Jeff Bingaman at MIT 2008: Forging a Clean Energy Future – Compton Lecture Series

HOCKFIELD: Good afternoon, everyone Welcome to another in our series of Compton Lectures Let me give you a little bit of context about the Compton Lectures before introducing today’s speaker The Compton Lectures were established just over 50 years ago in 1957 to honor one of my predecessors, MIT’s President Karl Taylor Compton, who had died three years before Karl Taylor Compton guided MIT for almost a quarter of a century– from 1930 until his death in 1954 He was recruited to MIT as president from Princeton in 1930 and continued to serve as president until 1949, and then served as chairman of the corporation or board of trustees He was a transformative figure in MIT history The Compton Lectures honor his wide-ranging intelligence and curiosity They were begun– and I quote from the founding documents– “to bring to MIT some of the great minds on the world scene.” And they surely have From the great physicist Niels Bohr, who gave the inaugural Compton lecture, to Senator Edward Kennedy who spoke here last spring President Compton himself was known for his high intelligence, his deep knowledge, his integrity, his thoughtfulness, and his ability to see the future So it’s extremely fitting that we should honor his legacy with a speaker who embodies these same exceptional qualities, Senator Jeff Bingaman Harry Truman used to say that it’s amazing how much you can accomplish if you don’t care who gets the credit And there could not be a more fitting headline for Senator Bingaman’s legislative career Born and raised in New Mexico, he served as the state’s– United States Senator since he was first elected in 1982 In that role, he has consistently taken the long view, speaking not only for the people of his state, but also tackling the broadest questions of our national interest with an open mind, and importantly, a steady, moral compass The people of the State of New Mexico clearly know that they have good thing when they see it In the last election, he won with 71% of the vote In the Senate, he’s built a reputation for calm, persistent bipartisan leadership on three subjects that endear him to MIT First, on American competitiveness and its major drivers– innovation, science, and technology Second, he’s been a proponent for stronger science and math education And third, one of the reasons we’re very excited to welcome him to campus, is his work on energy policy, including the challenges and opportunities of clean energy, the topic that he’ll explore today Having met with the Senator a couple of times, I can tell you that he understands perhaps better than any other government leader what it takes to promote innovation in every part of the economy, and especially, in the realm of clean energy A few years ago, many of you will remember the National Academy of Sciences produced a report that we call The Gathering Storm– Rising Above The Gathering Storm, which galvanized action in Washington around America’s lagging competitiveness in science and technology Although, you won’t find Senator Bingaman’s fingerprints directly on that report, it came together entirely thanks to his vision and persistence in concert with Senators Domenici and Alexander Not surprisingly then, Senator Bingaman also took the lead in passing the America Competes legislation last fall, which calls for renewed and major investments in federal R&D and in science education He has been an outspoken advocate for stem cell research, understanding that without looser federal guidelines, American scientists may well be left behind As chair of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, Senator Bingaman also spearheaded the congressional effort to pass major energy legislation in 2007 And he authored one of the Senate’s most important climate change cap and trade bills In short, some of the most complex problems that face us as a nation in these, he is leading the country to thoughtful, creative far-sighted solutions, and we are all extremely grateful for his leadership Now, I understand from his staff that Senator Bingaman does not like to have a fuss made over him He is described as someone who not only carries

his own suitcase but will carry yours, as well Nevertheless, without his permission, I would invite you all to help me make a fuss in welcoming Senator Bingaman to MIT [APPLAUSE] BINGAMAN: Thank you very much Dr. Hockfield the– President Hockfield, thank you very much for that overly generous introduction And let me start just by making the obvious point that our nation is the world leader in science and technology and innovation And the students here, and the faculty here at MIT, deserve much of the credit for that Anyone who pays attention to our energy problems and how those are being addressed knows that if we in this country have anything akin to a war room where energy challenges are being confronted, to try it here at MIT Karl Compton, who Dr. Hockfield was referring to, himself said, “Nowhere in the country is there such a concentration of scientific and engineering laboratories and personnel.” And that’s obvious to anyone who’s spent any time here I compliment President Hockfield and all of you who have been working on this MIT Energy Initiative And I particularly thank President Hockfield for the generous invitation and the overly generous introduction So it’s an honor for me to be here One of the greatest lessons I’ve learned over the years is to seek advice from people who know more about a subject than I do And one of those people whose advice I sought before coming here to Cambridge today was your former MIT president, Chuck Vest, who is now, of course, the President of the National Academy of Engineering in Washington He urged me to say a few words about the factors that have resulted in me, a lawyer, and a politician being here in front of you talking about science technology and energy policy and being interested and involved in those issues The most important factor was probably my father’s lifelong commitment to science Both my parents were teachers and my mother taught elementary school My father was the chemistry professor and head of the science department at Western New Mexico University in my hometown of Silver City, New Mexico There’s no way you can grow up in a house with a chemistry professor without developing some appreciation for the importance of science Another factor, undoubtedly, was my uncle He was heavily involved in the politics of our state He ran the political campaigns for a long time New Mexico Senator Clinton Anderson So both my exposure to my father’s career in science and engineering, and my exposure to politics through my uncle’s avocation came together to bring me to the Senate And those influences are probably also responsible for my focused attention on the role that government in science and technology can play in helping us meet our energy challenge I know many of you have similar influences in your lives as you move forward with your education and your choice of a future career I hope you’ll consider ways that you can use your MIT education to address the great challenges that face our society in this century, government at all levels, but especially in Washington We’ll very much need to have people with your qualifications and ability if we’re going to understand and respond intelligently to these challenges When we talk about energy challenges, what are we really focused on? The energy challenge that we recognize today, I believe, is very different from and more encompassing than what we recognized as our energy challenge even a few years ago Until fairly recently, at least in Washington, our energy challenge was seen largely as the need to reduce dependence on foreign oil For the past quarter century, we’ve seen the amount of oil that we import grow substantially And although relatively little has been done to counter that trend, that issue of imported foreign oil has dominated energy debate in Washington Dependence on foreign oil remains a major concern But today, I think we see our challenge– our energy challenge as much larger than that and in many ways very different

Different in nature, different in scale, and certainly more urgent The energy challenge we see today is a global challenge It’s not a national challenge It’s to change the way that the world produces and stores and distributes and uses energy so as to reduce greenhouse gas emissions It’s to shift not just our own economy but the global economy from dependence on combustion of fossil fuels to use of non emitting energy sources With a concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere on a trajectory to unacceptable levels, our sense of urgency to take action has risen, as well Simply stated, it’s not enough to commit to reducing greenhouse gas emissions beginning in 2025 We need to act and we need to act now With respect to the scale of the challenge, it is immense We and other nations in the world will need to overhaul the existing energy infrastructure on which we depend And that infrastructure did not develop overnight 200 years ago, the combustion of fossil fuels, primarily coal, produced the steam that turned the turbines that power the Industrial Revolution Today, our planet has more than 50,000 coal-burning power plants, accounting for nearly a third of greenhouse gas emissions worldwide The normal rate of turnover for this infrastructure is at least 40 to 50 years 100 years ago the decision was made to power our transportation sector by burning petroleum-based fuels in an internal combustion engine, rather than through the use of electric motors and batteries Today, we have over 600 million vehicles using some version of that internal combustion engine, producing 14% of greenhouse gas emissions worldwide But our challenge is not limited to just the power plants and the vehicles that we drive We live in a world of growing demand for energy as billions of people are rising out of poverty As that demand grows, it will require new energy production capacity And today, that new capacity generally consists of more coal-fired power plants with the same high carbon emission– carbon dioxide emissions as our current energy infrastructure Just a couple of weeks ago, India announced that it’s building a new 4 gigawatt coal-burning power plant complex These plants will emit more than 23 million tons of CO2 each year And the justification is that the need to bring electricity to one of the world’s poorest regions is more pressing than the need to limit carbon dioxide from burning fuels, and this is the least expensive way that they know to do it It’s difficult to argue against that rationale when most of us here have never known a life without electricity So as we struggle to develop alternatives to our current energy infrastructure, we must recognize that in order to achieve sustainable use of those alternatives worldwide, they need to be cost competitive so that they are the option of first choice To accomplish all this, we will need both a revolution in technology and major changes in our economy Our past technological choices are clearly inadequate for the future The solutions we need can only come from new technologies And if the challenge of developing those new technologies and implementing them worldwide is immense, so, too, are the opportunities afforded by tackling this problem in the right way If we see our most pressing environmental problems as an opportunity to reassert US leadership in science and technology and innovation, we have the potential not only to solve those problems, but also to revitalize our research and development enterprise, to rebuild our manufacturing base in the process But how do we go about accelerating the development and the widespread use of new technologies to address our energy challenge? One promising place to start is to adopt policies that will put a price on emitting CO2 and other greenhouse gases By levying a cost on the putting of greenhouse gases in the air, we will accelerate the private sector development and use of technologies to avoid and to minimize greenhouse gas emissions In the Senate, we’re working on a design for a regulatory framework in the form of a cap and trade

system that will recognize the real costs of continued emission of greenhouse gases and shift development toward low carbon production In the last few years, we’ve seen a dramatic increase in private sector entrepreneurs who want to develop clean energy technologies If we’re successful in putting a price on the emission of greenhouse gases, that will stimulate private sector involvement even more The proper design of a cap and trade system for greenhouse gas emissions is not the subject of my talk today But I do want to just say in passing that it is not a simple matter Having been in the Senate for 25 years, I can assure you that in Congress we have the ability to design and enact a totally unworkable system And without the help of some of this country’s best minds, we could wind up doing just that So while putting a price on CO2 emissions is an essential part of the solution, it’s not the only tool we should be using to resolve the problem We should also change the way that we pursue technology, development, and deployment It’s here that I want to focus my talk today I want to cite five main areas where our policies to support technology, development, and use have fallen short I think they’re right up here on the screen First, the need to support our science and technology enterprise I’ll say a few words about that Second, the need to set priorities for energy, technology, development, and use Third, the need to sustain a support– the support for those research and development priorities Fourth, the need for a long-term regulatory and tax framework that will promote development of new technologies And fifth, the need for a strategy on how we can create the high wage jobs involved in the manufacture of these clean energy technologies Our first key failing is in our support for basic science and engineering throughout this country The best recent analysis is the one that President Hockfield referred to, the report from The National Academies, Rising Above the Gathering Storm That report was a well-supported wake-up call for policymakers on the need for major sustained support for basic sciences in this country We, in Washington, are beginning to respond While we don’t have major progress to report as yet, I believe we will make significant progress in the months and years ahead One aspect of our anemic and unreliable support for the basic science and engineering enterprise in the country has been the anemic and unreliable support for energy-related science and technology development And that brings me to the second point on the chart We failed to set priorities among the promising energy technologies that would lower our greenhouse gas emissions You can find government reports on climate change technologies The Department of Energy put out such a report in 2006 that it labeled as a strategic plan But the report was basically a shopping list of viable technologies There were no concrete goals, no roadmaps for making progress, no timelines for development Such reports are not entirely without value, but what we have nationally today is far from being a strategy It is far from adequate, in my view, to address the challenge that we have as a nation What we need is to formulate a strategic research and development plan that maps out a prioritized set of technological goals, the steps that are needed to achieve those goals, and the time in which those goals should be met I’m not talking about a document that would limit scientific or technological exploration in other areas, but instead, a roadmap with broad highways along which we could ensure that science and technology support would be forthcoming Any energy research and development roadmap that we design will have to have plenty of on ramps and off ramps to incorporate new knowledge, new understanding, and breakthroughs that will inevitably occur Japan has recently begun to move along the path of developing such a strategic plan with their release last month of the Cool Earth Innovative Energy Technology Program And we have a copy of the chart that they have recently released This document identifies 21 areas of technology development which were chosen to meet two criteria First, each is expected to deliver substantial reductions in carbon dioxide emissions in the world

by 2050 And second, each is a technology area in which Japan believes it can lead the world Technology roadmaps are being formulated for each of the 21 technologies, giving R&D direction and milestones on performance with timelines toward achieving long-term goals Perhaps the closest parallel we have to the Japanese priority setting effort is a project to identify the Grand Challenges for Engineering in the 21st century This was described in a report recently by The National Academy of Engineering Among the grand challenges that were identified are 2 of the 21 technology areas covered in the Japanese innovative technology program, specifically making solar energy economical, and developing carbon sequestration methods Well, there’s a significant effort underway at our national laboratories– or our National Academies to determine US research and development needs in the energy area, it’s also clear, I believe, that the systematic setting and maintenance of priorities for energy technology development is not something that we have committed to at the highest levels of our government So what do I propose as a solution to this? I believe we should take five steps The first would be to establish overall responsibility at those highest levels of our government for such an effort Much of what’s covered on the previous chart of innovative technologies is funded by the Department of Energy But a number of key areas belong to other departments of government, such as the Department of Commerce Even the Secretary of Energy and the Secretary of Commerce have a difficult time getting the research funding that they need out of the White House budget office, which is run by the Office of Management and Budget So I believe what we need to do is make the President’s Science Advisor, give him more authority One way is to provide that enhanced authority would be to direct that the President’s Science Advisor hold a concurrent appointment at the Deputy Director level in the Office of Management and Budget That would ensure that the same person with responsibility for overall science and technology policy in government has some real authority to ensure that the funds to support that science and technology make it into the federal budget As a second step, the President’s Science Advisor, armed with his enhanced authority, or her enhanced authority, should work with the key departments and The National Academies to come up with a manageable set of energy technology areas that promise to aid us in meeting our energy needs and substantially reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the coming decades Some of these will be technology areas that the Japanese or others have identified Others will be new to the list A third step, in each of the chosen technology areas, a working group of academic and government, laboratory, and industry should be convened and a broad roadmap developed to chart the way forward And responsibility for pursuit of that roadmap in each technology area should be assigned to a particular department or a particular agency Fourth, to ensure that an adequate degree of sustained focus and an adequate level of funding is provided, the President should be required to submit to Congress with his budget early each year a separate document detailing the funds being requested of the Congress in support of each technology area across the agencies of government And finally, to ensure that the areas being pursued continue to be those that hold the greatest promise, The National Academies should be directed to prepare an updated analysis of energy technology priorities every five years We already do something very similar with our defense policy by requiring the so-called Quadrennial Defense Review every four years MIT has already begun to take the lead in prioritizing promising technologies with its reports on the future of nuclear power, on coal, and geothermal energy I’m looking forward also to the completion of the other works you’re doing on solar energy, on natural gas, as I understand it Your reports have a real impact on what happens in Washington In fact, it’s precisely because of the future of geothermal energy report that we have an enhanced geothermal research and development program at the Department of Energy today This graph shows the lack of consistent support for geothermal energy development in recent years

In early 2006, the President proposed a budget for 2007 was zero funding for geothermal energy research He did the same in early 2007, for the 2008 budget But when the MIT report drew the attention of Congress in 2007 to the importance and to the promise of research on geothermal energy, Congress responded And as a result, the funding level went back to $20 million for 2008 The Department of Energy then took note of that report, took note of the interest that Congress had evidenced and reinitiated its requests for funding in 2009 But as we’ve learned from hard experience, it’s one thing to set priorities and begin pursuing them It’s a very different thing to sustain that effort What brings me that– that brings me to the third major policy failing that I wanted to mention from the earlier list Our record for sustaining the effort at critical technology development has been poor Once we set the course, why aren’t we able to stick with that? One obvious problem is that each new administration feels a need to pursue something new instead of sticking with the difficult blocking and tackling required to move the ball down the field We allow our attention and effort to be deflected We comfort ourselves with the notion that some Hail Mary pass will, nevertheless, allow us to score a touchdown To this point, our stop and stop effort– stop and start efforts with regard to geothermal development, unfortunately, have also been matched by similar efforts in the development of vehicle technology On February 10 of 1970, before many in this room were born, President Nixon announced the following in a special message to Congress “I am inaugurating a program to marshal both governments and private research with the goal of producing an unconventionally powered pollution-free automobile within five years.” That was 1970 Seven years later in 1977, President Carter announced his program for reinventing the car 16 years after that, in 1993, President Clinton announced his partnership for a new generation of vehicles 10 years after that, in 2003, President Bush announced his push for a freedom car So identifying the priority is obviously not enough It’s also necessary to develop a consensus on how to proceed, and that has to be a consensus that will survive from one administration and one Congress to the next The development of a national strategic plan for energy technology development, together with regular updating of that plan, will go a long way toward avoiding this stop and start approach that has plagued us in the past The fourth major failing from the earlier list that I had up there– fourth major failing in our science and technology policy happens after we discover or develop new science and engineering at places like MIT We don’t have long-term regulatory and tax policies to promote development and manufacture and widespread use of those technologies As Germany has shown in the areas of wind and solar, providing such long-term policies can create a booming renewables industry In this country, we’ve seen a different story play out Utility regulation and rate setting have historically been the job of public regulatory commissions at the state level And while some states have enacted progressive policies, such as a renewable portfolio standard and net metering, many states have not We’ve tried for the last three Congresses to enact a renewable portfolio standard at the national level, but these efforts have met strong resistance from utilities and from the current administration Similarly, in the area of tax incentives for increased efficiency and renewable technologies, our record has not been stellar We have enacted some renewable tax incentives, but for budgetary reasons, those were enacted for only short periods of time Often, they were allowed to expire before we got around to renewing them As an example, the most significant tax incentive that we’ve enacted to encourage alternative energy development has been the renewable energy production tax credit In the case of wind energy, this credit provides a reimbursement of nearly $0.02 per kilowatt hour for electricity produced from a wind turbine for a full 10 years

after that turbine is put into service Problem has been that the period during which one’s required to put the turbine in service, in order to receive the credit, those periods were relatively short We have a chart that shows how this problem has played out The problem is illustrated US wind capacity additions each year are reflected on this chart In years when the production tax credit was fully available, there was robust development In years when the tax credit was scheduled to expire, financial institutions were reluctant to invest in projects that were not certain to be producing before the expiration of the credit The result, obviously, was a boom and bust cycle that you can see on the chart Clearly, a more consistent tax policy would have put us much further along in this development and use of wind power Government-driven boom and bust cycles send the wrong message to entrepreneurs What we need is a way to provide long-term market stability for renewable electricity production Part of that solution is to provide a long-term extension of the tax credits for renewable electricity And I do believe that Congress will next year, with a new administration in office, finally pass a much longer term extension of these tax credits The fifth and final area that I’ll mention today is the need to claim the economic benefits from clean tech manufacturing First, we need to acknowledge, at least in theory, that it’s possible to meet the energy challenges I’ve outlined without creating the domestic manufacturing capability and the domestic manufacturing jobs that ought to go with that To use the current buzz word we, unfortunately, could wind up outsourcing that manufacturing, particularly, through our own inaction Advanced energy storage devices, thin film photovoltaic cells, highly efficient light-emitting diodes, all of these and much more will be needed for clean, efficient energy production and use But there’s no assurance these products will be produced in the United States In fact, some would argue that unless we adopt substantial changes in the way we do business, it’s more likely than not that they will not be produced here, that we will buy these products from abroad In their 1990 book, The Breakthrough Illusion, Professors Richard Florida and Martin Kenney state, quote, “although the commonplace impression that breakthrough innovations create permanent advantage for American companies may once have been true, it is just not the case anymore A new reality is upon us The US makes the breakthroughs while other countries, especially Japan, provide the follow-through.” Now, they wrote that 18 years ago Today, I believe their statement is truer than ever The other countries include many other countries besides Japan Here’s a chart that shows what’s happened to world production of photovoltaic cells since 1995 It’s interesting to observe that until 1998, we were reasonably holding our own We weren’t getting ahead of anyone, but we were reasonably holding our own In the last decade, though, while production in other countries has soared, the US photovoltaic industry has remained stagnant And once again, point out that this is part of a larger problem of our declining manufacturing base Here’s a chart showing the drop off in US manufacturing jobs just during the last seven years This is not just an energy related technologies This is in all sectors A strategy to revitalize US manufacturing is the topic of another speech Such a strategy will require developing a consensus on changes in our tax policy, procurement policy, trade policy, probably health policy, and education policy, as well We have a real opportunity now, I believe, to grow a high-tech renewables manufacturing base if we commit to the right policies We have the knowledge, we have the technology, we have the workforce, we have the drive to make all that possible Germany has proven that such a transformation can occur in an advanced economy There are nearly 250,000 renewable energy jobs that have been created in Germany in recent years And that’s expected to grow to at least 400,000 by 2020

Imagine what is possible in an economy of our size and our capabilities Tackling the policy challenges in the five major areas I’ve discussed, it’s important for all of us in this room, or we wouldn’t be here on a Friday afternoon when the weather’s great But as students and researchers and innovators today, some of you may be wondering how does all this relate to students here at MIT? Let me suggest the following Each of the problems, as I said before, present great opportunity, as well as being problems I’m told that MIT students know the connection between problems and opportunities better than anyone And you at MIT have a critical role to play in solving our energy problems Because of your knowledge and your abilities and your persistence, it’s you who will likely emerge as the leaders in helping meet this global challenge Re-engineering the way the world produces, stores, distributes, and uses energy may in fact be the greatest challenge that we as a global community must face together To my mind, it is a very worthy calling Addressing the energy challenges will require governments, industry, scientists, and engineers to work together I hope that some of you will come to Washington to help us structure the policies and programs that will facilitate this work As it happens, 2 graduates of this university are with me today and work with me on the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee Bob Simon, who’s director of our majority staff is right here Alisha Jackson, who just graduated last year with a PhD here at MIT, is also with me And she’s a AAAS fellow working with our committee While some of you may choose to make contributions through government service, many others will make your mark on our future energy system through direct research and innovation As Vannevar Bush, a former MIT Vice President and Scientific Advisor to Presidents Roosevelt and Truman said, “without scientific progress, no amount of achievement in other directions can ensure our health and prosperity and security as a nation in the modern world.” So the prospect for all of you to make a global difference is tremendous Your enthusiasm and commitment to these issues is extremely encouraging, and you have my pledge that I’ll do all I can to be sure that you have the resources and support and the policies in place to achieve success Thank you very much [APPLAUSE] HOCKFIELD: The senator will welcome questions There are microphones in the aisle If you step to the microphones in the aisle, and I will see the podium back to you Thank you very much for that incredibly insightful posing of the energy challenge and a roadmap to help us address it BINGAMAN: Think I must have answered all the questions AUDIENCE: You’ve mainly addressed issues of how to provide more energy, more cleanly What role do you see for conservation technology [INAUDIBLE] challenges? BINGAMAN: Well, I should have perhaps been more explicit about that Obviously, I think at least half of the solution has to be more efficient use of energy And at least half of the technological progress that we need to make is how we can improve the efficiency with which we use energy– produce energy and use energy both So I think that conservation is absolutely central AUDIENCE: [INAUDIBLE] excellent speech I might say the problem was put very precisely One question I have is, do you have any suggestions and how do you change how we measure growth that if you think growth is measured in terms of how much energy a country consumes? In terms of the rate of construction, in terms of then– when everything is measured against the rate of energy consumption, what do you have– or what’s in place the Congress has in terms of changing the way how a country’s measured in terms of how it’s growing?

BINGAMAN: Most of the measurements that I’m aware of about the growth rate in the country are not tied to how much energy we’re using They’re tied to other factors– the gross domestic product and the amount of goods we– goods and services sold and purchased So I don’t know that– maybe I’m– maybe there’s a place where we are tying ourselves to the amount of use of energy, which I’m just not– I’m not familiar with where we’re doing that and making policy on the basis of it Yes, please AUDIENCE: Hi A few slides ago, you had a slide with the progress of photovoltaics BINGAMAN: Yes AUDIENCE: This one And could you go into more detail as to why Japan pulled ahead but US has stayed steady? From my understanding, US has so many events technol– has made so many of the advanced– advancements in photovoltaics, why is it that Japan pulled ahead as US lagged behind? BINGAMAN: I don’t have with me today itemized list of the various policies that they adopted, but I think they did have a very proactive set of policies that they adopted to encourage both the manufacture of photovoltaic cells, but also the use of photovoltaic cells in Japan And some of those were in their tax code, some of those were other policies that they adopted We can try to get that for you But I think there was clearly an effort by the government to– a recognition that this was a growing sector of high-tech manufacturing that they wanted to have a major part in, and they adopted policies to ensure that AUDIENCE: [INAUDIBLE] first speech I’ve seen that’s also been backed with data and PowerPoint slides, though Thanks BINGAMAN: Oh, OK Good Yes AUDIENCE: Senator Bingaman, you expressed a great optimism for our technological advancement But I was curious to what extent behavioral changes you see as being necessary to be able to meet our energy challenges? BINGAMAN: Well, obviously, to the extent we can achieve or see some behavioral changes, that would be good I think that there can be some increased recognition in the general population of the importance of trying to conserve energy, the importance of trying to reduce greenhouse gas emissions And that can have a substantial effect over a period of time I think it has an effect more in causing people to buy more fuel-efficient vehicles and causing people to purchase homes that are more energy-efficient to do a variety of things I think the unfortunate reality is that in this country, as in most countries in the world, the behavioral change is pretty much driven by economic factors to a large extent If we put a cap and trade system in place, and the cost of energy goes up as a result, that will drive behavioral change And that’s just sort of the way the most humans respond Yes AUDIENCE: Senator, with the recent increases in food prices, there have been some suggestions that our focus on ethanol fuel has contributed to that rise What are your thoughts on this issue? And more broadly, how our energy policy can shift without causing these unforeseen impacts? BINGAMAN: Well, my thought is, quite frankly, I think we need to closely monitor this issue and study it and try to make a determination as to whether the policies we are adopting and have adopted with regard to increased biofuels– increased use of biofuels are adversely affecting us in other ways I think, frankly, that we did not have good information on that issue when we legislated this last year and increased the requirements– the required use of biofuels I think many of the people who are now coming forward and saying that the skyrocketing price of food is a result of increased use of biofuels also don’t have very good information So I think the jury’s still out on whether or not we’ve overstepped there So I’m open to having someone really do a objective analysis of it I don’t think we’ve seen one yet AUDIENCE: Senator, I had the pleasure

of asking this question to the Secretary of Energy a couple weeks ago, and I figured I’d ask another person from Washington BINGAMAN: Be sure and tell me what he said before I have to answer AUDIENCE: So as you mentioned, given that the energy challenge is a global challenge, and that the policies that you mentioned here are funded by American taxpayers, what should be done to transfer the technology to the countries that need it? And the secretary, unfortunately, said he couldn’t give me an answer BINGAMAN: He didn’t get– he didn’t give you any answer? AUDIENCE: No BINGAMAN: Well, I think it’s– you know, I think that, obviously, that’s a very important and complex question I think we are– one of the best ways we can deal with the problem of greenhouse gas emissions is to transfer whatever technology is developed to deal with that problem Transfer it as broadly and widely and quickly as possible That doesn’t mean that we can’t continue to benefit from having developed that technology But I think the United States, unfortunately, has not played the leadership role it should in coming to grips with these problems worldwide And I think that we have a great opportunity to do that And I hope that that happens beginning this next year And I think part of that opportunity is to be sure that as we develop technologies that we know work, we’re seeing to it that those become available, particularly, in less developed parts of the world AUDIENCE: Senator, I believe both you and President Hockfield spoke on how America in the recent years has been falling behind the rest of the world in science and technology And I believe that this is largely due to the deteriorating quality of math and science education in public schools Coming from a public school here in America myself, I can attest to this fact And what plans do you and your colleagues in the Senate have to deal with this issue? BINGAMAN: Well, first, I agree with you that that’s one area and, obviously, this report that both President Hockfield and I alluded to from The National Academies, I think they’re– I think the first concern that they identified there was the lack of focus on math and science education in the country and called for a substantial increase in federal support, federal funding, to assist schools and school districts and states and upgrading the quality, training more teachers who are qualified to teach those courses So they have a whole series of things that they recommended The challenge now to us in Congress and to the next administration is to actually go forward and start providing the funds and do so on a consistent basis to begin correcting this deficiency AUDIENCE: Thank you AUDIENCE: Senator, I appreciate your optimism and all the things you’re doing to help, particularly, in the southwest where we have actually a strong surplus of sunlight recently I’m wondering, though, if you’re aware of why Japan and, particularly, Germany have had such a huge growth, 57% of all the solar PV in the world for the last five years has been shipped to Germany, with 27% shipped to Japan, even that made in the US And in fact, most of the PV that we make right here in Massachusetts goes to Germany, it’s already pre-sold And that’s because they have very high feed in tariffs of $0.55 a kilowatt hour in Germany, and it’s similar– not quite as high in Japan, but also equally high now in Spain and Italy The United States has had a special investment tax credit of 30% for renewable energy technologies, which runs out this year And I know last week, the Senate passed a bill extending the PTC for wind turbines by one year and try to get an extension on their investment tax credit But our president has said he will veto any bill that even gives one penny of money to renewable energy at the expense of the $18 billion dollars that he wants to be sure it goes to the oil companies Is this a problem that we can drill our way out of, or maybe think outside of the barrel? BINGAMAN: Well, you, obviously, summed it up well The problem– this gets a little arcane, I guess But the problem comes down to PAYGO rules in Congress Once the Democrats took charge, we

reinstated what we call PAYGO rules, which says if you’re going to cut taxes, you’re going to have to find an offset to pay for it And so our proposal to extend these tax credits for renewable energy was offset by that $18 billion that we were getting by reducing the tax benefits that are going to the oil and gas industry So that’s what we tried to do The administration’s position is basically that they do not want to see any reduction in tax benefits to oil and gas industry But they also do not want to see any offset for the cost of extending these tax credits I think that the next thing you’ll see in Congress is we will be passing at least through the Senate, a version of these tax cuts– or tax provisions– renewable tax provisions that are not offset in any way and just add it to the deficit And I think that’s perfectly acceptable with the administration AUDIENCE: Well, we have about 270,000 jobs at stake, including a lot of them right here in this state where we’re hoping to make this a major player in the renewable energy industry So I hope that you can do something to try and get these– we may not need the incentives and benefits for a long time, but they’re very critical now BINGAMAN: No, I agree with you And I think what will happen almost certainly– or not almost certainly, but likely, is that we will pass them for a short period of time to get into the next administration, probably unpaid for And then once we’re into the next administration, hopefully, we’ll find a way to act, in my view, more responsibly and actually find a way to offset the cost of making them substantially longer Yes? AUDIENCE: Hi, Senator And a very popular phrase these days is energy independence And a lot of the presidential candidates are continuously talking about energy independence and how good it is And what’s your view on it, and is it a desirable goal for this country to attain? BINGAMAN: Well, it’s not a near term, meaning the next few decades It’s not an achievable goal I think we are about 60% of our oil comes from overseas today, and it will take a substantial period here for us to develop the alternatives, develop the technologies, to wean ourselves off of that So I think energy independence is certainly a worthwhile goal, but it is a very distant goal And I think, realistically, over the next couple of decades, I’d be very pleased if we could see a reduction in the amount of oil we’re importing If we could actually see significant shifting toward use of hybrid– plug-in hybrid vehicles, other ways to avoid the need for so much oil Yes? AUDIENCE: Through most of your talk, I’d seen a focus on growth of renewable energies of increase in research or efficiency But how far are you willing to go, or are you able to go, to actually pass legislation that reduces things like the quality of life or that we have to actually just stop driving our cars as much, not build hybrid cars so we can keep driving Is that even at all possible that we are willing to step back in the things that we can do in our ways of spending that you’re willing to do it like in Congress, say OK, you just cannot drive that much anymore BINGAMAN: Well, since this is a representative form of government we’ve got, people who pass laws saying you can’t drive anymore aren’t usually there too long So I do think that there are ways that we can adopt policies, though, that will create incentives for people to find ways to reduce their energy consumption This cap and trade proposal is intended to do just that It’s intended to result in a lot of people looking at what is the extent of my energy consumption? Are there ways I can reduce it? And I think that’s a much better way to go than for Congress to be trying to legislate, specifically, you can’t do this, you can’t do that, you can’t do the other Now, I think there are the requirements that we put

on automobile manufacturers Anyone who wants to sell a vehicle in this market needs to improve their vehicle fuel efficiency I think that’s something we clearly need to be doing AUDIENCE: But are you willing to go as far to pass legislation that reduces our quality of life, or the amount of jobs that we have, or is that– does every progress have to be forward? BINGAMAN: Well, I think that’s– as I say, I don’t think you’re going to find a majority of the Congress in support of legislation that is intended to reduce the quality of life That’s just not a good campaign platform I haven’t noticed any of the presidential candidates running on that platform And I doubt that we will see that Yes AUDIENCE: Senator, thank you very much for bringing us the past 30 years of history of failed projects in the clean energy transportation, which I find is very insightful and also very ironic that that has happened So I was thinking about the Department of Energy, which you mentioned in today’s presentation, and which worries about the clean energy And also the Department of Transportation, which I actually don’t think you mentioned today, which worries about transportation And isn’t the problem that we have Department of Transportation, which worries about transportation– we have Department of Energy, which worries about something else, and there is nobody who– no central authority which worries about clean energy transportation? Is it some restriction that we need to create to make it happen? BINGAMAN: Well, you’re right that we have– we tend to compartmentalize some of these things in ways that are unfortunate I do think that that’s part of the reason why I think it will make more sense in these areas of technology development to have more authority at the level of the President’s Science Advisor And have a coordinating function occur there so it wouldn’t depend upon whether it’s in the Department of Energy or the Department of Transportation There would be one policy and both departments would be trying to implement it AUDIENCE: Thank you BINGAMAN: Okay One more question Yes AUDIENCE: Hi You said that you wouldn’t address design if cap and trade, but I can still ask about it, I suppose So I was wondering, first, have you learned anything specifically from what Europe has done with the ETS mistakes or successes they’ve had? And also would you address which industries in particular would be included? Of course, the power utilities, but who else would be under the umbrella of cap and trade? BINGAMAN: Well, I think we are in the process of trying to learn about the mistakes and problems that were encountered in Europe in their ETS, their Emissions Trading Scheme, as they call it Frankly, they have just started on January 1 of this year the second phase of the ETS, and they’re trying to determine whether or not it’s structured the way it should be or not at this point I think we’re trying to determine the same thing I think they made quite a few mistakes in the first phase of their ETS They, first of all, gave out too many allowances They didn’t have good based– baseline data on the amount of emissions that were occurring There were a whole bunch of things that they did wrong at the first, and they readily admit that But they were sort of learning as they went We’re trying to learn before we enact something and avoid that as best we can What was the second part of your question? AUDIENCE: Well, which industries will be included beyond the utilities? BINGAMAN: My preference would be to include as much of the economy as possible I think trying to put a system in place that is economy-wide is the way to start And I hope we’re able to do that That gets into a lot of political arguments AUDIENCE: Do you have any hope that it’ll actually be passed in the next 10 years? BINGAMAN: What’s that? AUDIENCE: Will it actually be passed in the next 10 years, or is there hope? BINGAMAN: No, I think it will, because we have three candidates for president, all of whom are committed to the enactment of a cap and trade system I don’t think it’ll pass this year But I do think that we’ll have a good debate about it in June in the Senate and maybe make some progress toward getting a piece of legislation that then will give us a starting point for going into the next administration I think in the next couple of years, we will enact cap and trade system That’s my guess AUDIENCE: Thank you BINGAMAN: Thanks [APPLAUSE] HOCKFIELD: I want to thank Senator Bingaman

on behalf of all of us and MIT for sharing his insights with us today But probably more important, for the work that he does every day in advocating for great policies that support research and development, that move us to that bright, clean energy future to which we all dream Thank you, Senator

