The Science Onboard the Next ISS Supply Mission

>>> WELCOME, I’M KATHRYN HAMBLETON WE’RE LOADED AND READY TO GO IN ATLAS 5 WHICH WILL LAUNCH DURING A 50 MINUTE WINDOW BEGINNING AT 11:05 TOMORROW EVENING HERE WITH ME TODAY†– ACTUALLY JUST TO LET YOU KNOW FIRST, WE WILL BE TAKING QUESTIONS FOR THOSE IN THE ROOM AS WELL AS FROM THOSE ON THE PHONE AND THOSE ONLINE IF YOU’RE ON THE PHONE, PLEASE PRESS STAR ONE TO BE ENTERED INTO THE QUEUE WE HAVE A LOT OF SCIENCE GOING UP ON THE ROCKET TOMORROW HERE WITH ME TO GIVE US AN OVERVIEW OF THE SCIENCE GOING UP, WE HAVE PETE HAS BRUK FROM THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION >>> THANK YOU FOR JOINING US THIS AFTERNOON WE ARE REALLY EXCITED ABOUT TOMORROW NIGHT’S LAUNCH AND ESPECIALLY ABOUT ALL THE SCIENTIFIC HARDWARE THAT’S GOING UP FOR US TO CONTINUE OUR GREAT WORK ON THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION THIS IS BRING A VARIETY OF ALL KINDS OF HARDWARE ON THIS LAUNCH IN THE SCIENTIFIC AREA WE HAVE 860 KILOGRAMS OF CARGO FOR THE SCIENCE TEAM, WHICH IS OVER 1,700 POUNDS OF CARGO WHICH ADDS UP TO ABOUT A QUARTER OF THE TOTAL CARGO ON THE CYGNUS THE ISS IS VERY VERSATILE AND CAPABLE LABORATORY IN SPACE BUT IT’S NOT LIKE MOST LABORATORIES THAT YOU’RE FAMILIAR WITH ON THE GROUND HERE WHICH MAY FOCUS IN ONE DISCIPLINE OF SCIENCE, AND MAYBE ONE VERY NARROW FOCUS OF SCIENCE WE’VE GOT A BROAD BREADTH OF SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINES HUMAN RESEARCH, BIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCES, PHYSICAL SCIENCES, TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AS WELL AS EDUCATION TODAY ACROSS THE INTERNATIONAL PARTNERSHIP WE’VE HAD OVER 1,900 EXPERIMENTS CONDUCTED ON THE ISS WE’VE SERVED MORE THAN 2,700 SCIENTISTS ACROSS THE PARTNERSHIP AND AROUND THE WORLD AND WE’VE HAD PARTICIPATION ON THE ISS PROGRAM OF MORE THAN 95 COUNTRIES AROUND THE WORLD TOMORROW’S LAUNCH WILL BRING SUPPLIES TO HELP US CONTINUE OUR WORK ON THE SPACE STATION, TO CONTINUE SOME OF THE EXPERIMENTS THAT ARE ALREADY GOING ON WE HAVE SEVERAL NEW EXPERIMENTS THAT THE CYGNUS IS BRINGING TO US TODAY, THIS AFTERNOON, THE SPEAKERS THAT FOLLOW US, YOU’LL HEAR ABOUT SOME OF THESE EXCITING INVESTIGATIONS WE HAVE A PLANNED CONTROLLED FIRE THAT WILL BE IGNITED ON THE CYGNUS SPACECRAFT AFTER IT’S FINISHED ITS MISSION AFTER IT’S UNBERTHED THAT WILL STUDY THE GROWTH OF FIRES IN SPACE AND HELP US KEEP FUTURE SPACECRAFT SAFE FROM FIRES YOU’LL SEE AN EXPERIMENT ABOUT MECHANICAL ADHESION THIS IS A TECHNOLOGY THAT ALLOWS ITS REUSABLE ADHESION, IT DOESN’T LEAVE ANY ADHESIVE IT’S USABLE ON MANY DIFFERENT SURFACES MOST BENEFIT TO US IS IT’S REUSABLE ON LOTS OF DIFFERENT SURFACES YOU’LL HEAR ABOUT ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, WHICH IS THE NEXT PHASE FOR US IN THE SPACE PROGRAM FOR MAKING HARDWARE OUT OF JUST RAW MATERIALS AND SPACE IT ALLOWS US TO BUILD NEW TOOLS ON THE SPACE STATION, REPLACEMENT PARTS AND EVENT WE’RE LOOKING FORWARD TO THE ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING BUILDING NEW EXPERIMENT HARDWARE FOR US YOU’LL HEAR ABOUT AN INVESTIGATION ABOUT THE IMPACT SHATTERED SOIL THAT MAKES UP THE LUNAR SURFACE, COMMENTS AND ASTEROIDS AND FINALLY, YOU’LL HEAR ABOUT AN INSTRUMENT TO BE MOUNTED INSIDE THE ISS WHICH WILL LOOK AT METEORS AS THEY ENTER THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE AND IT WILL LOOK AT THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THOSE METEORS, WHAT MAKES UP THOSE METEORS I HOPE YOU’LL AGREE WITH US THE STATION PROGRAM, SCIENCE PROGRAM WE HAVE IS ADVANCING THE KNOWLEDGE OF OUR EARTH AROUND US IT’S ADVANCING HUMAN EXPLORATION OF SPACE AND IS BENEFITTING ALL OF US ON THE GROUND I’D LIKE TO TURN IT OVER TO MIKE ROBERTS >> I’M HERE FROM THE CASUS IT’S THE MANAGER OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION NATIONAL LAB PETE INTRODUCED TO YOU A LOT OF THE DIFFERENT TOOLS THAT ARE AVAILABLE ABOARD THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION HE MENTIONED A BROAD BREADTH OF RESEARCH CENTERS ACROSS THE UNITED STATES THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION NATIONAL LAB SPECIALIZED IN PROVIDING ACCESS TO THE SPACE ENVIRONMENT FOR LARGE VARIETY OF USERS, WE ARE SPONSORING ON THE ISS LAB

