIREMENT FOR CURIOSITY AS YOU KNOW, CURIOSITY IS STILL OPERATING ON THE SURFACE HERE ABOUT EIGHT YEARS SINCE WE LANDED THE GOOD NEWS ABOUT THESE SYSTEMS IS THAT ALTHOUGH THEY HAVE TO OPERATE IN A HARSH ENVIRONMENT, THAT ENVIRONMENT IS RELATIVELY REPEATABLE AND STABLE SO ONCE YOU GET PAST THOSE INITIAL ISSUES, INFANT MORTALITY ISSUES, IT’S NOT UNUSUAL FOR OUR SPACECRAFT TO CONTINUE ON FOR WELL BEYOND THEIR DESIGNED LIFETIME VOYAGER ARE THE BEST EXAMPLES I CAN THINK OF BUT THERE IS NO GUARANTEE SO WE TRY TO OPERATE THE SYSTEM UNDER THE ASSUMPTION THAT WE’LL ONLY HAVE SO MUCH TIME TO GET THE WORK DONE AND BUILD IT ROBUSTLY AND HOPE WE GET MORE TIME >> DOES ANYONE WANT TO TAKE ON THE INGENUITY QUESTION? >> ON INGENUITY, WE HAVE THREE FLIGHTS DESIGNED FOR THE SURFACE HOWEVER, WE ARE GOING TO TAKE THEM ONE FLIGHT AT A TIME >> AND THEN UP NEXT IS TONI RICE WITH WRAL >> REPORTER: THANKS FOR TAKING MY QUESTION THIS IS FOR MATT WALLACE WHAT ARE THE FEW DISAPPOINTMENTS WAS THE DAMAGE THAT OCCURRED ON THE WIND SENSOR HAVE THERE BEEN CHANGES IN THE PROCEDURE OR THE INSTRUMENT ITSELF BASED ON WHAT YOU LEARNED EIGHT YEARS AGO? >> ONE OF THE THINGS WE LEARNED WITH THE SKY CRANE SYSTEM IS THE ABILITY TO KICK UP DUST WE HAVE MADE CHANGES ON THIS PROJECT TO PROTECT THINGS THAT ARE SENSITIVE TO THAT OPTICS, WIND SENSORS ARE GOOD EXAMPLES WE HAVE A DEBRIS SHIELD AROUND THE HELICOPTER ON THE BOTTOM OF THE VEHICLE THE ANSWER IS YES, WE HAVE TRIED TO ADJUST FOR THAT ENVIRONMENT >> THANKS WE HAVE A LOT OF PEOPLE ON THE LINES RIGHT NOW UP NEXT IS LEE WITH THE WALL STREET JOURNAL >> REPORTER: THANK YOU FOR TAKING MY QUESTION NASA IS NOT ALONE IN VOYAGING TO MARS CHINA EXPECTS TO LAUNCH ITS FIRST MARS LANDER, THE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES IS LAUNCHING ITS VEHICLE EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY AND RUSSIA ARE PUTTING THEIR LANDER TOGETHER FOR 2022 AND SpaceX TALKS ABOUT THE CACHE SUPPLIES FOR FUTURE COLONISTS I WONDER IF YOU COMMENT ON THE

CHANGING NATURE OF SPACE EXPLORATION WHAT ARE THE AGENCY AND DIPLOMATIC EFFECTS FROM YOUR VANTAGE? >> THAT’S AN IMPORTANT QUESTION THE FIRST THING WE NEED IS ADDITIONAL COMMUNICATION THROUGH-PUT WE ARE AT THE LIMITS OF OUR COMMUNICATION CAPABILITIES FOR DEEP SPACE SO WE NEED TO PLUS UP THE ARCHITECTURE A LOT OF THESE COUNTRIES THAT DO THESE ACTIVITIES, THEY WANT TO USE THE DEEP SPACE NETWORK THAT NASA HAS ESTABLISHED WE ARE VERY WILLING TO SUPPORT IN THAT EFFORT THIS IS ABOUT SCIENCE AND DISCOVERY EXPLORATION WHEN PEOPLE SEE COUNTRIES DOING THESE STUNNING THINGS IN OTHER WORLDS, IT INSPIRES ALL OF US WE ARE SUPPORTIVE OF THESE ACTIVITIES AND ULTIMATELY, REMEMBER WHAT WE ARE TRYING TO DO, WE ARE TRYING TO GET HUMANS TO MARS