2018 Demystifying Medicine: Use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) for regenerative medicine

WHAT IS THIS A PICTURE OF? NOW, IS THERE ANYBODY HERE THAT THINKS THIS IS THE GOLDEN GATE BRIDGE OVER SAN FRANCISCO BAY? WHAT IS THE PICTURE OF, DO YOU KNOW? WHAT? >> [INDISCERNIBLE] >> WELL, I CAN’T HEAR YOU BUT IF YOU SAY SAID THE BROOKLYN BRIDGE, YOOURE RIGHT SO THIS IS THE MOST FAMOUS BRIDGE IN BRIDGE HISTORY AND IT’S LIKE WE’RE ALL BRIDGE BUILDERS AT LEAST THAT’S THE INTENT OF IT SO MAKE BELIEVE THAT ON THE BROKLYN SIDE ARE ALL THE ADVANCES IN CONTEMPORARY BIOLOGICAL AND ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND ON THE NEW YORK SIDE ARE ALL THE NEEDS AND MEDICINES IN IDENTIFYING AND TREATING DISEASE SO THE PROBLEM IS THERE’S A HUGE GAP BETWEEN THESE 2 DISCIPLINES WHICH TO SOME EXTENT HAVE BEEN MOVE NOTHING OPPOSITE DIRECTIONS OVER THE PAST 30 OR 40 YEARS SO THIS COURSE IS A MODEST EFFORT TO TRY AND BRIDGE THAT GAP AND YOU CAN VISUALIZE YOURSELF AS THE 2 MEN ON THE CAT WALK AND SO WHAT WE HAVE DONE OVER THE PAST IS TO BRING TOGETHER AND PROCESS FROM A SOMEWHAT CLINICAL PERSPECTIVE AND OTHERS FROM A MORE REDUCTIONIST SORT OF, CALL IT BASIC SCIENCE PERSPECTIVE AND THEY PRESENT BRIEFLY, AND WE ENCOURAGE QUESTIONS AND DON’T HESITATE TO ASK NOW, TODAY’S SUBJECT IS LIKE ALMOST ALL THE 1S WE HAVE IDEALLY SUITED TO BE CONSIDERED AS AN ELEGANT BRIDGE I THINK THIS IS PERHAPS–THIS IS SOME SUBJECTIVE BUT I THINK TODAY’S SUBJECT IS THE MOST ELEGANT BRIDGE THAT’S EVOLVED IN THE PAST 10 YEARS AND THIS STORY REALLY IS BEST ILLUSTRATED BY THE 2 SCIENTISTS WHO WON THE NOBEL PRIZE FOR THIS SO I DIVIDED THIS INTO 2 PARTS BECAUSE EACH 1 HAS A BRIEF STORY WHICH IS PARTICULARLY RELEVANT TO YOUNG SCIENTISTS HERE AND ELSEWHERE PART 1 IS SIR JOHN GIRDEN, WHO WHEN HE WAS A STUDENT AT EATON, HE WRITED AND LINKED TO CAME BRIDGE IS PROFESSORS WROTE: THERE’S NO FUTURE HERE IN BIOLOGY GO BE A LAWYER OR SOMETHING, I DON’T KNOW WHAT AT ANY RATE, 64 YEARS LATER, HE WAS WIDELY RECOGNIZED AS 1 OF THE FINEST MINES OF HIS GENERATION AND HOW DID THAT HAPPEN? HE SHARED THE NOBEL PRIZE IN 2012 SO 1 OF HIS EXPERIMENTS WHICH THE NOBEL PRIZE, GI–GURDON, AND HE IS A CELL BIOLOGIST AND NEUROECTODERMAL CLOLOGY FORT AND HE WONDERED WHAT WOULD HAPPEN IF HE MOVED THE NEUROECTODERMAL CLE US OF AN INTESTINAL CELL OF A FROG AND PUT THAT NUCLEUS INTO A FRAG EGG WHICH HAD BEEN DENUCLEATED AND WHEN HE WRITES ABOUT IT IN HIS NOBLE LECTURE, THERE’S VARIOUS IDEAS HE EXPRESSES AS TO WHAT MIGHT HAPPEN, BUT HE WASN’T CONVINCED THAT HE KNEW UNTIL HE DID THE EXPERIMENT AND WHAT HAPPENED WAS THAT A TADPOLE EMERGED AND THIS WAS 1 OF THE FIRST EXPERIMENTS TO INDICATE–IT IS A LONG TIME AGO, DIFFERENTIAL FUNCTIONS OF A NUCLEAR NATURE AND OTHERWISE CELLULAR NATURE WELL, NOW WE JUMP TO MORE RECENT TIMES WITH SHINYUN ON AND HE’S TRAINED AS AN ORTHOPEDIC SURGEON AND HE WAS VERY MUCH INTO MARSHAL ARTS AND HAD MANY ACCIDENTS AND HAD A FEW BROKEN

BONES AND THAT’S–HE SAYS THAT’S WHAT LED HIM INTO ORGT O PEDIC SURGERY NOW WHAT’S INTERESTING, AND WHAT HE TOLD US WHEN HE WAS VISITING HERE, WHEN HE WON THE NOBEL PRIZE, AFTER BEING A SURGEON AND REPAIRING INJURY, PARTICULARLY IN INHERITABLE DISEASES OF BONE, HE WAS CURIOUS ABOUT WACAUSED THE DISEASE–ABOUT WHAT CAUSED THE DISEASE IN THE FIRST PLACE AND THAT’S WHAT LED HIM MORE INTO A BIOLOGICAL APPROACH AND HE THEN SPENT ABOUT 14 YEARS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA IN SAN FRANCISCO, WHERE HE GOT A Ph.D. IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY RETURN TO JAPAN FROM SAN FRANCISCO, HIS WIFE WANTED TO GO BACK HOME WITH THE CHILDREN AND SO HE APPLIED FOR A JOB AT HIS UNIVERSITY WHICH WAS THEN KYOTO, AND SOME WISE COMMITTEE SAID WE WILL ACCEPT YOU BUT YOU HAVE TO PROPOSE SOMETHING THAT’S REALLY EXCITING NOT JUST A CONTINUATION OF SOMETHING THAT’S GOING ON OR SOMETHING THAT’S ALMOST REPETITIVE OR PROVE SOMETHING THAT SEEMS TO BE PRETTY SOLID BUT REALLY OUT OF THE BOX AND HE TELLS THE STORY OF READING ABOUT EARLIER WORK BY THE EXPERIMENTAL EMBRYOLOGYST AND HE CAME UP WITH THE IDEA THAT MAYBE IT’S POSSIBLE TO TAKE A DIFFERENTIATED CELL AND HAVE IT GO BACKWARDS INTO AN UNDIFFERENTIATED STEM CELL AND 1 OF HIS PROFESSORS CONVINCED HIM AND THE W STANDS FOR HARD WORK AND HIS WHOLE CAREER ILLUSTRATES THAT BECAUSE THESE EXPERIMENTS THAT HE PERFORMED DID NOT HAPPEN OVER NIGHT THEY HAPPEN BECAUSE OF DILIGENCE NOW WHAT DID THEY DO? HE TOOK A DIFFERENTERATED CELL AND AN EMBRYONIC STEM CELL AND THEY DID COMPLETE SEQUENCING ON BOTH OF THEM AND IDENTIFIED VARIOUS GENE CANDIDATES THAT WERE EXPRESSED IN THE HUMAN EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS, BUT NOT úSO WITH A GROUP OF VERY DILIGENT GRADUATE STUDENTS WHO SPENT 3 YEARS DOING THIS AND FOR THE FIRST 2 AND HALF YEARS GETTING NOWHERE, THEY WERE REPLACING 1 GENE AT A TIME AND TO THE UNDIFFERENTIATED–INTO THE DIFFERENTIATED CELL TO SEE IF THERE WAS REVERSION IT DIDN’T WORK THEY PUT 2 GENES AT THE TIME, 3 GENES AT A TIME AND THEN FINALLY AS HE TELLS THE STORY, THE STUDENT SAID WE’RE DOING THIS BACKWARDS WE SHOULD PUT THEM ALL IN AND THEN SUBTRACT AND THAT’S WHAT THEY DID THEY EVENTUALLY NARROWED IT DOWN TO 4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS INDICATED ON THE SLIDE AND THOSE TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS WHEN INTRODUCED TO A DIFFERENTIATED CELL CAUSE ITS REVERSION BACK TO ESSENTIALLY AN EMBRYONIC TYPE STEM CELL AND INDUCED PLURIPOTENT CELL, IPS WELL, ONCE THAT HAPPENED THIS WAS LIKE A BRAVE NEW WORLD AND 1 OF THESE, IT BECAME AN AREA OF INTENSE RESEARCH AND AN AREA OF INTENSE HEIGHTENED PEOPLE WERE THINKING IN TERMS OF REGENERATION, WE CAN MAKE TISSUES AND REPLACE WHAT’S OLD WE CAN USE TISSUES TO TEST DRUGS, WE CAN DO ALL KINDS OF THINGS, SOME OF WHICH IS IN THE PIPELINE BUT IT’S BEEN QUITE A LONG PIPELINE AND IT HASN’T BEEN AN EASY PROCESS, AT ANY RATE, YAMA, A KA SHARED THE NOBEL PRIZE IN 2012 AND I PUT HERE THE TITLE OF THEIR 2 NOBEL LECTURES WHICH IF YOU READ ANYTHING IN THE REFERENCE MATERIAL THAT WE POST ALL THE TIME, I WOULD URGE YOU TO READ THESE BECAUSE THEY’RE NOT ONLY ELEGANT LITERATURE BUT THEY TELL THE STORY OF THE HUMAN BEING WHO ACTUALLY DID THE WORK AND WHY AND HOW IT HAPPENED AND IT’S MOTIVATEING NOW EVERYBODY WHO USES VISION AND HARD WORK DOESN’T COME OUT WITH A NOBEL PRIZE AND PROBABLY MORE OFTEN THAN NOT, YOU HAVE TO KNOW WHEN ENOUGH IS ENOUGH AND GO ON TO SOMETHING ELSE BUT WHEN IT WORKS, IT WORKS IN A WAY THAT IS MOST DRAMATIC AND CERTAINLY THIS DISCOVERY OF THE

IPS CELL IS PROFOUNDLY CHANGING THE WAY IN WHICH WE THINK ABOUT BIOLOGY AND ALSO ABOUT MEDICINE AND THAT’S THE NATURE OF THE BRIDGE SO, TODAY’S PARTICIPANTS ON THE BRIDGE ARE 2 NIH EXPERTS IN THIS FIELD THE FIRST IS PAM ROBEY WHO IS A SENIOR INVESTIGATOR HERE PAM GOT HER Ph.D. FROM CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY AND CAME TO THE NIH IN 1979 AND HAS PROGRESSIVELY WORKED PRIMARILY IN DISEASES IN BIOLOGY OF BONE PARTICULARLY THE ROLE OF MISENK MALCELLS IN BONES LEADING TO CELL TYPES AND BECAUSE OF THIS WORK AND HER REALLY, HER EXPERTISE, SHE WAS APPOINTED AS THE ACTING DIRECTOR OF THE NIH COMBINED STEM CELL UNIT WHICH SHE IS AT THE PRESENT SHE RECEIVED MANY AWARDS AND IS WIDELY PUBLISHED IN THE AREA OF MANY INTEREST AND OUR SECOND SPEAKER IS KAPIL BHARTI, IN THE NATIONAL EYE INSTITUTE HE’S THE DIRECTOR OF THE OCULAR AND STEM CELL TRANSLATION RESEARCH UNIT WHICH IS DESIGNED TO DO TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH INVOLVING DEGENERATIVE EYE DISEASES BASED ON THE USE OF IPS CELLS DR. BHARTI, TRAINED IN BIOPHYSICS IN INDIA AND THEN RECEIVED HIS Ph.D. FROM Mc GURGTY UNIVERSITY IN GERMANY HE CAME TO THE NIH AND THE NINDS AS A POST DOCTORAL FELLOW AND HIS MAJOR EFFORTS IN WORK HAVE BEEN IN THE AREA OF TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION OF PIGMENT CELL BIOLOGY AND THE EYE AND THE USE OF THE EYE AS A ORGAN FOR THERAPEUTIC USE OF IPS CELLS SO WE’RE GRATEFUL TO BOTH OF YOU TO BE WITH US AND I GUESS, PAM ARE YOU GOING TO SPEAK FIRST? >> WELL THANK YOU, I APPRECIATE THE INVITATION TO TALK ABOUT STEM CELL BIOLOGY TODAY I APOLOGIZE TO THOSE WHO ARE EXPERTS IN THIS PARTICULAR AREA, BUT I HAVE TO TELL YOU THAT IN MY TRAVELS AROUND THE COUNTRY AND AROUND THE WORLD THAT THERE IS STILL A GREAT DEAL OF CONFUSION ABOUT WHAT DIFFERENT KINDS OF STEM CELLS ARE AND WHAT THEY CAN DO AND CANNOT DO I’LL START WITH STEM CELL HISTORY AND DEFINITIONS, I WILL TALK ABOUT THE DEVELOPMENT AND TYPES OF STEM CELLS SOME OF THEIR POTENTIAL USES AND I WILL USE EXAMPLES OF SKELETAL TISSUES BECAUSE THAT IS MY PARTICULAR AREA OF RESEARCH AND I WILL TALK ABOUT SUCCESS STORIES IN TERMS OF STEM CELLS IN CLINICAL APPLICATIONS AND THEN KAPIL WILL TELL YOU ABOUT HIS VERY EXCITING WORK IN TERMS OF RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIAL CELLS SO TO START OFF WITH THE STEM CELL HYPOTHESIS IS NOT REALLY A NEW THING IT WAS PUT TOGETHER BOY A BUNCH OF REAL LEE ASTUTE HEMATOLOGISTS AND DEVELOPMENT BIOLOGISTS WORKING IN THE LATE 1800S AND AROUND THE TURN OF THE CENTURY& IN THE 1900S IN PARTICULAR, RIGOUGH, AND OTHERS, I WOULD LIKE TO POINT OUT THAT DACIN HCHIKOFF, WAS 1 OF THE FIRST WOMEN PROFESSORS IN ALL OF EUROPE BASED ON THE WORK SHE DID IN DEVELOPMENTAL AND STEM CELL BIOLOGY AND WHAT THESE PEOPLE NOTICED WERE THAT DURING EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT AND THE GROWTH OF AN ORGANISM AFTER BIRTH, TISSUES ARE CONTINUOUSLY REMODELING AND REGENERATING AND THE OHM BE WAY THAT THIS COULD HAPPEN–ONLY WAY THIS COULD HAPPEN IS IF THERE IS A STEM CELL THAT IS FUELING THE FIRE SO TO SPEAK WITHOUT HAVING A STEM CELL, ONCE THE CELL DIES THEN THE TISSUE WOULD LANGUISH AND YOU WOULD NO LONGER HAVE FUNCTIONAL TISSUE BUT WHAT THEY DIDN’T REALLY NOTICE AT THE TIME AND HAS COME ALONG SINCE THEN, IS THAT THERE REALLY IS A HIERARCHY OF TISSUE TURNOVER AND TISSUE SPECIFIC STEM AND PROGENITOR CELLS THERE ARE SOME TISSUES THAT ARE REPLACED AT A VERY, VERY HIGH

RATE SUCH AS BLOOD, SKIN AND THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT THERE ARE TISSUES THAT HAVE A VERY SLOW RATE OF REPLENISHMENT SUCH AS BONE, THERE ARE TISSUES WITH LIMITED ABILITY TO REPAIR SUCH AS MUSCLE AND ALSO THE INNER MOST HARD SURFACE OF THE TOOTH, THE DENTIN AND THEN THERE ARE TISSUES THAT WERE NEVER THOUGHT TO REPAIR, SUCH AS NERVOUS TISSUE BUT ALL OF THESE TISSUES DO IN FACT HAVE A STEM OR PROGENITOR CELL THAT WILL FUEL THE FIRE AND REPLACE SMALL AMOUNTS OF TISSUE AT LEAST HOWEVER, IT’S NOT ONE-SIZE-FITS-ALL STEM CELLS ARE A VARIATION ON A THEME AND THAT VARIATION IS BASED ON THE RATE OF TISSUE TURNOVER AND THE SPECIFICS OF VARIOUS DIFFERENT TISSUES THAT CONTAIN STEM CELLS SO IF YOU WERE TO ASK A ROOM FULL OF STEM CELL BIOLOGISTS WHAT THE DEFINITION OF A STEM CELL IS, YOU WOULD GET ABOUT 10 DIFFERENT DEFINITIONS BASED ON THEIR TISSUE OF INTEREST BUT THERE ARE 2 PROPERTIES OF STEM CELLS THAT EVERYONE CAN AGREE ON AND THE FIRST 1 IS THAT THE OFFSPRING OF A SINGLE CELL ARE ABLE TO REBUILD THE FUNCTIONAL PATHWAY GIVES RENK MA OF A TISSUE, IN OTHER WORDS THE WORKING CELL TYPE, NOT THE STROAMA OR CAP SUEULAR KINDS OF TISSUES BUT THE FUNCTIONAL PART OF THE TISSUE AND THAT A STEM CELL HAS THE ABILITY TO SELF-RENEW SO WHAT EXACTLY IS SELF-RENEWAL BECAUSE THIS TERM IS ABUSED MORE FREQUENTLY PROBABLY IN STEM CELL BIOLOGY THAN ANY OTHER TERM AND THAT IS HOW A STEM CELL KEEPS ITSELF REPLENISHED SO IT’S THOUGHT THATPOSTNATAL STEM CELLS THAT IT UNDERGOES AN ASYMMETRIC DIVISION WHERE 1 DAUGHTER CELL IS A MORE COMMITTED CELL AND GOES ON TO TRANSIENTLY AMPLIFY AND THEN TO DIFFERENTIATE INTO A POST FUNCTIONAL CELL, BUT THEN THE SECOND DAUGHTER CELL REMAINS A STEM CELL IT TURNS OUT THAT IT’S A BIT MORE COMPLICATED THAN THAT, SOMETIMES THE STEM CELL WILL UNDERGO A SYMMETRIC DIVISION, MEANING THAT THE STEM CELL IS NOT BEING REPLENISHED AND YOU HAVE STEM CELL LOSS AND THEN THERE ARE OTHER SITUATIONS WHERE THE STEM CELL DIVIDES AND BOTH DAUGHTERS ARE STEM CELLS ANOTHER FORM OF SYMMETRIC DIVISION THIS MAY BE SOMETHING THAT IS HAPPENING WHEN YOU HAVE A TUMOR FORMED THIS IS WHAT YOU HAVE HAPPENING WHEN YOU HAVE IPS CELL DIVISION AND IN FACT, IN A TISSUE, THE STEM CELL MAY TOGGLE BACK AND FORTH BETWEEN SYMMETRIC DIVISIONS AND ASYMMETRIC DIVISIONS DEPENDING ON THE MICRO ENVIRONMENT AND WE TRULY DO NOT HAVE A GOOD HANDLE ON HOW STEM CELLS IN EACH INDIVIDUAL TISSUE SELF-RENEW IT MAY BE MANY DIFFERENT PROCESSES, DEPENDING ON THE MICRO ENVIRONMENT BUT THE 1 TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER THAT WE DO KNOW IS THAT SELF-RENEWAL DOES NOT MEAN EXTENSIVE PROLIFERATION TIME AND TIME AGAIN, YOU WILL HEAR PEOPLE SAY OR READ IN PAPERS THAT THEY HAVE A STEM CELL BECAUSE THOSE CELLS PROLIFERATE EXTENTIVELY AND THAT DOES NOT MAKE THE CELL A STEM CELL THERE ARE OTHER CRITERIA, MEANING THEY HAVE THE ABILITY TO DIFFERENTIATE INTO A FUNCTIONAL TISSUE THE OTHER PROPERTIES OF STEM CELLS ARE REALLY ASSUMPTIONS WE’VE GIVEN TO THESE CELLS BASED ON WHAT THEY DO IN A CULTURE DISH IT’S THOUGHT THAT STEM CELLS ARE CLONE O GENIC, AS A MENTIONED, THAT SELF-RENEWAL MEANS UNLIMITED PROLIFERATION AND IT’S ALSO BEEN THOUGHT THAT STEMNESS MEANS THAT THE CELL TYPE IS UNDIFFERENTIATED BUT THE FACT OF THE MATTER IS, THIS IS NOT NECESSARILY TRUE FOR ALL STEM CELLS AND THAT WE HAVE TO FIND OUT WHAT THE DYNAMICS OF EACH INDIVIDUAL STEM CELL IS, AND NOT TRY TO LUMP THEM ALL IN THE SAME BOX SO IF WE START OFF IN DEVELOPMENT, WE HAVE THE FERTILIZED EGG WHICH IS TOTI-POTENT WHICH IS THERAPIST IS WHAT ELIZABETH HAY, A DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGIST WHO DIED A FEW YEARS BACK WOULD CALL THE MOTHER OF ALL STEM CELLS AND IT’S THE MOTHER OF ALL STEM CELLS BECAUSE NOT ONLY DOES IT CREATE OVER CELL IN THE BODY, IT ALSO CREATES THE PLACENTA MEMBRANES SO THIS IS WHAT IS CALLED A TOT-EYE POTENT CELL WHICH GOES ON TO DIVIDE TO FORM THE BLASTOCYST WHICH HAS THE INNER CELL MASS AND THE INNER CELL MASS CONTAINS PLURIPOTENT CELLS, AND THESE CELLS REMEMBER FORM EVERY CELL IN THE BODY, THIS IS THE SOURCE OF EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS, BUT IT’S NOT ABLE TO FORM

THE PLACENTA MEMBRANES AND IT BY ITSELF CANNOT FORM AN EMBRYO, IT NEEDS THE EXTRA EMBRYONIC MEMBRANES TO DO THAT BUT IN TERMS OF WHAT THESE PLURIPOTENT CELLS CAN DO, IF YOU WERE TO TAKE A MOUSE ESO, OR A PLURIPOTENT CELL AND PUT IT INTO A PLAOF THE O SIS, THE EMBRYO WILL FORM THIS WAS DONE MANY YEARS AGO BY MANY DIFFERENT PEOPLE INVITRO, THEY WILL FORM VIRTUALLY EVERY CELL TYPE IN THE BODY IF YOU DON’T ALLOW THEM TO ATTACH THEY FORM AN ‘EM BROID BODY WHICH CONTAINS TISSUE TYPES OF ALL DIFFERENT KINDS THAT ARE FOUND IN THE BODY AND IF YOU PUT IT INTO THE MOUSE IT WILL FORM A TERATOMA WHICH HAS ALL THE DIFFERENTIATED CELL TYPES SO BASED ON THESE TYPES OF ASSAYS, WE CAN DETERMINE THE POTENCY OF A GIVEN POPULATION OF CELLS AS DEVELOPMENT CONTINUES, THE EMBRYO UNDERGOES GASTROALATION TO FORM THE 3 LAYERS ECTODERM, MESODERM AND ENDODERM THESE ARE MULTIPOTENT A SINGLE CELL FROM 1 OF THESE GERM LAYERS CANNOT REFORM AN EMBRYO, THEY’VE LOST SOME OF THEIR POTENCY BUT THEY’VE BECOME LINEAGE COMMITTED AND THEY ARE MULTIPOTENT STEM CELLS AND THEN AFTER BIRTH AS I MENTIONED, WE FIND IN MANY DIFFERENT TISSUES, IF NOT ALL TISSUES, SOME FORM OF ADULT STEM PROGENITOR CELL THAT IS ABLE TO REFUEL FORMATION OF TISSUES AND PARTICIPATE IN TISSUE TURNOVER SO AGAIN DURING THE SPECIFICATION, THEY BECOME SEGMENTED INTO THE PRAXAMEL, AND EKD O DERM AND MESODERM AND ENDODERM AND THEN AS IT CONTINUES MORE SEGMENTATION OCCURS FOR EXAMPLE, THE THESE GO ON TO CELL MIGHTS AND THESE FORM MORE TISSUES SO THERE IS CONTINUAL SPECIFICATION AS THE EMBRYO IS GROWING SO WHEN DEVELOPMENT IS FINISHED, APPROXIMATELY 220 DIFFERENT CELL TYPES ARE FORMED JUST FROM THAT 1 SINGLE FERTILIZED EGG THAT HAS UNDERGONE THAT PARTICULAR PROCESS WHICH IS REALLY A REMARKABLE THING WHEN YOU THINK ABOUT IT THAT EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT OCCURS NORMALLY IN VIRTUALLY, THE VAST MAJORITY OF TIMES SO AS WYNN MENTIONED WE URPD WENT A REVOLUTION STARTING IN 1998, WHEN JAMIE THOMPSON FIRST CREATED HUMAN EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS, USING THE TERATOMA ASSAY WHICH IS REALLY THE GOLD STANDARD BY WHICH YOU JUST PLURI-POTENCY HE HAD REPRESENTATIVES OF ALL 3 GERM LAYERS AND STROAMA, MUSCLE, CARTILAGE, GLUMERRIAL I, WHICH IS ENDODERM AND THEN AS YOU HEARD YAMANAKA, USING THE 3 FACTORS, THOSE ALSO USING THE TERATOMA ASSAY, AGAIN SHOWED PLURI-POTENCY IN THESE REPROGRAMMED CELLS AND THEN JAMIE THOMPSON USING DIFFERENT FACTORS ALSO DERIVED HUMAN PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS, USING HUMAN SOMATIC CELLS AND I’D LIKE TO HILIGHT THAT IN ADDITION TO THE TERATOMA FORMATION, THE EXPRESSION, SURFACE EXPRESSION OF THESE MARKERS SSEA3 AND 4, TRIAL 160 AND TRIAL 181, AND OCT 4 AND SOX 2 AND LIN 28 ARE MARKERS THAT ARE TYPICALLY USED TO DETERMINE THE PLURI-POTENCY OF A POPULATION THAT HAS BEEN GENERATED AND ARE QUITE USEFUL SO AFTER THE FIRST DISCOVERY OF THE REPROGRAMMING USING VIRAL TRANSDUCTION, A NUMBER OF OTHER DIFFERENT METHODS HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED FOR CREATING PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS, INCLUDING VIRAL TRANSDUCTION WITH MANY DIFFERENT TYPES OF VECTORS AND VIRUSES, AND PLAZ MIDS MIDS, MINICIRCLES, PROTEIN, TRANSDUCTION, RNA TRANSDUCTION AND I THINK RIGHT NOW, BASICALLY THE 2 THAT SEEM TO BE WORKING THE BEST ACCORDING TO BARBARA AND THE STEM CELL CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY ARE USING SENDI VIRUS WITH THE 4 FACTORS AND RNA TRANSFECTION, BUT THERE ARE REAL ISSUES IN TERMS OF REPROGRAMMING, NOT

EVERYTHING THAT YOU GENERATE IN THE DISH IS ACTUALLY PLURIPOTENT SO THERE’S QUALITY OF REPROGRAMMING THAT HAS TO BE EVALUATED IT TURNS OUT THERE ARE DIFFERENT SUBSTATES OF PLURIPOTENT CELLS THAT GIVE THEM A PARTICULAR PREFERENCE FOR 1 EMBRYONIC GERM LAYER THAN ANOTHER THERE ARE TIMES WHERE YOU HAVE NOT COMPLETELY WIPED OUT THE MEMORY OF THE CELL, SO IT REMEMBERS A LITTLE BIT ABOUT WHERE IT CAME FROM AND THEN THERE WAS THE ISSUE OF NAIVE VERSUS PRIMED NAIVE ARE CELLS THAT ARE A LITTLE BIT MORE PRIME ARDIAL AND–PRIMORDIAL AND BETTER MATCHED CELLS THAN THE MOUSE EMBRYO PRIMED APPEARED TO BE READY TO GO INTO 1 PARTICULAR GERM LAYER OR ANOTHER AND THERE ARE A LOT OF PAPERS ABOUT THIS FROM THESE 2 WORKERS AND THEN THERE’S ALSO WHAT I CALL DIRECT REPROGRAMMING AND THIS IS EXEMPLIFIED BY THIS PAPER FROM NORIYUI, IN JAPAN WHERE HE TOOK SKIN 1 BLAST AND TRANSFECTED THEM WITH CMYC AND KLF 4 AND SOX9 AND THAT’S THE MASTER GENE FOR CARTILAGE AND THEN HE DEVELOPED WHAT HE CALLED THESE ICON CELL WHICH IS IF YOU PUT THEM INTO A PELLET CULTURE, THEY FORM BEAUTIFUL CARTILAGE AND THIS IS IN COMPARISON TO THE–THE PARENTAL SKIN 1 BLASTS AND ALSO IN COMPARISON TO OTHER CELLS THAT FORM CARTILAGE THE CARTILAGE LOOKS REALLY GOOD THE PROS OF THIS APPROACH IS THAT THERE’S LESS RISK OF TERATOMA FORMATION AND YOU CAN ALSO SORT THESE CELLS FOR MARKERS OF CHOND ROW SIGHTS AND PURIFY THEM, THE CONS IS THAT UNFORTUNATELY MANY OF THESE CELLS FORMED CHOND ROMAS WHICH ARE WORSE THAN TERATOMAS, THEY’RE NASTY TUMORS AND THE OTHER PROBLEM IS THAT DEPENDING ON THE CELL TYPE, YOU HAVE VERY, VERY LIMITED ECPANGZ AFTER YOU DIRECTED THEM USING THESE TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS AND SO GENERATING ENOUGH CELLS COULD BE A PROBLEM WITH THIS TYPE OF MESSAGE SO IN TERMS OF THE VARIOUS DIFFERENT TYPES OF STEM CELLS, I’VE KIND OF HIGHLIGHTED HOW THEY COME ABOUT DURING DEVELOPMENT AND HOW WE CREATE THEM IN A DISH WHAT I WOULD LIKE TO HIGHLIGHT NOW IS THAT WE NEED TO KNOW ABOUT ALL KINDS OF STEM CELLS, IF WE ARE GOING TO USE THEM SUCCESSFULLY IN TISSUE ENGINEERING AND REGENERATION FOR EXAMPLE, WE NEED TO KNOW FROM EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS AND IPS CELLS, WHAT GIVES THEM THE CAPACITY TO PROLIFERATE CONTINUOUSLY AND WHAT MAKES THEM PLURIPOTENT, WHAT ARE THE FACTORS AND I THINK THAT WE ONLY ARE SCRATCHING THE SURFACE ON OUR KNOWLEDGE IN TERMS OF FETAL STEM CELLS, WE KNOW THEY CAN PROLIFERATE EXTENSIVELY, THEY ARE MULTIPTENT BUT THEY’RE COMMITTED TO A PARTICULAR LINEAGE SO WHAT ARE THOSE FACTORS AND THEN FINALLY, THERE ARE THE POSTNATAL STEM CELLS WE KNOW THAT THAT THEY HAVE VERY CONTROLLED AND PREDICTABLE DIFFERENTIATION SO WHAT BETTER CELL TYPE THAN A POSTNATAL CELL TO EDUCATE AN EMBRYONIC OR A PLURIPOTENT CELL ON HOW TO DIFFERENTIATE AND WHAT BETTER CELL TYPE THAN AN EMBRYONIC OR AN IPS CELL TO TELL A POSTNATAL CELL HOW THEY CAN PROLIFERATE MORE EBS TENSIVELY SO, 1 CELL TYPE IS NOT GOING TO GET US TO WHERE WE WANT TO BE WE WANT TO BE LOOKING AT ALL OF THESE DIFFERENT KINDS OF STEM CELLS WHAT ARE WE USING THESE FOR? WELL WE CAN USE THEM FOR DEVELOPMENT FOR EXAMPLE, WE CAN DETERMINE HOW A COMPLEX ORGANISM CAN EMANATE FROM A SINGLE FERTILIZED EGG WE CAN FOLLOW THE STEM CELLS AS THEY DIVIDE AND BECOME MORE SPECIFIED WE CAN USE THEM TO IDENTIFY THE SIGNALS AND THE MECHANISMS THAT DETERMINE STEM CELL, SELF-RENEWAL VERSUS DIFFERENTIATION, THIS IS REALLY IMPORTANT IN TERMS OF TISSUE HOMEOSTASIS, AND WE ALSO CAN USE THEM TO DETERMINE HOW THEY MAKE THEIR LINEAGE COMMITMENT TO CHOICES SO FOR EXAMPLE, IN BONE BIOLOGY, CELLS CAN BECOME EITHER BONE OR CARTILAGE, HOW DO THEY DECIDE WHICH WAY THEY’RE GOING TO GO AND WE CAN USE IPS CELLS TO TRY AND UNDERSTAND THESE AND SO, DEVIN EAGAN HAS ACTUALLY PUT TOGETHER THIS ROADMAP ON HOW YOU CAN GET PLURIPOTENT CELLS TO DIFFERENTIATE INTO ALL THE CELLS IN THE BODY, YOU WILL HEAR ABOUT THIS RETINAL PIGMENTED EPITHELIUM FROM KAPIL, IN TERMS OF THE DIFFERENTIATION, I HAVE SOME MISGIVINGS ABOUT HIS MAP HERE BUT YOU KNOW IT’S A START YOU HAVE TO START SOMEWHERE THIS IS A WORK IN PROGRESS AND THIS IS REALLY THE GOAL TO BE

ABLE TO GET THESE CELLS TO NOT ONLY DIFFERENTIATE INTO A SPECIFIC CELL TYPE BUT ALSO TO GET THEM TO DIFFERENTIATE INTO A MATURE CELL TYPE, THIS HAS BEEN A REAL PROBLEM IN THE FIELD THAT WE CAN GET HEMATOPOIETIC LIKE CELLS BUT THEY’RE NOT MATURE YOU CAN GET MUSCLE LIKE CELLS BUT THEY’RE NOT MATURE DOES IT MATTER IF WE PUT THEM IN THE BODY, WILL THE BODY TELL THEM HOW TO MATURE? OR DO WE NEED TO TELL THEM HOW TO MATURE IN THE DISH? IN TERMS OF OFTIO GENIC AND CHONDROGENNIC DIFFERENTIATION, WE STARTED OFF TREATING THE CELLS LIKE THEY WERE BONA FIDE OFTIO GENIC PRECURSOR CELLS AND WE WERE ABLE TO GET SMALL AMOUNTS OF BONE AND CARTILAGE ONE LINE FORMED BOTH BONE AND CARTILAGE BUT THIS WAS NOT ROBUST, WE WERE NOT GETTING THE AMOUNT OF BONE AND CARTILAGE THAT WE WOULD GET FROM BONAIFIED CHOND RASIGHTS AND BONE SO THE NEXT APPROACH WAS TO FOLLOW A MORE DEVELOPMENTAL LINE AND THAT’S BEING DONE BY FAHAD KID WAY IN MY LAB IT TURNS OUT, WE KNEW FOR A LONG TIME, BUT OTHERS DIDN’T KNOW THAT THERE ARE AT LEAST 3 DIFFERENT SOURCES OF BONE THERE’S THE NEURAL CREST WHICH GIVES RISE TO FACIAL BONE AND CARTILAGE, THERE’S THE DORSAL PART OF THE MIGHTS AND THE SCLER TELOMERE THAT GIVES RISE TO THE AXIAL SKELETON AND THEN THERE’S THE SOPHISTICATED SOMATIC LATERAL PLATE WH ICH GIVES RISE TO THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON SO 3 DIFFERENT EMBRYONIC SOURCES AND IT MAKES A DIFFERENCE IN HOW YOU TREAT THEM TO GET THESE DIFFERENT EMBRYONIC SOURCES, AND SO THIS IS KIND OF THE ROADMAP THAT WE’RE USING AT THE MOMENT TO TRY AND GET THEM TO DIFFERENTIATE IN BONE AND CARTILAGE FROM THE 3 DIFFERENT GERM LAYERS BECAUSE IT’S OUR HUNCH THAT IT MATTERS IF THE CARTILAGE OR BONE IS NEUROCREST IN ORIGIN, VERSUS LATERAL PLATE OR PATHWAY GIVES RACKSIAL, THERE ARE SOME CLINICAL INDICATIONS THAT IT REALLY DOES MATTER WHERE IT COMES FROM YOU CAN USE STEM CELLS TO STUDY DISEASE SO FOR EXAMPLE, IT’S VERY DIFFICULT TO OFTEN TO GET SUFFICIENT CELLS THAT ARE FROM A PATIENT TO STUDY THEM IN DETAIL IF WE CAN CREATE STEM CELLS WITH A DISEASE CAUSING MUTATION OR ENGINEER THEM, THAT OFFERS A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE TO STUDYING THE PATHOGENETIC MECHANISMS AND WE CAN ALSO USE THEM FOR INVIVO TRANSPLANTATION INTO HUMANIZED OR IMMUNE O SUPPRESSED MICE TO DEVELOP A DISEASE TISSUE IN ORDER TO TRY AND COME UP WITH A MECHANISM AND IN FACT, WE’VE DONE THIS CELLS WHICH ARE THE CELLS THAT I WORK ON, WE HYPOTHESIZE THAT BECAUSE THESE CELLS ARE VERY IMPORTANT IN SKELETAL HOMEOSTASIS THAT ANY GENETIC MUTATION OR ANY CHANGE IN THE MICRO ENVIRONMENT THAT CHANGES THEIR ACTIVITY WILL RESULT IN A DISEASE AND OUR EXAMPLE WAS FIBROUS DISPLACIA BONE AND WHAT WE DID WAS WE ISOLATED SKELETAL STEM CELLS FROM NORMAL BONE AND FROM FIEB ROW SIS PLASTIC BONE YOU CAN SEE THIS IS VERY ABNORMAL, THERE’S NO MARROW WOVEN BONE, VERY WEAK WOVEN BONE IF WE TAKE THOSE CELLS AND PUT THEM ON TO A SCAFFOLD AND TRANSPLANT THEM INTO A MOUSE, THE NORMAL SKELETAL STEM CELLS MAKE THE NORMAL BONE AND THE 1S FROM THE ABNORMAL MARROW, MAKE WHAT WE CALL AN FD-OTHICALL, IT’S RECAPITULATE THE FORMATION OF A ABNORMAL BONE IN A SMALL ANIMAL SO THIS IS A MODEL THAT WE CAN USE FOR STUDYING THE PATHOGENETIC MECHANISMS AND ALSO TO COME UP WITH DIFFERENT WAYS OF TREATING THESE CELLS TO REDUCE THE EFFECT OF THE MUTATION THIS THERE HAVE BEEN A NUMBER OF ARTICLES WRITTEN ABOUT USING PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS IN TERMS OF MODELING DISEASE AND THIS IS 1 OF THEM TALKING ABOUT USING THE CELLS FOR 2 D MODELS, 3D MODELS AND ALSO 4 D BY ADDING IN THE ELEMENT OF TIME, WATCHING HOW A TISSUE EVOLVES WHETHER IT BE IN AN ORGANOID OR ON A PLATE, TISSUE ON A CHIP IS BEING ENGINEERED IN MANY DIFFERENT LABS AROUND THE WORLD AND ALSO IN TERMS OF RPE, THERE ARE STUDIES WHERE THERE WAS A MUTATION IN MITOCHONDRIAIAL DNA THAT WAS USED TO STUDY THE DYSFUNCTIONAL RPE WHERE YOU HAD VERY ABNORMAL SWOLLEN MITOCHONDRIA AND ABNORMAL MELANO