PROJECT METEOR, UTILIZING THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION AS AN EARTH OBSERVATION PLATFORM IN THE SAME WAY THAT WE HAVE SATELLITES THAT ORBIT THE EARTH, THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION AFFORDS UNIQUE OPPORTUNITIES FROM ITS ORBITING THE U.S. AND THE WORLD ABOUT EVERY 90 MINUTES OR SO THERE ARE OPPORTUNITIES THERE TO UTILIZE IT AS AN EARTH OBSERVATION PLATFORM THERE ARE ALSO OPPORTUNITIES ON BOARD THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION FOR COMMERCIAL COMPANIES TO TEST HYPOTHESIS TO DEVELOP DRUGS AND IN SOME CASES TO ACTUALLY EXPLORE MANUFACTURING CAPABILITIES ON ORBIT YOU’RE GOING TO HEAR FROM ONE OF OUR IMPLEMENTATION PARTNERS MADE IN SPACE A LITTLE BIT LATER WHO WILL TAKE ABOUT IT WAS A TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION ON BOARD THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION THAT HAS TRANSFERRED INTO A ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING FACILITY THAT’S AN EXCITING OPPORTUNITIES FOR VARIETY OF USERS HERE IN THE UNITED STATES WHO RANGE FROM COMMERCIAL COMPANIES WHO WANT TO EXPLORE ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING CAPABILITIES AS WELL AS TO STUDENTS YOU’LL HEAR FROM ANOTHER IMPLEMENTATION PARTNER NANO RACKS WHO PROVIDES RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES AND OFFERING OPPORTUNITIES FOR SATELLITES TO BE LAUNCHED FROM THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION THEIR CUSTOMER BASE IS STUDENTS AS WELL THEY HAVE AN ACTIVE STEM PROGRAM TO ENABLE ACCESS TO THE SPACE ENVIRONMENT TO MIDDLE AND HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS WE LOOK FORWARD VERY MUCH TO THE LAUNCH OF THE ROCKET TOMORROW AND NEW POSSIBILITIES THAT ARE GOING TO COME FROM THE HUHDITION OF THESE FACILITIES TO THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION NATIONAL LAB >> THANK YOU WE NOW HAVE SOME TYPE FOR QUESTIONS BEFORE WE GO TO OUR NEXT SPEAKER FOR THOSE IN THE ROOM IF YOU WOULD RAISE YOUR HAND AND SOMEONE WITH A MICROPHONE WILL COME TO YOU STATE YOUR NAME AND TO WHOM YOUR QUESTION IS DIRECTED AND PLEASE KEEP IT TO ONE QUESTION FOR NOW IF WE HAVE ADDITIONAL TIME WE’LL GO FOR ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS FOR THOSE ON THE PHONE O PRESS STAR ONE AND THOSE ON LINE USE THE†#ASKNASA >> I’D LIKE TO HEAR MORE ABOUT THE ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING CAPABILITIES EXACTLY WHAT YOU’RE DOING AND TRYING TO ACCOMPLISH >> THAT WILL BE ONE OF OUR SPEAKERS THAT WILL COME UP, WE’LL BE ABLE TO TALK MORE ABOUT THAT SHORTLY >> MY NAME IS MARK GAUCH, HISTORICAL SPACE IMAGERY CAN YOU TELL ME, GENTLEMEN, THE NANO, RAX, WITH ITS CAPABILITY LAUNCHED FROM SPACE, FROM THE SPACE STATION? WILL THIS BE†– IF I’M TO BE LOOKING FORWARD TO THE FUTURE, LOOKING AT THINGS LIKE DREAM CHASER, BEING LAUNCHED JETTSING INTO SPACE, WILL IT BE ABLE TO DOCK AT THE SPACE STATION AND BE LAUNCHED FROM THE SPACE STATION? THAT WILL BE A POSSIBILITY? >> SHORT ANSWER TO THAT QUESTION IS YES THERE’S OBVIOUSLY A LOT OF INTEREST WITH THE CAPABILITIES OF SMALL SATELLITES AND NANO SATELLITES TO IMPROVE THE SPEED OF RETURN FOR TAKING TECHNOLOGIES INTO THE SPACE ENVIRONMENT RATHER THAN HAVING TO RELY UPON A LARGE SATELLITE BUS WHICH IS EXTREMELY EXPENSIVE AND REQUIRES A LOT OF DEVELOPMENT TIME TO ACTUALLY BUILD YOUR OWN AND DO IT YOURSELF AND THERE ARE COMPANIES THAT ARE INTERESTED IN TAKING THAT CAPABILITY FROM BUILDING A SATELLITE HERE ON EARTH AND TAKING IT INTO SPACE TO LAUNCH, TO ACTUALLY DOING ASSEMBLY AND MODIFICATION OF SATELLITES ON ORBIT THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION GIVES YOU THE OPPORTUNITY TO MANUFACTURE PARTS IN ORBIT AND RECONFIGURE BEFORE LAUNCH OR RECOVER IT IT’S THE BEGINNING OF A WHOLE NEW MARKET IN LOW EARTH ORBIT >> JUST A SECOND PART TO THAT QUESTION, VERY AWARE OF THE GREAT WORK CASUS HAS DONE IN GIVING MANY INDIVIDUALS AND GROUPS THE OPPORTUNITY TO DO EXPERIMENTS IN SPACE WAS CASUS PART OF THIS GOING FORWARD INVOLVING THE FUTURE OF SATELLITES? BEING LAUNCHED FROM THE SPACE STATION? >> YES, SO ONE OF THE MAJOR REASONS BEHIND THE DESIGNATION OF THE U.S. OPERATING SEGMENT AS AN INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION NATIONAL LAB WAS TO PROVIDE OPPORTUNITIES FOR A RANGE OF INVESTIGATORS AND ENGINEERS TO EXPLORE LOWER EARTH ORBIT AS AN ENVIRONMENT FOR INNOVATION, FOR TRYING NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN THE

SPACE ENVIRONMENT SO THOSE OPPORTUNITIES RANGE FROM COMMERCIAL MANUFACTURING CAPABILITIES ALL THE WAY TO SUBCOMPONENT TESTING THERE ARE A VARIETY OF OPPORTUNITIES THAT ARE OUT THERE NOT ONLY FOR THE EARTH OBSERVATION MARKET, FOR SATELLITES, BUT ALSO FOR DEVELOPING NEW CAPABILITIES TO DEVELOP NEW AREAS OF RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT IN LOWER EARTH ORBIT AND CASUS IS GLAD TO BE PART OF THIS >> THANK YOU THANK YOU VERY MUCH NEXT UP I’D LIKE TO WELCOME DR GARY RUFF PROJECT MANAGER AND CO-INVESTIGATOR FOR THE SPACECRAFT FIRE SAFETY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT KNOWN AS SAFFIRE I KNOW IT’S A DANGEROUS THING TO HAVE A FIRE IN A SPACECRAFT CAN YOU TELL US WHY YOU’RE GOING TO INTENTIONALLY START A