THAT’S THE OBJECTIVE AND THESE ROBOTIC PRECURSOR MISSIONS OPEN THE EYES OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE AND PEOPLE AROUND THE WORLD AS TO WHAT THE POSSIBILITIES ARE AND IT HELPS INSPIRE THAT NEXT GENERATION IN FACT, EVEN OUR GENERATION WHERE WE SEE HUMANS LIVING AND WORKING ON THE SURFACE OF MARS SO THERE’S A LOT THAT GOES INTO THIS I’M EXCITED ABOUT THE UNITED AROB EMIRATES AND THEIR MISSION WE HAVE DONE A LOT TO SUPPORT THEM THEY WANT TO BE BIG SUPPORTERS OF OURS IN THE ARTEMIS PROGRAM OF COURSE, THEY ARE VERY INVOLVED, THEY ARE GOING TO BE LAUNCHING IN A FEW SHORT YEARS THEIR OWN ROVER TO THE SURFACE OF THE MOON A LOT OF COUNTRIES ARE STEPPING UP IN A BIG WAY COUNTRIES THAT HISTORICALLY HAVE NOT BEEN EXPLORATION COUNTRIES ARE STEPPING UP, NOT JUST TALKING ABOUT IT, BUT BACKING IT UP WITH BUDGETS ALL OF THIS IS GOING TO BE VERY HELPFUL FOR US AS WE MOVE FORWARD NASA IS AN INSTITUTION THAT IS A TOOL OF DIPLOMACY THERE IS NO BETTER DIPLOMACY THAN EXPLORING OUR OWN SOLAR SYSTEM TOGETHER AND EVENTUALLY THE REST OF OUR GALAXY AND UNIVERSE >> THANKS, JIM NOW WE HAVE CHRIS AND KARLA WITH KFI NEWS >> REPORTER: THANKS FOR TAKING MY QUESTION JUST GOING BACK TO COVID REAL QUICK, SPECIFIC CHALLENGES YOU FACED THEY HAVE BEEN FAMOUS FOR ADAPTING AND BUILDING OUT NEW SYSTEMS WHAT ADAPTATIONS TO WORK FLOW MAY BE CARRIED FORWARD IN THE FUTURE? WHAT LESSONS DID YOU LEARN DURING THE SHUTDOWN? >> I WILL START THERE IS SO MANY DIFFERENT THINGS RIGHT NOW NASA IS WORKING REMOTELY THEY HAVE BEEN FORWARD LEANING ON TELEWORKING IT WAS EASY TO GO TO A PROFILE WHERE MOST OF US ARE WORKING REMOTELY THAT WAS NOT TERRIBLY PROBLEMATIC AT THE SAME TIME WE STILL HAVE TO BUILD HARDWARE OUR CONTRACTORS STILL HAVE TO BUILD HARDWARE WE HAVE TO MAKE SURE WE ARE DOING WHAT WE CAN FOR SOCIAL DISTANCING, CHANGING SHIFTS SO INSTEAD OF HAVING 12 PEOPLE WORKING ON A VEHICLE AT THE SAME TIME, WE CAN DIVIDE IT UP INSTEAD HAVIGHT HOUR SHIFTS WHERE YOU HAVE THREE SHIFTS OF FOUR PEOPLE WORKING ON A VEHICLE, MAKING SURE EVERYBODY HAS THEIR PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT AND THOSE KIND OF THINGS AS WE MOVE FORWARD, AS WE START GOING, WE WENT TO STAGE 4 AT A LOT OF OUR CENTERS, WHICH MEANT NOBODY CAN COME TO WORK BECAUSE THERE WERE SOME OUTBREAKS OF CORONAVIRUS WHERE THOSE CENTERS ARE NOW WE CAN GO TO STAGE 3, WE HAVE MISSION CRITICAL, NOT MISSION ESSENTIAL, WHICH IS WHAT MARS 2020 IS MISSION CRITICAL FUNCTIONS WHICH ARE STILL IMPORTANT MISSIONS THAT WE NEED TO START GETTING BACK UNDER WAY AND EVENTUALLY WE WANT TO GET BACK TO STAGE 2 AND NORMAL WORKING ENVIRONMENT ONE OF THE THINGS WE HAVE TAKEN AWAY IS HOW MUCH WORK YOU CAN ACTUALLY DO WHEN YOU ARE STILL AT HOME AND THERE IS DIFFERENT TYPES OF WORK YOU ARE ABLE TO DO FROM HOME WHEN I’M AT HOME, I’M DOING A LOT MORE OUTREACH THAN I HAVE BEEN ABLE TO DO BEFORE EVERYBODY IS A PHONE CALL OR TELECONFERENCE AWAY WE ARE NOT HAVING TO ORGANIZE SCHEDULES TO GET EVERYBODY’S SCHEDULES TO MARCH AND EVERYTHING ELSE THERE ARE AREAS WHERE YOU ARE