STUDIES OF MULTIPLE ENDOCRINES SO THESE CELLS CAN BE VERY USEFUL IN TERMS OF COMING UP WITH MODELS OF DISEASE.& AND IN ORDER TO DO THIS, WE CAN START OFF WITH NORMAL CELLS AND USE THE EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR GENOME EDITING WHERE WE CAN MODULATE, CREATE OR CORRECT MUTATION AND THERE ARE A NUMBER OF DIFFERENT METHODS USING PRELOCKS FOR MODULATING THE LEVEL OF A MUTANT PROTEIN, CRSPR AND ZINC AND TALON HAVE BEEN USED TO CREATE MUTATIONS OR CORRECT MUTATIONS IN IPS CELLS WE CAN USE STEM CELLS TO REPLACE DAMAGED TISSUES, SO THIS OFFERS A WAY TO CORRECT A SEGMENTAL DEFECT THAT WOULD NEVER HEAL ON ITS OWN THIS IS BEING DONE WITH A LIMITED NUMBER OF POSTNATAL STEM CELLS SUCH AS HEMEAT O POETEC STEM CELLS WHICH ARE USED IN BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION FOR HEMEATOLOGICAL DISORDERS, AND WE CAN REALLY LOOK AT THEM AS A VERY EXCITING OPPORTUNITY, BUT THERE ARE A LOT OF HURDLES WE HAVE TO JUMP OVER BEFORE IPS CELLS WILL BE READY FOR PRIME TIME AND I THINK KAPIL’S PROJECT IS 1 OF THE PRIME EXAMPLES THAT LOOKS VERY, VERY PROMISING SO IN TERMS OF OTHER STEM CELL BASED THERAPIES FOR EXAMPLE, THERE’S PARKINSON’S DISEASE WHICH INITIALLY WAS TREATED WITH FETAL NEURAL TISSUE THOSE STUDIES DID NOT WORK VERY WELL BUT IT’S NOW ACTUALLY BEING REVISITED BECAUSE THEY LEARNED A LOT OF LESSONS ABOUT HOW TO TRANSPLANT THESE CELLS WHETHER FETAL TISSUE WILL REALLY BE USEFUL FOR TREATING PARKINSONS, WE DON’T KNOW BUT THIS REVIEW ARTICLE TALKS ABOUT WHAT THEY LEARNED FROM THE EARLY TRIALS AND WHAT THEY’RE CHANGING NOW IN THE LATER TRIALS AND IT’S A EUROPEAN CONSORTIUM THAT IS NOW DOING THIS IN TERMS OF BONE REGENERATION, WE KNOW THAT WE CAN TAKE BONE MARROW STROAMAL CELLS AND SKELETAL STEM CELLS, WE CAN ATTACH THEM TO A SCAFFOLD AND PUT THEM INTO A SEGMENTAL INJURY ASK WE CAN DIRECT THEM INTO AN INJURY WITH AN INJECTABLE CARRIER AND REGENERATE BONE AND THIS IS ACTUALLY BEEN DONE IT’S ALONG WITH HYDROXY APPLICATIONS APPETITE AND YOU CAN SEE THERE IS BONE REGENERATION AND WE ARE WORKING VERY MUCH ON TRYING TO RECONSTRUCT CRANEIO FACIAL DEFECTS SUCH AS CALFARRIAL DEFECTS AND JAW DEFECTS USING THIS TECHNOLOGY AND HERE CAN YOU SEE THAT AND I HOPE THAT I WILL GET TO DO THIS PROTOCOL SKIN DISEASES, THIS IS A TERRIBLE DISEASE CALLED EPIDERMAL ICEIS BELOSA AND IT’S CAUSED BY MUTATIONS, LAM BETA 3, THIS MARKS THE AREAS WHERE THERE WAS EITHER BLISTERING OR COMPLETE DENEWTING OF THE SKIN FROM THIS BOY WITH THIS DISEASE YOU CAN SEE THAT THESE COMPLETELY MISSING LIMB 332 WHICH IS LAMIN AND 5 THEY TOOK HIS EPIDERMAL CELLS, STEM CELLS, THEY TRANSFECTED WITH THE DEFECTIVE GENE, EXPANDED AND THEY HAVE PRETTY MUCH SAVED THIS PATIENT HE IS COMPLETELY COVERED WITH NORMAL SKIN AT THIS POINT AND IT REALLY HAS A BIG BREAK THROUGH YOU WILL HEAR FROM KAPIL ABOUT REGENERATION OF RPE, AND ALSO WE CAN USE STEM CELLS FOR TESTING NEW MEDICAL TREATMENTS THIS IS 1 OF THE THINGS THAT THEY ARE DOING OUT AT NCATS, TRYING TO DEVELOP WAYS OF USING VARIOUS DIFFERENT–DIFFERENTIATED PROGENY OF THE STEM CELLS, USING THEIR LIBRARIES AND THEIR ROBOTICS TO SCREEN FOR NEW DRUGS TO TREAT VARIOUS DIFFERENT DISEASES SO I JUST WANT TO BRIEFLY MENTION THE RESOURCES THAT WE HAVE HERE AT NIH TO DO THIS KIND OF WORK THE FIRST IS THE NIH STEM CELL UNIT THAT BARBARA IS THE TECHNICAL DIRECTOR AND SHE BASICALLY HAS DONE A HUGE AMOUNT OF WORK IN OPTIMIZING THE GROWTH AND THE GENERATION OF IPS CELLS AND ESTABLISHING STANDARDS, SHE HAS A DATABASE THAT’S ON THE NIH

WEBSITE WHERE YOU CAN PLUG IN COMPARE IT TO THE IPS CELLS AND EMBRYONIC CELLS AND SHE PROVIDES A TREMENDOUS AMOUNT OF SUPPORT TO THE INTRAMURAL INVESTIGATORS, AND THIS IS AN EXAMPLE HERE OF DRIVING STEM CELLS FROM EITHER SKIN 1 BLASTS, CD34 POSITIVE CELLS, OR FROM MY FAVORITE CELL BONE MARROW STROAMAL CELLS, AND USING EITHER EMBRYONIC 1 BLASTS AS A FEEDER OR MATRIGEL AND DOING MONOLAYER CULTURES AND SHE AND KEVIN AND KIYUN AND HAVE WORKED OUT ALL THESE METHODS AND THEN THE OTHER THING YOU HAVE TO THINK ABOUT IN TERMS OF DIFFERENTIATION IS WHETHER OR NOT YOU WILL USE EMB ROID BODIES WHICH CONSTAIN THE DIFFERENTIATED CELL TYPES AND MONOLAYER CULTURES TO DO YOUR DIFFERENTIATION THE PROS ARE FOR ‘EM BROID BODIES IS THAT YOU CAN TAKE YOUR ‘EM BROID BODY AND DIGEST IT WITH AN ENZYME AND DO FACTS TO ISOLATE THE CELLS WITH THE CELL SURFACE CHARACTER THAT YOU WANT TO ISOLATE BUT THE CONIS THAT THE ‘EM BROID BODIES ARE EXTREMELY VARIABLE AND THEN THE PROBLEM IS THAT THE NUMBER OF CELLS THAT YOU CAN GET AND THEIR PROLIFERATIVE CAPACITY MAY BE QUITE REDUCED THE PROS FOR THE MONOLAYER IS THAT YOU CAN GENERATE LARGE NUMBERS OF CELLS IT’S VERY EASY TO SCALE UP BUT THE CONIS THAT, UNLESS YOU REALLY KNOW WHAT YOU’RE DEVELOPMENTAL SEQUENCE IS, YOU CAN END UP WITH A REALLY MIXED POPULATION THAT REALLY WILL NOT PERFORM THE WAY YOU WANT TO THE OTHER RESOURCE SYSTEM THE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSFUSION MEDICINE, THE CELL PROCESSING SECTION, HEADED UP BY DAVID STRAMSIC, AND THEIR MISSIO IS TO COLLECT MANUFACTURE AND STORE CELLULAR THERAPIES THEY DO A LOT OF DONOR EVALUATION, LABORATORY, TESTING, AND THEY HAVE A LOT OF MEDICAL CONSULTS WITH PEOPLE THAT ARE USING CAR T-CELLS TO TREAT VARIOUS DIFFERENT TYPES OF BLOOD DISORDERS AS YOU CAN IMAGINE, AND KAPIL WILL TALK ABOUT THIS, THERE ARE A HUGE NUMBER OF ISSUES THAT YOU HAVE TO DEAL WITH BEFORE THE FDA WILL APPROVE YOUR CELL PRODUCT FOR USE IN HUMANS IDENTITY AND PURITY ARE REALLY THE MAIN 1S AND EFFICACY, STABILITY, STERILITY, THESE ARE ALL THINGS THAT KAPIL WILL TALK TO YOU ABOUT SO THIS IS MY LAST SLIDE, I AM BASICALLY, IT LISTS THE PROS AND CONS OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF STEM CELLS BASIC–BASICALLY IT’S JUST DEPENDS ON YOUR PARTICULAR APPLICATION IN TERMS OF THE PURITY OF THE POPULATION AND WHAT YOU ARE GOING TO USE IT FOR YOU REALLY NEED TO TAILOR YOUR CELL PRODUCT TO THE APPLICATION IN TERMS OF HUMAN ESLs, THEY ARE THE PUREST POPULATION BECAUSE THEY HAVE NOT BEEN GENETICALLY MANIPULATED BUT THEY HAVE ETHICAL ISSUES AND THERE ARE PROBLEMS WITH TERATOMAS IPS CELLS DON’T HAVE THE ETHICAL ISSUES BUT WE REALLY DON’T KNOW HOW TO DIFFERENT THEM VERY WELL FETAL CELLS HAVE ETHICAL ISSUES, WE DON’T HAVE LARGE NUMBERS OF THESE CELLS, POSTNATAL CELLS ARE VERY GOOD AT DIFFERENTIATING INTO THEIR SPECIFIC TISSUE BUT WE CAN’T GET ENOUGH OF THEM AND YOU CAN GO ON AND ON AND YOU CAN END UP WITH A REALLY LONG LIST OF PROS AND CONS AND SO IT’S A MATTER OF REALLY TRYING TO TAILOR IT TO WHAT YOUR APPLICATION IS SO AT THIS POINT, I WANT TO ACKNOWLEDGE MANY PEOPLE HERE, ALEXANDER FRIEDEN STEIN AND BIANCA, WHO STUDIED THE SKELETAL CELL AND WHAT IT COULD DO IN THE ENVIRONMENT, MY FELLOWS LISTED HERE AND THOSE WHO WORKED ON THESE VARIOUS DIFFERENT CELLS THIS IS THE CURRENT GROUP HERE WORKING ON SINGLE CELL ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS STEM CELLS, HERE’S THE STEM CELL CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY WITH BARBARA, KEVIN AND KYUN, DAVID WITH THE CELL PROCESSING, SECTION AND MIKE WHO’S IN THE CROWD WHO IS MY PARTNER IN CRIME IN TERMS OF FIBROUS DISPLACIA OF BONE AND SOME OF THE WORK WE DID EARLY IN THAT GAME SO, AT THIS POINT, I WILL STOP AND ASK IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS FEEL FREE TO CONTACT ME, THIS IS MY E-MAIL ADDRESS, AM MORE THAN HAPPY TO SHARE MY SLIDES WITH YOU IF THEY WOULD BE USEFUL TO

YOU OR HELPFUL TO YOU IN ANY WAY SHAPE OR FORM >> THANK YOU VERY MUCH [ APPLAUSE ] >> WE HAVE TIME FOR A FEW QUESTIONS IF PEOPLE WILL USE THE MICROPHONES >> THE SPEAKER WOULD LIKE TO HEAR THE QUESTION AS WELL >> I AM INTERESTED IN THE MODULATORS AND YOU TOUCHED ON IT WITH NCATS, BUT IS THIS A RATIONAL STRATEGY OR IS IT JUST SCREENING RANDOMLY THROUGH LIBRARIES, BECAUSE YOU MENTIONED AND WYNN MENTIONED THE 4 GENES THAT CAN PERFORM THIS MODULATION, ARE THERE OTHER GENES THAT CAN BE MODULATED CHEMICALLY FOR THE OTHER TYPE OF TRANSFORMATION >> THE FACT THAT JAMIE THOMPSON AND YANANA KA CAME UP WITH 4 DIFFERENT COMBINATIONS MEANS THERE IS REDUNDANCY AND WE HAD [INDISCERNIBLE]–THAT’S HOW YOU SAY IT GIVE A SEMINAR IN THE NIDCR AND HE BASICALLY HAS BEEN DOING SOME SCREENING WITH A LARGE LIBRARY, BUT HE’S ALSO BEEN DOING SCREENING WITH SPECIFIC PATHWAYS SO HE’S HEDGING HIS BETS >> SO I’M 1 OF THOSE PEOPLE WHO LEARN THEY ARE DIFFERENT ORIGINS IN THE BONES OF THE BODY, THANK YOU AND USING THAT KNOWLEDGE, THE CUSHION IS THE BONE MARROW, STEM CELLS TO TREAT LET’S SAY A FEMALE VERSUS WHAT YOU ARE TRYING TO DO FOR THE FACIAL BONES DO YOU HAVE TO USE DIFFERENT TYPE OF BONE MARROW STEM CELLS OR CAN YOU USE HETEROGENEOUSROLOGIOUS CELLS? >> THERE’S AN ANECDOTAL IN A FEW PAPERS FROM THE DENTAL FIELD SAYING IF YOU TAKE ILIAC CREST AND PACK IT INTO THE JAW IT DISAPPEARS SO FAHAD IS REALLY GOING TO TRY AND TEST THAT HYPOTHESIS BY TAKING CELLS FROM–THAT HAVE GONE THROUGH LATERAL PLATE AND PUTTING THEM INTO THE JAW AND VICE VERSA TO SEE WHAT THE INTERACTIONS ARE PERHAPS WE WILL HAVE TO TEACH ILIAC CREST HOW TO BE MORE LIKE NEURAL CRESTS >> SO I WONDER AND 1 OF THE PROBLEMS IS THE IPS CELLS, MANY TAKE A LONG, LONG TIME, WEEKS, MONTHS, BEFORE THE CONVERSION TAKES PLACE AND SO, THERE AREN’T A LARGE NUMBER OF CELLS, BUT THE PHENOMENON IS TAKING PLACE SO IS THE RATE OF CONVERSION RELATED IN ANY WAY TO THE BIOLOGICAL TURNOVER OF THOSE CELLS AND THE IMPACT ORGANISM? >> INTUITIVELY THAT’S WHAT PEOPLE HAVE THOUGHT BUT I’M NOT SURE THAT THERE’S ANY DATA THAT SUPPORTS THAT CERTAINLY, THEIR MEMORY WHETHER THEY’RE VERY DIFFERENTIATED OR A PROGENITOR COULD ALSO BE IMPACKING ON HOW FAST ABOUT IF YOU THINK ABOUT IT THE EPIGENETIC LANDSCAPE HAS TO BE CHANGED SO DRAMATICALLY AND I THINK THAT JUST TAKES TIME >> SO HAVE YOU A BONE GROWING IN A PET RIDISH, OTHER FACTORS KNOWN THAT DETERMINE THE FINAL SHAPE OF THAT BONE OCILE, OR FEMUR WITHOUT HAVING IT IN PLACE– >> YEAH, MECHANICAL FORCES ARE EVERYTHING AND YOU KNOW IN OUR SUBCUTANEOUS OSSICLE, THEY LITERALLY LOOK LIKE LITTLE PANCAKES AND IT’S BECAUSE OF THE FORCINGS OF THE MUSCLE–FORCES OF THE MUSCLE ON THE IMPLANT IN TERMS OF DEVELOPMENT, BOY THAT’S LIKE REALLY THE $60,000 QUESTION YOU KNOW, HOW DO YOU GET THE SHAPE AND THE TRUTH AND EVEN MORE AMAZING WHEN YOU THINK ABOUT ALL THE CUSPS AND THE ROOTS AND THINGS LIKE THAT, WHAT DICTATES THE SHAPE IS REALLY, REALLY NOT KNOWN >> BY THE WAY, ALL OF THESE IMAGES ARE ON THE WEBSITE, FOR THIS AND ANY OF THE PREVIOUS LECTURES SO IF YOU WANT TO CONTEMPLATE SOME OF THE DETAILED INFORMATION, CAN YOU GO THERE AND SEE IT SO YOU IN PASSING TALKED ABOUT THE PUTATIVE CANCER STEM CELLS AND YOU SORT OF PUT IT ON THE LIST AS 1 OF THE SOMEWHERE IN BETWEEN, BUT IT SEEMS TO ME, THERE’S A HUGE DEBATE AS TO WHETHER THESE ARE TRULY STEM CELLS OR JUST CELLS THAT ARE PROGENITORS IN A SEQUENCE DID YOU WANT TO COMMENT– >> I THINK I COME DOWN ON THE SIDE THAT THESE ARE JUST PROGENITORS IN THE SEQUENCE THAT FOR SOME REASON CAN’T GO ON TO THE NEXT STEP OF

DIFFERENTIATION AND YOU KNOW IN TERMS OF WHAT THE CANCER INITIATING CELL, I’M MORE IN FAVOR OF THAT TERM THAN A CANCER STEM CELL IT’S WHAT INITIATES AND PROPAGATES AND WHERE IT COMES UP IS A BIG QUESTION FOR EXAMPLE, IN OFTIO SARCOMA, MY GUT FEELING IS THAT IT’S A BONE MARROW STROAMAL CELL THAT STARTS TO PROLIFERATE HAS ITS VARIOUS DIFFERENT MUTATIONS OR A NUMBER THAT ARE KNOWN AND IT JUST CANNOT GO ON TO THE NEXT STEP IT HASN’T GONE BACK TO THE MOST–AS FAR AS I CAN SEE, IT HAS NOT GONE BACK TO THE MOST PRIMORDIAL CELL IN THE LINEAGE IS THERE A ROLL FOR FIBROUS DISPLACIA? >> WELL THE SOMATIC MOSAIC DISEASE SO WE COULD REGENERATE BONE FROM THEIR NORMAL CELLS, MICHAEL IS DEVELOPING SMALL MOLECULES TO TRY AND KNOCK DOWN THE ACTIVITY OF THE MUTATED GENE I THINK THERE ARE OTHER DISEASES THAT ARE PROBABLY–THE FACT THAT WE CAN GET NORMAL CELLS FROM THESE PATIENTS IS A GOOD THING THERE ARE OTHER DISEASES THAT–WHERE WE WOULD HAVE TO CORRECT THE MUTATION BEFORE WE COULD USE STEM CELLS >> OKAY, WELL, THANK YOU THERE WILL BE TIME FOR MORE QUESTIONS AND NOW WE’LL GO ON TO DR. BARTI >> I WANT TO THANK WIN FOR TALKING ABOUT OUR WORK AND I WANT TO THANK PAM FOR GIVING SUCH A BROAD OVERVIEW ON STEM CELLS SO THAT GIVES ME THE OPPORTUNITY TO DIRECTLY FOCUS ON REALLY THE WORK THAT WE ARE DOING IN THE LAB AND DEVELOPING CELL THERAPY USING IPS CELLS SO NOW I WILL FOCUS ON MACULAR DEGENERATION, TO FOCUS WHAT THIS ENTAILS, ON THE RIGHT SIDE WE SEE A NORMAL VISION OF A PERSON AND ON THE OTHER SIDE, YOU SEE HOW A PERSON WITH AGE RELATED MACKULAR DEGENERATION AMD SEES AND THE CENTRAL PART WILL BE COMPLETELY BLIND WHENEVER THEY LOOK, THIS IS A DISEASE THAT EFFECTS PEOPLE THERE’S SEVERAL MILLION PEOPLE WORLD WIDE THAT ARE EFFECTED BY THIS DISEASE AND CURRENTLY FOR 1 SPECIFIC FORM OF THIS DISEASE CALLED THE DRY FORM THAT EFFECTS 90% OF THE PEOPLE WITH THE MD THERE’S NO TREATMENT SO THERE IS A BIG UNMET MEDICAL NEED IN THE FIELD SO IF WE LOOK INTO THE BACK OF THE EYE AND TRY TO UNDERSTAND HOW THIS DISEASE HAPPENS, THE NEXTLE OF SLIDES THAT HAPPEN, SHOW A SCHEMATIC OF HOW WE CURRENTLY BEST UNDERSTAND THE KIND OF PATHOGENESIS OF THIS DISEASE SO THIS WOULD BE THE EYE, ON TOP YOU SEE THE RETINAL NEURONS WHICH ARE CONNECTED TO THE PHOTO RECEPTORS, REALLY THE CELL TYPE OF THE RETINAL WHICH SENDS SIGNATS TO THE BRAIN SO WE COULD ALL SEE AND RIGHT NEXT TO PHOTEE RECEPTORS IS A LAYER OF CELLS CALLED THE RPE, HA IS THE TOPIC OF DISCUSSION FOR TODAY’S TALK AND WHAT YOU WILL NOTICE IS A COUPLE OF INTERESTING FEATURES OF THIS CELL TYPE WHICH FIRST OF ALL IT HAS TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH STIGIC LOCATION, PRESENT BETWEEN THE FOCUSED ONY ONY RECEPTORS AND THE BLEW SUPPLY, THESE ARE HIGHLY POLARIZED AND THEY HAVE TIGHT JUNCTIONS BETWEEN NEIGHBORING CELLS, AND THAT MEANS THAT PLOOD IS NOTHING LIKE–PLOOD IS NOT IN DIRECT AN D THOSE THAT HAVE TO GO TO THE RETINA HAVE TO PASS TO THE RB CELLS AND ALL THE NUTRIENT VS TO PASS THROUGH THE RB CELLS CELLS AND THOSE HAVE TO PASS BACK AGAIN FROM RP INTO THE CURRENT BROOD SUPPLY AND THE OTHER TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER YOU NOTICE IS THEY HAVE THIS HAIR LIKE STRUCTURE WE CALL THIS APICKAL PROCESSES OF THIS THESE CELLS AND THEY SIT ON THIS MEMBRANE AND THESE AIR LIKE STRUCTURES IS THE BUSINESS END OF THE RPE CELLS AND THEY INTERACT WITH SEGMENTS AND HOW TO PERFORM THE FUNCTIONS RPE CELLS DO THROUGHOUT THEIR LIFE TO MAINTAIN HEALTH AND INTEGRITY OF THE PHOTO RECEPTORS SO, THE PHOT PIGMENT FOR RECEPTORS AND THEY HAVE THE PHOTO RECEPTORS SO ALL OF THESE TISSUES, REALLY THERE TO HELP THE PHOTO RECEPTORS SURVIVE SO OBVIOUSLY IN A DISEASE LIKE AMD, WHERE RPE CELLS DIE OFF, PHOTO RECEPTORS START TO DIE AND THAT’S THE REASON WHY PEOPLE REALLY GO BLIND AND SO THIS IS WHAT WOULD BE KIND OF THE CENTRAL PART OF A PERSON WITH AMD, YOU CAN SEE THE PHOTO RECEPTORS ARE GONE AND THE CELLS ARE DEAD AND THE CAP ILLEGALSARYS ARE STARTING TO PAN OUT BUT IF YOU MOVE AWAY FROM THE AREA, THE CENTRAL AREA WHERE THE THOSE PEOPLE ARE BLIND TOWARDS THE HEALTHY PART OF THE EYE, THIS IS AN AREA CALLED THE TRANSITION ZONE IT’S CALLED THE TRANSITION ZONE BECAUSE IF YOU NOTICE HERE THE RPE CELLS ARE MISSING BUT THE

FOALT O RECEPTORS ARE STILL HANGING IN THERE AND IT’S NOT THAT THESE AREN’T DYSFUNCTIONAL, THEY’RE LIKELY DESTINED TO DIE BECAUSE THEY DON’T HAVE RPE SUPPORT, BUT WHAT SURGEONS HAVE TRIED FOR A WHILE AND THOUGHT FOR A WHILE IS IF YOU ARE IN THIS RPE, CAN YOU PRO TECT THIS FROM THE LINE, AND THIS HAS BEEN TESTED SURGICALLY SO IF YOU THINK ABOUT THE WHOLE EYE AND YOU HAVE DAMAGE IN THE CENTER PART OF THE EYE, THEY WILL CUT OUT A PIECE OF RPE, FROM THE PERIPHERY OF THE SAME EYE, TRANSLOCATE IT INTO THE CENTER OF THE ZONE AND LEAVE THE TRANSPLANT THERE AND IN SMALL NUMBER OF CASES, WHERE THE STUDIES WERE SUCCESSFUL THEY SAW THAT PATIENTS PHOTO RECEPTORS WERE SURVIVING FOR SEVERAL YEARS TO COME AND PATIENTS VISION WAS RESCUED AND STABILIZED FOR YEARS TO COME AND THESE ARE SOME OF THE PAPERS THAT HAVE PREVIOUSRY DEMONSTRATED THAT AND FOR ME, THIS IS A CRITICAL PROOF OF PRINCIPLE EXPERIMENT AND IF YOU WERE TO MAKE AN AHATOLOGIOUS PATCH FROM THE MD PATIENTS AND DELIVER IT TO THE RIGHT PLACE, YOU COULD ACTUALLY SAVE THE VISION FROM GETTING WORSE AND THAT IS REALLY THE DRIVING PRINCIPAL FOR US TO MAKE RPE PATCH FOR THE PATIENTS SO WE START WITH THE PATIENT’S OWN CELLS AS PAM EXPLAINED THE IPS CELL TECHNOLOGY MAKE, REPROGRAM THE SOMATIC CELLS INTO THE IPS CELLS AND DIFFERENTIATE THOSE CELLS INTO AN RPE PATCH, THOSE CELLS MAKE A PATCH AND DELIVER IT BACK TO THE PATIENTS SO THERE SLIDE SHOWS YOU OF WHAT THE PATCH LOOKS LIKE, IT’S A 4 BY 2-MILLIMETER PATCH THAT CURRENTLY THE CENTER OF THE EYE, AND WHAT YOU SEE IN HERE IS RPCELLS ARE ON TOP, THE PIGMENTED CELLS AND WHEN WE FLIP THE PATCH, YOU WILL SEE THEY ARE SITTING ON A SCAFFOLD ON THE BIODEGRADABLE SCAFFOLD WHICH IS COLORED WHITE HERE AND ADDED THE IDEA IS THAT THE CELLS THAT MAKE THAT ARE NOT ECM, AND DON’T INTEGRATE AND DEGRADE AND THE CELLS SIT CONTINUE TO SIT ON THEIR ACM AND EPITHELIAL GREAT INTO THE BACK OF THE EYE SO WHAT I’M GOING TO SHOW AND DUE TODAY IS GO WHERE THE WHOLE PROCESS OF HOW WE ACTUALLY MAKE THIS PATCH FOR TRANSPLANTATION, THE 3 PARTS OF IND APPLICATION THAT WE NEED TO START A PHASE CLINICAL TRIAL WITH THESE CELLS AND HOW WE MANUFACTURE WITH IPS CELLS AND HOW WE MANUFACTURE THESE PATCHES FROM RAMIFICATIONS WHAT’S CALL THE CMKRR PART OF THE CHEMISTRY MARVIN MUSCANNING AND CONTROLS AND HOW DO WE TEST THESE PATCH AND PRECLINICAL ANIMAL MODELS TO DEMONSTRATE THAT THE CELLS ARE SAFE, THEY ARE NOT TUMOR GENIC AND NOT TOXIC AND THEY DO HAVE SOME EFFICACY IN THESE ANIMAL MODELS AND THEN HOW DO WE DEMONSTRATE THAT THE TOOL AND THE SCAFFOLD WE HAVE MADE TO DELIVER THIS PATCH IS ALSO BY COMPATIBLE AND OF COURSE EVENTUALLY WOULD HAVE A CLINICAL PROTOCOL HOW WE DELIVER IT TO THE PATIENTS SO JUST A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS OR THE DEVELOPMENTAL PROCESS OF HOW WE MAKE RPE CELLS SO THIS LECTURE IS FROM IPS CELLS ALL THE WAY TO MATURE RPE ISSUES THE PROCESS TAKES ABOUT 10 WEEKS SO IT’S A FAIRLY LONG PROCESS BUT IT’S WELL OPTIMIZED BUT IMPORTANT POINT TO REMEMBER HERE OR TO REALIZE HERE IS THAT IPS CELLS ARE COAXED INTO DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES, KIND OF THAT BIG OVERVIEW YOU SAW IN THE PREVIOUS TALK, THE CELLS GO FROM A NEUROECTODERM STAGE TO THE PROGENITORS ALL THE WAY TO MATURE RPE, AND WE DO THAT MY MANIPULATING GROWTH FACTORS IN THE TIME POINT AND THIS IS JUST REALLY REPRODUCING DEVELOPMENT OF BIOLOGY FOR RPE CELLS IN A DISH, ALL THE WORK WE HAVE LEARNED FROM OVER DECADES IN VARIOUS ANIMAL MODELS HOW WE MAKE RPE CELLS WE TRY TO REPRODUCE THAT ON IPS CELLS ON A DISH AND INTERESTINGLY IN THE CASE OF RPE CELLS WE ACTUALLY CAN GET FUNCTIONALLY RPE CELLS, 1 OF THOSE VARIOUS CELL TYPES WE RECENTLY PUBLISHED WE CAN MAKE IT INTO MATURE PIECES AND THAT BECOMES RELEVANT WHEN YOU’RE TRANSPLANTING IT INTO ALL THE PEOPLE, YOU WANT TO TRANSPLANT LIKELY MATURE RPE CELLS, THAT ARE FUNCTIONING RIGHT AWAY SO THE BOTTOM PANEL OF THIS SLIDE SHOWS THAT WE CAN GET PURE CELLS, THIS IS A DISH FULL OF PIGMENTED RPE CELLS AND WE CAN SHOW THAT THESE CELLS ARE POSITIVE FOR A NUMBER OF DIFFERENT RPE MARKERS AND THIS ALSO DEMONSTRATES THAT THE CELLS ARE FAIRLY HOMOGENIUS, IN TERMS OF EXPRESSION OF RPE MARKER AN IMPORTANT POINT THAT WE HAVE TO CONSIDER IS THAT WE ARE TRYING TO DEVELOP AN AHATOLOGIOUS THERAPY, SO IF YOU HAVE TO DO IT HAS TO BE HIGHLY REPRODUCIBLE AND HERE WE HAVE TESTED THIS OVER 34 DIFFERENT DONOR IPS CELL LINES AND INDIVIDUALS WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF DISEASES, CLINICAL GRADE CELLS, RESEARCH GRADE CELLS AND PRETTY MUCH IN EVERY SINGLE CASE, WE WERE SUCCESSFUL IN MAKING RPE CELLS AND MATURE RPE CELLS FROM IPS CELLS SO THAT’S AN IMPORTANT POINT GOING FORWARD THAT THIS PROCESS IS REPRODUCIBLE IN MAKING RPE CELLS ONCE WE HAVE OUR RELEVANT CELL TYPE, WE PUT THEM ON THIS