FIRE INSIDE A SPACECRAFT? >> SURE THE BIG PICTURE OBJECTIVE IS TO LEARN SOME THINGS ABOUT FIRE SAFETY IN SPACECRAFT THAT WILL HELP US TO PROVIDE THE RIGHT EQUIPMENT AND THE RIGHT PROCEDURES AND EVERYTHING FOR ASTRONAUTS AS THEY GO ON LONG DURATION MISSIONS FOR SAFFIRE ONE THAT WILL BE LAUNCHING TOMORROW NIGHT THE OBJECTIVE IS TO LOOK HOW LARGE A FIRE CAN GET IN SPACE IF IT WERE TO START ON A MATERIAL, LET’S SAY A LARGE PIECE OF MATERIAL, HOW LARGE IT CAN GET IN SPACE, HOW FAST IT CAN GROW AND WHETHER IT REACHES A STEADY SIZE OR CONTINUES TO GROW IN SIZE AS IT PROPAGATES OF COURSE, WE’VE DONE COMBUSTION SCIENCE EXPERIMENTS ON THE SPACE STATION BEFORE BUT THEY’VE BEEN THE SIZE OF A NOTE CARD, IF EVEN THAT ON SAFFIRE ONE, WHAT WE’RE GOING TO BE DOING IS BURNING A SAMPLE THAT’S ABOUT THAT BIG SO IF IT WERE†– IF THIS WERE TO BURN ON A SPACECRAFT, IT WOULD BE A BIG DEAL SO THE APPARATUS, THE SAFFIRE ONE APPARATUS, HAVE A VERY SMALL PROTOTYPE MODEL HERE THERE’S TWO CHAMBERS, A FLOW CHAMBER AND AVIONICS CHAMBER WE HAVE TWO FANS ON THE AVIONICS BAY AND THE INLET AT THE BOTTOM IF YOU COULD BRING UP THE STILL IMAGE, IT’S SHOWN HERE ON THE SCREEN YOU CAN SEE THE SAMPLE CARD WHICH WAS THIS SAMPLE SITTING THERE INSIDE THE FLOW DOCK AND THE OTHER PART OF IT IS THE AVIONICS BAY IF YOU COULD ROLL THE VIDEO WHAT YOU’RE GOING TO SEE HERE IS, YOU KNOW, THE SAFFIRE EQUIPMENT, EXPERIMENT WAS LOADED ON TO CYGNUS IN JANUARY, AND IT’S GOING TO GO UP TO STATION AS THEY SAID ONE OF THE IMPORTANT THINGS ABOUT OUR EXPERIMENT IS WE’LL STAY ON CYGNUS SO THE CREW IS GOING TO OFF LOAD THEIR CARGO, ALL THE EXPERIMENTS WE’LL HEAR ABOUT AND THEN LOAD IN TRASH AND THEN OUR JOB REALLY STARTS ONCE THEY DEBERTH IT WILL MOVE CYGNUS WILL MOVE FAR ENOUGH AWAY FROM THE STATION AND WE’LL HAVE ENGINEERS IN DULLES AT ORBITAL ATK’S FACILITY SENDING COMMANDS TO START THE EXPERIMENT AND SO IT WILL RUN THROUGH THAT WHOLE EXPERIMENT IN ABOUT TWO AND A HALF HOURS IS WHAT IT WILL TAKE TO GET ALL OF THE DATA WE NEED WHICH IS GOING TO BE PRIMARILY VIDEO THERE’S OXYGEN CONCENTRATIONS, CO 2 CONCENTRATION AND VARIOUS TEMPERATURES WHAT HAPPENS WHEN†– ALTHOUGH THE CYGNUS VEHICLE WILL REMAIN IN ORBIT FOR ABOUT EIGHT DAYS WHILE THEY’RE GETTING ALL OF OUR DATA DOWN THE EXPERIMENT IS VERY SHORT BUT IT TAKES A WHILE TO GET ALL THE DATA WE NEED BACK DOWN TO EARTH AND THEN WHAT WILL HAPPEN IS WHEN WE’RE DONE, THEN CYGNUS WILL DEORBIT AND DESTRUCTIVELY DEORBIT INTO THE PACIFIC AND SO JUST TO CONCLUDE, I MEAN, A LOT OF THIS†– THERE’S A LOT OF INTERACTION HERE BETWEEN NASA ENGINEERS, ORBITAL ATK, ISS TO MAKE THIS HAPPEN BECAUSE THIS VEHICLE WASN’T INTENDED TO DO EXPERIMENTS LIKE THIS IT’S BEEN GREAT TEAM EFFORT AND FUN WORKING WITH THEM >> ALL RIGHT WE’LL TAKE QUESTIONS FOR DR RUFF AGAIN, PLEASE RAISE YOUR HAND AND WHEN THE MICROPHONE COMES TO YOU STATE YOUR NAME QUESTION UP HERE IN THE FRONT JUST A SECOND >> HI I HAD A COUPLE OF QUESTIONS IS THAT THE ONLY TYPE OF MATERIAL THAT YOU’RE TESTING OR WILL THERE BE OTHER TYPES OF MATERIAL THAT YOU’LL BE TESTING? >> THIS IS THE ONLY ONE ON SAFFIRE ONE BECAUSE WE DON’T GET BACK AND YOU NEED MORE DATA POINTS WE CONSTRUCTED THREE OF THESE THERE IS THREE OF THESE UNITS THAT WILL GO ON 0 A 5 AND SEVEN WE HAVE NINE DIFFERENT SAMPLES, THERE’S A COUPLE OF THIS KIND OF

MATERIAL SO WE CAN LOOK AT HOW†– VARIATIONS IN SIZE AND HOW THAT IMPACTS THE FLAME SPREAD THERE’S NO MAX AND SOME OTHER MATERIALS THEY USE ON STATION >> IS THIS THE LAST PART OF THE MISSION BEFORE IT GOES OUT OF ORBIT? I KNOW THEY’RE RELEASING THE CUBE SET SO IS THAT GOING TO BE BEFORE OR AFTER THE SAFFIRE TEST? >> IT WOULD BE BEFORE I DON’T KNOW WHEN IN THE TIMELINE, BUT IT’S BEFORE >> HI, I’M CURIOUS, ARE YOU GOING TO BE MONITORING THE ATMOSPHERE BESIDES THE MATERIAL ON THE FIRE? ARE YOU GOING TO BE MONITORING THE ATMOSPHERE AT ALL? >> ON THIS EXPERIMENT WE HAVE†– WE WILL BE MONITORING THE OXYGEN CONCENTRATION AND CO 2 AT THE INLET TO OUR DOCK ORBITAL ATK HAS A SMOKE DETECTOR IN THE VEHICLE WE’LL BE MONITORING THAT THAT’S ALL THAT WE’RE REALLY GETTING ABOUT THE CABIN ATMOSPHERE IN THIS EXPERIMENT >> NOT ANY RESIDUE FROM THE FIRE ITSELF THEN? >> NOT IN THIS SERIES OF EXPERIMENTS >> WHAT ABOUT IN THE FUTURE? >> IN THE FUTURE WE’RE PLANNING RIGHT NOW THREE ADDITIONAL SAFFIRE FLIGHTS THAT WILL ESSENTIALLY†– WE WILL USE THIS TYPE OF HARDWARE FOR FLAMMABILITY EXPERIMENTS THEN WE’LL USE THE ENTIRE CYGNUS CABIN AS PART OF OUR TEST BED WHERE WE WILL MONITOR THE COMBUSTION GASES AND CLEANUP PROCESS AND THE PARTICULATE THAT’S PRODUCED >> VERY GOOD, THANK YOU >> YES, MARK GAUCH, CAN YOU TELL ME, SIR, THE ISS AS IT STANDS NOW, HAS IT BEEN DEVELOPED AND MADE OF FIRE RETARDANT MATERIALS? ALSO, KNOWING THAT EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE AND HOW FIRE REACTS TO IT, HAVE THERE EVER BEEN ANY PREVIOUS TESTS IN TERMS OF THE CONTENTS IN SPACE’S ATMOSPHERE AND HOW IT WOULD REACT TO FIRE INVOLVING YOUR TEST? >> OKAY THE FIRST QUESTION ABOUT FLAMMABLE MATERIALS ON ISS, ALL MATERIALS THAT GO UP ARE TESTED USING TERRESTRIAL FLAMMABILITY TESTS TO FIND OUT WHICH ONE CAN PROPAGATE A FIRE AND WHICH DON’T YOU TRY TO USE MATERIALS THAT DON’T BURN IN THOSE CONDITIONS BECAUSE PEOPLE LIVE THERE, YOU’LL HAVE SOME THINGS THEY HAVE TO USE THAT WILL BURN AND SO FOR ANYTHING LIKE THAT, THERE’S A CONFIGURATION CONTROL REQUIREMENT AND ISOLATION FROM POWER SOURCES AND ALL OF THOSE THINGS TO HELP, YOU KNOW, MAKE SURE THAT IT REMAINS SAFE THE SECOND QUESTION†– >> HAVE YOU LOOKED AT EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE IN TERMS OF ITS OXYGEN CONTENT, HOW A FIRE CURRENTLY BURNS, HAVE THERE BEEN PREVIOUS TESTS DONE IN TERMS OF EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE AND HOW IT WOULD REACT? >> THERE HAVE BEEN QUITE A FEW COMBUSTION EXPERIMENTS IN 21% OXYGEN AND OTHER OXYGEN CONCENTRATIONS THEY’VE STUDIED IT BUT IT GOES TO SMALL SIZES WHAT WE WANT TO DO IS START TO GET TO A MORE, I GUESS, DANGEROUS FIRE IF IT WERE TO OCCUR IN A SPACECRAFT >> LOOKING FORWARD TO HEARING THE RESULTS >> THANK YOU >> HI, BILL HARDWOOD WITH CBS NEWS YOU HAVEN’T EXPLICITLY SAID IT YOU DON’T EXPECT THE FIRE TO GET OUT OF YOUR CONTAINMENT VESSEL WHY NOT DO IT ON THE SPACE STATION WITH THE CREW TO WATCH IT? IF THERE’S A SAFETY THREAT WHAT IS IT? >> YOU’RE RIGHT WE MADE IT SO THAT THE FIRE COMBUSTION GASES WILL COME OUT, THE FIRE IS CONTROLLED AND STAYS INSIDE OUR BOX BECAUSE ORBITAL ATK LIKES TO REMAIN IN CONTROL OF THEIR VEHICLES IT NEEDS TO COME DOWN IN THE PACIFIC THE REASON WE DON’T DO THIS ON ISS IS THE PIECE THAT WE’RE NOT DOING ON CYGNUS WE WOULD DEFINITELY HAVE TO DO ON ISS IS CLEANING UP THE MESS THERE IS NO CHAMBER BIG ENOUGH ON ISS TO BE ABLE TO BURN SOMETHING THIS LARGE YOU CAN BURN SMALL THINGS AND A LOT OF THAT COMES TO PROTECT THE CREW, BECAUSE IF YOU’RE GOING TO HAVE IT ON ISS THE CREW HAS TO INTERACT THEY’VE GOT TO GO IN THE CHAMBER AND YOU HAVE TO BE ABLE TO CLEAN

UP THE MESS THIS ONE WE’RE NOT BOTHERING TO CLEAN UP THE MESS THE MESSIER THE BETTER >> WE’LL TAKE ONE MORE QUESTION >> IS IGNITIONS FOR THE EXPERIMENT, ARE THERE ANY SAFETY CONDITIONS HAVING THAT DOCKED TO THE STATION FOR A WHILE? DID YOU HAVE TO THINK OF ANYTHING THERE? >> MANY THINGS THAT’S THE FIRST QUESTION WE GET IT’S AN ELECTRICAL IGNITER AND TECHNICALLY, WE’VE GOT THE EXPERIMENT IS POWERED THROUGH FOUR RELAYS THEY’RE ALL INDIVIDUALLY†– CAN BE ALL INDIVIDUALLY CONTROLLED AND MONITORED BY ORBITAL WE CAN’T, SO OUR AVIONICS IS POWERED ON TWO SETS OF RELAYS, THE IGNITER IS ON TWO MORE THEY’VE ALL GOT TO BE CLOSED BEFORE WE CAN START THE SOFTWARE TO INITIATE THE EXPERIMENT SO THEY’RE MONITORING THAT THROUGHOUT THE MISSION >> ON THE ISS HAVE ANY INTERACTION WITH THAT A SAFETY SWITCH THEY HAVE TO THROW AS IT LEAVES TO ENABLE IT? IS IT ALL SOFTWARE CONTROLLED? >> IT’S NOT ALL SOFTWARE CONTROLLED THERE’S NO SWITCH THEY HAVE TO DO OF COURSE, ORBITAL ATK HAS TO COMMAND THOSE RELAYS THE ONLY THING THAT THEY HAVE TO DO IS NOT PACK BAGS AROUND OUR INLET AND OUTLET YOU SAW WE’VE GOT A FLOW THROUGH US WE’RE COORDINATED THAT WORKING WITH ISS AND THE PACKING ARRANGEMENT WE SHOULD BE GOOD >> ALL RIGHT WE’RE GOING TO MOVE ON TO OUR NEXT SPEAKER THANK YOU VERY MUCH, DR RUFF UP NEXT I’D LIKE TO WELCOME DR AARON PARNEZ FROM NASA’S JET PROPULSION LABORATORY HIS WORK IS ABOUT CLIMBING ROBOTS CAN YOU TELL HOW THEY ARE GOING TO STICK WITHOUT BE STICKY IN THE HARSH ENVIRONMENT OF SPACE? >> YEAH, MY PLEASURE OUR WORK IN MY LAB IS ALL ABOUT ROBOTIC GRIPPERS WE USE THESE GRIPPERS AS THE FEET ON CLIMBING ROBOTS TO GO UP CLIFF FACES, ACROSS CAVE CEILINGS WE CAN USE THESE GRIPPERS ON THE HANDS ON ROBOTIC ARMS WE’RE INSPIRED BY ONE OF NATURE’S BEST GRIPPERS, WHICH IS THE GECKO FOOT THEY STICK WITH LOTS OF TINY HAIRS ON THEIR FEET THAT ALLOW THEM TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THESE FORCES IF WE COULD BRING UP THE FIRST PICTURE THIS IS A GRAPHIC PUT TOGETHER BY BOB FULL AND HIS TEAM AT UC BERKELEY YOU CAN SEE ON THE TOE OF THE GECKO ARE FLAPS YOU CAN SEE THESE WITH YOUR EYE ON THOSE FLAPS GROW THOUSANDS OF TINY HAIRS CALLED SITAE AND AT THE TIPS OF ALL OF THOSE HAIRS IS FURTHER BRANCHING, THE NANO STRUCTURE THESE ARE MUCH, MUCH TOO SMALL TO SEE WITH YOUR EYE THAT’S WHAT ACTUALLY MAKES CONTACT WITH THE SURFACE AND THAT’S WHAT TAKES ADVANTAGE OF THESE FORCES IF YOU BRING UP THE NEXT SLIDE, YOU CAN SEE OUR ROBOTIC IMITATION OF GECKO SKIN WE’RE NOT QUITE AS ADVANCED AS WHAT THE GECKO HAS ON ITS FOOT THAT’S