MORE PRODUCTIVE AND OTHER AREAS WHERE YOU ARE LESS PRODUCTIVE WHEN WE GET BACK TO A MORE NORMALIZED ENVIRONMENT, WE HAVE TO TAKE THE LESSONS LEARNED AND APPLY THEM JPL HAS BEEN THINKING ABOUT THESE THINGS AS WELL I DON’T KNOW IF ANYBODY HAS ANYTHING TO ADD >> I WILL JUST AGREE WITH YOU COMPLETELY WE ARE CARRYING THESE LESSONS FORWARD WE ARE LOOKING INTO THE RELATIVE TO 2020, WE ARE PULLING THE LESSONS LEARNED THAT WE HAVE ACQUIRED OVER THE LAST SEVERAL MONTHS INTO OUR OPERATIONS THINKING ABOUT WHAT IT MEANS WITH RESPECT TO CRITICAL ACTIVITIES LIKE ENTRY, DECENT DT AND LANDING WE ARE UNDERSTANDING THOUSAND BRING PEOPLE IN TO GET THE WORK DONE AS WAS DISCUSSED >> NEXT ON THE LINE IS JENNIFER WITH POPULAR MECHANICS >> REPORTER: HI THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR TAKING THESE QUESTIONS A QUICK QUESTION FOR MAYBE EITHER MATT OR KATIE WHAT DO YOU HOPE TO LEARN BY RECORDING SOUND DURING THE MISSION? AND KATIE, ANOTHER QUICK QUESTION, YOU MENTIONED THAT YOU WERE A LITTLE IFFY ABOUT THE NAME PERSEVERANCE WAS THERE ANOTHER NAME YOU FAVORED PERHAPS? THANK YOU AGAIN >> MAYBE I WILL START OFF, TO YOUR FIRST QUESTION, WHAT WE HOPE TO USE THE MICROPHONES FOR, WE ARE EXCITED TO HEAR THE SOUNDS OF MARS AND THE SOUNDS OF THE ROVER INTERACTING WITH ITS ENVIRONMENT WE’LL HEAR THE WHEELS AND GEARS TURNING WE HAVE A MICROPHONE ON THE SUPER CAM INSTRUMENT, WHEN WE ZAP THE ROCKS, WE’LL HEAR THE SOUND THAT MAY TELL US SOMETHING ABOUT THE PROPERTIES OF THE ROCKS WE ARE EXCITED TO USE THE ROVER’S EARS TO DO THAT IN TERMS OF THE NAMES, THERE WERE NINE CANDIDATES THERE EVERYBODY HAD THEIR FAVORITE I DON’T KNOW THAT I HAD A PARTICULAR FAVORITE THERE BUT IN THE END, THE ROVER NAME, WHEN IT’S SELECTED, IT BECOMES PART OF THE ROVER ONCE THAT NAME IS SELECTED, YOU CAN’T SEPARATE THE ROVER FROM ITS NAME THOSE OF US WHO WORKED ON PREVIOUS MISSIONS, IT HAPPENS ONCE THE NAME IS SELECTED, IT JUST BECOMES THAT’S WHAT’S HAPPENED FOR PERSEVERANCE FOR ME PERSONALLY IT IS PERSEVERANCE, WE ARE EXCITED THAT IT IS >> THANK YOU AND UP NEXT IS LEO ENWRIGHT WITH IRISH TELEVISION >> THANK YOU THIS IS FOR KATIE YOU TALKED ABOUT THE COMPLEXITY OF COLLECTING SAMPLES MATT DAMON SAYS SCIENCE YOU KNOW WHAT OUT OF MARS WE CAN SAY THAT THE CURIOSITY ROVER HAS DONE THAT BUT IT DOES SEEM LIKE THE TRAVERSE THERE HAS BEEN FAR, FAR SLOWER THAN MOST PEOPLE WOULD HAVE BEEN EXPECTED, FOR VERY GOOD REASONS YELLOWKNIFE ALONE