SCAFFOLD, THE 1 THAT I SHOWED BIODEGRADABLE SCAFFOLD, THESE WERE DESIGNED SUCH THAT AS WE CAN SEE, THESE ARE NANO FIBERS ABOUT 300 FOCUSED ON 400 NANO METER DIAMETER, FIBERS OF THE GLYCOLLIC ACID THAT ARE FUSED SO THAT THE CELLS WOULD FORM A MONOLAYER ON TOP AND THEN YET, THE SCAFFOLD WOULD HAVE SMALL HOLES TO ALLOW NUTRIENT FLOW AND CELLS CAN DEPOSIT IT ON ACM SO THEY CAN FALL ON BROOKS MEMBRANE AND THIS NICELY ILLUSTRATE THAT THESE CELLS FORM A NICE MEMBRANE STRUCTURE SO THIS IS SCANNING EM OF RP PE CELLS GROWN ON A PLGS SCAFFOLD, IN THIS CASE IT’S PSEUDOCOLLORRED TO SHOW YOU THE SCAFFOLD IN BLUE AND SINCE YOU’RE LOOKING AT THE STRUCTURE FROM A SIDE LAYER, YOU SEE 3 CELLS, 1 CELL, ANOTHER 1 AND ANOTHER CELL BUT YOU SEE THIS IN GREEN APICKAL STRUCTURE OF ALL THE CELLS ON THE MONOLAYER AND THESE WERE A MEMBER OF MAIN BUSINESS END OF THE CELLS AND I HOPE YOU CAN APPRECIATE THAT PRETTY MUCH ALL THE CELLS HAVE EXTENSIVE STRUCTURES AND PRETTY HOMEIO GENIUS THROUGHOUT THE TISSUE SUGGESTING THAT REALLY WE CAN MAKE POLARIZED CELLS USING IPS CELLS AND THIS PATCH AND THIS IS 1 EXAMPLE OF THE CLEAR FUNCTION OF THE CELLS CAN PERFORM SO THESE ARE EPITHELIAL CELLS AND THEY HAVE TIGHT JUNCTIONS THAT FORM THE AUTOBLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER AND BECAUSE OF THE TYPE JUNCTIONS THEY HAVE WHAT IS ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE AND EPITHELIAL RESISTANCE SO WHAT I MEAN BY THAT IS IF I PUT AN 1 ON TOP, 1 ON BOTTOM, YOU PASS CURRENT SHOWS RESISTANCE TO THE FLOW OF CURRENT AND THAT RESISTANCE IS AN INDICATION OF MATURITY OF CELLS SO WE CAN MEASURE THAT RESISTERRANCE AS IN THIS CASE, SEVERAL PER CENTIMETER SHOWING THESE ARE MATURE AND BECAUSE OFLET SAME TIME THE 2 MEMBRANES, APICKAL MEMBRANE AND ISOLATED MEMBRANES CAN BE MEASURED OF THE APICKAL MEMBRANES AGAIN A FEATURE OF POLARIZED CELLS AND THEN WE CAN PERFORM PROTOBATIONS LIKE CHANGING POTASSIUMOT SIDE OR ATP ON THE APICKAL SIDE, PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE CELLS RESPOND BY HYPER POLARIZING AND DEPOLARIZING AND SHOW THE RESPONSE IS SIMILAR TO WHAT RPE CELLS DO SO TO DEMONSTRATE AND PROVE THESE CELLS ARE NOT ONLY STRUCTURALLY MATURE, THESE CELLS ALSO FUNCTIONALLY MATURE MADE FROM IPS CELLS ON A SCAFFOLD SO THEN WE SPENT QUITE SOMETIME OPTIMIZING AND VALIDATING HOW WE MAKE THESE CELLS IN THE GMP GRADE SETTINGS BECAUSE EVEN AS WE KNOW WELL, IF YOU HAVE TO TRANSPLANT A PRODUCT IN PATIENTS IT HAS TO BE DONE UNDER THE CURRENT MANUFACTURING PRACTICES AS FDA REQUIRES SO YOU TALK ABOUT THE PROCESS THIS LONG, YES IT IS LONG, IT TAKES ABOUT 6 MONTHS TO MAKE A START OF THE PATIENT ON DAY 0 AND TO HAVE A FINAL PRODUCT READY FOR THE PATIENT BUT SO WE GO FROM IN THIS PROCESS IN THIS CASE, ISOLATING CD34 POSITIVE PATIENTS AND MAKING–REPROGRAMMING THEM INTO IPS CELLS THAT WE CAN EXPAND TO A SMALL–WHAT WE CALL A WORKING BANK AT PASSAGE 10 AND THIS ITSELF TAKES ROUGHLY 3 MONTHS AND ANOTHER 3 MONTHS FROM THIS IPS CELL BANK TO MAKING A MATURE RPE PRODUCT SIMILAR TO WHAT I JUST SHOWED YOU, WE GO TO THE PROGENITOR STAGE, SEATING CELLS ON THERE THAT WE CAN RELEASE FOR TRANSPLANTATION NOW THE PROCESS IS, IF THE PROCESS WASN’T SO ALONG, WE HAVE TO HAVE QUALITY CONTROLS DURING THE MANUFACTURE MANUFACTURING PROCESS AT VARIOUS STEPS TO SEE IF IT’S GOING IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION, SO FOR INSTANCE WE CONNECT OVER IPS CELL BANK, QUALITY OF IPS CELLS, AND THEN WE–WHEN YOU START DIFFERENTIATING THEM INTO RPE, WE AGAIN MAKE SURE THAT THE DIFFERENTIATION IS GOING IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION AND FINALLY VALIDATE THE PRODUCT BEFORE WE TRANSPLANT AND THEN AT THE SAME TIME WE HAVE PUT IN PLACE, SEVERAL STEPS WHERE WE CAN KRIST O PRESERVE OUR INTERMEDIATE PRODUCTS SO THAT IN CASE THE PROCESS FAILS AT ANY OF THE STEPS WE CAN GO BACK TO THE PATIENT STARTING CD34 POSITIVE CELLS, OR 1 OF OUR IPSC BANKS OR THE PROGENITOR IPE BANK AND NOT HAVE TO GO THROUGH THE WHOLE 6 MONTHS OF MANUFACTURING AGAIN SO THIS BOX IS NOW BEING DONE AT THE DTM, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORMATION MEDICINE, PAM MENTIONED IN THE UNIT AND HAS BEEN TESTED ON A COUPLE OF DIFFERENT DONORS AND THE MD DONORS AND IT WORKS REPRODUCIBLE IN THE GMP CONDITIONS SO, AGAIN, 1 OF THE CRITICAL PARAMETERS IS WHEN YOU’RE MAKING AHATOLOGIOUS CELL THERAPY, THAT YOU WANT TO HAVE A WAY OF

VALIDATING WHAT IS A TRANSPLANT TABLE TISSUE BECAUSE THERE WILL BE SOME HETEROGENEITY IN TISSUES MADE FROM DIFFERENT PEOPLE SO TO REALLY UNDERSTAND HOW MUCH IS THE HETEROGENEITY AND HOW CAN WE ACTUALLY SAY THAT THIS RP PATCH IS TRANSPLANTABLE, WHEREAS THIS 1 MAY NOT BE SO TO DO THAT, WE MADE CELLS FROM 3 DIFFERENT AMD PATIENTS PATIENTS AND IPS CELLS FROM 3 CLONES SO WE HAD 9 CLONES, ALL OF THOSE DIFFERENTIATED INTO AN RP PATCH AND A GMP GRADE CONDITIONS AND WE CHARACTERIZE THOSE PATCHES EXTENSIVELY FOR THOSE DIFFERENT ASSETS THAT HAVE LISTED HERE INCLUDING SO THE GOLD WAS TO LOOK FOR IF THERE’S GENETIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN DIFFERENT PEOPLE EFFECT THE QUALITY OF THE END PRODUCT AND DETECTING DIFFERENCES THEY EFFECT THE END PRODUCT AND WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT ASSETS WE CAN ACTUALLY USE TO CHARACTERIZE THIS END PRODUCT SO THERE ARE 2 ASSETS THAT STANDUTE, 1 IS TRANSEPITHELIAL RESISTANCE MEASURING THE ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE OF THE MONOLAYER THAT REALLY FOR US IS A KEY PARAMETER TO TELL HOW MATURE THE CELLS ARE AND THE SECOND I WANT TO BRIEFLY MENTION IS QUANTITATIVE SHIFT METRICS, SO WHAT WE DO IN THIS CASE IS WE USE NEURAL NETWORKS SO WE HAVE DEVELOPING NEURAL NETWORK THAT CAN JUST LOOK AT THE IMAGE OF RPE CELLS AND TELL US HOW GOOD THE CELLS ARE, SO WHAT DEVELOP THAT NETWORK, WE ROAD THE CORD AND WE FED IT WITH IMAGES OF RPE CELLS AS THE CELLS WERE MATURING AND WE FED THIS FUNCTIONAL PARAMETER WITH THE TR-RESISTANCE AND THEN AFTER WE TRAIN THE NETWORK, WE ASK THE NETWORK TO PREDICT THE FUNCTION AND CAN YOU NOW LOOK AT A PICTURE OF CELLS AND TELL ARE THEY FUNCTIONAL OR NOT AND THESE ARE REALLY 1 OF THE PRELIMINARY RESULTS WE HAVE BECAUSE THIS IS JUST USING 1 TRAINING SET SO FAR BUT THE ASSAY, THE OUTCOME LOOKS REALLY INTERESTING SO WHAT YOU HAVE ON THIS GRAPH ON THE Y-AXIS IS THE PREDICTED TR-TRANSREPLICATED RESISTANCE THAT THE NETWORK PREDICTED ANDOT X-AXIS WE HAVE THE MEASURED TR SO THE MEASURE FROM THE PATCH SO WHAT WE DID IS WE CLEAN THE NETWORK ON 3 DIFFERENT TYPES OF RPE CELLS, CELLS THAT WERE FULLY MATURED, THAT ARE PARTIALLY MATURED HERE IN GREAN AND RPE CELLS THAT ARE IN A FREE LIKE STATE SO THE FIRST THING YOU NOTICE IS THAT THE NETWORK IS–THE PREDICTION OF NETWORK IS ALMOST AS GOOD AS OUR MEASUREMENT THAT WE PERFORMED EXPERIMENTALLY, THEY ARE LINEAR IN THE OUTCOME THERE’S ONLY 1 MISTAKE, OTHER THAN THAT THEY ARE BOTH VERY SIMILAR IN THEIR OUTCOME THE SECOND MORE IMPORTANT THING IS THAT THE NETWORK IS ABLE TO JUST BY LOOKING AT RPE IMAGE IT IS–IMAGES IT CAN TELL THE MATURE FROM THE PARTIAL CELLS AND THESE ARE BASED ON EXPERIMENT RESULTS [INDISCERNIBLE] BENEFIT THAT WE CALL THESE CELLS TRANSPLANTABLE SO WE’RE VERY EXCITE WE THINK THAT THIS MACHINE LEARNING BASED APPROACH CAN BECAUSE IT’S SO EASY TO IMPLEMENT ON THE GMP GRADE SETTINGS CAN TELL US AS WE MOVE FORWARD, WITH THE LARGE SCALE FROM THE GOOD OR A BAD RPE PATCH TO BE TRANSPLANTED OR NOT NOW IN THE SECOND PART OF MY TALK, I WILL MOVE AWAY FROM MANUFACTURING TO NOW TESTING THESE CELLS IN PRECLINICAL ANIMAL MODELS SO THE FIRST TEST IS, 1S WE TRANSPLANT THESE CELLS AND TRANSPLANT AN RPE PATCH DOES IT FORM TUMOR OR KERRA TOMA IN ANIMALS AND THE STUDIES ARE DONE IN IMMUNE O COMPROMISED ANIMALS BECAUSE YOU WANT THESE XENO SETTINGS AND YOU WANT THE CELLS TO SURVIVE LONG ENOUGH THAT THEY HAVE THE POSSIBILITY OF FORMING A TUMOR OR NOT SO THE POSITIVE CONTROL, WHERE WE TRANSPLANTING PURE IPS CELLS, IN THE SUBRETINAL SPACE ALL FOR IMMUNE O COMPROMISED, THIS IS THE LENS OF THE RRED EYE AND YOU CAN IMAGE NOTICE IS A BIG MASSIVE TERATOMA THAT THESE CELLS FORM WHICH IS WHAT THIS IS SUPPOSED TO DO IPS CELLS WHEN LEFT UNDER UNCONTROLLED CONDITIONS CAN LEAD TO THIS FORMATION, BUT IN CONTRAST TO PURE IPS CELLS WHEN WE INJECT PURE IPS DERIVED CELLS IN THE SAME RATS WE DO NOT SEE ANY TUMOR OR TERATOMA IN ANY OF THESE RATS, 2 EXAMPLES, MOST OF THE TIMES THESE CELLS JUST SIT IN THE SUBRETINAL SPACE UNDER THE RETINA AND THEY DON’T DO ANYTHING, AND BECAUSE HERE WE INJECT CELLS IN SUSPENSION THIS RED IS A MARKER FOR 1 OF THE IPSC PROTEIN FEMALE 17 AND HUMAN SPECIFIC SO WE CAN ONLY SEE HUMAN CELLS IN THIS CASE AND HERE ON THIS SIDE, YOU WILL SEE MARKER FOR STEM 121 WHICH IS HUMAN SPECIFIC ANTIGEN EVERY ONCE IN A WHILE WE SEE SUSPENSION CELLS INTEGRATE INTO THE RAT EYE, WE DON’T KNOW WHY WE DON’T KNOW HOW BUT A VERY SMALL NUMBER OF CELLS WILL INTEGRATE INTO THE RED EYE BUT THEY DON’T LEAD TO ANY TUMOR

FORMATION BUT INTERESTINGLY WHEN WE TRANSPLANT THE RPE PATCHOT BIODEGRADABLE SCAFFOLD, THE ENTIRE SCAFFOLD INTEGRATE INTO THE BACK OF EYE INTO THE BACK OF THE RAT EYE AS WE HAD HOPED FOR AND IN THIS CASE WHAT YOU SEE IN RED IS STEM 121 AGAIN, THE HUMAN SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, WE TRANSPLANTED HALF MILLION WITH THE DIAMETER PATCH IN THE RED EYE AND IF YOU MEASURE THIS SCALE BAR FROM 1 END TO THE OTHER END IT’S EXACTLY HALF MILLIMETER THIS IS 10 WEEKS POST TRANSPLANTATION, SO THE SCAFFOLD HAS ALREADY COMPLETELY DEGRADED AND THE CELLS USE THE ECM TO INTEGRATE HUMAN CELLS INTEGRATED INTO THE RAT EYE AND YOU SEE THE RAT EYE, BECAUSE THEY’RE NOT POSITIVE FOR THIS STAIN AND RIGHT HERE, THE RAT EYE ENDS AND THE HUMAN RAT RPE-ENDS AND THE HUMAN BEGINNINGS THIS IS REALLY WHATEE HOPED FOR THAT TRANSPLANTING THESE ON A PATCH WOULD INCREASE THE INTEGRATION, INCREASE SURVIVAL IN THE EYE AND THAT’S EXACTLY WHAT WE SAW SO THIS IS–THIS IS REALLY EXCITING NOW BOTH THE SUSPENSION RESULT AND THE PATCH RESULT LED US TO PERFORM A MASSIVE GLP GRADE PRECLINICAL STUDY AT A VENDOR IN WHICH WE HAVE TESTED A 2-MILLIMETER DIAMETER OR .5, OR 2-POINT-MILLIMETER AREA, OR 5-MILLIMETER SQUARE RPE PATCH AND A HUNDRED THOUSAND CELLS IN SUSPENSION FOR 4 DIFFERENT TIME POINTS, 2 WEEKS, 13 WEEKS, 26 WEEKS AND 9 MONTHS AND ANIMALS WERE SACRIFICED AND WE LOOKED FOR WHETHER THESE CELLS WERE TOXIC OR DISTRIBUTING TO OTHER ORGANS AND TUMOR GENIC AND I’M HAPPY TO REPORT THAT AFTER PERFORMING THIS ON 450 RATS, WE DIDN’T FIND ANY SIGNS OF ANY OF THIS TOXIC EVENTS FROM ANY OF THESE CELLS SO THESE CELLS ARE AT LEAST UNDER THIS IMMUNE O SUPPRESSED SETTINGS ARE COMPLETELY SAFE IN RATS SO THEN WE WENT OUT TO TEST WHETHER THESE CELLS OF THIS PATCH HAS ANY EFFICACY AT LEAST IN AN ANIMAL MODEL SETTING AND SO IN THIS CASE, BECAUSE WE WANTED TO TEST THAT RETIRED PATCH, A 4 BY 2-MILLIMETER PATCH THAT WE WANT TO TRANSPLANT IN PATIENTS WE DECIDED TO USE PIGs AS AN ANIMAL MODEL AND THE OTHER ADVANTAGE WAS THAT USING PIGS EYE AND ANATOMY WAS SIMILAR TO HUMAN EYE AMAT ME SO WE COULD OPTIMIZE THE TOOL FOR DELIVER FOR TRANSPLANTATION AND A SURGICAL PROCEDURE, HOW DO WE DELIVER IT INTO THE RETINA BUT THE PROBLEM WITH PIG SYSTEM THAT THERE’S NO GENETIC MODEL THAT LOOKS SIMILAR TO WHAT HAPPENS IN DRY AMD IN PATIENTS SOPHISTICATEDY WOO CREATED AN INJURY MODEL IN PIGS WE USED MICROPULSE LASER TO LACER A PLATE RPE CELLS IN THE BACK OF A BIG EYE AND THE REASON MICROPULSE LASER SPECIFICALLY KNOCKS OUT RPE CELLS IS THAT WE USE A SPECIFIC WAVE LENGTH OF LASER 532, 532 NANO METER, AND THAT IS ABSORBED BY THE PIGMENT OF RPE CELLS BECAUSE THESE CELLS ARE PIGMENTED AND THEY–THEY–OVER TIME THEY JUST HEAT UP AND THEN BURST AND DIE OFF SO THAT–AS A RESULT, PHOTO RECEPTORS, SO IT’S A SIMILAR SITUATION IN THE AMD PATIENTS BUT WE USE TODAY BY INJURYING RPE CELLS THE BOTTOM PANEL HERE SHOWS YOU THE RESULTS OF THE LASER MODEL AND BY INFRARED IMAGING AND THAT’S THE ADVANTAGE OF WORKING WITH THE EYES IS THAT WE CAN DO SO MUCH ANALYSIS BY IMAGING THE EYE AND KNOWING WE WILL SEE EVERYTHING IN THE BACK OF THE EYE SO IN THIS CASE, THIS IS AN INFRARED IMAGE OFF THE BACK OF THE PIG EYE WHERE THE RPE HAS BEEN LASER DAMAGED AND AS CAN YOU SEE THE PIGMENTED CELLS ARE GONE IN 7 BY 4-MILLIMETER AREA, THE INFRARED LINE LIGHT SHINES THROUGH NORMALLY, THEY WILL ABSORB THE INFRARED LIGHT AND THEY WILL NOT SHINE THROUGH AND THEY CALL THIS AS I RENDERED DEFECT AND THESE ARE GONE IN THIS AREA AND YOU CAN ALSO PROVE THAT BY JUST PERFORMING HISTOLOGY, WHERE THESE–YOU CAN SEE RPE MONOLAYER IS GONE, THEY HAVE CLUMPED UP RPE CELLS AND AS A RESULT THE PHOTO RECEPTORS ARE DYING BECAUSE THE RPE SUPPORT IS MISSING THE IDEA IS THAT AS WE TRANSPLANT IN THIS AREA, HUMAN RPE PATCH AND ASK IT TO PROTECT OUTER LINEUPING RPE PATCH TO TRANSPLANT IN A TRANSPLANTED PIG TO PROTECT THE O-LINE PHOTO RECEPTORS SO FIRST OF ALL TO DELIVER THE PATCH WE NEED TO DEVELOP A TOOL A TOOL WE DEVELOPED HAS A 1 THAT FITS THE BACK OF THE EYE, IT TAKES THE TRANSPLANT, THIS IS THE SIZE OF OUR TRANSPLANT, IT’S LIKE A BULLET SHAPE AND IT GOES INSIDE THE TUBE IN 1 ORIENTATION, SO THE SURGEON WOULD NOT BE DELIVERING IT UPSIDE DOWN AND THEN IT IS CONNECTED THROUGH A FLUIDIC

SYSTEM FOR SO THE SURGEON CAN CONTROL THE DELIVERY OF THE PATCH BACK AND FORTH EASILY JUST WITH 1 HAND HOLDING THE TOOL AND DELIVER THE PATCH IN THE BACK OF THE EYE SO IN THE NEXT SLIDE I’M GOING TO SHOW YOU IS A SHORT VIDEO HOW WE TRANSPLANT THIS PATCH AND THE PIG EYE SO AS CAN YOU SEE, THE EYE HAS BEEN PREPPED THE SURGEON IS MAKING 1 BIGGER SO CAN YOU MAKE THE TRANSPLANT TOOL INSIDE AND THE NEXT SHOT YOU WILL SEE THE PATCH–IT’S A TIP OF THE TUBE, YOU CAN SEE THE CELLS ON TOP THE CUT IN THE RETINA, IT HAS BEEN LIFTED HERE AND THE SURGEON IS DELIVERING THE PATCH RIGHT UNDER THE RETINA AND THEN HE WILL FLATTEN THE RETINA ON TOP SO THE PATCH STAYS RIGHT IN THAT PLACE AND AGAIN BY IMAGING WE CAN SEE THE PATCH ONCE IT’S TRAN PLANTED WE USE THIS TECHNIQUE BUT IT’S OPTICAL IMAGESERAL TISSUE AND MACROPHAGESSOGRAPHY WHERE WE CAN SEE FROM THE [INDISCERNIBLE] VIEW, THERE’S A PATCH, CAN YOU SEE THE BULLET SHAPE OF THE PATCH, CUT IN THE RETINA TO WHICH THE PATCH WAS DELIVERED AND NOW AS WE SEE THE SIDE VIEW RIGHT HERE, CAN YOU SEE THIS IS–I’VE OUTLINED THE PATCH HERE, CAN YOU SEE THIS WOULD BE THE PATCH RIGHT HERE, AND ACTUALLY, THE BRIGHT SIGNAL ON TOP OF THE PATCH SHOWS YOU THAT IT HAS CELLS ON TOP SO NOW WE SEE IT SITTING AT THE RIGHT PLACE, RETINA ON TOP OF THE PATCH AND FLATTENED ON TOP OF THE PATCH AND THE NEXT STEP IS IT’S STRUCTURALLY THE RIGHT PLACE BUT IS IT FUNCTIONING? SO TO DO THAT, WE USE ANOTHER TECHNIQUE CALLED MULTIFOCAL, THE RETINA HAS NEURONS SO IT HAS ELECTRICAL POTENTIAL HERE, IT RESPONDS TO LIGHT SO IF YOU SHINE LIGHT TO THE RETINA, WE CAN MEASURE ELECTRICAL SIGNALS FROM THE RETINA BUT IN THIS CASE WE USE A TECHNIQUE WHERE WE SHINE MULTIPLE LIGHT PULSES, WE GET A SMALL AREA OF THE RETINA AND THIS CAN BE AS SMALL AS HALF A MILL MITER TO 1 MILLIMETER AREA OF THE RETINA AND THAT GIVES US ADVANTAGE FROM THE SAME EYE MEASURE SIGNAL FROM HOW THE AREA, WE GET THIS NICE AND BIG ROBUST RESPONSE AND THEN WHEN WE SHINE THE LIGHT ON TO A LACER INJURED PART WHICH WOULD BE SOMEWHERE RIGHT HERE WHERE WE LASERRED THE EYE BUT DID NOT DELIVER THE PATCH, WE GET ALMOST NO RESPONSE BECAUSE IT’S ALMOST DEAD IN THIS AREA, BUT IF WE SHINE THE LIGHT ON THIS SPOT WHERE WE’RE DELIVERED THE PATCH, WE LASERRED THE RETINAL LOCATION MA AND DELIVERED THE PATCH, WE GET A RESPONSE THAT IS IN BETWEEN SUGGESTING THAT HUMAN PATCH IS ABLE TO RESCUE THE PIG RETINA FROM DIEING AND WE CAN MEASURE THAT ELECTRICALLY WE CAN CHECK THAT BY HISTOLOGY IF YOU DO IPT GREATER IMMUNE O STAINING FROM THE BACK OF THE EYE AND THIS IS NOT PIG EYE AFTER THE ANIMAL WAS EUTHANIZED WE CAN SEE HUMAN RP-PATCH JUST LIKE IN RATS IT’S INTEGRATED INTO THE BACK OF THE PIG EYE IN THIS CASE, THE RED IS A STAINED FOR HUMAN–OFF A MARKER THAT STAINED BOTH THE PIG RPE, AND THE HUMAN RPE AND THE GREEN IS A STAINED AT ONLY STAINS HUMAN CELLS, STEM 121 SO CAN YOU SEE THIS WOULD BE–WOULD BE RPE, AND WOULD END úRIGHT HERE AND THE PIG RPE STARTS RIGHT HERE AND YOU CAN SEE HERE THE HUMAN RPE ALMOST STARTS INTERACTING WITH THE PIG RPE, WE CAN ALSO SHOW THAT RETINA IS BEING RESCUED ON TOP OF THE PATCH THIS IS JUST ANOTHER HISTOLOGY FROM THE SAME EYE, AREA THAT WAS LASERRED BUT NO TRANSPLANT WAS DELIVERED, COMPARED TO AREA THAT WAS LASERRED, THE TRANSPLANT HIGHLIGHT INDEED YELLOW HERE, NOTICE THE THICKNESS OF NUCLEI, HERE STAINED BLUE, AND THESE ARE THE ONL IS AUTONUCLEAR LAYER OF PHOTO RECEPTORS, AND NOTICE THE THICKNESS OF PHOTO RECEPTORS ON THE–ON ABOVE THE TRANSPLANT WAS AWAY FROM THE TRANSPLANT, IT’S ALMOST DOUBLE THE THICKNESS, SUGGESTING THE HUMAN TRANSPLANT HAS RESCUED THEM FROM DYING AND WE HAVE TO AT LEAST RETAIN AN ENTIRE PHOTO SEPTORSOR NUCLEAR LAYER IN THIS CASE SO THIS WORK THAT I SHOWED YOU HAS NOW LED TO A PRECLINICAL STUDY IN PIGS, WHERE WE HAVE TRANSPLANTED NOW, OUR 30 PIGS THAT WHERE WE TESTED JUST A SCAFFOLD, SURGERY, ALL DIFFERENT COMPONENTS OF OUR PATCH TO DREMON STRAIGHT THAT THE–DEMONSTRATE THAT THE PATCH IS STRAIGHT AND EFFICACIOUS SO WE ARE ABOUT TO FINISH THIS STUDY SO JUST TO SUMMARIZE ALL OF THIS WHAT I’VE SHOWN YOU IS THAT WE HAVE DEVELOPED A CLEAN GRADE PROTOCOL TO MAKE IPS RPE PATCH AND WE DEMONSTRATED THE QUALITY OF THIS PATCH USING PRECLONAL PATIENTS BY PERFORMING THE VALIDATION STUDIES AND THE RAT SAFETY STUDIES, I DIDN’T HAVE TIME TO GO INTO A RAT EFFICACY STUDIES WE PERFORMED BUT I

SHOWED YOU THE DATA FROM THE PIGS EFFICACY STUDIES SO ALTOGETHER THIS WORK IS BEING PUT TOGETHER FOR IND S SUBMISSION IN THE NEXT COUPLE OF MOONTHS, AND WITH THE TRIAL, PERHAPS LATER THIS YEAR WHAT I WANT TO SHOW NOW IN THE OVER THE NEXT STEM CELLS IS HOW WE ARE TAKING AND WHERE WE’RE TAKING THIS WHOLE TECHNOLOGY HOWEVER WE TALKED ABOUT HOW DOES DISEASE HAPPEN, DISEASE HAPPENS WE THINK THAT RPE CELLS DIE OFF AND AS A RESULTS CAP ILLEGALSARYS BECOME CLEAN AND PHOTO RECEPTORS DIE ON TOP OF THE RPE, SO WHAT WE WANT TO DO IS WE WANT TO RECAPITULATE THE ENTIRE DISEASE IN A DISH, NOT THE DISH BUT THE PHOTO RECEPTORS AND SO TO DO THAT, I’VE ALREADY SHOWN YOU WE CAN MAKE RPE PATCH, BUT NOW WE WANT TO ADD THE CAP ILLEGALSARIES TO THAT PATCH SO FOR THAT, FIRST THING WE NEED TO DO IS MAKE THE ENDOTHELIAL CELLS OF THE CAP ILLEGALSARYS SO WE USE A PROCESS AGAIN, VERY SIMILAR TO WHAT WE USE FOR MAKING RPE CELLS MATURE ENDOTHELIAL CELLS FROM IPS CELLS USING A PUBLISHED PROTOCOL FROM CHRISTINE [INDISCERNIBLE]’S LAB, WE HAVE DONE IT WITH AT LEAST 8 IPS SELL LINES AND WE CAN GET CD31 POSITIVE CELLS, NOW WE TAKE THESE CELLS ANDEE 3D BIOPRINT THEM TO MAKE THIS NETWORK AND SO THE WAY THIS WORKS IS IT IS A MAJOR OFF A PRINTER IT HAS 2 NEEDLES AND THESE NEEDLES CAN MOVE IN A VERY PRECISE X, Y, Z ORIENTATION AND CAN YOU SEE HOW THESE MOVE, AND 1 EXAMPLE HERE WE’RE MAKING A ZIGZAG PATTERN WITH NEEDLES AND WHAT THEY ARE EXTRUDING IS WHAT IS CALLED A BIOINC. SO BIOINC. CONTAINS HYDRO GEL AND CELLS YOU WANT TO PRINT IN THIS CASE IT’S ENDOTHELIAL CELLS AND OTHER SUPPORT CELLS PARASITES AND 1 PLAOF THES AND WE WILL MAKE A ZIGZAG PATTERN SO THE ADVANTAGE IS THAT THIS KEEPS THE CELLS TOGETHER FOR A WHILE THAT THEY WOULD START TO INTERACT SUCH THAT THEY COULD MAKE THE VASCULAR NETWORK AND THE EMPTY SPACES BETWEEN THE RAT CELLS IS THE SMALLER FORMS WILL FORM SO HOW WE DO IT AGAIN AND WE START WITH OUR KAF OLD, WE FLIP IT ON 1 SIDE, BIOINK ON 1 SIDE OF THE SCAFFOLD, WE FLIP IT UPSIDE DOWN, WE SEE RPE CELLS, WE ARE ALREADY SHOWING YOU AND THEN WE LET THIS TISSUE MATURE FOR A FEW WEEKS AND IT TAKES ABOUT 4-5 WEEKS BUT THE SCAFFOLDING IN THIS CASE COMPLETELY DEGRADES AND THE 2 CELL TYPES ON BOTH SIDES RPE CELLS AND 1 SIDE AND 1 BLAST AND THE TOOLS ON THE OTHER SIDE MAKE THE EXTRA CELLULAR MATRIX TO REPLACE THE SCAFFOLD, WITH WHAT LOOKS LIKE REALLY A MEMBRANE OF THE BACK OF THE EYE BROOKS MEMORY RESPONSE BREAN AND THE TISSUE STARTS TO LOOK LIKE THIS THIS IS A BEO PRINTED—BIOPRIPTED TISSUE WHERE ON TOP YOU SEE THE RPE CELLS IN THE SPACE WHERE YOU DON’T HAVE CELLS WITH THE ECM HAS FILLED IN, THIS IS THE BROOKS HERE AND THEN HERE IN THE BOTTOM, ARE THE CAP ILLEGALSARYINGS LABELED WITH THE ENDOTHELIAL CELLS IN GREEN AND PARASITES IN RED AND YOU CAN SEE THE CAP ILLEGALSARYS THAT GO ACROSS THE TISSUE, AND THE SECTION TO THE BOTTOM PART THIS IS WHAT YOU WOULD SEE AS THE CAP ILLEGALSARYS WITH THE DIAMETERS AND THIS IS GOING ACROSS THE ENTIRE TISSUE IF YOU NOTICE THE SCALE BAR, THIS CAP ILLEGALSARY IS SIMILAR TO 20-50-MICRON, REALLY WHAT IS THE DIAMETER OF CAP ILLEGALSARYS NATURALLY AND THE OTHER THING IS TD LABEL HERE IS IN GREEN AND ENDOTHELIAL CELLS IN RED IS PARASITES AS CAN YOU SEE, NICELY WRAP THEMSELVES AROUND THE ENDOTHELIAL CAP ILLEGALSARYS TO SUPPORT THEM FUNCTIONALLY AND STRUCTUREALLY SO WHEN WE PUT THE RPE ON THE OTHER SIDE, THE RPE CELLS NICELY MATURE AND YOU CAN SEE IN GREEN IS APICKAL MARKER FOR RPE CELLS WHICH IS PRESENT IN THE APICKAL STRUCTURES CALLED ASERINE, AND IN THE RED IS THE JUNCTIONS AND ON THE BOTTOM SIDE IS AGAIN MARKED HERE IN RED ON THE VASCULAR NETWORK THAT HAS NICE LOW NOW COVERED THE ENTIRE TISSUE AND IN THAT CASE, THE NETWORK IS STAINED FOR A PROTEIN CALLED PLAB IT’S A STRUCTURAL PROTEIN FOR WHAT IT CALLED FENNISTERATION, IT IS VERY IMPORTANT WHAT IS FENNISTERATION, IT IS ACTUALLY IN CAP ILLEGALSARYS 7200 NANO METER POST NEGLIGENCE THE MEMBRANE OF ENDOTHELIAL CELLS THAT ALLOW EASY FLOW OF MACROMOLECULES REMEMBER I SAID RPE CELLS MAINTAIN THE OUTER BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER SO THE NUCLEOTIDES TRI EPTS HAVE TO FLOW FROM CAP ILLEGALSARYS IN THROUGH THE RPE AND INTO THE PHOTO RECEPTORS AND TO ALLOW THE FLOW, THE CAP

AILARYS OF HAVE FENNISTERATIONESTRATION IN THEM AND THEY ALLOW IT TO PASS THROUGH MUCH BETTER SO WE ASK WHEN WE MAKE THIS CAP ILLEGALSARY NETWORK WITH THE RPE DO THEY BECOME [INDISCERNIBLE] AND THE ANSWER IS YES ON THIS SIDE, YOU SEE WHAT IS PUBLISHED FENNISTERATIONITRATION IMAGES FROM [INDISCERNIBLE] PUBLISHED LAST YEAR AND CAN YOU SEE THESE ARROWS MARK THIS KIND OF TINY LITTLE POST IN THE MEMBRANE OF ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, COMPARE THAT TO WHAT WE SEE IN THE IPS DERIVED COLOARIDE AND WE HAV A VERY SIMILAR NETWORK IN OUR CAP ILLEGALSARYS SO WE THINK THESE CAP ILLEGALSARYS JUST LIKE WHAT HAPPENS IN THE CHOROIDIAL BECOME FENNISTERATION STRAIGHTED AND THESE ARE DEPENDENT ON THE RPE CELLS ON THE OTHER SIDE SO HERE I’M SHOWING 2 EMPLOY ANDS, HERE IS A TISSUE THAT WAS PRINT INDEED THE PRESENCE OF RPE CELLS AND THE TISSUE THAT WAS PRINTED WITHOUT THE RPE CELLS SO CAN YOU NOTICE RPE CELLS ARE PRESENT HERE BUT THEY’RE MISSING HERE, NOW WHAT YOU WILL SEE IS, ON TOP PANELS, NOTICE A THICKNESS OF THESE SESESLES AND HOW MUCH THEY ARE PROLIFERATING IN THE PRESENCE OF RPE, AND THEY’RE MUCH THICKER AND THEY HAVE A MUCH HIGHER FENNISTERATIONISTRATION MARKER AND THIS IS A SMALL PIECE ABOUT A HUNDRED MICROMETER BUT IF YOU LOOK ACROSS THE ENTIRE TISSUE, AND WE CAN BRING TISSUES THAT ARE 6 BY 6 MILL MITER, YOU CAN SEE IN BETWEEN OUR PRINTED AREA, THIS IS A REALLY MINIMAL ANGIO GENESIS THAT HAPPENS IN THE ABSENCE OF RPE BUT IN THE PRESENCE OF RPE, THE VESSELS PROLIFERATE AND AS A PROLIFERATE, THEY BECOME FENNISTERATION STRAIGHTED, THEY START EXPRESSING THE FENNISTERATIONISTRATION MARKER SO WE THINK IN THIS 3D TISSUE, RPE CELLS REALLY HELP VESSEL PROLIFERATION JUST LIKE HOW THEY SHOULD DO IN THE EYE AND ALSO HOW THESE VESSELS BECOME FENNISTERATION STRAIGHTED SO RIGHT NOW WE’RE USING THIS TISSUE FOR TODAYING HOW REALLY AMD PATHOGENESIS HAPPENS IN A DISH AT LEAST AND WE HOPE THAT ACTUALLY WE CAN TURN THIS INTO A TISSUE THERAPY 1 DAY, WHETHER WE TRANSPLANT BOTH RPE, OR CHLORIDE STAGES OF MACK LA DEGENERATION, SO WITH THAT, I WANT TO THANK THE TEAM THAT REALLY WORKED TOGETHER FOR THE CELL THERAPY PROJECT BECAUSE AS YOU CAN IMAGINE, THE CELL TYPE OF PROG ELECTRIC LIGHTING, IT TAKES A VILLAGE TO DO SOMETHING LIKE THAT, YOU NEED PEOPLE WITH THESE GMP EXPETTER EASE AND THESE ARE ALL PEOPLE WITH EXPERTISE THAT CAME TOGETHER AND MAKE IT HAPPEN AND BECAUSE OF THAT, THEY LAST YEAR GOT AN AWARD FROM DR. COLLINS FOR THE EFFORTS TO DEVELOP CELL THERAPYOT NIH CAMPUS SO WITH THAT I AM HAPPY TO TAKE ANY QUESTIONS [ APPLAUSE ] >> DO WE HAVE QUESTIONS OR COMMENTS? IS THERE A WAY YOU CAN TELL WHETHER THE ANIMAL HAS RESTORED VISION? WE CAN ASK THEM TO READ KD–SALLY LAWOF [LAUGHTER] IN PICKS IT’S VERY DIFFICULT TO DO, CAN YOU DO SUCH AN EXPERIMENT IN RATTINGS WHERE WE PUT THEM ON A PLATFORM AND WE ROTATE A CYLINDER AROUND THEM THAT HAS PLAQUE AND WHITE STRIPES AND JUST IF THE RAT CAN SEE, TRACKS THE STRIPES BUT IF THE RAT CAN’T SEE IT WILL JUST RANDOMLY LOOK ON BOTH SIDES SO WE PERFORMED THAT EXPERIMENT USING OUR CELLS AND AFTER TRANSPLANTATION WE CAN SEE THAT CLEARLY THOSE RATS START SO THESE ARE DISTROPIC RATS WHERE THE RPE IS DYSFUNCTIONAL AND THE RETINA START TO DEGENERATE SO IF THEY REGENERATE THEY ARE RANDOMLY LOOKING ON BOTH SIDES BUT ONCE THEY TRANSPLANT OR PATCH, THEY START TO TRACK THE STRIPES BETTER SOPHISTICATEDY THAT’S THE ONLY WAY WE CAN SEE THAT WE CAN KNOW THAT THEY SEE PIG SYSTEM MUCH HARDER TO DO ANY OF SUCH EXPERIMENT SO WE RELY ON THOSE ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS OF THE EYE >> [INDISCERNIBLE] >> IN PATIENTS THERE ARE MANY WAYS TO DO THIS PATIENTS CAN YOU ASK THEM TO READ >> [INDISCERNIBLE] >> SAY AGAIN? >> WHAT ABOUT AN ANESTHETIZED PIG? >> THESE EXPERIMENTS AND ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS THAT I SHOWED YOU ARE DONE ON ANESTHETIZED PIGS BUT THAT’S WHAT YOU CAN DO LOOKING AT THE BACK OF THE EYE >> I’M NOT SURE I MISSED THIS OR NOT BUT WHEN YOU MADE THAT INCISION AND PUT THE PATCH IN, DID YOU CLOSE THE INCISION AFTERWARDS? >> SO THE RETINA INCISION IS NOT REALLY CLOSED IT CLOSES BY ITSELF SO THERE’S A