LIMITED BY CURRENT MANUFACTURING CAPABILITIES YOU CAN SEE ROUGHLY THE SAME SHAPE IT HAS A DIRECTION ALITY TO IT IF THE GECKO PULLS DOWN IT’S STICKY IF IT DOESN’T PULL DOWN OR PUSHES UP TO THE SIDE, IT’S NOT STICKY AT ALL THIS IS A GOOD THING IF YOU’RE CLIMBING UP THE WALL VERY QUICKLY AND YOU’RE USING SOMETHING LIKE DUCT TAPE IT MIGHT BE JUST FINE TO GET STUCK ON THE WALL BUT YOU’RE GOING TO HAVE TO PULL WITH A LOT OF FORCE TO GET IT TO UNSTICK AND THIS IS A BIG DEAL IN SPACE WHERE THERE’S NO GRAVITY, NOTHING TO REACT TO THOSE FORCES HAVING THE ABILITY TO TURN YOUR ADHESION ON AND OFF ON COMMAND IS POWERFUL THE OTHER THING IS, IT’S A VERY REUSABLE ADHESIVE YOU CAN IMAGINE IF A GECKO TOOK THREE OR FOUR STEPS AND THE FOOT STOPPED WORKING THAT WOULD BE A BAD EVOLUTIONARY DESIGN WE’VE TESTED OUR ROBOTIC GECKO SKINS IN THE LABS 30,000 CYCLES ON AND OFF WITH NO DECREASE IN PERFORMANCE WE’VE TESTED THEM HANGING ON THE WALL FOR A YEAR AND THEN REUSED THEM AND WE’VE TESTED THEM IN A THERMAL VACUUM CHAMBER BECAUSE THEY RELY ON FORCES, THEY’RE NOT SUSCEPTIBLE TO TEMPERATURE, PRESSURE RADIATION, SOME OF THE THINGS THAT MAKE USING CONVENTIONAL ADHESIVES LIKE DUCT TAPE AND SUPER GLUE NOT FEASIBLE IN THE SPACE ENVIRONMENT

WHAT WE’LL DO FOR THIS EXPERIMENT IS HAVE THE ASTRONAUTS TEST FIVE HAND HELD GRIPPERS THIS IS THE LARGEST OF THESE GRIPPERS AND THEY†– IT’S A MEDIUM AND SMALL SIZE AND TO OPERATE IT, YOU SQUEEZE TOGETHER TOUCH DOWN TO THE SURFACE AND NOW IT’S STUCK WE’VE GOT SPRINGS THAT ARE LOADING THAT MATERIAL IN THE PROPER DIRECTION BUT TO TURN THE STICKINESS OFF, YOU SIMPLY SQUEEZE TOGETHER AGAIN YOU CAN DO IT OVER AND OVER AGAIN WE’LL MAKE THE ASTRONAUTS DO IT 30 OR 40 TIMES THEY’LL BE MEASURING WHAT THE STICKING POWER IS BY PULLING ON DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE GRIPPERS WE’LL LEAVE ONE GRIPPER IN PLACE FOR A FULL YEAR TO TEST THE AFFECTS OF LONG DURATION MICROGRAVITY THIS EXPERIMENT IS A PRECURSOR TO FUTURE CAPABILITIES THAT WE’D LIKE TO SEE MOVE UP TO THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION AND OTHER ACTIVITIES IN LOW EARTH ORBIT THERE ARE MANY CENSORS WE’D LIKE TO USE THAT REQUIRE A PRELOAD, EDDY CURRENT CENSORS, MAGNETIC FLUX LEAKAGE CENSORS IN SPACE, YOU’RE PUSHING INTO THE SURFACE IS PUSHING YOU AWAY FROM THE SURFACE USING A GECKO GRIPPER TO REACT TO THE LOAD WILL ALLOW US TO USE THOSE KIND OF CENSORS, REPOSITION THEM IN DIFFERENT PLACES A LITTLE BIT BIGGER IN SCOPE, YOU CAN IMAGINE USING THESE AS THE ARMS ON THE ROBOTIC ARMS TO ASSEMBLE THINGS IN SPACE, REPAIR SATELLITES, GRAB SPACE GARBAGE AND DEORBIT IT MY FAVORITE APPLICATION IS TO PUT THESE ON THE FEET OF A CRAWLING ROBOT AND HAVE THE ROBOT GO AROUND ON THE OUTSIDE OF THE SPACE STATION, INSPECT ORBITAL DEBRIS, IMPACTS, INSPECT MEET ORITE DAMAGES DO ALL THE THINGS A ROBOT WOULD BE ABLE TO DO WE’RE INTERESTED IN THESE APPLICATIONS, SPACE BASED APPLICATIONS, BUT THERE ARE A FEW COMMERCIAL COMPANIES THAT ARE LOOKING AT MAKING GECKO ADHESIVES VIABLE HERE ON EARTH EITHER IN A FACTORY FLOOR SETTING WHERE YOU MIGHT BE WORKING WITH SOLAR PANELS OR CEREAL BOXES OR IN YOUR HOME THIS WOULD ALLOW YOU TO HANG YOUR FLAT SCREEN TV ON THE TO THE WALL WHEN YOU’RE READY TO MOVE, YOU CAN TURN THE STICKINESS OFF AND PUT IT ON A DIFFERENT WALL THAT’S A SUMMARY I’M LOOKING FORWARD TO YOUR QUESTIONS THIS IS OUR FIRST EXPERIMENT GOING UP TO THE SPACE STATION, WE’RE VERY, VERY EXCITED >> THANK YOU PLEASE RAISE YOUR HAND IN THE ROOM, USE†#ASKNASA PLEASE STICK TO ONE QUESTION, IF WE HAVE MORE TIME WE’LL COME BACK FOR MORE QUESTIONS >> YES, SIR MARK GAUCH, HISTORICAL SPACE IMAGERY CAN YOU TELL ME, SIR, THE GECKO GRIP THAT YOU CURRENTLY HAVE THAT YOU SAY THE ASTRONAUTS ARE GOING TO TEST IN SPACE, RIGHT NOW, HERE IN EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE, HOW MUCH WILL†– WEIGHT WILL THAT PARTICULAR GRIP SUPPORT FOR HOW LONG AND HOW ARE YOU EXPECTING THAT TO DIFFER IN THE ENVIRONMENT OF SPACE? >> YEAH GOOD QUESTION SO A GRIPPER THIS SIZE CAN SUPPORT ABOUT 15 POUNDS ON A SMOOTH SURFACE AS THE SURFACE ROUGHNESS GOES UP, THE HOLDING POWER DROPS DOWN THAT’S BECAUSE WE DON’T HAVE ALL OF THOSE COMPLEX LAYERS THAT THE GECKO HAS WE EXPECT IT TO BE THE SAME IN SPACE IN 15 POUNDS OF FORCE IN ZERO GRAVITY IS A LOT BECAUSE THINGS DON’T WEIGHT ANYTHING YOU’RE WEIGHTLESS YOU CAN MOVE AROUND BIG OBJECTS AS LONG AS YOU KEEP THE INERTIA FORCES LOW BUT WE HAVEN’T TESTED IT THAT’S WHY WE’RE GOING UP THERE TO DO THE WORK AND MAKE SURE THAT THAT’S ACTUALLY WHAT WE SEE >> THANK YOU >> HI, KEN KRAMER, TALKING ABOUT ROBOTICS, ANOTHER APPLICATION I WANT TO ASK YOU ABOUT IS WHAT ABOUT SENDING THESE TO PLANETARY BODIES LIKE THE MOON AND MARS TO GO UP AND DOWN MOUNTAINS, HILL SIDES, CRATERS, LARGE ROCKS, THINGS LIKE THAT? MAYBE SEND ONE TO THE 2020 ROVER >> YEAH SO PLANETARY BODIES TYPICALLY ARE MUCH ROUGHER SURFACES WE HAVE DIFFERENT GRIPPING TECHNOLOGY THAT WE USE FOR THOSE ROUGHER SURFACES THERE’S ANOTHER TECHNOLOGY CALLED MICROSPINES THAT ARE BASICALLY LOTS OF SHARP HOOKS IT’S ALSO A BIT BIO INSPIRED THAT’S WHAT WE USE FOR OUR ROCK CLIMBING ROBOTS IT’S ACTUALLY PART OF THE BASE LINE FOR THE ASTEROID READER X MISSION WHICH IS GOING TO GRAB AN SUV SIZED BOLDER USING THAT KIND OF A GRIPPER