WOULD DELAY YOU FOR MONTHS WILL THERE BE DIFFERENT TIME PRESSURES ON THIS MISSION AT EACH SAMPLE SITE JUST TO GET THE SAMPLE AND MOVE ON TO THE NEXT TO COLLECT ENOUGH FOR THE RETURN CACHE? WILL IT BE MORE OF A SHOOT AND SCOOT MISSION? >> THAT’S A GREAT QUESTION, ONE WE ARE THINKING A LOT ABOUT AS WE COME UP WITH SCENARIOS FOR THE MISSION AND WHAT THE SAMPLE CACHE MIGHT LOOK LIKE WE WANT IT TO HAVE DIVERSITY, WE WANT IT TO COVER THE INTERVAL OF TIME THAT THE ROCKS REPRESENT THAT REQUIRES SUBSTANTIAL GROUND TO PUT A CACHE TOGETHER LIKE THAT WE HAVE A COUPLE OF ADVANTAGES ON OUR SIDE, PARTICULARLY IN COMPARISON TO CURIOSITY PART OF THE REASON WE PICKED THE CRATER, IT HAD A WELL UNDERSTOOD ENVIRONMENT, WE COULD SEE AND UNDERSTAND FROM ORBITAL IMAGES ALONE IN CURIOSITY’S CASE AND GAIL CRATER, YOU HAVE A 5-KILOMETER THICK MOUND THE UNCERTAINTY OF WHAT THAT MEANS WE HAD TO SPEND A LOT OF TIME WITH THAT MISSION DOING THE SCIENCE TO UNDERSTAND WHAT ROCKS WE ARE LOOKING AT WE KNOW WE HAVE A DELTA, WE HAD A LAKE, WE KNOW THAT ANY CRATER IS PERCHED ON THE RIM OF A GIANT IMPACT BASIN SO WE EXPECT THINGS LIKE IMPACT MEGA-PR ETCHA THE FACT WE HAVE A GOOD UNDERSTANDING OF THE SITE

ALREADY, HELPS US PLAN THE SAMPLING I THINK WE WILL FEEL PRESSURE TO COVER THAT GROUND BECAUSE WE WANT TO PUT TOGETHER THE BEST CACHE OF SAMPLES WE CAN BUT WE HAVE ADVANTAGE OF PREVIOUS MISSIONS IN TERMS OF HOW WELL WE UNDERSTAND THE SITE ALREADY >> GREAT ONE MORE QUESTION >> REPORTER: HI THERE I HAVE A QUESTION FOR THE SCIENTISTS [INDISCERNIBLE] THE FIRST ONE, YOU TALK ABOUT HOW THIS MISSION THE VERY LATEST IN THE LONG QUEST OF WHETHER THERE WAS LIFE ON MARS COULD YOU DESCRIBE BRIEFLY, WHAT IS IT ABOUT PERSEVERANCE THAT ONE COULD DO THAT PREVIOUS MISSIONS COULDN’T IF LIFE IS THERE [INDISCERNIBLE] MUCH, MUCH CLOSER TO THAT CONCEPT THE OTHER QUESTION I HAVE QUICKLY FOR THE GROUP AS WELL, WE KNOW THERE WILL BE PLENTY OF MISSIONS GOING TO MARS [INDISCERNIBLE] CAN YOU TALK ABOUT HOW YOUR MISSION WILL COMPLEMENT THE SCIENCE GOING ON ELSEWHERE >> I WILL TACKLE YOUR FIRST QUESTION THAT’S WHERE WE GET TO SOME OF THE INSTRUMENTS AND SCIENTIFIC PAYLOAD WE HAVE ON PERSEVERANCE THOSE INSTRUMENTS ON THE END OF THE ARM THAT HAVE THE ABILITY TO MAP IN FINE DETAIL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, MINERALLOLOGY AND ORGANIC CARBON IN A WAY WE HAVE NEVER BEEN ABLE TO DO BEFORE CURIOSITY HAS THE ABILITY TO DETECT ORGANIC CARBON BUT WE HAVEN’T BEEN ABLE TO LINK THE PRESENCE OF THAT TO PARTICULAR TEXTURES OR PATTERNS WE SEE IN THE ROCK THAT COULD HAVE BEEN LEFT BEHIND BY LIFE IT’S THAT CONNECTION OF THE TEXTURES AND COMPOSITION THAT ALLOW US TO MAKE A COMPELLING CASE FOR A BIOSIGNATURE THE INSTRUMENTS ALLOW US TO DO THAT FOR