LITTLE SURGICAL GLUE AND WHEN THEY COME TOGETHER, YOU FLATTEN THE RETINA ON TOP AND OVER THE NEXT FEW DAYS IT HEALS BY ITSELF, YOU HAVE TO SUTURE THE EYE WALL INCISION BECAUSE THAT’S A LARGE INCISION OTHERWISE IT STARTS BLEEDING YEAH >> THANK YOU >> IT’S REALLY BEAUTIFUL WORK SO THE QUESTION IS WHETHER OR NOT YOU’VE BEEN WORKING ON TRYING TO SPEED UP THE DIFFERENTIATION? AND WHAT IS THE TIME FRAME OF THE RPE DIFFERENTIATION IN THE DISH COMPARED TO DURING DEVELOPMENT? I MEAN IS THAT JUST THE WAY IT’S GOING TO BE? OR DO YOU THINK YOU CAN MAKE IT FASTER? >> SO THIS WAS THE FASTEST WE COULD GET IT AND THIS IS THE–TRADITIONALLY IT TAKES ABOUT 20 WEEKS SO WE SHORTEN IT TO ABOUT HALF AND THIS HALF IS RPE, IF YOU THINK ABOUT HUMAN DEVELOPMENT BY DAY 21, ACTUALLY RPE CELLS ALREADY START TO BE THERE, AND THEN THEY MATURE OVER THE NEXT FEW WEEKS SO THE TIMELINE IS PRETTY SIMILAR TO THE YOU HAD HAN TIMELINE, WE MAY HAVE FASCINATE A BIT USING OUR APPROACH BUT WE COULD NOT FASTER IT ANYMORE WITHOUT COMPROMISING THE QUALITY OF CELLS THE TRADITIONAL METHODS THAT WERE USED IN SOME OF THE OTHER STUDIES WHICH ARE CALLED SPONTANEOUS DIFFERENTIATION, THAT TAKES 20-25 WEEKS THAT’S A SLOWER PROCESS SLOWER THAN WHAT HAPPENS IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT >> WHAT CAUSES THOSE CAP ILLEGALSARYS TO BECOME–CAPEULARYS–ILLEGALSARYS TO BE FENNISTERATION STRAIGHTED? >> THAT’S THE MILLION DOLLAR QUESTION, PREVIOUSLY WE THOUGHT IT WAS VEG F BYOU NO 1 KNOWS SO NOW WE TRY TOKING IF OUT WHAT THEY’RE SECRETING TO MAKE IT FENNISTERATIONISTRATION, SO WE’RE TRYING TO ISOLATE THE CELLS AND SEE WHAT THEY’RE SECRETING ON THE BASAL SIDE >> I CAN TELL YOU IN HEPATOCYTES THE FENNISTERATION ENDOTHELIAM IS CONTRACTUAL THE RING WHICH IS AN ACTIN RING IS CAPABLE OF CONTRACTION AND MODULATING THE SIZE OF THE POOR AS LITTLE AS AROUND 20 NANO METERS, TO 150 OR SO >> THAT’S INTERESTING >> WELL, ANY OTHER QUESTIONS? OKAY WELL, THANK YOU BOTH , THANK YOU VERY MUCH >> THANK YOU BOTH VERY, VERY MUCH >> [ APPLAUSE ] CLEAR I WILL POINT OUT THAT NEXT WEEK WE HAVE 2 INSTITUTES

Group Inclusion Report Instructional Video 3 15 2015

this jeff scott in response to a email request I’m going to do a brief video on how I create and utilize the group inclusion report feature within hgs I this is 3 15 2015 and this is a follow-up to the video that I made earlier today the purpose of the group inclusion report is to reduce some of the time that I might take in doing my analysis for example if I believe I have a number of Lists that create that contain great stocks then it’s possible that a stock that makes it to a large number of those lists might be a stock that’s worth looking at and so if you think back to what I did earlier today and I started with my group performance analysis I showed that there were a lot of groups that outperform the market now what if I could take a list of each stock in these groups and find out which stocks show up in the highest number of groups so here’s how I do that I open up hgs I and it’s fully updated I go into my designer now you should remember that in the designer you have three main headings reference groups which are things that are done for you and are not nothing that you can adjust but include the components of major indexes ETFs etc industry groups and sectors smart groups which are standardized views meaning filters and ranking modules that many of us have created that help us to shorten our work by identifying for us some of the most attractive instruments in the market and then user groups which might include a number of the groups that I make that I may have created on my own so I really do two different group inclusion reports the first group of rusian report i do is sort of my standard nightly review of what made it to the majority of the smart groups I click on tools I go into group inclusion report in in a second it will open up and I start with by saying make a group from report I use I i created a directory that includes my group inclusion reports but for this one I’m just going to leave it in my user group parent and I want to call the directories a test gif three dot 15 base smart groups and call it whatever you want I only want stocks that are in at least say five of the smart car for the smart groups that’s number usually is I don’t play games tonight and I want to find 30 stocks so next thing I’m going to do is I’m going to hit clear and wait to that arrow go that check goes away so I know I’m starting from scratch so this is the base one that I’m going to run every night and every week so I’m going to start with by going into the reference groups and I’m going to check off industries so I know there’s 170 or so industries in hgs I and I’m not going to separate any stocks based upon industry group but it’s going to tell me what each one is in then I’m going to identify my favorite smart groups and the morales and catcher I go for Bible gap ups I go for code blue and I go for pocket pivots five or ten days under my name I go 45 I go for 3x big and volume I could go for 3x or 5x but not both because that’d be repeating breakouts from a squeeze pull backs to the 50 with a Kahuna and then one of my favorites is squeezing stocks potential PSAR reversal to the upside then I go into the best of you know rhyme and I want a bunch of these I want best criteria I want best up best of under 15 consisting earnings demand urgh 240 growth HS 100 high profit margins leaders llu our quarterly PS shadow stocks and then careful to pick the stocks and groups to the upside

and strong eps all right then I go up to Gilardi and I want sprinters and for Steckler I want to get his pzo bullish and VZ 0 bullish so once again I’ve identified lists of bullish smart groups these are done automatically every night and now I’m going to come over here and I’m going to save my selection as i’m going to call it best smart groups for gif three dot 15 2015 i’m going to save that and now i’m going to just hit okay it’s going to ask me to name it in a second we’ll call it gif web demo 3.15 best of smart groups generate index for the group nope doesn’t really matter actually and here these will be the stocks that made it to my list now I could scale down this list and I could look at each stock how many groups it was in the first tells me what industry it’s in specialty pharma and then which smart groups were positive and we looked at almost all of these tonight in my smart group analysis now the other thing that happens is that I asked for a user group and this is my user group I’m just going to put a filter and that says no indexes so these are the stocks that are put into a user group and then I could hit my warehouse key and that will open up a warehouse with this user group in it and I could do whatever scans or things that I might want to do with this list trying to rank the stocks and identify them so again what I did is I went under tools group inclusion report and now if I did this again since i created the list give it a chance to open up here I hit clear so I get there I’ll come back all I have to do is load selection and now whenever I come in I can just hit on my smart groups for gif and it will check all those off and it will save me some time so since these smart groups they change the name but not only on the nano change a name but a change in date on the program has been set up so it really doesn’t matter what the date is they’ll identify them now let’s do another smart let’s do another gif let’s look at my user list that i put together today let’s look at all the bullish ones and see if i can do a group inclusion report for that tools group inclusion report we’re going to hit clear second when it pops up I have a few things open which is the problem here come on all right so I’m going to clear it I’m going to make a group here we’re going to call this a gif best of Jeff groups three dot 15 2015 now we’re going to look at some of

my groups as I do this so I love that industry thing so I always leave that industry thing in so I’m going to put that industry with group in now I’m going to close that off not going to use the smart groups open up and I’m going to look at some of my groups so some of these are overlapped the Bible gap ups the pocket pivots the five times volume squeezing potential psl reversal best of Woodward okay these are from market smith accumulation accumulating stocks a did it advancing accumulating stocks add our new highs Big O are some filters that try and find stocks that are like the IBD 50 the second one is a DI crossover blog game plan filters an old thing that once somebody wants posted that’s been useful for me to find great stocks breakouts Delta Y is a another filter that was created years ago that I used to find great stocks fast-growing 150 fundamental strength which is from market Smith the gif All Stars which is what this list will be hgs 100 en pointe scores IBD 50 obviously I’m getting these from the IBD I look at market Smith I look at marks with accelerating leaders I run some bullish scans and metastock and I’m just want the bullish ones market Smith near pivots another bullish stock scam from metastock these are screens of the day from investors calm a lot of these thats a top are from market smith or investors business daily some of these are scans like these couple from hgs I and then I come down here and these are what i found in TradeStation Bible gap up screen candle lows mobile break out in a squeeze mobile break out hi closed oh geez which is a person indicator person long weekend stocks flip the positive and then from I strongly positive groups and now i’m going to hit okay i did not save that as a list because it’s going to change every week and now i’m going to call this gif scott leaders 315 from lists save now it’s running I don’t need an index of this so hit no and in a second it’ll pop up a new report I guess this is a new report and you can see that the leaders here which may be different because i’m using different loose different scans umbrella at centene so what I basically have shown you is a tool that allows me to quickly run through a number of lists and identify great stock so let’s now take those stocks put into a warehouse view and now we’re going to I want them all so I’m just going to go score card index 250 and 500 and I’m going to very quickly run through these most of these I’ve already looked at this evening and just show you what kind of stocks that came up on that quick evaluation in fact you could argue all I got to do is this I don’t need to do anything else freescale we looked at earlier leader small pullback flag broke out on Friday rising volume great earnings something going on in MA I’d want to check on that on this Malik rat Theo Questcor lower left upper right nxp semiconductors they’re doing an acquisition and they broke out on Friday good earnings had this Bible gap up certainly a leader it looks great nice earnings sucampo pharmaceuticals don’t know much about them except they’re starting to have revenue and earnings hi multiple but very high earnings per share growth rate this is a case where the earnings will catch up to their multiple ambarella the GoPro chip maker who sells to others is not limited by GoPro which is why they look like this and go pro looks like the reverse United therapeutics a they’ve got a number of drugs i think cystic fibrosis pulmonary fibrosis nice moving

chart don’t know much else about the company not great earnings per share growth but lower left upper right santi night auct about this on my webinar earlier tonight this is a leader in managed care you have a lot of government contracts great earnings per share growth for a managed care company lower left upper right and tight talked about this for two years valiant the serial acquirer sort of digesting now whether they’re going to get salix is why they sold off when there was a second bid that came in they’ve already started getting shares so that may be too late for endo to steal pinnacle entertainment also talked about this earlier today broke out earlier this week a regional a gaming stock and doesn’t have great earnings per share growth last earnings were here 1214 not sure what happened it’s probably news driven skyworks lower left upper right tight great stock part of the Apple component pipeline great stock certainly a leader great earnings per share growth much more than PE new link genetics talked about this earlier this eve biotech stock it’s got an Ebola play this one’s been talked about a lot as a potential at position biogen idec one of the grandfather is not only biotech but an orphan drugs a little bit of a pull back here at a pocket pivot on friday might be setting up to go again lantic company out getting talked about this is my ATM stock because i keep taking money out because of this thought it’s run up here hi base forming tried to break out on friday its profiled investors calm on saturday not sure if that would be a good thing or a bad thing hi base ESO fail break out with a failed new high and a red candle high but it only closed down seven point one seven percent or eleven cents i’m going to watch that one for a breakout on monday amerisourcebergen i talked about a mirror source Cardinal McKesson earlier this evening i called them he told the toll highways of health care if you want to sell a drug sell a device and if your customers a doctor’s office or retail pharmacy a specialty pharmacy or a hospital then you go through one of those three big distributors ninety to ninety-five percent of the material they have very tight low margins but they have no technology risk and they just their cash printing machines and all three of the same chart which is a tight lower left upright this is a Mara source if Obamacare gets overturned these things are at big risk they win by increasing volume jazz pharmaceuticals that’s been a favorite for a long time going sideways tried to break out on Friday came back with the sell-off it’s got the PS air overhead this is one of those stocks that I look at as a potential fly and buy stock where I can set a buy stop above the PSA are my stop at the 50 and get on a plane and not worry too much because if the market trades up I get filled if the market opens up big down tomorrow nothing happens activist is a generic serial acquirer a lot like valiant recently bought a leg and lower left upper right certainly it’s been a big leader we’ve talked about for ages Ave go another technology semiconductor stock in a small pull back here certainly lower left upper right up to that time krogers grocery store looks like a technology stock lower left upper right tight how to pull back here and then a bible gap up on earnings earnings per share growth about half of the PE so it’s probably fully priced probably grows ten to twelve percent from here in conjunction with what the earnings growth but certainly has been a big leader VIP s holdings as a Chinese retailer sold off on Friday it still had a nice move from the 50-day moving average it makes money has good earnings cognacs another technology play electronic equipment don’t know much about this guy it’s trading on the upper right hand corner it’s too loose for me I would probably have skipped this quickly and cambrex another biotech stock that this one actually makes money earning starting to come in the specialty pharma not biotech had a Bible gap up here it has continued to go up earnings per share exceeding PE don’t know of much else about it the 1-800 flowers calm and a nice run after acquiring harry and david alta had earnings on friday lower left up right the point here is I’m not trying to find stocks for you to buy because I have no idea when you’re going to watch this this is not a weekend review it’s in a supplement the key point is each of these stocks or lower left upper right these are great stocks Methot this is its upper right and lower left but it’s a mess to get there not one I would look at qualities in the app infrastructure software like pan West others sold off like VDS I did like site or like fire I did we’ll see if they can hold above the 50 and bounce it does have good earnings per share growth but a big PE Western alliance bank or regional banks are starting to look good

this is one of the leaders it makes money doesn’t pay a dividend and is trading in a multi-month hi O’Reilly Automotive a auto parts retailer has been a good stock for years lower left upright a little loose in here maybe it’s going to tighten up and run again sherwin-williams a paint store one of these days it’s going to roll over but this is a stock that’s really been on fire with splits and everything going back since this market started going up here’s 1211 and so from december of 11 i’ll go from September 11 it’s up two hundred and ninety-one percent in four years how many of your stocks are three and a half years are up that much what a great stock you know in a run until it stops running it looks like it’s getting top here it’s got the 50 close by to support which might be support in a good place to buy its earnings per share our about two-thirds of what it’s p/e certainly not way overpriced from that perspective mad another health care stock bible gap up trading up high multiple high growth rate don’t know much about it eep am is in our technology stock nice move up sort of setting up a wedge here underneath the PSA r dot the point of that exercise was not to tell you which of these stocks to buy but to show you that very quick maneuver with the group inclusion filter or is a gloop inclusion report function which is found in the designer under tools is a great tool for helping you find leading stocks in the market with minimal number of keystrokes i was able to find 30 stocks of which 20 to 25 of them would be on my buy list that i got from my exhausting for 268 our weekend review that I do before I publish so on that note I thank you for as always for watching what I do remember to clear before you start unless you want to repeat the thing you just did make group from report and that way it will show up under the user groups and I hope you find this tool to be as useful in helping you make money with hgs I as I

Unstable Housing, Substance Use Disorder, and Serious Mental Illness among People with HIV 16791

– Hello everyone And thank you for joining us for the 2020 National Ryan White conference on HIV care and treatment My name is Nicole Chavis and I am a public health analyst in HRSA’s, HIV AIDS Bureau Today, we are discussing a topic that is very important for people with HIV We are very enthusiastic about this presentation and the important information we are about to share with you all regarding unstable housing, substance abuse, and serious mental illness among people with HIV As many of you may know or have experienced, data indicates that people with HIV who are not virally suppressed are sometimes also impacted by co-occurring challenges, which may include substance use disorder, mental illness, unstable housing, homelessness, or a combination of these The Ryan White program has demonstrated continuous dedication and success in providing services that meet the needs of people with HIV and to help them achieve viral suppression, thus reducing HIV transmission, and helping us to end the HIV epidemic in the United States For this presentation today, I’m joined by multiple amazing speakers One of the first voices that you’ll hear from is miss Jasmine Augustino She is a public health analyst in HIV AIDS Bureau, Jasmine and I both serve on the HIV AIDS, Bureau’s housing and homelessness work group Jasmine has served as a behavioral health scientist at the Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the office of Safety Security and Asset Management, providing mental health support and psychosocial assessment during public health emergencies and infectious disease outbreaks She has also provided psychotherapy to homeless HIV positive persons and community based settings Jasmine currently provides programmatic legislative and fiscal monitoring and oversight to Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program funded recipients We’ll also be hearing from Dr. Serena Rajabiun, who is a assistant professor in the Department of Public Health in the Zuckerberg College of Health Sciences at the university of Massachusetts Lowell She is currently the Principal Investigator for the HRAS’s spins initiatives, improving HIV health outcomes for supportive housing and employment services and dissemination of evidence informed intervention, dissemination and evaluation center We also have Ms. Lisa McKeithan Lisa is a healthcare consultant, improving infectious disease care through policy education and evidence based practice, drawing on her clinical research and policy expertise in clinical quality management and public health She currently serves as the director of the positive life infectious disease clinic at a federally qualified health center, providing strategic management and ongoing programmatic excellence, rigor program evaluation, and continuous fiscal monitoring and administration of the Ryan White program and the BC and D parts of our program Later we’ll also hear from miss Kate Bennett, who is the CEO of the Cincinnati health network since 2003, with oversight of all health services programs, including health care for homeless and local Ryan White part C program, a combined total of 10 contracted partner programs and serving approximately 12,500 patients She has dedicated the last 50 years of her life to advocating for equal housing rights, and quality medical care for underserved populations We also have with us, Ms. Susan McElroy, who is a Behavioral Healthcare Manager and the Infectious Disease Clinic at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Ms. McElroy, has over 15 years of experience in treating trauma related disorders as a certified provider and multiple evidence based treatment protocols she specializes in cognitive and Dialectal Behavioral Therapies Susan worked with her IDC team to implement a collaborative care model within the clinic to deliver gold standard of care to patients with mental illness and substance use disorders And last, but certainly not least We also have Ms. Carolyn Yorio who is working at Cincinnati’s AIDS service organization as a medical case manager and she started there in 2013

She moved to Caracole’s Housing Department in 2019 as the Associate Director of Housing Carecoles Housing Department serves 250 households every year with a range of short term services and permanent supportive housing options And just as an additional note, HRSA is on four social media platforms, so, please feel free to join any of those, to learn more about HRSA and the Ryan White program So, this slide is just for our disclosures Neither I nor any of the other presenters have any relevant financial or nonfinancial interests to disclose in addition, I did want to mention that this is a continuing education activity presentation and is managed and credited by AffinityCE in cooperation with HRSA and LRG So for this presentation, we hope to provide information on how to improve Ryan White part A through F recipient’s understanding of how unstable housing substance use disorder and severe or serious mental illness, affects HIV health outcomes We’d also like to highlight innovative strategies to improve viral suppression rates and clients experience a combination of HIV, unstable housing, substance use disorder and serious mental illness And I’ll just say SUD first, substance use disorder and SMI for serious mental illness moving forward And we’d also like to highlight which portfolio of services can work to improve HIV health outcomes, in clients experiencing unstable housing along with SUD and SMI So now I’d like to turn it over to my colleague, Jasmine Augustino to discuss more about HRSA, HRSA’s Ryan White program, and an overview of our data from the Ryan White HIV AIDS client level services report to lay the foundation for our discussion today Jasmine, – Thank you, Nicole Good afternoon, everyone Health resources and services administration overview, HRSA supports more than 90 programs that provide healthcare to people who are geographically isolated, economically, or medically vulnerable through grants and cooperative agreements to more than 3000 awardees, including community and faith based organizations, colleges and universities, hospitals, state, local and tribal governments and private entities Every year HRSA program serve tens of millions of people, including people with HIV and AIDS, pregnant women, mothers, and their families, and those otherwise unable to access quality health care Next slide please HRSA’s HIV and AIDS Bureau vision is optimal HIV and AIDS care and treatment for all Our mission is to provide leadership and resources to assure access to and retention in high quality integrated care and treatment services for vulnerable people with HIV and AIDS and their families Next slide, please HRAS’s Ryan White HIV and AIDS program The Ryan White HIV and AIDS program provides a comprehensive system of HIV prevention medical care, medications and essential support services for low income people with HIV More than half of people with diagnosed HIV in the United States, which is approximately 519,000 people receive care through the Ryan White HIV and AIDS program Our program funds grants to States, cities, counties, and local community based organizations Recipients determine service delivery and funding priorities based on local needs and planning processes Our program is a payer of last resort, statutory provision This means that Ryan White HIV and AIDS program funds may not be used for services, if another state or federal payer is available 87.1% of Ryan White HIV and AIDS program clients, were virally suppressed in 2018 exceeding the national average of 62.7% Next slide, please We are excited to present a thoughtful and rich presentation today As Nicole mentioned, I am Jasmine Augustino, a public health analyst and homeless and housing work group member I will provide an overview of unstable housing,

substance use and serious mental illness in the Ryan White HIV and AIDS program The Ryan White HIV and AIDS program response will be delivered by Nicole Chavis also a public health analyst and homeless and housing work group member And engaging examination of the issues and solutions to address clients at this intersection will be presented by Dr. Serena Rajabiun from the university of Massachusetts And finally, we are fortunate to have two recipients discuss their successful programmatic models We will have Lisa McKeithan from CommonWell Health, as well as Kate Bennett in collaboration with Susan McElroy, and Carolyn Yorio from Cincinnati Health Network As Nicole mentioned, in the Ryan White HIV and AIDS program, our service categories were designed to be flexible so that our recipients can tailor their programs to meet the needs of emerging or special populations in their communities So I’d like to just reiterate that we are very happy to have guest speakers today, that have utilized these models and can discuss how they have customized their portfolio of services to retain clients and encourage virologic suppression Next slide, please Overview of Unstable Housing, Substance use, and Serious Mental Illness and the Ryan White HIV and AIDS program Next slide, please Why are housing concerns important to Ryan White HIV and AIDS program? This is a recurrent slide integrated into other homeless and housing work group presentations because we believe it is salient to substantiate why the HIV and AIDS Bureau dedicates time and resources to address the intersection of HIV care, treatment and housing While the Ryan White HIV and AIDS program is not a direct housing provider We collaborate with health agencies and communities to strategize and assess what the role of the Ryan White HIV and AIDS program should be in addressing the housing needs of persons with HIV Unstable housing is a particular social determinant of health of interest to the Ryan White HIV and AIDS program because we recognize how far reaching the impacts are People who are unstably housed are more likely to contract HIV and more likely to have poor treatment outcomes Given this, our concerted efforts to address housing are critical to actualizing our mission The increased vulnerability to coexisting health problems associated with housing are well documented and here are some important findings So there is a large and increasing body of research that indicates that stable housing has a direct and powerful influence on HIV incidents, HIV health outcomes, and on health disparities In fact, and this is profound Housing is a more significant predictor of healthcare access and HIV outcomes than individual characteristics, behavioral health issues, and access to other services And finally, we recognize that prioritizing housing provision and assistance is a proven and cost effective intervention that can improve HIV healthcare outcomes In the following slides, I will draw from the Ryan White HIV and AIDS program’s service report data also known as the RSR that many of you collect to tell the story of unstable housing among our Ryan White HIV and AIDS program clients I will use this information to convey the compelling impact of unstable housing on HIV health outcomes Then, I will briefly review how HAB supports recipients address the needs of clients experiencing unstable housing Next slide, please The following Pie chart shows the 2018 percentage distribution of stable, temporary and unstable housing among all Ryan White HIV and AIDS program clients This data was collected from clients in the United States, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S Virgin Islands In 2018, of the 501 478 clients

with reported housing status, 7.7% had temporary housing represented by the light green They also reported 5.3% unstable housing represented by the yellow It is important to note that these findings have remained somewhat stable since 2018 There have been very small changes We remain at approximately 5% unstable housed among our clients and the 7.7% temporary housing figure has decreased only slightly Next slide, please Here wee present housing status data from a sample of Ryan White HIV and AIDS program clients 13 years of age and older with HIV infection attributed to injection drug use We observe a significant shift in the percentage of clients who self-reported a temporary and unstable housing status In 2018, among 29,479 clients served by the Ryan White HIV and AIDS program, with HIV attributed to injection drug use And with a report at housing status, 10.8% had temporary housing shown in the figure in the light green and 9.9% had unstable housing represented by the yellow Compared to the last slide in which we presented the overall Ryan White HIV and AIDS program, client population, a higher percentage of clients who reported drug use as their transmission category were temporarily housed Similarly, among this sub-population a higher percentage of clients were unstably housed as compared to the general Ryan White HIV and AIDS program, client population It is important to know that our data contains limitations There currently is no mechanism to capture substance use disorder diagnosis in our data But we do have self reported information from clients who identify injection drug use as their mode of transmission With that said, this data may not reflect current behavior It does not include male to male sexual contact and injection drug use nor is it inclusive of sexual contact and injection drug use among transgender clients Next slide, please This bar graph demonstrates viral suppression among clients with HIV infection attributed to injection drug use We collected this data from clients age 13 years and older in the U.S., Guam, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands In 2018, for clients with HIV infection attributed to injection drug use viral suppression was 86.4%, which is quite consistent with the national Ryan White HIV and AIDS program average of 87.1% This is indicated on the figure by the dashed green line Each five year age group from 20 years of age to 44 years of age had lower percentages of viral suppression They range from 68.9% to 79.1% Those were lower compared to clients with IDU transmission risk overall, which was 86.4% Additionally, lower percentages of viral suppression, were among those with no healthcare coverage shown on the figure at 77.8% And those with a temporary housing status, which was 79.4% And finally, those with unstable housing had a viral suppression of 71.8% These findings are important as they demonstrate the impact on health outcomes, HIV positive clients with substance use behavior and unstable housing had viral suppression rates that are significantly below the national average and significantly below other groups who also identified as having injection drug use behavior, one limitation

in Ryan White HIV and AIDS program service report data, related to this presentation, is that there is no mechanism to capture people with a mental health diagnosis Data represents clients who reported injection drug use as their transmission risk category, but data may not reflect current behavior Data also does not include male to male sexual contact and injection drug use nor does it include sexual contact and injection drug use among transgender clients In this figure, N represents the total number of clients in this specific subpopulation We operationalize viral suppression as one or more outpatient ambulatory health service visit during the calendar year and one or more viral load reported within the last viral load result of less than 200 copies of HIV per milliliter of blood Next slide, please Focusing on the research Much attention has been drawn to the vital influence of unstable housing, substance use and mental illness on HIV treatment I will present a sample of compelling research findings from a literature review that highlights the impact of mental illness and depression on HIV outcomes across the HIV care continuum and on unstable housing Our aim is to present evidence based findings that examined how mental illness and substance use leads to an increased risk of homelessness or unstable housing and how the combination of unstable housing, substance use and mental illness increases an individual’s risk of poor HIV outcomes across the HIV care continuum The first study presented was published in “The American Journal of Public Health” in 2004, by M.B. Blank et al It asserts that HIV prevalence for individuals receiving mental health services was nearly four times as high as in the general population The second study presented was published in the “Journal of American Medical Association Psychiatry” in 2018, from B.W. Pence et al It purports that the greater chronicity of depression increased the likelihood of failure at multiple points along the care continuum of HIV Even modest increases in the proportion of time spent with depression led to clinically meaningful increases in negative outcomes Lastly, we present this quote that aims to explain the research findings published by an AngelaI Dalla et al in the American Journal of Public Health in 2006 Her team conducted a systematic review of housing status, medical care and health outcomes among people with HIV The investigation contends that likewise, mental illness and substance abuse are known predictors of both homelessness and unstable housing and health outcomes Thank you very much The next speaker is Nicole Chavis She will present, the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program response – Awesome, thank you so much, Jasmine So, as Jasmine mentioned in her overview of the Ryan White Program clients and the various peer reviewed literature, it is well established that, stable housing is a critical component in ensuring long-term positive health outcomes, especially for people with HIV This slide lists two service categories that can be used directly to provide housing to people with HIV and those with unstable housing, substance use disorder and mental illness The Ryan White Program, it’s recipients are funded to provide a range of services to support the HIV related needs of eligible individuals to gain or maintain access to medical care, including prevention of homelessness HRSA, HAB’s policy clarification notice, or commonly known as PCN 16-02 details,

the allowable uses of the Ryan White Program funds to provide services to both people with HIV and in some instances, people who are affected by HIV These services are listed in PCN 16-02 on the slide and include housing services and emergency financial assistance or EFA In the context of housing EFA is used for primarily clients that only need one or two months of assistance to address their housing needs While EFA is designed to support a client through a unique emergency situation, allowable services under EFA can include housing and utility payments, but also can include other services not covered under the jurisdictions, Ryan White Programs, such as food, transportation and medications not covered under the ADAP or the AIDS Drug Assistance Program or clients’ insurance The primary difference between these two categories is that the housing support category is designed to link clients to the housing network, including housing case managers, in order to promote long-term stability Recipients who use the housing assistance to address the more prolonged need that clients may present, with to transition to a more permanent housing situation It is worth noting here as well, that these services work best when the client at risk is supported with other services, according to their service plan So next I’ll talk a little about program implementation and then the behavioral health services So PCN 16-02 also permits behavioral health services as listed on this slide Is important to note that both mental health services and substance abuse, outpatient care services are considered core medical services and would count towards the Ryan White legislative mandate that 75% of the funds go towards core medical services The services listed on this slide, allow recipients to fund an array of services in each category For example, under the substance abuse, outpatient care providers may use Ryan White funds to pay for treatment of substance use disorder, including pretreatment or recovery readiness programs, harm reduction, such as syringe service programs for injection drug users, behavioral health counseling associated with substance use disorder, outpatient drug-free treatment and counseling Medication assisted therapy or neuropsychiatric pharmaceuticals and relapse prevention In addition, there is medical health services such as outpatient, psychological and psychiatric screening, assessment diagnosis treatment and counseling services offered to clients with HIV And lastly, for substance abuse services that are also residential, where treatment of drug or alcohol use disorders and a residential setting to include screening assessment diagnosis and treatment of substance use disorder For more information on these types of services offered through the Ryan White Program, please review PCN 16-02 and the link is provided here, or you can also contact your project officer, as they have additional valuable resources for additional questions And lastly, a part of the Ryan White Program are our ancillary services These core medical and support services are used to implement programs to address homelessness and should include either directly funded or leveraged support services to address trauma, substance use, mental illness, health literacy, special health needs or others Some relevant service categories or activities, may include medical or non-medical case management And in the case of non-medical case management, that focus on accessing services such as employment and education centers and permanent housing, mental health services, peer navigators, support groups, or specialized medical care Utilizing a whole person approach to address the complexities of HIV, substance use disorder or serious mental illness in unstable housing are essential to assuring Ryan White clients receive the care and treatment they need to improve their HIV health outcomes And lastly, I’d just like to address and discuss a little bit about the Special Projects of National Significance

or our SPNS Program within the Ryan White Program The SPNS Program supports the development of innovative models of HIV care and treatment in order to quickly respond to emerging needs of clients served by the Ryan White Program The SPNS Program advances knowledge and skills and delivery of health care and support services to underserved populations living with HIV Through its demonstration projects, SPNS evaluation designs, implementation, utilization, costs, and health related outcomes of treatment models, while promoting the dissemination and replication of successful interventions Over the last several years, the SPNS project evaluated several models that examine services that prioritize multiple diagnosed people with HIV experiencing unstable housing or homelessness This slide includes some examples and links where you can find more information about SPNS and information about specific HIV innovative practices These programs help keep clients in care and work to make sure that they stay as virally suppressed as possible The recipients of the SPNS grant will share more about the successes and barriers they’ve had and how they’re continuing to implement these projects for this population I’ll now turn it over to our first speaker, Dr. Serena Rajabiun at the University of Massachusetts to discuss lessons learned from one of HRSA, SPNS Initiative – Thanks, Nicole Hello everyone It’s a pleasure to be part of this distinguished panel here today And I am very happy to present and share with you some of the lessons learned from the HRSA, SPNS initiative, building a medical home for healthily multiple diagnosed HIV positive homeless populations I served as the Principal Investigator for this five year initiative And I’m also pleased to have my colleague who was part of this initiative, Lisa McKeithan, who will be sharing from a sights perspective, lessons learned from this program And if you can go ahead to the next slide Thanks, so the Building a Medical Home initiative, this is a five year initiative As Nicole mentioned, it was funded from 2012 to 2017 The main goals included, to increase engagement and retention in HIV primary care, improved viral suppression rates and obtain stable housing for eligible participants The initiative funded nine demonstration sites across the United States, three were City or County health departments, two federally qualified HARSA health centers Two were Ryan White comprehensive HIV care organizations And two were outpatient clinics that were associated with university hospital settings and you can see where they were located geographically in this map Eight of the sites were urban areas and one was a rural setting Next slide So, in terms of the intervention models the demonstration sites implemented to address homelessness, mental health and substance use issues All of the models used a patient centered medical home framework, that is they were designed to deliver comprehensive, coordinated, accessible and improve the quality of HIV care And they did this through several common strategies The first one, was at each of the sites they strive to obtain integrated behavioral health and HIV primary care and treatment And they did this in different ways Some already had onsite what we call internal services behavioral health services at their clinics or organizations And this could be through having a psychiatrist come on staff, or a behavioral health nurse practitioner Somebody who could actually prescribe and do treatment for substance use or mental health Another strategy they use to integrate behavioral health care was maybe form external partnerships with agencies So we had some sites that also worked out at memorandum of understanding with substance use treatment provider or the mental health providers Another common element across all nine sites was the use of what was called a network navigator You all may know this term, for positions in your own agencies as care coordinators,

peer navigators, service linkage workers, community health workers What they were not were medical case managers, that was a different position So, the network navigator was critical ’cause this was really the person who complemented and work closely with medical case managers, but they were more in charge of working with the client to obtain the needed services, especially housing, mental health and substance use treatment, make sure that they attended those appointments and then also their HIV primary care appointments And also get their medications, so that they could achieve viral suppression And that was unique, despite the different names that each organization called their staff members The common piece was that they were a network navigator Another critical piece that these network navigators did, was what we call the system level coordination So, it wasn’t only working internally and making sure people, the participants and clients attended their appointments, but that they were working across partnerships with housing, health care, behavioral health care and really making a seamless system of care for the client So, instead of a client having to go to each individual service by themselves, they try to reduce those barriers, to accessing those services and smooth out the coordination across different agencies In addition, network navigators also played a critical role in working with housing providers, such as hop wall, local landlords to help clients who were unstably housed, find more stable housing And finally, another important piece of the interventions was in some cases, particularly in rural areas, was reuniting clients with their families or other support systems, which are critical for maintaining support both in housing, but also in terms of behavioral health and HIV primary care Next slide, please So, a little bit about the population that we reached as Nicole and Jasmine so eloquently discussed We really focused on the population who was most vulnerable to falling out of care and not achieving viral suppression So our population were adults, persons living with HIV who were 18 years or older and they were experiencing homelessness or unstable housing And the definition that we use for unstable housing, was from HUD, which describes this unstable housing as being, they were either literally homeless, that is living on the streets in their car or in a shelter or other public place They could be unstably had almost, maybe they did not have a lease They did not own a rent an apartment For at least 60 days, they may have been moving from place to place They may be what we call couch-surfers or doubling up, staying with family, friends it wasn’t a stable environment, or they could be in a stable place, but actually in the process experiencing domestic violence and in trying to find a more stable, safe environment And in addition to experiencing homelessness or unstable housing, they also had one or more co-occurring mental health and/or substance use disorders Next slide, please So I’m gonna just share with you some of the characteristics and issues that our clients in this SPNS initiative faced During the initiative, we served over 1300 clients, majority were male We had a small transgender population, majority were from racial, ethnic minority communities, mainly African American or Hispanic And the average years of experiencing homelessness, this is at baseline was, just over six years So these were people who had been experiencing homelessness or unstable housing situation for quite a long period of time Next slide, please In addition to the unstable housing characteristics, there are many other issues that our clients had faced at the time of enrollment into the intervention 80% vast majority had an incarceration history, with about, probably about 40% that were recently incarcerated