IF YOU GO ON YOUTUBE AND SEARCH ROCK CLIMBING ROBOTS OR YOU SEARCH CRAZY ENGINEERING GECKO GRIPPER, YOU’LL FIND A LITTLE YOUTUBE EPISODE THAT JP ELLIS PUT TOGETHER ON THE DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES YOU’RE FREE TO POST THOSE ON YOUR SITES AND ALL OF THAT >> MY NAME IS SHANNON STUART MY QUESTION IS, WHAT’S THE BIOLOGICAL BASIS FOR THE GECKO’S HIREARCHICAL SPINE STRUCTURE COULD THAT INFORM THE TECHNOLOGY YOU NEED TO IMPROVE? >> GECKOES HAVE THE HIERARCHY IN ORDER TO CONFORM TO THE SURFACES IT FINDS IN ITS ENVIRONMENT WHICH AREN’T SMOOTH COMPOSITE PANELS LIKE YOU’LL FIND ON THE SPACE STATION THE HIERARCHY IS NECESSARY TO GET ALL THE TINY NANO STRUCTURES IN GOOD CONTACT WITH THE SURFACE AND IT’S ABSOLUTELY INFORMED OUR DESIGN THERE HAS BEEN A NICE COLLABORATION BETWEEN THE EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGISTS AT UC BERKELEY AND SOME OF THE TECHNOLOGIESTS THAT ARE TRYING TO MAKE ROBOTIC VERSIONS OF THESE WE HAVEN’T CAUGHT UP TO NATURE YET WE’RE HOPING TO >> WE’LL TAKE ONE QUESTION FROM ASK NASA >> DERRICK ASKS ABOUT APPLICATIONS FOR OTHER MISSIONS BY SAYING, IS THE GECKO FOOT TECHNOLOGY TO BE USED ON THE ARM MISSION? >> YEAH SO THE ANSWER IS IT’S NOT A GECKO TECHNOLOGY BUT IT’S A SIMILAR KIND OF GRIPPER SO IT’S ALSO WORK BEING DONE IN OUR LAB IT USES CLAWS SO THE GECKOES USE LOTS OF TINY LITTLE HAIRS BUT IF YOU THINK OF HOW A BEAR CLIMBS A TREE IT’S USING CLAWS WE HAVE A TECHNOLOGY THAT’S INSPIRED BY THAT KIND OF CLAW BASED GRIPPING CALLED MICROSPINES THAT’S WHAT CURRENTLY USED FOR ARM >> THANK YOU THANK YOU VERY MUCH AND NEXT WE HAVE MICHAEL SNYDER WHO IS THE CHIEF TECHNOLOGY OFFICER FOR MADE IN SPACE AND HE’S GOING TO TELL US ABOUT THE SECOND GENERATION OF A 3 D PRINTER HEADING TO SPACE MR SNYDER, WILL YOU TELL US HOW THIS IS NEW AND BETTER THAN THE CURRENT ONE? >> SURE FIRST OFF I’M THE CHIEF ENGINEER, JASON†– NO PROBLEM SO OUR AMF IS THE RESULT OF A FOUR YEAR EFFORT THAT START WOULD NASA SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATIVE RESEARCH GRANT WE WERE FORTUNATE TO BE AWARDED THIS PRINTER IS LARGER AND A SUCCESSOR TO THE PRINTER THAT WAS LAUNCHED IN 2014 AND OPERATED SUCCESSFULLY ON BOARD >> A LOT OF LESSENS WE WERE LEARNED WERE TO MINIMIZE CREW TIME AND MAKE IT ACCURATE AND FUNCTIONAL FOR THE PARTS WE’RE PRODUCING WE CAN PRODUCE A LOT OF DIFFERENT MATERIALS WITH THIS WE’RE LAUNCHING THREE, WHICH ARE ALL PLASTIC BASED FIRST ONE IS ABS WHICH WE’VE PRINTED WITH THAT’S LIKE LEGO BRICKS THE SECOND ONE IS A GREEN HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE THAT’S LIKE WHAT YOU FIND IN FOOD CONTAINERS AND AN AEROSPACE GRADE POLYMER THAT CAN SURVIVE A VACUUM FIRST PART WE’LL BE PRINTING IS AN OPTIMIZED TOOL IN PARTNERSHIP AND LOWE’S WE HAVE A SCANNING TECHNOLOGY INSIDE WHICH CAN DO GEOMETRIC VERIFICATION OF THE PARTS THERE’S HARDWARE INSIDE, SOFTWARE FROM AUTODESK CALLED MOMENTUM IT’S COOL WE CAN CHECK THE C.A.D WE SEND UP TO SEE IF THE GEOMETRIES MATCH THE PART OF THIS PRINTER IS WITH CASUS WE’LL BE OFFERING THE SERVICE FOR ANYBODY TO MAKE EXPERIMENTS, PARTS, STEM ACTIVITIES, IT CAN ALL BE PRODUCE WOULD THIS PRINTER THAT’S OUR HOPE IN THE FUTURE GOING FORWARD IT’S MAKING THE PROCESS BETTER AND EASIER FOR ANYONE TO USE >> WE HAVE TIME FOR A FEW QUESTIONS ABOUT THE 3 D PRINTER HERE IN THE MIDDLE RAISE YOUR HAND AGAIN, SIR >> CLEARLY THERE’S A LOT OF TESTING THAT GOES INTO PARTS THAT ARE USED IN SPACE, SPACECRAFT IS THERE ANYTHING WITH THE DESIGN THAT HELPS YOU TEST THE OUTPUT OF THE COMPUTER TO MAKE SURE IT DOESN’T HAVE INTERNAL FLAWS? >> WE CAN BRING A PICTURE UP OF THE PRINTER IT’S A LOT BETTER LOOKING THAN I AM THERE IT IS SO PART OF THAT IS THE GEOMETRIC SCANNING CAPABILITY, AS WELL AS WE HAVE REALTIME VIEWING OF THE PART THAT’S BEING PRODUCED