THE FIRST TIME ON THE SURFACE OF MARS IN A NONDESTRUCTIVE WAY AND IN A WAY WE COLLECT OUR SAMPLES WE ARE COLLECTING PRESERVED CORES OF ROCK THAT WE CAN BRING BACK TO EARTH AND STUDY THAT’S HOW WE DISTINGUISH OURSELVES IN ADVANCING THE SEARCH FOR POTENTIAL BIOSIGNATURES ON THE PLANET MARS MAYBE I WILL TOSS IT TO LORI OR SOMEONE ELSE IN THE PANEL TO ANSWER THE SECOND PART >> I’M HAPPY TO TAKE THE SECOND PART OF THAT QUESTION THANKS AS YOU MENTIONED, THERE WILL BE SEVERAL MISSIONS HEADED TO MARS, SEVERAL THIS SUMMER AND EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY IN TWO YEARS AS THEY POSTPONED THE LAUNCH THIS SUMMER CHINA IS GOING TO BE SENDING THEIR FIRST LAND TORE MARS WE ARE ALL GOING TO BE WATCHING THAT CAREFULLY THIS IS AN INCREDIBLY DIFFICULT THING TO DO TO LAND SAFELY ON MARS WE KNOW HOW CHALLENGING IT IS WE HAVE BEEN VERY LUCKY AND LEARNED A LOT FROM THOSE WE HAVE BEEN SUCCESSFUL THE LAST SEVERAL TIMES I HAVE FULL CONFIDENCE IN OUR TEAM IT WILL BE INTERESTING TO WATCH AS CHINA ATTEMPTS THIS AS WELL THAT WILL BE AN INTERESTING THING TO WATCH THE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES ARE SENDING THEIR ORBITER THIS WILL BE THEIR FIRST FORAY INTO THIS INTERPLANETARY FLIGHT SO IT WILL BE COMPLEMENTARY TO THE OTHER MISSIONS WE HAVE AS MARS AS WELL TO COMPLEMENT THOSE ACTIVITIES AND THE OTHER ROVER IS COMPLEMENTARY TO WHAT PERSEVERANCE WILL BE DOING ON THE SURFACE ONE OF THE THINGS IT WILL BE DOING THAT IS DIFFERENT THAN WHAT WE ARE DOING WITH PERSEVERANCE, IT HAS THE CAPABILITY TO ACTUALLY DRILL A COUPLE OF METERS BELOW THE SURFACE TO PULL UP A SAMPLE THIS IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE THE SAMPLES AT THE SURFACE HAVE BEEN EXPOSED TO RADIATION IF THERE WERE ACTUALLY LIFE PRESENT ON MARS AT THE SURFACE, IT MAY HAVE BEEN DESTROYED THROUGH THAT RADIATION BUT SAMPLES BENEATH THE SURFACE MAY HAVE A POTENTIAL TO CONTAIN LIFE THERE ARE GOING TO BE INTERESTING COMPLEMENTARIES THERE >> UNFORTUNATELY, WE CAN’T ANSWER ALL THE MEDIA QUESTIONS ON AIR FOR THOSE OF YOU WITH ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS, CALL JPL’S DIGITAL NEWS AND MEDIA OFFICE WE’LL CONTINUE TO ANSWER QUESTIONS OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON-LINE THANK YOU FOR YOUR QUESTIONS AND THANK YOU TO OUR PANELISTS FOR JOINING US TODAY

PERSEVERANCE IS TARGETED TO LAUNCH FROM FLORIDA ON JULY 20 IT WILL LAND ON MARS IN FEBRUARY OF 2021 YOU CAN FOLLOW@NASAPERSEVERANCE JOIN THE CONVERSATION BY USING #COUNTDOWNTOMARS YOU CAN VISIT NASA.GOV SLASH PERSEVERANCE WE HAVE A DEEPER DIVE WITH A PRESS KIT IT’S FILLED WITH INFORMATION AND GRAPHICS DESCRIBING THE ROVER AND MISSION ALL THE IMAGES TODAY WILL REPLAY AFTER THIS BRIEFING THANKS FOR WATCHING