in the last 12 months from these at the time of baseline 3/4 had a diagnosed mental health condition, 40% had experienced some sort of trauma that is either sexual assault or physical injury 3/4 had a moderate risk of an illicit substance use and 24% actually had a high risk or what we would call a dependence issue on illicit substance use And this was mainly drugs, particularly around Opioid use, cocaine use, methamphetamines So these were illicit drugs Majority, almost 2/3 were food insecure in the last 30 days 1/3 had been out of care and had not seen an HIV primary care provider in at least six months And over 50% over half of our population, talked about experiencing some sort of HIV stigma and discrimination So it was a very marginalized and vulnerable population at the time we started our intervention Next slide, please In this slide here, this graph shows you the variation and the types of housing status, physical housing status, our clients were at baseline So, a little over a 1/3 were either doubling up or staying with friends or family, did have their own own place to stay at the time of enrollment About 25% were literally homeless That is that they were either in a street or in a public place, were living out in their car or have been in some sort of emergency shelter environment Another 20% or so, were in a more temporary situation, what we call transitional housing or maybe in residential treatment for anywhere between six or to 24 months, but that was seen as temporary that they would eventually be need to find a more permanent place to live Had about 10% who were in an institution, such as, assisted living or rehabilitation needing some sort of medical treatment And a very small percentage about 5% were in a stable situation with case management support but were at risk of losing that housing, maybe due to facts that they couldn’t pay their rent or behind on utilities So it was a very precarious housing situation And I showed you this slide because it’s not so easy There’s a lot of variation in our clients in terms of what their physical housing status looks like And even if there is a physical place, it’s still for other reasons may not be “stable” Next slide, please And so this slide shows the diagnoses in terms of mental health and substance use at baseline So, as I mentioned about three quarters 76% at baseline had a mental health disorder or diagnoses, almost half were suffering from depression, 41% had both co-occurring substance use or mental health disorder and that could include either alcohol, marijuana or some illicit drug use 20% actually more than that probably about The other 40% or so had some sort of serious mental health issue, 20% had bipolar, 15% were diagnosed with severe anxiety, 9% with schizophrenia, 6% with PTSD So, again a very vulnerable population, particularly for falling out of care or staying adherent to treatment due to these mental health and substance use disorders And also important to note is that at the time of baseline while three quarters had some sort of diagnosis, only about 40% were actually on a prescribed medication treatment and we got this from charts So a much smaller percentage were actually in treatment for a mental health or substance use disorder Next slide, please So, I’m gonna just share now briefly some of the outcomes or impacts of our intervention models from the SPNS Initiative You’ll see here, this graph shows you the percentage of people who at the time were referred into a mental health or substance use treatment when they came into the program,

so about 40% had an internal mental health referral and about 15 were referred externally, 17% were referred for substance use treatment and 13% for external substance use treatment And then the orange bars show you how many as a result of the intervention actually made it and had a visit to that mental health treatment or substance use treatment And you can see about three quarters once they were referred with the support of the intervention actually made it to that first visit or into treatment Next slide, please Another important impact and what was designed of our program and with our population was that there were multiple service needs, not just housing, substance use and mental health treatment but other issues such as transportation, food, which all go along with the unstable housing situation And this graph shows you the impact of the intervention over time from baseline to 12 months on reduction in unmet needs And I just call your attention particularly to the housing one where at baseline, 55% actually reported having an unmet need for housing That is all majority of our clients had a need but some weren’t successful prior to coming to the SPNS intervention and getting that need for housing met So, some were some weren’t So we had about 55% who had the unmet need for housing and by 12 months that had gone down to 41% And another critical piece is looking at substance use and mental health treatment about 13% reported that they had an unmet need for substance use treatment and that went down to 11% at 12 months And for mental health, 21% report and unmet need and that went down to 15% post 12 months Next slide, please In terms of the HIV health outcomes this graph here shows you the impact of getting other unmet needs, getting housing address, substance use and mental health and the subsequent impact on viral suppression So, we had at baseline about 49, about half actually were virally suppressed at baseline and that increased up to 70% at 12 months So, it’s much lower than the 87% that Jasmine reported for overall Ryan White clients but actually as a result of the interventions, we did see an improvement with this vulnerable population, so going up as high as 70% Next slide And then in terms of other Care Continuum Outcomes in looking at our population and this is the population we took a subset of looking at those who were unstably housed either newly diagnosed or had been out of care and what happened to them, we followed them through the care continuum So, in this sub sample of 334 84% were successfully linked to care among those who were linked, 74% were retained in care 90% actually got prescribed antiretroviral treatment and 71% reached viral suppression So, we are seeing some positive outcomes of the SPNS Initiative And then in terms of housing status we also saw a change in terms of people who reported being unstably housed at baseline, that was as high as 84% a decrease down to 30% at post 12 months And those who were stably housed where we had a very small percentage who reported some sort of stable housing that actually increased up to 34% after 12 months Next slide, please And so I just want to share with you some Next slide, please Thanks So, looking at this data and talking with the sites, we have some key messages for replication First of all, for those of you who are interested in designing programs that can reach people with HIV who have unstable housing and suffering from these co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders, one of the critical pieces we found

is really creating this mobile team based care and I emphasize mobile in this part, having the network navigator who somebody who could actually leave the clinic, go out into the community, go out into the field and work directly with the client and accompany them to various appointments to meet housing providers, to meet behavioral healthcare providers, to meet employment specialists, this is really critical If the people don’t expecting a client now and then has many challenges to come to you and navigate this fragmented service system is quite challenging I think And so having a member of your team who has that flexibility that doesn’t have to be in clinic and take the time to go out there and accompany clients is really critical A second key point for replication is having open access to integrated services, and what I mean by that is having on in your clinics, if you have integrated care, having open walk in appointments available, not just for HIV primary care but for substance use, mental health counseling or even to meet with a housing case manager, this is really critical because people are experiencing unstable housing and these co-occurring issues, they’re dependent on getting to your services and dependent on transportation and bus schedules and they might not be able to make an appointment on time So, having some flexibility and open access to have people ready who can meet the client and address their issues directly when they do show up is critical We also found having frequent team huddles and communication between healthcare providers, physicians, nurse practitioners, PAs, as well as our network navigators, as well as case managers, having the team meet at least once a week might be before clinic, when you’re expecting to see the client but having them each share their opinion and view of what’s happening with the client, what services they’re working on is really critical And then each member of the team knows what the other one is working on Conducting acuity assessments and integrated care plans are really critical, our network navigators were able to do this and work with medical case managers on this to get a detailed assessment about what is the severity of need for clients? What are their priorities? What do we need to work on? And what do we need to do in terms of housing, in terms of health care, behavioral health? What are the steps that need to be taken? And to revisit those care plans quite regularly, every three months to show the client where they’re making progress and empower them to take action on their care plans as well, and be there to support them And then finally, creating trauma informed and welcoming culture that really understands the needs of people living with HIV, who are experiencing homelessness and co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders We had a few several sites who went through trauma informed care supervision training and this was really critical to set up a welcoming environment where the client felt safe to come in And this is not just about the healthcare team it has to do with the front desk staff, It has to do with your security guards, really everyone understand what it means to provide trauma informed care and services in a welcoming environment for this population Next slide, please And so, I just wanted to share with you a couple of resources that were produced by our own initiative So there’s implementation manuals and videos from each one of the demonstration sites, as well as this multi site manual that you’ll see here on the slides And then we’ve also produced through the “American Journal of Public Health” we published a series of studies about our population and the impacts of the intervention, so that to advance the evidence on models that will address the needs and help achieve this population viral suppression Next slide, please So this is my contact information I’m happy to talk with you about any of the results of our studies or connect you with resources, if you have further questions And with that, I’d like to turn it over to my colleague, Lisa McKeithan who will talk about her program at CommWell Health Lisa – Thank you Serena I would also like to thank Jasmine and Nicole for inviting me to be a part of this panel, and on behalf of CommWell Health, we were truly grateful to be a part

of the SPNS Initiative, led by most amazing principal investigator ever Serena, It was truly a joy to work with you and your team and everyone at HRSA and in particular the other sites across the country So again, my name is Lisa McKeithan and from 2012 to 2017 CommWell Health implemented the NC reach program Next slide, please At the start of this initiative we weren’t aware of the homeless population beyond the seasonal migrant farm workers but our whole perception seemed to change when we discovered the hidden homeless right here in our community and in our patient population, we were grateful that we had network navigators who use motivational interviewing as well as strength based counseling approaches and shared experiences to offer support and ensure that our patients receive the treatment as well as the services they needed, which helped them and to link them into mental health, substance abuse treatment, and HIV AIDS primary care services The network navigators were able to provide that, the tailored services to address the individual barriers to housing for our participants And this essential program element was having network navigators who coordinate behavioral health services while integrating housing and health services through a comprehensive care coordination team Additionally, this work was important in helping our participants overcome stigma and connecting them with the resources that stabilize their lives outside of the clinic walls We were about building those partnerships and those systems of care with other community resources like local landlords, the Salvation Army, we connected with the local DDS so that we could have a more streamlined process and approach when helping our patients, our main focus as Serena noted, was all about community engagement Next slide, please And it was an innovative and invention for improving primary health care and supportive service delivery as well as patient outcomes As you can see, we had a total of 80 participants in our study, the viral suppression rate at the end of the study was 83% 74% of our participants were transitioned back to the standard of care, so they graduated from our program We only had 3% that were lost to care And at the end of the study about 70% were stable housed by the end of the initiative which showed us a direct correlation between stable housing and the virus suppression rate It’s because of HRSA and the SPNS Initiative that we were able to address the gaps that we saw in housing as well as care Next slide, please, Not only do the network navigators utilize motivational interviewing strategies to help clients to reframe experiences and follow up on appointments, but they spent most of their time outside of the office They were intentional building those systems of care with community agencies As Serena noted, we were a mobile team based care and by providing focus advocacy with housing providers on behalf of the participants, educating housing providers regarding housing first principles, enabling participants to receive permanent housing, as well as helping participants address internal stigma and reframe their approach when promoting stability and decrease acuity level Next slide, please Because of the network navigators, we were able to change our agency’s approach to serving these individuals with who were experiencing homelessness or unstable housing, impacted by substance abuse and substance use and serious mental illness by strengthening our interdepartmental communications and continuing to foster and promote relationships with community resources Next slide, please As well as we support retention and care by identifying the hidden homeless, by client tracking and outreach, by finding those with fallen out of care, connecting with individuals who are recently incarcerated, accompanying our participants to their medical appointments, assisting with and providing transportation appointment reminders, bridging communication with providers

and providing emotional support as well as helping our patients navigate the systems and coordination of care Next slide, please However, despite the systems of care that we built with our community resources, unfortunately there still continues to be some individual in some system challenges that we experience concerning like stigma regarding the mental health and HIV services and right now unemployment particularly now doing to COVID, trauma, lack of permanent and affordable and safe housing, a lack of availability of behavioral health care Actually in our County we only have one psychiatrist who was actually held here at ConmWell Health and the fragmented system, poor coordination Next slide, please However, the biggest lessons learned were the importance of community engagement of being outside of the walls of the clinic and inter departmental communications, having those frequent team huddles and establishing those relationships with non traditional landlords During this initiative, we actually hosted quarterly community housing correlation This was a meeting provided here at CommWell Health and it was a critical opportunity to increase transparency amongst agencies in our community but also gave the opportunity for all of us to seat, dine and to just share information and to discuss long term solutions It was all about the patients and having a shared goal to help our patients access the services and programs that they needed to improve health outcomes, as well as their wellbeing Next slide, please Here’s my contact information, if you have any questions or concerns, please reach out to me And now I would like to hand it over to Kate Bennett Thank you – Hi Thank you that was very interesting I just wanted to take a minute if I could and introduce you to the Centenary Health Network We were established in 1986 and we become a system of partner organizations that was necessary to create that seamless continuum of care that we’ve all talked about, particularly for the underserved populations of the healthcare for the homeless program in a Ryan White Pep C program As in FQHC, CHN is funded exclusively to meet the complex healthcare needs of people experiencing homelessness We do provide an array of primary medical, mental health, substance use services along with oral health care, respite care, intensive collaborative case management and all the other supportive social services that are necessary to approximately 1100 patients or more experiencing homelessness annually and the greatest Cincinnati Northern Kentucky Area Our Ryan White Program includes; Linkage to care, Comprehensive HIV Primary Care, Behavioral Health services, including Substance Use Counseling and Referral Medical Care Management and other supportive services to over 2300 individuals living with HIV in 15 counties, both urban and rural of the Tri-State area of Ohio, Kentucky and Indiana CHN also works really closely with Caracol which is the local Ryan White Part D provider Caracol offers medical case management and operates a variety of housing programs a newly developed Needle Exchange Program and a broad based HIV Prevention Education Program In fact, recently to meet the changing needs of individuals living with HIV, the health network opened a small primary care clinic

right inside one of Caracol’s case management locations We all know that the face of HIV virus has changed in the last several years, the recent Opioid Epidemic has really impacted the homeless population significantly increasing the numbers of people who are at risk for acquiring HIV And when diagnosed with HIV, like has been brought up repeatedly in this presentation, anyone experiencing homelessness, not only has a life changing condition now but they also have to deal with the stress of finding stable housing and all the resources that are necessary from just basic survival Early diagnosis and the delivery of integrated care treatment and supportive services are crucial, for this growing population I would like to introduce you to Susie McElroy, so she can address these pillar and also discuss the need for the continuity of care for patients we serve as well as for the organizations we collaborate with Susie – Thank you, Kate Next slide, please And maybe next slide too, please Okay, I’m gonna speak to today about some portfolio of services that we are offering in terms of mental health and substance use disorders And then I will turn it over to my colleague Carolyn Yorio who is to discuss homelessness aspects of our program So in our clinic, we have implemented a couple of services that I wanna to take a deep dive with you today on The first one and perhaps the most that I’m the most involved in is the collaborative care model, we have integrated behavioral health care into our primary care specialty clinic to treat HIV with our patients We implemented this particular model because research has shown that it improves patient outcomes, it saves money and it reduces the stigma related to mental health Our primary care providers collaborate with behavioral healthcare providers to effectively share patients treatment plans And in this population based model of care, that initial patient centered team helps get both the physical and the mental health care at one location which we know that our patients are very comfortable with and it reduces the amount of duplicate assessments that can be very irritating to our clientele Increased patient engagement often times results in better health care experience and improved patient outcomes The next part of this particular implementation of collaborative care is creating a group of patients that get tracked in a registry to ensure that no one falls through the cracks This registry helps us track and reach out to patients who are not improving and mental health specialists can focus on reaching out to those patients and have ongoing treatment and ongoing dialogue, not just ad hoc advice Next and another important part of the collaborative care model is to have measurement based treatment to target Each patient’s treatment plan is clearly outlined to articulate their goals because this is a patient centered approach, but it also incorporates clinical outcomes that routinely get measured by evidence-based tools Evidence-based self-reports such as a PHQ 9, GAD 7, these are all standardized self report measures that help measure a patient’s progress And if they’re not showing improvement as indicated by these measurements, then the treatment team comes together and talks about other ways to help the patient Another prong of this approach is providing evidence based care So patients are offered treatments that have credible research evidence to support their efficacy in treating the target condition

such as depression, cognitive behavioral therapies, anxiety and panic treatments that are good standard or evidence-based in terms of their results and helping our patient A large percentage of our population as we’ve already talked to you today by many presenters have experienced trauma and providing evidence-based trauma focused treatments has been something that our clinic has had great success with So, using these evidence based care treatments protocols has been very effective And lastly accountable care is the final prong of this approach And providers are accountable and often times work together to provide good standard treatment for our patients and meeting their needs So, in addition to administering the court, establishing and administrating collaborative care in our clinic, we also have implemented trauma informed care So, in this particular other people have spoken about this today but trauma informed care is really important to help increase all staff’s awareness of the impact trauma can have in the communities that we serve A trauma informed approach is not a singular technique, however, or checklist but it requires constant attention, awareness and sensitivity and possibly a cultural change in the organization It requires ongoing review, organizational development changes and practice improvement constantly and we do that in our clinics, we are in the midst of rolling this out We are in the phase of really looking at how we address providers and its staff self care, because that’s an important component in having a trauma informed approach within our clinic is really being able to provide self care and self care techniques to our staff, to help them to deliver the best care to our patients because if staff isn’t feeling good, it’s gonna be reflected to patients So, some of the key challenges and lessons we’ve learned in implementing these two different programs I’ll speak to, in the lessons and the challenges that we learned with implementing Collaborative Care, first and foremost it takes time to educate staff and get staff on board with integrating this model It requires primary care to have a shift in terms of thinking about and putting on their radar mental health administering mental health self report measures in their meetings, making the referral and then collaborating with mental health providers, psychiatrist for medication management as well as recommendations, being able and willing to prescribe some medications that they might be uncomfortable with and also training some of the clinicians to provide medical assistance therapy for addiction Secondly, another big learn that we had was being able to hire highly skilled psychologists and social workers that can complete psychological assessments as well as provide evidence based treatments The social work or the psychologists that are working the clinics and this model has to be pretty highly trained to be able to provide that level of service to diagnose and to treat And in terms of trauma-informed care, key learnings that we have found so far, is that this requires an organizational buy-in from upper level management to support the philosophy of trauma-informed care It’s not easy to create an environment and an awareness of understanding the impact trauma has in the communities we serve And on sometimes the staff that we hire, if upper level management isn’t aware, it doesn’t have the buy-in to create the safe place within awareness of the role trauma plays in both our patients and staff’s lives And it with that being said, I will turn it over to my colleague, Carolyn Yorio, who is the Director of Housing for Caracole Thank you

– Thank you, Suzie Hi everyone Thank you for your attention I promise we’re in the home stretch You’ve gotten a good picture of the problem nationwide that we’re addressing today, but I’d like to give you an example of the powerful work that we’re doing at Caracole Of Caracole’s 883 clients who are stably housed, 91% of that group has been able to achieve viral load suppression, but of the 67, who most recently reported that they were homeless or between stable housing, only 79% of that group are virally suppressed People can’t address their health needs without a place to rest, to eat and to care for themselves They have to have the mental space and consistency of a home to proactively manage HIV through medication and care Housing makes viral load suppression possible Next slide, please Caracole practices housing first, both in scattered site and site-based permanent housing This means that we prioritize, people experiencing homelessness with multiple barriers to stability On top of the systemic barriers to housing, our clients often are also dealing with mental health diagnoses, substance use legal issues, lower or no income and cognitive or developmental disabilities, as I’m sure of the many of the people that you serve These layers of challenges can contribute to multiple evictions, setbacks for our clients on their progress to their own goals and frustration and burnout for our staff It is hard but worthy work We work really hard to help clients maintain housing and avoid evictions, but evictions do occur And when that happens, we rehouse people and try to address the underlying factors that led to eviction We use a client-centered approach to make permanent housing possible And the three models that I’m gonna talk about today are harm reduction, motivational interviewing and trauma-informed care To start, motivational interviewing is a commitment to supporting the client as their own expert We help people explore the pros and cons of their current situation and what might be ahead of them We roll with resistance when change is hard and we foster self-propelled change, so that the client is their own driver More likely to identify change that works for them and that they can stick to One project that we are just starting, is making our housing plans more collaborative So each client has both a housing specialist and a case manager to address their housing and medical needs And our new housing plans will be written by the client and both staff people in a motivational interviewing format I wanna give a shout out to our viral load suppression for HIV team, which does innovative, high level of engagement work for leading this change in our housing plans The next model I wanna talk about is harm reduction So if you are not familiar with harm reduction, I urge you to go to the Harm Reduction Coalition Website for more information The harm reduction, is the idea that we could help people use drugs more safely, use less and/or discontinue use as they’re able So, harm reduction can include really practical resources, such as access to clean syringes, Narcan, rubber stem tips for crack pipes But it also includes a really personalized approach to creative problem solving, so that the client can identify what will work for them This fits perfectly with motivational interviewing So for instance, if someone had previously overdosed while they were alone, can we identify a person that they would feel safe using around, so that that’s less likely to happen the next time Harm reduction can be applied more broadly in housing, for instance, your landlord called and said that you were drinking on the front stoop and he has a problem with that Is there a place around back that you could use, where you’ll draw less attention from your landlord, neighbors and police and still recognize the situation that the client’s in and that abstinence is not likely possible for them, at this moment in time? So finally, I’ll continue our discussion of trauma-informed care that Suzie and others have started We know that all of our clients have experienced trauma It is likely that our staff has experienced various traumas and so have the landlords and other community partners that we work with With trauma in the background or the foreground for each client, we know that also on the systemic front, there isn’t enough housing available The relevant systems are too slow and the communities available financial assistance is just not enough to meet everybody’s needs That makes homelessness and housing services, a pressure cooker We have to recognize that there is trauma for each one of us and every client that we serve and engage in services with grace and hope for healing So, if you wanna take a look back on these three models that I’ve talked about, Motivational Interviewing, Harm Reduction and Trauma-Informed Care, consider what you’re already using in your practice, or what might be useful for you to implement And I want you to apply those models

to an investment in relationships I’m gonna talk about four relationships that are really key First of course, that’s building trust with clients through regular contact, becoming a trusted resource who does not force change, but is available and ready when the client is ready Of course, we also need to have collaborative relationships with our providers and be able to facilitate a trusted, warm handoff with follow-up So no matter who that provider is in the community, do you know somebody there? Can you help the client schedule intake and maybe go to intake with them? Can you follow up to make sure that they engaged in the services and that they’re working for them, or try to find an alternative if that first attempt didn’t work? Of course, we also need to network with our landlords We have to help them understand the barriers and challenges facing our population and encourage them to give second or even 15th chances to our clients And we would be nowhere without our program team So, between team members, we share resources, sympathy, and encouragement and we provide respite through case coverage and mutual support In conclusion, I wanna think about how can you improve your services this month or this year? And I would say that, that is investment in your direct service staff, even more so during COVID when we are all feeling stretched, thin and burdened, your direct service staff is going to be key So, today have case loads that allow for quick response times and individual relationships? Do they have the education skills and tools they need to do their job well? And do they have access to supports within and outside your organization to process the hardships they see and experience on the job? The most critical point of this work is direct service If they don’t have what they need, they will not be able to help clients get and stay in HIV or mental health care, substance use treatment, or housing Thank you so much for your interest And I’ll turn us back to Nicole to conclude our session – Great, thank you so much, everyone for your presentations We are now at the question and answer portion of our presentation, but I did just want to just completely say thank you for all that you have provided, all that you have done to serve these population of people with HIV and also with co-occurring substance use disorder, unstable housing and serious mental illness This presentation has been extremely enlightening and provided important details and resources, that we hope everyone can utilize and leverage to make sure that, the clients that you serve are receiving the care and their needs are being met sufficiently So, for the question and answer portion, both either myself or Jasmine Augustino will be assisting in the moderation

KSAT 12 6 O'Clock News : Nov 03, 2020

>> ELECTION NIGHT HAS FINALLY ARRIVED AND WE’RE JUST ONE HOUR AWAY FROM POLLS, CLOSING HERE ARRIVED AND WE’RE JUST ONE HOUR >> LIVE FROM CASE AT 12 –KSAT 12 >> LIVE FROM CASE AT 12 –KSAT 12 , THE 6:00 NEWS STARTS RETINA 12 , THE 6:00 NEWS STARTS RETINA >> WE ARE GOING TO BE WORKING , THE 6:00 NEWS STARTS RETINA >> WE ARE GOING TO BE WORKING WELL INTO THE NIGHT BRINGING YOU >> WE ARE GOING TO BE WORKING WELL INTO THE NIGHT BRINGING YOU THE RESULTS AND FACT CHECKING WELL INTO THE NIGHT BRINGING YOU THE RESULTS AND FACT CHECKING ALONG THE WAY THE RESULTS AND FACT CHECKING ALONG THE WAY >> WE HAVE COVERAGE ALL NIGHT ALONG THE WAY >> WE HAVE COVERAGE ALL NIGHT LONG AND WE BEGIN AT THE HEART >> WE HAVE COVERAGE ALL NIGHT LONG AND WE BEGIN AT THE HEART OER ALL THINGS IS HAPPENING, LONG AND WE BEGIN AT THE HEART OER ALL THINGS IS HAPPENING, THE COUNTY ELECTIONS OER ALL THINGS IS HAPPENING, THE COUNTY ELECTIONS HEADQUARTERS THE COUNTY ELECTIONS HEADQUARTERS >> A MUCH MORE SUBDUED TURNOUT HEADQUARTERS >> A MUCH MORE SUBDUED TURNOUT TONIGHT, DYLAN IS LIVE WITH MORE >> A MUCH MORE SUBDUED TURNOUT TONIGHT, DYLAN IS LIVE WITH MORE ON WHAT WE HAVE SEEN SO FAR TONIGHT, DYLAN IS LIVE WITH MORE ON WHAT WE HAVE SEEN SO FAR >> THE CAPTAIN HAD LONG — ON WHAT WE HAVE SEEN SO FAR >> THE CAPTAIN HAD LONG — STRONG NUMBERS THIS MORNING, BUT >> THE CAPTAIN HAD LONG — STRONG NUMBERS THIS MORNING, BUT THAT FIGURE DIPPED TO AROUND STRONG NUMBERS THIS MORNING, BUT THAT FIGURE DIPPED TO AROUND 6600 VOTES THAT FIGURE DIPPED TO AROUND 6600 VOTES ELECTIONS ADMINISTRATOR GOING AS 6600 VOTES ELECTIONS ADMINISTRATOR GOING AS FAR AS TO LOWER HER EXPECTATIONS ELECTIONS ADMINISTRATOR GOING AS FAR AS TO LOWER HER EXPECTATIONS FOR THE DAY HOPING WE WOULD HAVE FAR AS TO LOWER HER EXPECTATIONS FOR THE DAY HOPING WE WOULD HAVE WONDERED THOUSAND VOTES COUNTY FOR THE DAY HOPING WE WOULD HAVE WONDERED THOUSAND VOTES COUNTY WHITE, EVEN THAT MILESTONE WILL WONDERED THOUSAND VOTES COUNTY WHITE, EVEN THAT MILESTONE WILL BE TOUGH TO REACH A LESS WE SEE WHITE, EVEN THAT MILESTONE WILL BE TOUGH TO REACH A LESS WE SEE A SURGE OVER THE NEXT HOUR AS BE TOUGH TO REACH A LESS WE SEE A SURGE OVER THE NEXT HOUR AS THE POLLS BEGIN TO CLOSE AROUND A SURGE OVER THE NEXT HOUR AS THE POLLS BEGIN TO CLOSE AROUND BEXAR COUNTY TONIGHT THE POLLS BEGIN TO CLOSE AROUND BEXAR COUNTY TONIGHT VOTER TURNOUT OF OVER 60% FOR BEXAR COUNTY TONIGHT VOTER TURNOUT OF OVER 60% FOR THIS ELECTION IS SOMETHING THAT VOTER TURNOUT OF OVER 60% FOR THIS ELECTION IS SOMETHING THAT EVERYONE CAN CELEBRATE THIS ELECTION IS SOMETHING THAT EVERYONE CAN CELEBRATE >> I THINK WHAT IT IS PROVING, EVERYONE CAN CELEBRATE >> I THINK WHAT IT IS PROVING, WE HAVE THIS WONDERFUL ENERGIZED >> I THINK WHAT IT IS PROVING, WE HAVE THIS WONDERFUL ENERGIZED ELECTION BUT WHEN WE GET DOWN TO WE HAVE THIS WONDERFUL ENERGIZED ELECTION BUT WHEN WE GET DOWN TO IT, THERE COUNTY LIKES TO VOTE ELECTION BUT WHEN WE GET DOWN TO IT, THERE COUNTY LIKES TO VOTE EARLY — BEXAR COUNTY LIKES TO IT, THERE COUNTY LIKES TO VOTE EARLY — BEXAR COUNTY LIKES TO VOTE EARLY EARLY — BEXAR COUNTY LIKES TO VOTE EARLY WE HAVE ALWAYS SEEN THAT VOTE EARLY WE HAVE ALWAYS SEEN THAT DILLON: SHE SAYS TO EXPECT THE WE HAVE ALWAYS SEEN THAT DILLON: SHE SAYS TO EXPECT THE RELEASE OF EARLY VOTING AROUND DILLON: SHE SAYS TO EXPECT THE RELEASE OF EARLY VOTING AROUND 7:05, JUST OVER AN HOUR FROM RELEASE OF EARLY VOTING AROUND 7:05, JUST OVER AN HOUR FROM NOW 7:05, JUST OVER AN HOUR FROM NOW BECAUSE THOSE TOTALS WILL BE A NOW BECAUSE THOSE TOTALS WILL BE A VAST MAJORITY IN THE COUNTY, WE BECAUSE THOSE TOTALS WILL BE A VAST MAJORITY IN THE COUNTY, WE SHOULD HAVE A GOOD IDEA AT THAT VAST MAJORITY IN THE COUNTY, WE SHOULD HAVE A GOOD IDEA AT THAT POINT OF HOW SOME OF THE RACES SHOULD HAVE A GOOD IDEA AT THAT POINT OF HOW SOME OF THE RACES ARE GOING TO SHAKE OUT POINT OF HOW SOME OF THE RACES ARE GOING TO SHAKE OUT ONE OF THE MOST CONTENTIOUS ARE GOING TO SHAKE OUT ONE OF THE MOST CONTENTIOUS ADULTS IS FOR TEXAS ONE OF THE MOST CONTENTIOUS ADULTS IS FOR TEXAS CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT 23 ADULTS IS FOR TEXAS CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT 23 — IS FOLLOWING HER TONIGHT CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT 23 — IS FOLLOWING HER TONIGHT >> I AM HERE OUTSIDE OF JONES’S — IS FOLLOWING HER TONIGHT >> I AM HERE OUTSIDE OF JONES’S HEADQUARTERS, THIS IS >> I AM HERE OUTSIDE OF JONES’S HEADQUARTERS, THIS IS A CAMPAIGN I’VE FOLLOWED BEFORE HEADQUARTERS, THIS IS A CAMPAIGN I’VE FOLLOWED BEFORE A CAMPAIGN I’VE FOLLOWED BEFORE THE LAST TIME SHE WAS RUNNING THE LAST TIME SHE WAS RUNNING AGAINST WILL HERD AND SHE LOST THE LAST TIME SHE WAS RUNNING AGAINST WILL HERD AND SHE LOST BY THE 1000 VOTES AGAINST WILL HERD AND SHE LOST BY THE 1000 VOTES THIS TIME SHE IS AGAINST TONY BY THE 1000 VOTES THIS TIME SHE IS AGAINST TONY GONZALES AND THIS IS A BIG THIS TIME SHE IS AGAINST TONY GONZALES AND THIS IS A BIG DISTRICT GONZALES AND THIS IS A BIG DISTRICT CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT 23 IS DISTRICT CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT 23 IS ENORMOUS, SPENDING ABOUT 58 CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT 23 IS ENORMOUS, SPENDING ABOUT 58 THOUSAND SQUARE MYERS — ENORMOUS, SPENDING ABOUT 58 THOUSAND SQUARE MYERS — SPENDING ABOUT 58,000 WHERE THOUSAND SQUARE MYERS — SPENDING ABOUT 58,000 WHERE MILES FROM SAN ANTONIO TO EL SPENDING ABOUT 58,000 WHERE MILES FROM SAN ANTONIO TO EL PASO MILES FROM SAN ANTONIO TO EL PASO SHE’S HOPING TO FLIP THE PASO SHE’S HOPING TO FLIP THE DISTRICT BLUE SHE’S HOPING TO FLIP THE DISTRICT BLUE SHE HAS PUSHED HEALTH CARE IS DISTRICT BLUE SHE HAS PUSHED HEALTH CARE IS ONE OF HER MAIN ISSUES AND THAT SHE HAS PUSHED HEALTH CARE IS ONE OF HER MAIN ISSUES AND THAT HAS INTENSIFIED ONE OF HER MAIN ISSUES AND THAT HAS INTENSIFIED >> HEALTH CARE IS ON THE BALLOT, HAS INTENSIFIED >> HEALTH CARE IS ON THE BALLOT, CHARACTER IS ON THE BALLOT, >> HEALTH CARE IS ON THE BALLOT, CHARACTER IS ON THE BALLOT, LEADERSHIP AND INTEGRITY IS ON CHARACTER IS ON THE BALLOT, LEADERSHIP AND INTEGRITY IS ON THE BALLOT LEADERSHIP AND INTEGRITY IS ON THE BALLOT THAT IS WHY I AM HOPEFUL ABOUT THE BALLOT THAT IS WHY I AM HOPEFUL ABOUT WHAT YOU’RE GOING TO DO THAT IS WHY I AM HOPEFUL ABOUT WHAT YOU’RE GOING TO DO HOPE IS NOT A STRATEGY, WE HAVE WHAT YOU’RE GOING TO DO HOPE IS NOT A STRATEGY, WE HAVE GOT TO GET EVERYONE OUT TO VOTE HOPE IS NOT A STRATEGY, WE HAVE GOT TO GET EVERYONE OUT TO VOTE >> JUST YESTERDAY, THE GOT TO GET EVERYONE OUT TO VOTE >> JUST YESTERDAY, THE DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL COMMITTEE >> JUST YESTERDAY, THE DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL COMMITTEE CHAIR CHOSE TO SPEND THE DAY DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL COMMITTEE CHAIR CHOSE TO SPEND THE DAY BEFORE THE ELECTION RIGHT HERE CHAIR CHOSE TO SPEND THE DAY BEFORE THE ELECTION RIGHT HERE IN SAN ANTONIO RALLYING FOR BEFORE THE ELECTION RIGHT HERE IN SAN ANTONIO RALLYING FOR DEMOCRATS LIKE ORTIZ JONES IN SAN ANTONIO RALLYING FOR DEMOCRATS LIKE ORTIZ JONES SHE’S RE-THINK SITES LIKE ADAMS DEMOCRATS LIKE ORTIZ JONES SHE’S RE-THINK SITES LIKE ADAMS HILL ELEMENTARY AND MIDDLE SHE’S RE-THINK SITES LIKE ADAMS HILL ELEMENTARY AND MIDDLE SCHOOL WHERE SHE WENT TO SCHOOL HILL ELEMENTARY AND MIDDLE SCHOOL WHERE SHE WENT TO SCHOOL GROWING UP SCHOOL WHERE SHE WENT TO SCHOOL GROWING UP WE ARE OUTSIDE HER CAMPAIGN GROWING UP WE ARE OUTSIDE HER CAMPAIGN HEADQUARTERS, EXPECTING TO HEAR WE ARE OUTSIDE HER CAMPAIGN HEADQUARTERS, EXPECTING TO HEAR FROM HER IN A PRESS CONFERENCE HEADQUARTERS, EXPECTING TO HEAR FROM HER IN A PRESS CONFERENCE AT 7:00 FROM HER IN A PRESS CONFERENCE AT 7:00 WE WILL HOPEFULLY BE ABLE TO AT 7:00 WE WILL HOPEFULLY BE ABLE TO STREAM THAT, BUT EITHER WAY WE WE WILL HOPEFULLY BE ABLE TO STREAM THAT, BUT EITHER WAY WE WILL BE BRINGING YOU UPDATES AS STREAM THAT, BUT EITHER WAY WE WILL BE BRINGING YOU UPDATES AS THE NUMBERS COME THROUGH WILL BE BRINGING YOU UPDATES AS THE NUMBERS COME THROUGH WE ARE LIVE FOR THE MEDICAL SEEN THE NUMBERS COME THROUGH WE ARE LIVE FOR THE MEDICAL SEEN HER — THE MEDICAL CENTER WE ARE LIVE FOR THE MEDICAL SEEN HER — THE MEDICAL CENTER MYRA: RUNNING AGAINST ORTIZ HER — THE MEDICAL CENTER MYRA: RUNNING AGAINST ORTIZ JONES IS TONY GONZALES WHO HAS MYRA: RUNNING AGAINST ORTIZ JONES IS TONY GONZALES WHO HAS BEEN ENDORSED BY DONALD TRUMP JONES IS TONY GONZALES WHO HAS BEEN ENDORSED BY DONALD TRUMP >> TO ME IT IS NOT ABOUT A BEEN ENDORSED BY DONALD TRUMP >> TO ME IT IS NOT ABOUT A PARTY, IT IS NOT ABOUT BEING >> TO ME IT IS NOT ABOUT A PARTY, IT IS NOT ABOUT BEING REPUBLICAN OR DEMOCRAT PARTY, IT IS NOT ABOUT BEING REPUBLICAN OR DEMOCRAT IT IS ABOUT THIS COUNTRY REPUBLICAN OR DEMOCRAT IT IS ABOUT THIS COUNTRY MY CANDIDACY HAS BEEN ABOUT IT IS ABOUT THIS COUNTRY MY CANDIDACY HAS BEEN ABOUT BRINGING THIS COUNTRY BACK MY CANDIDACY HAS BEEN ABOUT BRINGING THIS COUNTRY BACK TOGETHER BRINGING THIS COUNTRY BACK TOGETHER MYRA: TIM IS FOLLOWING TONY TOGETHER MYRA: TIM IS FOLLOWING TONY GONZALES’S CAMPAIGN, WE HAD A MYRA: TIM IS FOLLOWING TONY GONZALES’S CAMPAIGN, WE HAD A LIVE REPORT FROM HIM AT 5:00 GONZALES’S CAMPAIGN, WE HAD A LIVE REPORT FROM HIM AT 5:00 FOR A FREE PREVIEW OF THIS RACE, LIVE REPORT FROM HIM AT 5:00 FOR A FREE PREVIEW OF THIS RACE, HEAD TO KSAT 12 –KSAT.COM FOR A FREE PREVIEW OF THIS RACE, HEAD TO KSAT 12 –KSAT.COM STEVE: POLITICAL CAMPAIGNS HAVE HEAD TO KSAT 12 –KSAT.COM STEVE: POLITICAL CAMPAIGNS HAVE BEEN RIGHT LYING ON SOCIAL MEDIA STEVE: POLITICAL CAMPAIGNS HAVE BEEN RIGHT LYING ON SOCIAL MEDIA FOR SUPPORT BEEN RIGHT LYING ON SOCIAL MEDIA FOR SUPPORT SOCIAL MEDIA IS NOW VERY MUCH A FOR SUPPORT SOCIAL MEDIA IS NOW VERY MUCH A PART OF THE POLITICAL LANDSCAPE, SOCIAL MEDIA IS NOW VERY MUCH A PART OF THE POLITICAL LANDSCAPE, BUT IT IS NOT WITHOUT PITFALLS PART OF THE POLITICAL LANDSCAPE, BUT IT IS NOT WITHOUT PITFALLS WHICH VOTERS SHOULD AVOID BUT IT IS NOT WITHOUT PITFALLS WHICH VOTERS SHOULD AVOID >> MANY MAY SAY SOCIAL MEDIA HAS WHICH VOTERS SHOULD AVOID >> MANY MAY SAY SOCIAL MEDIA HAS BECOME A POLITICAL FORCE IN AND >> MANY MAY SAY SOCIAL MEDIA HAS BECOME A POLITICAL FORCE IN AND OF ITSELF BECOME A POLITICAL FORCE IN AND OF ITSELF IS IT — OF ITSELF IS IT — >> IS IT TOXIC COME OUT OF, OR