AND GOES IN AND OUT WITH THE STATION SIGNAL ACQUISITION WE’RE ABLE TO OPTIMIZE THAT PROCESS, ALSO THROUGH SOFTWARE IN TERMS OF FINAL INSPECTION AND IT’S ACTUALLY MADE MODULAR WE CAN SWAP OUT SYSTEMS INCLUDING THE ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS AND THE FILAMENT AND THE EXTRUDER SO WE CAN UPGRADE†– [†NO AUDIO†] [†NO AUDIO†] [†NO AUDIO†] [†NO AUDIO†] [†NO AUDIO†] >> WE’RE SENDING FOUR STIMULATES UP THIS IS A SIMULATED STIMULATES THIS ISN’T WHAT WE’RE SENDING UP YOU CAN SEE IN THIS CLEAR TUBE, WE HAVE THE MATERIAL RIGHT HERE, AND ON TOP WE HAVE THE DEVICE WHICH WE CALL THE ENTRAPULATOR IT HOLDS THE MATERIAL IN PLACE WHEN THIS IS LAUNCHED UP TO STATION, DURING LAUNCH, LAUNCH VIBRATIONS, THIS STUFF WON’T MOVE AROUND WE’RE SENDING THE MATERIAL PRESORTED BY DIFFERENT SIZES WE DON’T WANT MIXING OR ANYTHING TO HAPPEN UNTIL WE ACTIVATE THE EXPERIMENT WHAT WILL HAPPEN THE ASTRONAUTS, VERY LITTLE THEY HAVE TO DO EVENTUALLY THEY’LL PULL IT OFF OF CYGNUS HOPEFULLY BEFORE SAFFIRE STARTS AND THEY’LL PUT IT IN PLACE IN THE EXPRESS RACK LOCATION AND BASICALLY PRESS A FEW BUTTONS AND THE ENTRAPULATOR WILL PULL UP AND GIVE THE MATERIAL ROOM TO MOVE AROUND THAT’S WHAT WE’RE INTERESTED IN WE HAVE A CAMERA THE SIZE OF A CREDIT CARD LOOKING AT EACH OF THE TUBES WE’LL BE TAKING IMAGES OVER THE COURSE OF A YEAR WE’RE ON STATION FOR A YEAR BECAUSE WE’RE BASICALLY INTERESTED IN THE MICROGRAVITY ENVIRONMENT THAT STATION OFFERS IT’S SIMILAR TO THE MICROGRAVITY ENVIRONMENT YOU’D SEE ON AN ASTEROID IT WORKS OUT NICELY FOR US YOU CAN GO TO THE NEXT PICTURE THIS IS A PICTURE OF OUR STIMULATES AS I SAID, FOUR DIFFERENT MATERIALS THIS IS THE FIRST ONE, AGAIN IT’S GOING IN A TUBE LIKE THIS, NOT A JAR LIKE THIS THIS IS THE SIMPLEST MODEL THREE DIFFERENT BEADS MADE OF SILICA GLASS FOR MODELS, THIS WILL BE THE EASIEST TO ANALYZE AFTERWARDS EACH TUBE GETS MORE COMPLEX IN ONE OF THE TUBES WE HAVE SIMILAR MATERIAL BUT TAKEN AWAY THE SPHERICAL SHAPE AND WE HAVE SHARDS OF GLASS WE HAVE ANOTHER MATERIAL, A TYPE OF METEORITE AND WE HAVE AN ACTUAL METEORITE THIS IS THE SAME TYPE OF MATERIAL THAT MAKES UP ASTEROIDS IT’S PARTICLES OF DIFFERENT SIZES FROM DUST FINE DUST TO MUCH BIGGER PIECES ONE OF OUR TUBES IS FILLED WITH A METEORITE WE’VE CRUSHED UP AND PUT INSIDE WE’LL GET ON STATION AND BASICALLY LOOK AT HOW ALL THESE DIFFERENT SIZED PARTICLES ARE MOVING AROUND WE’LL UNDERSTAND WHAT’S HAPPENING AND GIVE US A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF THE DYNAMICS, SOMETHING WE HAVEN’T STUDIED BEFORE TO THIS POINT AND LAST BUT NOT LEAST I WANT TO PULL UP THE LAST PICTURE AND SAY THAT WE HAVE A GOOD TEAM OF SCIENTISTS, ALL THE EXPERTS ON OUR TEAM THE EFFORT WAS LED AT JOHNSON SPACE CENTER BUT WE HAVE PEOPLE FROM ALL OVER WHO HELPED DECIDE WHAT TO PUT IN THESE TUBES OVER THE NEXT YEAR WE’LL BE GETTING BACK DATA WE’RE INTERESTED TO SEE WHAT WE LEARNED ABOUT BEHAVIOR IN MICROGRAVITY, THANK YOU >> ALL RIGHT WE HAVE TIME FOR A FEW QUESTIONS START OVER HERE >> YES, MARK GAUCH, HISTORICAL SPACE IMAGERY CAN YOU TELL ME, WOULD YOU BE LOOKING AT THIS EXPERIMENT IN TERMS OF LOOKING AT IT, MAYBE BONDING IT INTO A BUILDING BLOCK, IF IT WERE, FOR THE FUTURE IN SPACE? MAYBE IN COLONIZATION? >> SURE, IF YOU’RE TALKING ABOUT THIS IN PARTICULAR, WE’RE INTERESTED IN THE ACTUAL INTERACTIONS, FORCES IN WHAT’S GOING TO HAPPEN IT’S SOMETHING WE REALLY HAVEN’T STUDIED FOR MORE THAN 30 SECONDS AT A TIME ON A PARABOLIC FLIGHT WE’RE INTERESTED IN THE EFFECTS OF THEM INTERACTING WITH EACH OTHER WE HAVE INTERACTIONS WITH THE TUBE WE’RE TAKING INTO ACCOUNT WE’LL LEARN FROM STRATA-1 AND BUILD UPON THAT AND DECIDE WHAT TO PUT IN EACH OF THE TUBES >> INTERESTING, THANK YOU >> AND WE HAVE ONE HERE IN THE MIDDLE >> HI, IN TERMS OF ASTEROID RERACK MISSION, FOR THE COMPOSITION IN THE TUBES, DID YOU LOOK AT THE ASTEROIDS AND MAKE THE COMPOSITIONS BASED ON THOSE? >> THAT’S A GREAT QUESTION SOME OF THE FOLKS ARE INVOLVED IN ASTEROID REDIRECT MISSION ONE OF THE TUBES IS A CONDRITES ARE METEORITES BUT THEY’RE REPRESENTATIVE OF ASTEROIDS THIS ONE IN PARTICULAR IS AN ORDINARY CHONDRITE IT’S THE MOST COMMON TYPE OF METEORITE A LESS COMMON TYPE IS A CARBONACEOUS CHONDRITE THIS IS REPRESENTATIVE OF THE BODY THE MISSION IS BASE LINED TO GO VISIT >> KEN KRAMER, I’M WONDERING ABOUT THE VOLUME HOW DID YOU DECIDE WHAT VOLUME, I DON’T SEE A LOT OF FREE SPACE THERE THIS IS WHAT I WAS WONDERING WHEN YOU WERE DESCRIBING THIS LAST WEEK FROM THE†– >> YEAH >> THERE’S NOT A LOT OF SPACE, I’M WONDERING, DOESN’T IT NEED MORE? >> SURE, THAT’S GREAT POINT WHEN THIS MOVES BACK IT GIVES IT ABOUT AN INCH, INCH AND A HALF ARE SO LIKE I SHOWED WE HAVE A PICTURE OF THE SCIENCE TEAM MEMBERS AND SO A COUPLE OF THOSE FOLKS ARE COMPUTATIONAL PEOPLE, AND SO THEY’VE, YOU KNOW, OPTIMIZED, YOU KNOW, THERE’S SOMETHING CALLED A NUMBER THAT YOU TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THE EFFECT OF THE COLLISIONS PARTICLES INTERACTING WITH EACH OTHER AND THE DIAMETER OF THE TUBE THERE’S A WAY TO CALCULATE THAT HOPEFULLY THAT HELPS >> IT’S PLENTY? >> JUST RIGHT, IT’S PERFECT IF IT’S NOT WE’LL LEARN AND FISH IT FOR STRATA 2 WE HAVE PUT A LOT OF THOUGHT INTO HOW MUCH VOLUME FOR THE SPACE IT WILL HAVE TO MOVE AROUND YEP >> HOW DO YOU ANTICIPATE YOU’LL ACCOUNT FOR THE MOVEMENT OF THE

SPACE STATION ITSELF? THE ORBITAL MANEUVERS, BOOSTING, WILL THAT AFFECT THE EXPERIMENT? HAVE YOU NORMALIZED FOR THAT? >> THAT’S A WONDERFUL QUESTION IN FACT, WE ENCOURAGE THAT ANY SORT OF MOVEMENTS OF THE SPACE STATION, ANY SORT OF ACCELERATIONS, THE DOCKING OF THE VEHICLES IS GOOD FOR US IT’S ONE OF THE REASONS WE’RE THERE FOR A YEAR WHEN YOU’RE ON THE SURFACE OF AN ASTEROID YOU’LL GET IMPACTED ALL THE TIME WE’RE INTERESTED IN THOSE TYPE OF THINGS ON OUR EXPERIMENT, WE ACTUALLY HAVE SOMETHING CALLED SAMS, AN ACCELERATION MEASUREMENT DEVICE WE DESIGNED IT SO THEY CAN TAKE THE DEVICE AND MOUNT IT ON FRONT OF OUR PAY LOAD WE’LL GET MEASUREMENTS DAILY OF WHAT KIND OF ACCELERATIONS STRATA IS EXPERIENCING WE HOPE FOR THOSE VIBRATIONS, THANK YOU >> DO WE HAVE ANY OTHER QUESTIONS? OKAY THANK YOU VERY MUCH AND NEXT WE HAVE MICHAEL LEWIS WHO IS THE CHIEF TECHNOLOGY OFFICER AT NANO RACK STARTING WITH THIS MISSION, NANO RACK WILL BE ABLE TO PROVIDE OPPORTUNITIES TO DEPLOY CUBE SETS FROM CYGNUS DIRECTLY AFTER THE VEHICLE DEPARTS FROM THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION SO HOW DOES THIS EXPAND THE KIND OF SCIENCE THAT’S AVAILABLE TO THESE SORT OF CUBE SETS? >> GREAT QUESTION THANK YOU THANK YOU EVERYBODY HERE FIRST I’D LIKE TO TALK A LITTLE BIT ABOUT OUR CURRENT SATELLITE DEPLOYERS AND I’LL GET TO THE EXPANDED CAPABILITY MANY OF YOU KNOW WE’RE ABLE TO DEPLOY SATELLITES OFF OF THE THE SPACE STATION MY COMPANY HAS DEPLOYED NEARLY 100 SATELLITES THIS WAY VARIETY OF SATELLITES SHOWN HERE THERE’S TWO PLANET LABS DUBS THESE ARE EARTH OBSERVATION SATELLITES THAT TAKE PICTURES SO LOOK AT THE NEXT SLIDE, THIS IS A ORBITAL VEHICLE, AN OLDER CYGNUS IN THIS MISSION, IN THAT SILVER AREA, CALLED THE SERVICE MODULE, WE ARE BOLTING A SATELLITE DEPLOYER THERE AND WE’RE GOING TO DEPLOY SATELLITES AFTER CYGNUS LEAVES THE SPACE STATION TO ANSWER YOUR QUESTION, THIS EXPANDS OUR CAPABILITY IN THAT WE DON’T HAVE TO BRING SATELLITES INSIDE AND OUT THROUGH THE AIR LOCK, BUT ALSO OPENS THE WORLD UP TO POSSIBLY MORE HARMFUL MATERIALS, SUCH AS PROPELLANTS WE COULD HAVE SATELLITES THAT COULD PROPEL THEMSELVES ALSO, THIS GIVES US THE OPPORTUNITY TO POTENTIALLY HAVE HIGHER ALTITUDE WHICH IS GOOD ARE FOR OUR SATELLITES IT INCREASES THE LAB TIME SHOWING ANOTHER SLIDE HERE WE HAVE†– I’M SORRY SO HERE’S THE CYGNUS YOU GUYS ARE FAMILIAR WITH WE HAVE A LOT OF STUFF GOING ON INSIDE OF THIS, IF I MAY TAKE THIS OPPORTUNITY TO TALK ABOUT SOME OF THAT WE HAVE A TOTAL OF 29 SATELLITES ON THIS MISSION MANY OF THEM ARE GOING INSIDE AND THEN LATER WILL BE

DEPLOYED OUT OF THE AIR LOCK SYSTEM WE ALSO HAVE A TOTAL OF EIGHT EXPERIMENTS THAT ARE GOING INSIDE THEIR VERY SMALL SCIENCE MODULES ACTUALLY, NEXT SLIDE, PLEASE THESE ARE OUR NANO LABS WE HAVE FIVE, WITH A TOTAL OF EIGHT EXPERIMENTS ONE IS A JAPANESE STUDENT PROJECT, TWO THAT ARE FROM AN INDONESIAN HIGH SCHOOL AND A NUMBER OF EXPERIMENTS FROM VALLEY CHRISTIAN HIGH SCHOOL AND CARAMEL HIGH SCHOOL IN CALIFORNIA THEY’RE DOING A VARIETY OF SCIENCE, IT’S FASCINATING THE CAPABILITY THEY’RE ABLE TO DO IN THESE SMALL CUBES EVERYTHING FROM WATER FILTRATION EXPERIMENTS THERE’S A FERMENTATION EXPERIMENT THIS HAS ENABLED†– IF YOU’RE LOOKING TO PUT SPACE IN YOUR CLASSROOM OR YOUR CLASSROOM IN SPACE, I RECOMMEND YOU GO TO DREAMUP.ORG >> WE HAVE TIME FOR A FEW QUESTIONS, RAISE YOUR HAND AND WAIT FOR THE MICROPHONE TO COME TO YOU PLEASE STATE YOUR NAME BEFORE ASKING YOUR QUESTION >> GOOD AFTERNOON, RAY OSBORN CURIOUS WITH THE MICROSATELLITES, WHAT ARE THE LIMITATIONS IN REGARDS TO†– BECAUSE THEY’RE SO MUCH SMALLER THAN THE NORMAL SATELLITES WE COULD TYPICALLY SEE WHAT ARE THE LIMITATIONS WITH THE MICROSATELLITES WE SEND UP? >> WE’VE BEEN BLOWN AWAY BY THE AMOUNT OF TECHNOLOGY THAT YOU CAN PUT IN THIS FORM FACTOR THESE ARE ABOUT THE SIZE OF A LOAF OF BREAD THOSE ONES I SHOWS THERE WERE IMAGERS AND THEY’RE ABLE TO GET

AMAZING RESOLUTION YOU KNOW, THEY WON’T DISCLOSE HOW MUCH IF YOU GO TO PLANET LAB’S WEBSITE YOU CAN SEE THIS INCREDIBLE RESOLUTION WITH ELECTRONICS GETTING SO SMALL YOU’RE ABLE TO DO VALUABLE SCIENCE IN THIS WE’VE SEEN A VARIETY OF IT I’D SAY THE LIMITATION MORE IS†– YEAH THE CREATIVITY OF THE DEVELOPERS >> ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS? ALL RIGHT THANK YOU VERY MUCH THANK YOU EVERYONE FOR JOINING US WE WILL BE BROADCASTING THE PRELAUNCH NEWS CONFERENCE TODAY AT 2:30 AND THEN TUNE IN TOMORROW NIGHT FOR A LIVE LAUNCH COVERAGE AT 10:00†P.M ON NASA TV YOU CAN NASA.GOV FOR MORE INFORMATION AND FOLLOW ALONG WITH THE RESEARCHERS ON INVESTIGATIONS AT NASA.GOV/STATION THANK YOU [ APPLAUSE ]