IS IT — >> IS IT TOXIC COME OUT OF, OR PRODUCTIVE? >> IS IT TOXIC COME OUT OF, OR PRODUCTIVE? >> I THINK IT CAN BE TOXIC AND PRODUCTIVE? >> I THINK IT CAN BE TOXIC AND IT CAN BE PRODUCTIVE >> I THINK IT CAN BE TOXIC AND IT CAN BE PRODUCTIVE >> THE SCIENTIST AND EXPERT IN IT CAN BE PRODUCTIVE >> THE SCIENTIST AND EXPERT IN POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY SAYS NOT >> THE SCIENTIST AND EXPERT IN POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY SAYS NOT ONLY HAS FACEBOOK BEEN URGING POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY SAYS NOT ONLY HAS FACEBOOK BEEN URGING USERS TO GET OUT AND VOTE, IT ONLY HAS FACEBOOK BEEN URGING USERS TO GET OUT AND VOTE, IT HAS VOTER INFORMATION AS WELL USERS TO GET OUT AND VOTE, IT HAS VOTER INFORMATION AS WELL ALL MY DISCUSSIONS HAVE PLAYED A HAS VOTER INFORMATION AS WELL ALL MY DISCUSSIONS HAVE PLAYED A ROLE IN RECORD TURNOUTS ALL MY DISCUSSIONS HAVE PLAYED A ROLE IN RECORD TURNOUTS — ONLINE DISCUSSIONS HAVE ROLE IN RECORD TURNOUTS — ONLINE DISCUSSIONS HAVE PLAYED A ROLE IN VOTING — ONLINE DISCUSSIONS HAVE PLAYED A ROLE IN VOTING TURNOUTS PLAYED A ROLE IN VOTING TURNOUTS >> WE ARE NOT — — TURNOUTS >> WE ARE NOT — — >> POSTS ENCOURAGING VIOLENCE >> WE ARE NOT — — >> POSTS ENCOURAGING VIOLENCE CAN BE REPORTED TO >> POSTS ENCOURAGING VIOLENCE CAN BE REPORTED TO LAW-ENFORCEMENT CAN BE REPORTED TO LAW-ENFORCEMENT POSTS THAT SEEM LIKELY UNTRUE OR LAW-ENFORCEMENT POSTS THAT SEEM LIKELY UNTRUE OR LACK OF ABILITY SHOULD BE POSTS THAT SEEM LIKELY UNTRUE OR LACK OF ABILITY SHOULD BE VERIFIED USING WEBSITES LIKE LACK OF ABILITY SHOULD BE VERIFIED USING WEBSITES LIKE FACTCHECK.ORG VERIFIED USING WEBSITES LIKE FACTCHECK.ORG >> IF SHE CLAIMS ONLINE FACTCHECK.ORG >> IF SHE CLAIMS ONLINE SOMETHING DUBIOUS, WE SHOULD >> IF SHE CLAIMS ONLINE SOMETHING DUBIOUS, WE SHOULD RESEARCH THAT USING TOOLS SOMETHING DUBIOUS, WE SHOULD RESEARCH THAT USING TOOLS SUBMITTED WE SHOULD SUBMIT THEM RESEARCH THAT USING TOOLS SUBMITTED WE SHOULD SUBMIT THEM OURSELVES SUBMITTED WE SHOULD SUBMIT THEM OURSELVES >> SO THAT VOTERS CAN BE TRULY OURSELVES >> SO THAT VOTERS CAN BE TRULY INFORMED, HOPEFULLY BEFORE THEY >> SO THAT VOTERS CAN BE TRULY INFORMED, HOPEFULLY BEFORE THEY CAST THEIR BALLOTS INFORMED, HOPEFULLY BEFORE THEY CAST THEIR BALLOTS STEVE: OUR KSAT TRUST INDEX IS A CAST THEIR BALLOTS STEVE: OUR KSAT TRUST INDEX IS A RELIABLE SOURCE FOR CHECKING STEVE: OUR KSAT TRUST INDEX IS A RELIABLE SOURCE FOR CHECKING DUBIOUS CLAIMS RELIABLE SOURCE FOR CHECKING DUBIOUS CLAIMS THE TEAM IS MONITORING THIS DUBIOUS CLAIMS THE TEAM IS MONITORING THIS INFORMATION IN REAL-TIME THE TEAM IS MONITORING THIS INFORMATION IN REAL-TIME YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION INFORMATION IN REAL-TIME YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THEIR EFFORTS AS WELL AS YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THEIR EFFORTS AS WELL AS FLAG CONTENT FOR YOURSELF AT ABOUT THEIR EFFORTS AS WELL AS FLAG CONTENT FOR YOURSELF AT KSAT.COM FLAG CONTENT FOR YOURSELF AT KSAT.COM MYRA: CONTINUING OUR ELECTION KSAT.COM MYRA: CONTINUING OUR ELECTION COVERAGE ON THE SOUTHWEST SIDE MYRA: CONTINUING OUR ELECTION COVERAGE ON THE SOUTHWEST SIDE OF THE CITY, VOTERS LINING UP AT COVERAGE ON THE SOUTHWEST SIDE OF THE CITY, VOTERS LINING UP AT JOHNSTON BRANCH LIBRARY TO CAST OF THE CITY, VOTERS LINING UP AT JOHNSTON BRANCH LIBRARY TO CAST THEIR VOTES BEFORE THE POLLS JOHNSTON BRANCH LIBRARY TO CAST THEIR VOTES BEFORE THE POLLS CLOSE AT 7:00 THEIR VOTES BEFORE THE POLLS CLOSE AT 7:00 DEVON IS THERE TO GIVE US A CLOSE AT 7:00 DEVON IS THERE TO GIVE US A CLOSER LOOK AT HOW THINGS ARE DEVON IS THERE TO GIVE US A CLOSER LOOK AT HOW THINGS ARE SHIPPING OUT AFTER — OUT THERE CLOSER LOOK AT HOW THINGS ARE SHIPPING OUT AFTER — OUT THERE >> REPORTER: IT IS AN EXCITING SHIPPING OUT AFTER — OUT THERE >> REPORTER: IT IS AN EXCITING EVENT OUT YOUR >> REPORTER: IT IS AN EXCITING EVENT OUT YOUR ALL — OUT HERE EVENT OUT YOUR ALL — OUT HERE ALL THE VOTERS ARE EXCITED TO ALL — OUT HERE ALL THE VOTERS ARE EXCITED TO CAST THEIR VOTE IN THIS ALL THE VOTERS ARE EXCITED TO CAST THEIR VOTE IN THIS ELECTION, THIS HISTORIC EVENT CAST THEIR VOTE IN THIS ELECTION, THIS HISTORIC EVENT OUT HERE AT JOHNSTON BRANCH ELECTION, THIS HISTORIC EVENT OUT HERE AT JOHNSTON BRANCH LIBRARY, IT IS SAFETY FIRST OUT HERE AT JOHNSTON BRANCH LIBRARY, IT IS SAFETY FIRST VOTERS ARE GIVEN PLASTIC BLUE LIBRARY, IT IS SAFETY FIRST VOTERS ARE GIVEN PLASTIC BLUE GLOVES SO THEY CAN WEAR THEM AND VOTERS ARE GIVEN PLASTIC BLUE GLOVES SO THEY CAN WEAR THEM AND NOT TOUCHSCREENS WITH THEIR BARE GLOVES SO THEY CAN WEAR THEM AND NOT TOUCHSCREENS WITH THEIR BARE HANDS NOT TOUCHSCREENS WITH THEIR BARE HANDS THERE IS A LENGTHY LINE HANDS THERE IS A LENGTHY LINE IT WRAPS AROUND THE ENTIRE THERE IS A LENGTHY LINE IT WRAPS AROUND THE ENTIRE BUILDING ON THREE SIDES IT WRAPS AROUND THE ENTIRE BUILDING ON THREE SIDES WE SPOKE TO A VOTER WHO CAST HIS BUILDING ON THREE SIDES WE SPOKE TO A VOTER WHO CAST HIS BALLOT IN OUR — NOT TOO LONG WE SPOKE TO A VOTER WHO CAST HIS BALLOT IN OUR — NOT TOO LONG AGO, HE WAITED AN HOUR AND 45 BALLOT IN OUR — NOT TOO LONG AGO, HE WAITED AN HOUR AND 45 MINUTES AGO, HE WAITED AN HOUR AND 45 MINUTES SOME SAGES LESS THAN THAT MINUTES SOME SAGES LESS THAN THAT PEOPLE SAY THEY DO NOT MIND SOME SAGES LESS THAN THAT PEOPLE SAY THEY DO NOT MIND THEY REITERATED THE IMPORTANT — PEOPLE SAY THEY DO NOT MIND THEY REITERATED THE IMPORTANT — THE IMPORTANCE OF THE SELECTION THEY REITERATED THE IMPORTANT — THE IMPORTANCE OF THE SELECTION AFTER WE ARE WAITING TO SEE WHO THE IMPORTANCE OF THE SELECTION AFTER WE ARE WAITING TO SEE WHO THE CAT THE COMMISSIONER IS, THE AFTER WE ARE WAITING TO SEE WHO THE CAT THE COMMISSIONER IS, THE OVERWHELMING TURNOUT HAS TO DO THE CAT THE COMMISSIONER IS, THE OVERWHELMING TURNOUT HAS TO DO WITH THE PRESIDENCY OVERWHELMING TURNOUT HAS TO DO WITH THE PRESIDENCY TRUMP AND JOE BIDEN, TWO MEN WITH THE PRESIDENCY TRUMP AND JOE BIDEN, TWO MEN WITH DIFFERENT VIEWS ON ISSUES TRUMP AND JOE BIDEN, TWO MEN WITH DIFFERENT VIEWS ON ISSUES LIKE RACE RELATIONS, POLICY, WITH DIFFERENT VIEWS ON ISSUES LIKE RACE RELATIONS, POLICY, HEALTH CARE, ETC. AND WHAT MANY LIKE RACE RELATIONS, POLICY, HEALTH CARE, ETC. AND WHAT MANY ARE CALLING THE MOST CONTENTIOUS HEALTH CARE, ETC. AND WHAT MANY ARE CALLING THE MOST CONTENTIOUS ELECTION OF OUR LIVES, VOTERS ARE CALLING THE MOST CONTENTIOUS ELECTION OF OUR LIVES, VOTERS KNOW HOW MUCH IS ON THE ONE ELECTION OF OUR LIVES, VOTERS KNOW HOW MUCH IS ON THE ONE >> I HAVEN’T VOTED IN YEARS KNOW HOW MUCH IS ON THE ONE >> I HAVEN’T VOTED IN YEARS THIS YEAR HAS BEEN ONE OF THE >> I HAVEN’T VOTED IN YEARS THIS YEAR HAS BEEN ONE OF THE WORST YEARS WITH COVID THIS YEAR HAS BEEN ONE OF THE WORST YEARS WITH COVID I’M REALLY HAPPY TO BE VOTING WORST YEARS WITH COVID I’M REALLY HAPPY TO BE VOTING TODAY I’M REALLY HAPPY TO BE VOTING TODAY >> IT IS VERY IMPORTANT TODAY >> IT IS VERY IMPORTANT EVERY ASPECT OF IT >> IT IS VERY IMPORTANT EVERY ASPECT OF IT >> I WAS HAVING A CONVERSATION EVERY ASPECT OF IT >> I WAS HAVING A CONVERSATION WITH MY SEVEN-YEAR-OLD SON AND >> I WAS HAVING A CONVERSATION WITH MY SEVEN-YEAR-OLD SON AND EXPLAINING TO HIM THE WHOLE WITH MY SEVEN-YEAR-OLD SON AND EXPLAINING TO HIM THE WHOLE PROCESS EXPLAINING TO HIM THE WHOLE PROCESS IT IS OVERWHELMING AND EXCITING PROCESS IT IS OVERWHELMING AND EXCITING AT THE SAME TIME IT IS OVERWHELMING AND EXCITING AT THE SAME TIME REPORTER: WHILE THE LINE HERE AT THE SAME TIME REPORTER: WHILE THE LINE HERE OUTSIDE THE JOHNSTON BRANCH REPORTER: WHILE THE LINE HERE OUTSIDE THE JOHNSTON BRANCH LIBRARY DOESN’T WRAP AROUND OUTSIDE THE JOHNSTON BRANCH LIBRARY DOESN’T WRAP AROUND THREE SIDES OF THIS BUILDING, WE LIBRARY DOESN’T WRAP AROUND THREE SIDES OF THIS BUILDING, WE WANT TO MENTION THAT BEFORE WE THREE SIDES OF THIS BUILDING, WE WANT TO MENTION THAT BEFORE WE GOT HERE WE WERE AT PALO ALTO WANT TO MENTION THAT BEFORE WE GOT HERE WE WERE AT PALO ALTO COLLEGE, VIRTUALLY NO LINES AT GOT HERE WE WERE AT PALO ALTO COLLEGE, VIRTUALLY NO LINES AT ALL COLLEGE, VIRTUALLY NO LINES AT ALL FOR ANYONE OUT THERE WITH TME ALL FOR ANYONE OUT THERE WITH TME CONSTRAINTS AND WANTS TO COME TO FOR ANYONE OUT THERE WITH TME CONSTRAINTS AND WANTS TO COME TO THE SOUTHWEST SIDE OR SOUTH SIDE CONSTRAINTS AND WANTS TO COME TO THE SOUTHWEST SIDE OR SOUTH SIDE AREA AND VOTE HIM A PALO ALTO THE SOUTHWEST SIDE OR SOUTH SIDE AREA AND VOTE HIM A PALO ALTO COLLEGE IS ANOTHER OPTION AREA AND VOTE HIM A PALO ALTO COLLEGE IS ANOTHER OPTION WE WANT TO GET OVER TO STEPHEN COLLEGE IS ANOTHER OPTION WE WANT TO GET OVER TO STEPHEN WHO IS LIVE ON THE WEST SIDE OF WE WANT TO GET OVER TO STEPHEN WHO IS LIVE ON THE WEST SIDE OF THE POLLING LOCATION WITH WHAT WHO IS LIVE ON THE WEST SIDE OF THE POLLING LOCATION WITH WHAT HE SEES THE POLLING LOCATION WITH WHAT HE SEES REPORTER: IF YOU CAN HEAR, THOSE HE SEES REPORTER: IF YOU CAN HEAR, THOSE MARIACHIS ARE KEEPING THINGS REPORTER: IF YOU CAN HEAR, THOSE MARIACHIS ARE KEEPING THINGS LIVELY MARIACHIS ARE KEEPING THINGS LIVELY WITH LESS THAN AN HOUR TO GO LIVELY WITH LESS THAN AN HOUR TO GO BEFORE PULLING SITES CLOSE, WITH LESS THAN AN HOUR TO GO BEFORE PULLING SITES CLOSE, VOTERS WE TALKED TO SAY THEY BEFORE PULLING SITES CLOSE, VOTERS WE TALKED TO SAY THEY WANT TO MAKE SURE THEIR BALLOTS VOTERS WE TALKED TO SAY THEY WANT TO MAKE SURE THEIR BALLOTS ARE IN AND THEIR VOICES ARE WANT TO MAKE SURE THEIR BALLOTS ARE IN AND THEIR VOICES ARE HEARD ARE IN AND THEIR VOICES ARE HEARD WE ARE HEARD — WE ARE HERE AT HEARD WE ARE HEARD — WE ARE HERE AT THE LIBRARY ON THE WEST SIDE, WE WE ARE HEARD — WE ARE HERE AT THE LIBRARY ON THE WEST SIDE, WE MET PEOPLE WHO SAY THEY HAVEN’T THE LIBRARY ON THE WEST SIDE, WE MET PEOPLE WHO SAY THEY HAVEN’T ENCOUNTERED ANY PROBLEMS AT THIS MET PEOPLE WHO SAY THEY HAVEN’T ENCOUNTERED ANY PROBLEMS AT THIS SITE ENCOUNTERED ANY PROBLEMS AT THIS SITE ALSO A MOTHER AND SON VOTED FOR SITE ALSO A MOTHER AND SON VOTED FOR THE SAME TIME AND THEY DID IT ALSO A MOTHER AND SON VOTED FOR THE SAME TIME AND THEY DID IT TOGETHER THE SAME TIME AND THEY DID IT TOGETHER THEY WANTED TO MAKE IT A FAMILY TOGETHER THEY WANTED TO MAKE IT A FAMILY AFFAIR AND THEY TELL US THEY ARE THEY WANTED TO MAKE IT A FAMILY AFFAIR AND THEY TELL US THEY ARE VOTING FOR THE FUTURE AFFAIR AND THEY TELL US THEY ARE VOTING FOR THE FUTURE >> IT MAY NOT MAKE A DIFFERENCE VOTING FOR THE FUTURE >> IT MAY NOT MAKE A DIFFERENCE RIGHT NOW FOR ME BUT FOR MY >> IT MAY NOT MAKE A DIFFERENCE RIGHT NOW FOR ME BUT FOR MY KIDS, I WOULD LIKE TO THINK IT RIGHT NOW FOR ME BUT FOR MY KIDS, I WOULD LIKE TO THINK IT MAKES A DIFFERENCE FOR THEM KIDS, I WOULD LIKE TO THINK IT MAKES A DIFFERENCE FOR THEM >> IT IS MY FIRST TIME VOTING MAKES A DIFFERENCE FOR THEM >> IT IS MY FIRST TIME VOTING AND I FEEL GOOD ABOUT IT >> IT IS MY FIRST TIME VOTING AND I FEEL GOOD ABOUT IT NOT JUST TO SPEAK BUT TO VOTE AND I FEEL GOOD ABOUT IT NOT JUST TO SPEAK BUT TO VOTE REPORTER: PULLING SITES ARE NOT JUST TO SPEAK BUT TO VOTE REPORTER: PULLING SITES ARE EXPECTED TO CLOSE BY 7:00 REPORTER: PULLING SITES ARE EXPECTED TO CLOSE BY 7:00 TONIGHT

EXPECTED TO CLOSE BY 7:00 TONIGHT HERE AT THE LIBRARY, IT WAS SLOW TONIGHT HERE AT THE LIBRARY, IT WAS SLOW THIS AFTERNOON BUT HAS BEEN HERE AT THE LIBRARY, IT WAS SLOW THIS AFTERNOON BUT HAS BEEN PICKING UP OVER THE LAST FEW THIS AFTERNOON BUT HAS BEEN PICKING UP OVER THE LAST FEW MINUTES PICKING UP OVER THE LAST FEW MINUTES ONE OF THE RACES WE ARE KEEPING MINUTES ONE OF THE RACES WE ARE KEEPING A CLOSE EYE ON IS AT A DISTRICT ONE OF THE RACES WE ARE KEEPING A CLOSE EYE ON IS AT A DISTRICT 19 OF THE TEXAS STATE SENATE A CLOSE EYE ON IS AT A DISTRICT 19 OF THE TEXAS STATE SENATE SENATOR FLORES FACES OPPONENT 19 OF THE TEXAS STATE SENATE SENATOR FLORES FACES OPPONENT GUTIERREZ SENATOR FLORES FACES OPPONENT GUTIERREZ WE ARE GOING TO HAVE MORE ON GUTIERREZ WE ARE GOING TO HAVE MORE ON THAT RACE TONIGHT AND ON WE ARE GOING TO HAVE MORE ON THAT RACE TONIGHT AND ON KSAT.COM THAT RACE TONIGHT AND ON KSAT.COM MYRA: THANK YOU KSAT.COM MYRA: THANK YOU IT IS GREAT TO SEE SO MANY MYRA: THANK YOU IT IS GREAT TO SEE SO MANY PEOPLE OUT THERE WAITING TO CAST IT IS GREAT TO SEE SO MANY PEOPLE OUT THERE WAITING TO CAST THEIR VOTE PEOPLE OUT THERE WAITING TO CAST THEIR VOTE STEVE: I LIKE THE MARRIOTT SHE’S THEIR VOTE STEVE: I LIKE THE MARRIOTT SHE’S WERE ENTERTAINING PEOPLE — THE STEVE: I LIKE THE MARRIOTT SHE’S WERE ENTERTAINING PEOPLE — THE MARRIOTT G — ENTERTAINING WERE ENTERTAINING PEOPLE — THE MARRIOTT G — ENTERTAINING PEOPLE MARRIOTT G — ENTERTAINING PEOPLE MYRA: WE HAVEN’T LIVE STREAMS PEOPLE MYRA: WE HAVEN’T LIVE STREAMS HEADING YOUR WAY, THE NEXT MYRA: WE HAVEN’T LIVE STREAMS HEADING YOUR WAY, THE NEXT BEGINS AT 6:30 RING THE SHOW ON HEADING YOUR WAY, THE NEXT BEGINS AT 6:30 RING THE SHOW ON KSAT.COM AND ON THE APP AT 7:00 BEGINS AT 6:30 RING THE SHOW ON KSAT.COM AND ON THE APP AT 7:00 WE HAVE TWO MORE AT 7:00 A.M KSAT.COM AND ON THE APP AT 7:00 WE HAVE TWO MORE AT 7:00 A.M AND 7:00 P.M WE HAVE TWO MORE AT 7:00 A.M AND 7:00 P.M STEVE: ON KSAT.COM, WE ARE AND 7:00 P.M STEVE: ON KSAT.COM, WE ARE GIVING YOU THE OPPORTUNITY TO STEVE: ON KSAT.COM, WE ARE GIVING YOU THE OPPORTUNITY TO WATCH THE ELECTION NIGHT GIVING YOU THE OPPORTUNITY TO WATCH THE ELECTION NIGHT YOU CAN CHOOSE FROM OUR ELECTION WATCH THE ELECTION NIGHT YOU CAN CHOOSE FROM OUR ELECTION DAY STREAMS INCLUDING WATCH YOU CAN CHOOSE FROM OUR ELECTION DAY STREAMS INCLUDING WATCH PARTIES FOR THE CANDIDATES, DAY STREAMS INCLUDING WATCH PARTIES FOR THE CANDIDATES, PULLING SITES, AND BEXAR COUNTY PARTIES FOR THE CANDIDATES, PULLING SITES, AND BEXAR COUNTY HEADQUARTERS PULLING SITES, AND BEXAR COUNTY HEADQUARTERS >> I WILL BE COVERING THE SALES TAX PROPOSITIONS, THE LATEST COMING UP TAX PROPOSITIONS, THE LATEST COMING UP >> MEDICAL DIRECTOR FOR SAN COMING UP >> MEDICAL DIRECTOR FOR SAN ANTONIO HEALTH AND THE PUBLIC >> MEDICAL DIRECTOR FOR SAN ANTONIO HEALTH AND THE PUBLIC HEALTH AUTHORITY, IT IS 6:13 ON ANTONIO HEALTH AND THE PUBLIC HEALTH AUTHORITY, IT IS 6:13 ON TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 3, ELECTION HEALTH AUTHORITY, IT IS 6:13 ON TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 3, ELECTION DAY IN THE U.S TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 3, ELECTION DAY IN THE U.S YOU HAVE 47 MINUTES TO VOTE IF DAY IN THE U.S YOU HAVE 47 MINUTES TO VOTE IF YOU HAVEN’T CAST YOUR VOTE YOU HAVE 47 MINUTES TO VOTE IF YOU HAVEN’T CAST YOUR VOTE WE HOPE YOU DO, THIS IS OUR YOU HAVEN’T CAST YOUR VOTE WE HOPE YOU DO, THIS IS OUR COVID-19 UPDATE FOR THE SAN WE HOPE YOU DO, THIS IS OUR COVID-19 UPDATE FOR THE SAN ANTONIO COMMUNITY COVID-19 UPDATE FOR THE SAN ANTONIO COMMUNITY WE ARE REPORTING 298 CASES EACH ANTONIO COMMUNITY WE ARE REPORTING 298 CASES EACH DAY BRINGING THE TOTAL TO 66,000 WE ARE REPORTING 298 CASES EACH DAY BRINGING THE TOTAL TO 66,000 500 SINCE THIS PANDEMIC BEGAN

DAY BRINGING THE TOTAL TO 66,000 500 SINCE THIS PANDEMIC BEGAN THE MOVING AVERAGE HAS JUMPED UP 500 SINCE THIS PANDEMIC BEGAN THE MOVING AVERAGE HAS JUMPED UP TO 227 THE MOVING AVERAGE HAS JUMPED UP TO 227 THE TREND FROM THE PAST FEW TO 227 THE TREND FROM THE PAST FEW WEEKS AS CONTINUED THE TREND FROM THE PAST FEW WEEKS AS CONTINUED WE ARE SEEING INCREASE IN NEW CASES THAT CALLS ON YOU AND EVERYONE YOU KNOW TO WEAR A MASK, SOCIAL THAT CALLS ON YOU AND EVERYONE YOU KNOW TO WEAR A MASK, SOCIAL DISTANCING YOU KNOW TO WEAR A MASK, SOCIAL DISTANCING WE HAVE NO NEW DEATHS TO REPORT DISTANCING WE HAVE NO NEW DEATHS TO REPORT BUT SO MANY LOVED ONES AND WE HAVE NO NEW DEATHS TO REPORT BUT SO MANY LOVED ONES AND NEIGHBORS HAVE BEEN LOST SO KEEP BUT SO MANY LOVED ONES AND NEIGHBORS HAVE BEEN LOST SO KEEP THEM AND THEIR FAMILIES IN YOUR NEIGHBORS HAVE BEEN LOST SO KEEP THEM AND THEIR FAMILIES IN YOUR PRAYERS THEM AND THEIR FAMILIES IN YOUR PRAYERS IN HOSPITALS, WE ARE SEEING AN PRAYERS IN HOSPITALS, WE ARE SEEING AN UPTICK IN NUMBERS IN HOSPITALS, WE ARE SEEING AN UPTICK IN NUMBERS WE HAVE 200 40 COVID-19 PATIENTS UPTICK IN NUMBERS WE HAVE 200 40 COVID-19 PATIENTS IN THE HOSPITAL WHICH IS UP WE HAVE 200 40 COVID-19 PATIENTS IN THE HOSPITAL WHICH IS UP SEVEN FROM YESTERDAY IN THE HOSPITAL WHICH IS UP SEVEN FROM YESTERDAY THIS INCLUDES NEW COVID-19 SEVEN FROM YESTERDAY THIS INCLUDES NEW COVID-19 ADMISSIONS OVER THE PAST 24 THIS INCLUDES NEW COVID-19 ADMISSIONS OVER THE PAST 24 HOURS ADMISSIONS OVER THE PAST 24 HOURS WE HAVE 104 PATIENTS IN THE ICU, HOURS WE HAVE 104 PATIENTS IN THE ICU, UP FROM YESTERDAY WE HAVE 104 PATIENTS IN THE ICU, UP FROM YESTERDAY 46 PATIENTS ON VENTILATORS THIS UP FROM YESTERDAY 46 PATIENTS ON VENTILATORS THIS EVENING 46 PATIENTS ON VENTILATORS THIS EVENING TUESDAY WE LOOK AT OUR SCHOOLS EVENING TUESDAY WE LOOK AT OUR SCHOOLS SO A MESSAGE TO ALL OF YOU TUESDAY WE LOOK AT OUR SCHOOLS SO A MESSAGE TO ALL OF YOU TEACHERS, SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS, SO A MESSAGE TO ALL OF YOU TEACHERS, SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS, AND PARENTS TEACHERS, SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS, AND PARENTS WITH THE NUMBERS GOING UP, NOW AND PARENTS WITH THE NUMBERS GOING UP, NOW IS THE TIME TO BE CAUTIOUS WITH THE NUMBERS GOING UP, NOW IS THE TIME TO BE CAUTIOUS WE DO NOT RECOMMEND SCHOOLS IS THE TIME TO BE CAUTIOUS WE DO NOT RECOMMEND SCHOOLS EXPAND THE NUMBER OF IN PERSON WE DO NOT RECOMMEND SCHOOLS EXPAND THE NUMBER OF IN PERSON LEARNERS RIGHT NOW EXPAND THE NUMBER OF IN PERSON LEARNERS RIGHT NOW STAY THE COURSE, WATCH THE LEARNERS RIGHT NOW STAY THE COURSE, WATCH THE NUMBERS, AND LET’S BE MORE STAY THE COURSE, WATCH THE NUMBERS, AND LET’S BE MORE VIGILANT ABOUT WEARING MASKS, NUMBERS, AND LET’S BE MORE VIGILANT ABOUT WEARING MASKS, PRACTICING DISTANCING, WASHING VIGILANT ABOUT WEARING MASKS, PRACTICING DISTANCING, WASHING HANDS, AND PRACTICING HYGIENE PRACTICING DISTANCING, WASHING HANDS, AND PRACTICING HYGIENE >> IF THERE IS EVER A TIME TO BE HANDS, AND PRACTICING HYGIENE >> IF THERE IS EVER A TIME TO BE CAREFUL AND HANDLE OURSELVES >> IF THERE IS EVER A TIME TO BE CAREFUL AND HANDLE OURSELVES RIGHT IN DOING THE THINGS WE CAREFUL AND HANDLE OURSELVES RIGHT IN DOING THE THINGS WE PREACH ABOUT EVERY DAY, NOW IS RIGHT IN DOING THE THINGS WE PREACH ABOUT EVERY DAY, NOW IS THE TIME TO DO IT PREACH ABOUT EVERY DAY, NOW IS THE TIME TO DO IT I WAS LOOKING BACK ON SOME DATA THE TIME TO DO IT I WAS LOOKING BACK ON SOME DATA IN THE SUMMER WHEN WE GOT IN I WAS LOOKING BACK ON SOME DATA IN THE SUMMER WHEN WE GOT IN SERIOUS TROUBLE IN THE SUMMER WHEN WE GOT IN SERIOUS TROUBLE PEOPLE WERE NOT WEARING FACE SERIOUS TROUBLE PEOPLE WERE NOT WEARING FACE MASKS THEN BECAUSE THE GOVERNOR PEOPLE WERE NOT WEARING FACE MASKS THEN BECAUSE THE GOVERNOR HAD TAKEN IT AWAY MASKS THEN BECAUSE THE GOVERNOR HAD TAKEN IT AWAY TO SHOW YOU HOW QUICKLY THINGS HAD TAKEN IT AWAY TO SHOW YOU HOW QUICKLY THINGS CAN CHANGE ON YOU, ON JUNE 13 WE TO SHOW YOU HOW QUICKLY THINGS CAN CHANGE ON YOU, ON JUNE 13 WE HAD 230 CASES AND THEN IT JUMPED CAN CHANGE ON YOU, ON JUNE 13 WE HAD 230 CASES AND THEN IT JUMPED VERY QUICKLY THREE DAYS LATER TO HAD 230 CASES AND THEN IT JUMPED VERY QUICKLY THREE DAYS LATER TO 400, FIVE DAYS LATER 530 8, 6 VERY QUICKLY THREE DAYS LATER TO 400, FIVE DAYS LATER 530 8, 6 DAYS LATER 638, TWO DAYS LATER 400, FIVE DAYS LATER 530 8, 6 DAYS LATER 638, TWO DAYS LATER 795 DAYS LATER 638, TWO DAYS LATER 795 WE CANNOT LET THAT HAPPEN AGAIN 795 WE CANNOT LET THAT HAPPEN AGAIN WE ARE GOING TO HAVE TO BE WE CANNOT LET THAT HAPPEN AGAIN WE ARE GOING TO HAVE TO BE CAREFUL OVER THESE NEXT SEVERAL WE ARE GOING TO HAVE TO BE CAREFUL OVER THESE NEXT SEVERAL WEEKS BECAUSE WE ARE FIGHTING CAREFUL OVER THESE NEXT SEVERAL WEEKS BECAUSE WE ARE FIGHTING COVID, FIGHTING WHETHER — WEEKS BECAUSE WE ARE FIGHTING COVID, FIGHTING WHETHER — WEATHER COVID, FIGHTING WHETHER — WEATHER WE HAVE ISSUES TO BE ON TOP OF WEATHER WE HAVE ISSUES TO BE ON TOP OF SO EVERYBODY BE CAREFUL WE HAVE ISSUES TO BE ON TOP OF SO EVERYBODY BE CAREFUL WE DON’T WANT TO SEE WHAT SO EVERYBODY BE CAREFUL WE DON’T WANT TO SEE WHAT HAPPENED TO US THIS SUMMER WE DON’T WANT TO SEE WHAT HAPPENED TO US THIS SUMMER HAPPEN AGAIN HAPPENED TO US THIS SUMMER HAPPEN AGAIN WE HAVE 12 PATIENTS FROM EL PASO HAPPEN AGAIN WE HAVE 12 PATIENTS FROM EL PASO IN THE HOSPITAL — 18 AND THAT WE HAVE 12 PATIENTS FROM EL PASO IN THE HOSPITAL — 18 AND THAT HAS DRIVEN OUR NUMBERS UP IN THE HOSPITAL — 18 AND THAT HAS DRIVEN OUR NUMBERS UP BECAUSE WE HAVEN’T HAD TO TAKE HAS DRIVEN OUR NUMBERS UP BECAUSE WE HAVEN’T HAD TO TAKE PATIENTS FROM EL PASO BECAUSE WE HAVEN’T HAD TO TAKE PATIENTS FROM EL PASO THAT IS AFFECTING OUR HOSPITAL PATIENTS FROM EL PASO THAT IS AFFECTING OUR HOSPITAL NUMBERS THAT IS AFFECTING OUR HOSPITAL NUMBERS ALSO I JUST TALKED TO JACKIE NUMBERS ALSO I JUST TALKED TO JACKIE CALLAHAN A FEW MINUTES AGO, SHE ALSO I JUST TALKED TO JACKIE CALLAHAN A FEW MINUTES AGO, SHE IS OUR ELECTIONS ADMINISTRATOR, CALLAHAN A FEW MINUTES AGO, SHE IS OUR ELECTIONS ADMINISTRATOR, THEY ARE DOING A GREAT JOB IS OUR ELECTIONS ADMINISTRATOR, THEY ARE DOING A GREAT JOB WE ARE MANY 302 POLLING PLACES THEY ARE DOING A GREAT JOB WE ARE MANY 302 POLLING PLACES TODAY WE ARE MANY 302 POLLING PLACES TODAY WE ARE STARTING TO RUN OUT OF TODAY WE ARE STARTING TO RUN OUT OF VOTERS WE ARE STARTING TO RUN OUT OF VOTERS WE HAD ABOUT 80,000 WE THINK VOTERS WE HAD ABOUT 80,000 WE THINK WILL VOTE BY THE END OF THIS WE HAD ABOUT 80,000 WE THINK WILL VOTE BY THE END OF THIS NEXT 45 MINUTES UNLESS WE HAVE A WILL VOTE BY THE END OF THIS NEXT 45 MINUTES UNLESS WE HAVE A BIG SWAMP BY THE END NEXT 45 MINUTES UNLESS WE HAVE A BIG SWAMP BY THE END THAT 80,000 WHEN YOU ADD TO THE BIG SWAMP BY THE END THAT 80,000 WHEN YOU ADD TO THE EARLY COATS MEANS WE ARE GOING THAT 80,000 WHEN YOU ADD TO THE EARLY COATS MEANS WE ARE GOING TO EXCEED — WHICH MEANS THAT IS EARLY COATS MEANS WE ARE GOING TO EXCEED — WHICH MEANS THAT IS MORE PEOPLE THEN WENT IN LAST TO EXCEED — WHICH MEANS THAT IS MORE PEOPLE THEN WENT IN LAST PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION MORE PEOPLE THEN WENT IN LAST PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION A COUPLE OF THINGS WE NEEDED TO PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION A COUPLE OF THINGS WE NEEDED TO BE AWARE OF, IF YOU POST MARK — A COUPLE OF THINGS WE NEEDED TO BE AWARE OF, IF YOU POST MARK — POSTMARK YOUR ELECTION BALLOT, BE AWARE OF, IF YOU POST MARK — POSTMARK YOUR ELECTION BALLOT, YOU HAD UNTIL TOMORROW TO HAVE POSTMARK YOUR ELECTION BALLOT, YOU HAD UNTIL TOMORROW TO HAVE IT COUNTED YOU HAD UNTIL TOMORROW TO HAVE IT COUNTED IF THEY GET ANYMORE IN, THEY IT COUNTED IF THEY GET ANYMORE IN, THEY WILL BE ABLE TO COUNT THOSE IF THEY GET ANYMORE IN, THEY WILL BE ABLE TO COUNT THOSE IF YOU ARE MILITARY, YOU HAVE WILL BE ABLE TO COUNT THOSE IF YOU ARE MILITARY, YOU HAVE SIX DAYS TO GET IT IN IF YOU ARE MILITARY, YOU HAVE SIX DAYS TO GET IT IN WE WANT TO HAVE ALL THE MILITARY SIX DAYS TO GET IT IN WE WANT TO HAVE ALL THE MILITARY BALLOTS UNTIL THE SIX DAYS ARE WE WANT TO HAVE ALL THE MILITARY BALLOTS UNTIL THE SIX DAYS ARE EXPIRED BALLOTS UNTIL THE SIX DAYS ARE EXPIRED THOSE ARE LAWS AND WE FOLLOW EXPIRED THOSE ARE LAWS AND WE FOLLOW THOSE LAWS THOSE ARE LAWS AND WE FOLLOW THOSE LAWS THE GOOD THING ABOUT IT TODAY AS THOSE LAWS THE GOOD THING ABOUT IT TODAY AS WE HAVE HAD NO UGLY INCIDENTS AT THE GOOD THING ABOUT IT TODAY AS WE HAVE HAD NO UGLY INCIDENTS AT THE POLE — POLL WE HAVE HAD NO UGLY INCIDENTS AT THE POLE — POLL NOTHING SIGNIFICANT TODAY THE POLE — POLL NOTHING SIGNIFICANT TODAY I WANT TO THANK THE VOTERS FOR NOTHING SIGNIFICANT TODAY I WANT TO THANK THE VOTERS FOR BEING VERY ATTUNED TO ACTING THE I WANT TO THANK THE VOTERS FOR BEING VERY ATTUNED TO ACTING THE RIGHT WAY WHEN THEY WENT TO BEING VERY ATTUNED TO ACTING THE RIGHT WAY WHEN THEY WENT TO VOTE, BEING RESPECTFUL OF EACH RIGHT WAY WHEN THEY WENT TO VOTE, BEING RESPECTFUL OF EACH OTHER, BEING RESPECTFUL OF THE VOTE, BEING RESPECTFUL OF EACH OTHER, BEING RESPECTFUL OF THE JUDGES AND THE PEOPLE THAT WORK OTHER, BEING RESPECTFUL OF THE JUDGES AND THE PEOPLE THAT WORK HARD TO PUT ON THESE ELECTIONS JUDGES AND THE PEOPLE THAT WORK HARD TO PUT ON THESE ELECTIONS THANK YOU FOR DOING THAT HARD TO PUT ON THESE ELECTIONS THANK YOU FOR DOING THAT >> I WANT TO SAY THANK YOU TO THANK YOU FOR DOING THAT >> I WANT TO SAY THANK YOU TO THE VOLUNTEER ELECTION JUDGES >> I WANT TO SAY THANK YOU TO THE VOLUNTEER ELECTION JUDGES OUT THERE, MANY FOLKS WORKING THE VOLUNTEER ELECTION JUDGES OUT THERE, MANY FOLKS WORKING THE POLE — POLLS ARE YOUR OUT THERE, MANY FOLKS WORKING THE POLE — POLLS ARE YOUR NEIGHBORS AND RESIDENTS OF SAN THE POLE — POLLS ARE YOUR NEIGHBORS AND RESIDENTS OF SAN ANTONIO AND THEY DESERVE A NEIGHBORS AND RESIDENTS OF SAN ANTONIO AND THEY DESERVE A THANKS ANTONIO AND THEY DESERVE A THANKS MANY PEOPLE ARE HURTING DURING THANKS MANY PEOPLE ARE HURTING DURING THIS PANDEMIC AND IF YOU NEED MANY PEOPLE ARE HURTING DURING THIS PANDEMIC AND IF YOU NEED ASSISTANCE WITH RENT OR THIS PANDEMIC AND IF YOU NEED ASSISTANCE WITH RENT OR MORTGAGE, WE HAVE ASSISTANCE ASSISTANCE WITH RENT OR MORTGAGE, WE HAVE ASSISTANCE AVAILABLE TO YOU MORTGAGE, WE HAVE ASSISTANCE AVAILABLE TO YOU CALL 311 OR VISIT THE WEBSITE AVAILABLE TO YOU CALL 311 OR VISIT THE WEBSITE COVID19.SANANTONIO.GOV CALL 311 OR VISIT THE WEBSITE COVID19.SANANTONIO.GOV IF YOU NEED TO GET BACK IN WORK, COVID19.SANANTONIO.GOV IF YOU NEED TO GET BACK IN WORK, THERE ARE JOBS AVAILABLE IF YOU NEED TO GET BACK IN WORK, THERE ARE JOBS AVAILABLE WE HAVE SKILLS TRAINING THERE ARE JOBS AVAILABLE WE HAVE SKILLS TRAINING AVAILABLE TO YOU RIGHT NOW WE HAVE SKILLS TRAINING AVAILABLE TO YOU RIGHT NOW >> IT IS A TROUBLING TREND THAT

AVAILABLE TO YOU RIGHT NOW >> IT IS A TROUBLING TREND THAT CONTINUES TONIGHT, WE ARE SEEING >> IT IS A TROUBLING TREND THAT CONTINUES TONIGHT, WE ARE SEEING MORE AND MORE CASES IN BEXAR CONTINUES TONIGHT, WE ARE SEEING MORE AND MORE CASES IN BEXAR COUNTY, 298 NEW CASES CONFIRMED MORE AND MORE CASES IN BEXAR COUNTY, 298 NEW CASES CONFIRMED THAT BRINGS THE TOTAL TO — BUT COUNTY, 298 NEW CASES CONFIRMED THAT BRINGS THE TOTAL TO — BUT BRINGS 70 AVERAGE WHICH THEY SAY THAT BRINGS THE TOTAL TO — BUT BRINGS 70 AVERAGE WHICH THEY SAY IS MORE REFLECTIVE OF A 24 HOUR BRINGS 70 AVERAGE WHICH THEY SAY IS MORE REFLECTIVE OF A 24 HOUR TIME TO 227 CASES, NO NEW DEATHS IS MORE REFLECTIVE OF A 24 HOUR TIME TO 227 CASES, NO NEW DEATHS TO REPORTS BUT TIME TO 227 CASES, NO NEW DEATHS TO REPORTS BUT TO REPORTS BUT HOSPITALIZATIONS ALSO UP HOSPITALIZATIONS ALSO UP THE MAYOR ASKING SCHOOLS TO STAY HOSPITALIZATIONS ALSO UP THE MAYOR ASKING SCHOOLS TO STAY THE COURSE AT THIS POINT THE MAYOR ASKING SCHOOLS TO STAY THE COURSE AT THIS POINT >> HE SAYS IT IS TIME TO BE THE COURSE AT THIS POINT >> HE SAYS IT IS TIME TO BE CAUTIOUS FOR ADMINISTRATORS, >> HE SAYS IT IS TIME TO BE CAUTIOUS FOR ADMINISTRATORS, SCHOOL STAFF, TEACHERS, ETC MYRA: THE JUDGE DID MENTION ABOUT WHEN IT COMES TO VOTING YOU HEARD THINGS WERE LACKLUSTER ABOUT WHEN IT COMES TO VOTING YOU HEARD THINGS WERE LACKLUSTER IN TERMS OF THE TURNOUT OF THE YOU HEARD THINGS WERE LACKLUSTER IN TERMS OF THE TURNOUT OF THE EXPECTED FOR ELECTION DAY IN TERMS OF THE TURNOUT OF THE EXPECTED FOR ELECTION DAY AND ALL, IT IS LOOKING LIKE EXPECTED FOR ELECTION DAY AND ALL, IT IS LOOKING LIKE THERE WILL BE 700,000 PEOPLE AND ALL, IT IS LOOKING LIKE THERE WILL BE 700,000 PEOPLE PLUS WHO VOTED IN TOTAL FROM THERE WILL BE 700,000 PEOPLE PLUS WHO VOTED IN TOTAL FROM EARLY VOTING COMBINED WITH TO PLUS WHO VOTED IN TOTAL FROM EARLY VOTING COMBINED WITH TO DATE WHICH IS 150,000 MORE EARLY VOTING COMBINED WITH TO DATE WHICH IS 150,000 MORE PEOPLE THAN VOTED IN ALL OF DATE WHICH IS 150,000 MORE PEOPLE THAN VOTED IN ALL OF 2016 PEOPLE THAN VOTED IN ALL OF 2016 STEVE: THERE IS STILL 40 MINUTES 2016 STEVE: THERE IS STILL 40 MINUTES TO VOTE IF YOU ARE IN LINE AT STEVE: THERE IS STILL 40 MINUTES TO VOTE IF YOU ARE IN LINE AT 7:00, YOU WILL BE ABLE TO VOTE TO VOTE IF YOU ARE IN LINE AT 7:00, YOU WILL BE ABLE TO VOTE MYRA: THE — 7:00, YOU WILL BE ABLE TO VOTE MYRA: THE — STEVE: THE SHOTS WE SAW FROM MYRA: THE — STEVE: THE SHOTS WE SAW FROM LIVE, THEY WERE SO PEOPLE IN STEVE: THE SHOTS WE SAW FROM LIVE, THEY WERE SO PEOPLE IN LINE ON THE SOUTH SIDE LIVE, THEY WERE SO PEOPLE IN LINE ON THE SOUTH SIDE WE COULD STILL HIT THE 100,000 LINE ON THE SOUTH SIDE WE COULD STILL HIT THE 100,000 THAT WAS PROJECTED WE COULD STILL HIT THE 100,000 THAT WAS PROJECTED THEY HAVE DOWNGRADED THAT TO THAT WAS PROJECTED THEY HAVE DOWNGRADED THAT TO ABOUT 80,000 EXPECTED TO VOTE THEY HAVE DOWNGRADED THAT TO ABOUT 80,000 EXPECTED TO VOTE TODAY ABOUT 80,000 EXPECTED TO VOTE TODAY MYRA: LET’S TURN TO THE WEATHER, TODAY MYRA: LET’S TURN TO THE WEATHER, THAT IS NOT A FACTOR FOR VOTERS MYRA: LET’S TURN TO THE WEATHER, THAT IS NOT A FACTOR FOR VOTERS TO DATE WHICH WAS GOOD NEWS FOR THAT IS NOT A FACTOR FOR VOTERS TO DATE WHICH WAS GOOD NEWS FOR PEOPLE HEADING UP TO THE POLE — TO DATE WHICH WAS GOOD NEWS FOR PEOPLE HEADING UP TO THE POLE — POLLS PEOPLE HEADING UP TO THE POLE — POLLS ADAM: ESPECIALLY WHEN WINTER POLLS ADAM: ESPECIALLY WHEN WINTER PRECIPITATION CAN AFFECT VOTER ADAM: ESPECIALLY WHEN WINTER PRECIPITATION CAN AFFECT VOTER TURNOUT, AROUND HERE WE DON’T PRECIPITATION CAN AFFECT VOTER TURNOUT, AROUND HERE WE DON’T HAVE TO WORRY ABOUT THAT TURNOUT, AROUND HERE WE DON’T HAVE TO WORRY ABOUT THAT IN 2016 WE HAD RAINFALL ON HAVE TO WORRY ABOUT THAT IN 2016 WE HAD RAINFALL ON ELECTION DAY IN 2016 WE HAD RAINFALL ON ELECTION DAY I WISH WE COULD’VE HAD SOME ELECTION DAY I WISH WE COULD’VE HAD SOME CLOUDS AND RAIN TODAY, BUT WE I WISH WE COULD’VE HAD SOME CLOUDS AND RAIN TODAY, BUT WE JUST HAD HIGH THIN CLOUDS CLOUDS AND RAIN TODAY, BUT WE JUST HAD HIGH THIN CLOUDS WE WILL HAVE MORNING FOG JUST HAD HIGH THIN CLOUDS WE WILL HAVE MORNING FOG TOMORROW, WARMER MORNINGS ARE ON WE WILL HAVE MORNING FOG TOMORROW, WARMER MORNINGS ARE ON THE WAY TOMORROW, WARMER MORNINGS ARE ON THE WAY WE WILL SEE MORNING READINGS ON THE WAY WE WILL SEE MORNING READINGS ON THE RISE AND HUMIDITY BACK IN WE WILL SEE MORNING READINGS ON THE RISE AND HUMIDITY BACK IN THE AIR FRIDAY THE RISE AND HUMIDITY BACK IN THE AIR FRIDAY LET’S LOOK AT OUR SUNSET THE AIR FRIDAY LET’S LOOK AT OUR SUNSET WITH THE TIME CHANGE, I’M STILL LET’S LOOK AT OUR SUNSET WITH THE TIME CHANGE, I’M STILL GETTING USED TO IT WITH THE TIME CHANGE, I’M STILL GETTING USED TO IT 5:45 IS THE SUNSET GETTING USED TO IT 5:45 IS THE SUNSET WE STARTED THE DAY AT 43, MADE 5:45 IS THE SUNSET WE STARTED THE DAY AT 43, MADE IT TO 80 FOR THE AFTERNOON HIGH WE STARTED THE DAY AT 43, MADE IT TO 80 FOR THE AFTERNOON HIGH BERNIE LIKE TO DROP OFF QUICKLY, IT TO 80 FOR THE AFTERNOON HIGH BERNIE LIKE TO DROP OFF QUICKLY, AT 63 BERNIE LIKE TO DROP OFF QUICKLY, AT 63 RANDOLPH AT 65 AND 70 IN AT 63 RANDOLPH AT 65 AND 70 IN PLEASANTON RANDOLPH AT 65 AND 70 IN PLEASANTON TEMPERATURES ARE FALLING OFF PLEASANTON TEMPERATURES ARE FALLING OFF QUICKLY THIS EVENING, THAT SHE TEMPERATURES ARE FALLING OFF QUICKLY THIS EVENING, THAT SHE WAS GOING TO CREEP UP ON YOU QUICKLY THIS EVENING, THAT SHE WAS GOING TO CREEP UP ON YOU FOR WAS GOING TO CREEP UP ON YOU FOR FOR — FOR OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES, HAVE — FOR OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES, HAVE THAT JACKET HANDY — FOR OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES, HAVE THAT JACKET HANDY THIS EVENING, CLEAR ,CALM THAT JACKET HANDY THIS EVENING, CLEAR ,CALM TOMORROW WE WILL START AT 48 THIS EVENING, CLEAR ,CALM TOMORROW WE WILL START AT 48 DEGREES BUT MAKE IT UP TO 78, NO TOMORROW WE WILL START AT 48 DEGREES BUT MAKE IT UP TO 78, NO BIG CHANGES OTHER THAN LOIS DEGREES BUT MAKE IT UP TO 78, NO BIG CHANGES OTHER THAN LOIS RISING A LITTLE BIT AFTER DAY BIG CHANGES OTHER THAN LOIS RISING A LITTLE BIT AFTER DAY BACK IN THE 60’S FOR SUNDAY AND RISING A LITTLE BIT AFTER DAY BACK IN THE 60’S FOR SUNDAY AND A COLD FRONT POSSIBLY TUESDAY BACK IN THE 60’S FOR SUNDAY AND A COLD FRONT POSSIBLY TUESDAY STEVE: GOOD NEWS FOR THE AGGIES A COLD FRONT POSSIBLY TUESDAY STEVE: GOOD NEWS FOR THE AGGIES >> THEY TOOK A HIT WITH OPT OUTS STEVE: GOOD NEWS FOR THE AGGIES >> THEY TOOK A HIT WITH OPT OUTS AND INJURIES BUT THEY HAVE A >> THEY TOOK A HIT WITH OPT OUTS AND INJURIES BUT THEY HAVE A WIDE RECEIVER BACK AND HE IS AND INJURIES BUT THEY HAVE A WIDE RECEIVER BACK AND HE IS GOING TO BE READY FOR THE NEXT WIDE RECEIVER BACK AND HE IS GOING TO BE READY FOR THE NEXT OF THE SEASON — THE REST OF THE GOING TO BE READY FOR THE NEXT OF THE SEASON — THE REST OF THE SEASON OF THE SEASON — THE REST OF THE SEASON THE JAGUAR’S LOOK AT TO STAY SEASON THE JAGUAR’S LOOK AT TO STAY UNDEFEATED AGAINST ROSEVILLE, THE JAGUAR’S LOOK AT TO STAY UNDEFEATED AGAINST ROSEVILLE, ONE OF THE BIG GAMES IN OUR UNDEFEATED AGAINST ROSEVILLE, ONE OF THE BIG GAMES IN OUR COVERAGE COMING UP ONE OF THE BIG GAMES IN OUR COVERAGE COMING UP COVERAGE COMING UP >> HEZEKIAH JONES MADE HIS DEBUT OVER ARKANSAS HE RECORD HIS ACHILLES TENDING

OVER ARKANSAS HE RECORD HIS ACHILLES TENDING — TENDON ENTERED 19 HE RECORD HIS ACHILLES TENDING — TENDON ENTERED 19 CALEB CAP MEANT WENT DOWN WITH — TENDON ENTERED 19 CALEB CAP MEANT WENT DOWN WITH SEASON ENDING INJURIES, JONES IS CALEB CAP MEANT WENT DOWN WITH SEASON ENDING INJURIES, JONES IS THE ONLY ONE WITH EXPANSE SEASON ENDING INJURIES, JONES IS THE ONLY ONE WITH EXPANSE >> IT WAS FUN THE ONLY ONE WITH EXPANSE >> IT WAS FUN IT HAS BEEN A WHILE >> IT WAS FUN IT HAS BEEN A WHILE LIKE A YEAR AND A HALF, I IT HAS BEEN A WHILE LIKE A YEAR AND A HALF, I HAVEN’T PLAYED SINCE 2018 SO IT LIKE A YEAR AND A HALF, I HAVEN’T PLAYED SINCE 2018 SO IT WAS FUN TO GET BACK HAVEN’T PLAYED SINCE 2018 SO IT WAS FUN TO GET BACK OUT THERE WITH THE GUYS WAS FUN TO GET BACK OUT THERE WITH THE GUYS I HAVE BEEN THIS MY TEAMMATES OUT THERE WITH THE GUYS I HAVE BEEN THIS MY TEAMMATES THEY HAVE BEEN DOING A I HAVE BEEN THIS MY TEAMMATES THEY HAVE BEEN DOING A TREMENDOUS JOB WINNING THEY HAVE BEEN DOING A TREMENDOUS JOB WINNING I AM HAPPY TO BE OUT THERE TO TREMENDOUS JOB WINNING I AM HAPPY TO BE OUT THERE TO CONTRIBUTE I AM HAPPY TO BE OUT THERE TO CONTRIBUTE >> THAT GIVES ANOTHER TARGET CONTRIBUTE >> THAT GIVES ANOTHER TARGET WITH SOUTH CAROLINA THIS >> THAT GIVES ANOTHER TARGET WITH SOUTH CAROLINA THIS SATURDAY AT 6:00 WITH SOUTH CAROLINA THIS SATURDAY AT 6:00 THE TEXAS LONGHORNS OPEN AS THE SATURDAY AT 6:00 THE TEXAS LONGHORNS OPEN AS THE HOST WEST VIRGINIA SATURDAY THE TEXAS LONGHORNS OPEN AS THE HOST WEST VIRGINIA SATURDAY MORNING, BOTH TEAMS COME IN– HOST WEST VIRGINIA SATURDAY MORNING, BOTH TEAMS COME IN– THE WINNER WILL STAY IN MORNING, BOTH TEAMS COME IN– THE WINNER WILL STAY IN CONTENTION FOR THE BIG 12 TITLE, THE WINNER WILL STAY IN CONTENTION FOR THE BIG 12 TITLE, THE LONGHORN SPEED THE CONTENTION FOR THE BIG 12 TITLE, THE LONGHORN SPEED THE MOUNTAINEERS LAST YEAR — BEAT THE LONGHORN SPEED THE MOUNTAINEERS LAST YEAR — BEAT THE MOUNTAINEERS LAST YEAR MOUNTAINEERS LAST YEAR — BEAT THE MOUNTAINEERS LAST YEAR THIS SHOULD ON FEATURES THE THE MOUNTAINEERS LAST YEAR THIS SHOULD ON FEATURES THE NUMBER ONE OFFENSE AGAINST THE THIS SHOULD ON FEATURES THE NUMBER ONE OFFENSE AGAINST THE NUMBER ONE DEFENSE — THIS NUMBER ONE OFFENSE AGAINST THE NUMBER ONE DEFENSE — THIS SHOWDOWN FEATURES THE NUMBER ONE NUMBER ONE DEFENSE — THIS SHOWDOWN FEATURES THE NUMBER ONE OFFENSE AGAINST THE NUMBER ONE SHOWDOWN FEATURES THE NUMBER ONE OFFENSE AGAINST THE NUMBER ONE DEFENSE OFFENSE AGAINST THE NUMBER ONE DEFENSE >> THE KEY IS CAN WE BLOCK THEM DEFENSE >> THE KEY IS CAN WE BLOCK THEM CONSISTENTLY >> THE KEY IS CAN WE BLOCK THEM CONSISTENTLY WE KNOW THEY ARE GOING TO MAKE A CONSISTENTLY WE KNOW THEY ARE GOING TO MAKE A GOOD PLACE WE KNOW THEY ARE GOING TO MAKE A GOOD PLACE THEY HAVE GOOD PLACE THEY HAVE MADE THE MAGGOTS EVERYBODY THEY HAVE MADE THE MAGGOTS EVERYBODY IF WE CAN — THEY HAVE MADE THEM MADE THE MAGGOTS EVERYBODY IF WE CAN — THEY HAVE MADE THEM AGAINST EVERYBODY IF WE CAN — THEY HAVE MADE THEM AGAINST EVERYBODY IF WE CAN BE CONSISTENT IN NOT AGAINST EVERYBODY IF WE CAN BE CONSISTENT IN NOT TURNING GUYS COMPLETELY LOOSE IN IF WE CAN BE CONSISTENT IN NOT TURNING GUYS COMPLETELY LOOSE IN THE BACKFIELD, WE WILL HAVE A TURNING GUYS COMPLETELY LOOSE IN THE BACKFIELD, WE WILL HAVE A SHOT TO MOVE THE FOOTBALL THE BACKFIELD, WE WILL HAVE A SHOT TO MOVE THE FOOTBALL >> HE WAS HE THE LONGHORNS SHOT TO MOVE THE FOOTBALL >> HE WAS HE THE LONGHORNS FACE-OFF AGAINST THE >> HE WAS HE THE LONGHORNS FACE-OFF AGAINST THE MOUNTAINEERS IN AUSTIN SATURDAY FACE-OFF AGAINST THE MOUNTAINEERS IN AUSTIN SATURDAY MORNING AT 11:00 A.M. LIVE ON MOUNTAINEERS IN AUSTIN SATURDAY MORNING AT 11:00 A.M. LIVE ON KSAT 12 MORNING AT 11:00 A.M. LIVE ON KSAT 12 >> THE ROAD RUNNERS ARE GETTING KSAT 12 >> THE ROAD RUNNERS ARE GETTING BACK ON THE WINNING TRACK WHEN >> THE ROAD RUNNERS ARE GETTING BACK ON THE WINNING TRACK WHEN THEY FACE HOUSTON THIS BACK ON THE WINNING TRACK WHEN THEY FACE HOUSTON THIS AFTERNOON THEY FACE HOUSTON THIS AFTERNOON THE ROAD RUNNERS ARE 4-4 THIS AFTERNOON THE ROAD RUNNERS ARE 4-4 THIS SEASON AFTER ON THE ROAD AGAINST THE ROAD RUNNERS ARE 4-4 THIS SEASON AFTER ON THE ROAD AGAINST FLORIDA ATLANTIC SEASON AFTER ON THE ROAD AGAINST FLORIDA ATLANTIC THEY HAVE PLAYED ONLY TWO GAMES FLORIDA ATLANTIC THEY HAVE PLAYED ONLY TWO GAMES BECAUSE OF THE PANDEMIC THEY HAVE PLAYED ONLY TWO GAMES BECAUSE OF THE PANDEMIC WHAT IS THE COACH’S CONFIDENCE BECAUSE OF THE PANDEMIC WHAT IS THE COACH’S CONFIDENCE LEVEL WITH THE TEAM AFTER NOT WHAT IS THE COACH’S CONFIDENCE LEVEL WITH THE TEAM AFTER NOT SCORING A TOUCHDOWN? LEVEL WITH THE TEAM AFTER NOT SCORING A TOUCHDOWN? >> WE ARE FINE, WE ARE SCORING A TOUCHDOWN? >> WE ARE FINE, WE ARE DISAPPOINTED >> WE ARE FINE, WE ARE DISAPPOINTED WE HAVE GOT FOUR GAMES LEFT, WE DISAPPOINTED WE HAVE GOT FOUR GAMES LEFT, WE ARE 4-4 WE HAVE GOT FOUR GAMES LEFT, WE ARE 4-4 THERE’S NOT ONE GAME WE PLAYED ARE 4-4 THERE’S NOT ONE GAME WE PLAYED WHERE WE FELT WE WERE TOTALLY THERE’S NOT ONE GAME WE PLAYED WHERE WE FELT WE WERE TOTALLY OUTMATCHED OR DIDN’T HAVE A WHERE WE FELT WE WERE TOTALLY OUTMATCHED OR DIDN’T HAVE A CHANCE TO WIN OUTMATCHED OR DIDN’T HAVE A CHANCE TO WIN WE ARE CONFIDENT CHANCE TO WIN WE ARE CONFIDENT >> THE GAME IS TO KICKOFF AT WE ARE CONFIDENT >> THE GAME IS TO KICKOFF AT 2:30 WITH NO FANS ON SATURDAY IN >> THE GAME IS TO KICKOFF AT 2:30 WITH NO FANS ON SATURDAY IN HOUSTON 2:30 WITH NO FANS ON SATURDAY IN HOUSTON >> — ONE OF THE GAMES WILL BE HOUSTON >> — ONE OF THE GAMES WILL BE THE JAGUARS AGAINST ROSEVILLE >> — ONE OF THE GAMES WILL BE THE JAGUARS AGAINST ROSEVILLE ROUGH RIDERS, — THE ROUGH THE JAGUARS AGAINST ROSEVILLE ROUGH RIDERS, — THE ROUGH RIDERS ONLY LOST THE SEASON, THE ROUGH RIDERS, — THE ROUGH RIDERS ONLY LOST THE SEASON, THE JAGUAR’S FACE NEXT WEEK RIDERS ONLY LOST THE SEASON, THE JAGUAR’S FACE NEXT WEEK THIS WEEK IS A BATTLE BETWEEN JAGUAR’S FACE NEXT WEEK THIS WEEK IS A BATTLE BETWEEN THE NUMBER ONE AND NUMBER THREE THIS WEEK IS A BATTLE BETWEEN THE NUMBER ONE AND NUMBER THREE TEAM IN THE DISTRICT THE NUMBER ONE AND NUMBER THREE TEAM IN THE DISTRICT >> I KNOW THEY ARE A GOOD TEAM IN THE DISTRICT >> I KNOW THEY ARE A GOOD FOOTBALL TEAM >> I KNOW THEY ARE A GOOD FOOTBALL TEAM I HAVE SEEN THE RECORD, THEY ARE FOOTBALL TEAM I HAVE SEEN THE RECORD, THEY ARE VERY DISCIPLINED I HAVE SEEN THE RECORD, THEY ARE VERY DISCIPLINED THEY KNOW WHAT THEY’RE DOING VERY DISCIPLINED THEY KNOW WHAT THEY’RE DOING IT IS GOING TO BE A TOUGH THEY KNOW WHAT THEY’RE DOING IT IS GOING TO BE A TOUGH CHALLENGE IT IS GOING TO BE A TOUGH CHALLENGE >> WE DO NOT TAKE THIS LIGHTLY

CHALLENGE >> WE DO NOT TAKE THIS LIGHTLY AND WE KNOW THE >> WE DO NOT TAKE THIS LIGHTLY AND WE KNOW THE DANGERS OF GETTING AND WE KNOW THE DANGERS OF GETTING OVERCONFIDENT DANGERS OF GETTING OVERCONFIDENT OVERCONFIDENT WE START EVERY WEEK FEELING LIKE WE START EVERY WEEK FEELING LIKE WE ARE ZERO AND ZERO AND NEED TO WE START EVERY WEEK FEELING LIKE WE ARE ZERO AND ZERO AND NEED TO GET TO 2-0 WE ARE ZERO AND ZERO AND NEED TO GET TO 2-0 LET’S HEAD BACK TO OUR NEWSROOM GET TO 2-0 LET’S HEAD BACK TO OUR NEWSROOM WITH ELECTION COVERAGE LET’S HEAD BACK TO OUR NEWSROOM WITH ELECTION COVERAGE IT IS HEATING UP WITH ELECTION COVERAGE IT IS HEATING UP MYRA: OUR SPECIAL COVERAGE OF IT IS HEATING UP MYRA: OUR SPECIAL COVERAGE OF ELECTION NIGHT 20 STARTS AT THIS MYRA: OUR SPECIAL COVERAGE OF ELECTION NIGHT 20 STARTS AT THIS BREAK ELECTION NIGHT 20 STARTS AT THIS BREAK >> HISTORIC VOTER TURNOUT IN BREAK >> HISTORIC VOTER TURNOUT IN BEXAR COUNTY, JUST HOW HISTORIC? >> HISTORIC VOTER TURNOUT IN BEXAR COUNTY, JUST HOW HISTORIC? I AM DYLAN — >> AS IS THE CASE WITH SO MANY THINGS IN 2020, THIS IS NOT A NORMAL ELECTION NIGHT THINGS IN 2020, THIS IS NOT A NORMAL ELECTION NIGHT USUALLY ON ELECTION NIGHT, WE NORMAL ELECTION NIGHT USUALLY ON ELECTION NIGHT, WE HAVE ALL KINDS OF POLITICIANS USUALLY ON ELECTION NIGHT, WE HAVE ALL KINDS OF POLITICIANS AND CONSULTANTS AND POLITICAL HAVE ALL KINDS OF POLITICIANS AND CONSULTANTS AND POLITICAL SCIENTISTS THAT JOIN US LIVE IN AND CONSULTANTS AND POLITICAL SCIENTISTS THAT JOIN US LIVE IN THE STUDIO SCIENTISTS THAT JOIN US LIVE IN THE STUDIO THAT IS NOT HAPPENING TONIGHT SO THE STUDIO THAT IS NOT HAPPENING TONIGHT SO WE ARE DOING A LOT BY ZOOM THAT IS NOT HAPPENING TONIGHT SO WE ARE DOING A LOT BY ZOOM OUR GUESTS AT 6:30 ARE TWO WE ARE DOING A LOT BY ZOOM OUR GUESTS AT 6:30 ARE TWO PEOPLE MAY BE ON OPPOSITE SIDES OUR GUESTS AT 6:30 ARE TWO PEOPLE MAY BE ON OPPOSITE SIDES OF THE AISLE BUT THEY KNOW PEOPLE MAY BE ON OPPOSITE SIDES OF THE AISLE BUT THEY KNOW HOW TO READ NUMBERS WELL OF THE AISLE BUT THEY KNOW HOW TO READ NUMBERS WELL CHRISTIAN HAS BEEN A DEMOCRATIC HOW TO READ NUMBERS WELL CHRISTIAN HAS BEEN A DEMOCRATIC CONSULTANT, MATT IS THE CAMPAIGN CHRISTIAN HAS BEEN A DEMOCRATIC CONSULTANT, MATT IS THE CAMPAIGN STRATEGIST FOR TONY GONZALES CONSULTANT, MATT IS THE CAMPAIGN STRATEGIST FOR TONY GONZALES YOU ARE IN THE MIDDLE OF A STRATEGIST FOR TONY GONZALES YOU ARE IN THE MIDDLE OF A HEATED RACE TONIGHT, MATT YOU ARE IN THE MIDDLE OF A HEATED RACE TONIGHT, MATT I APPRECIATE YOU TAKING THE TIME HEATED RACE TONIGHT, MATT I APPRECIATE YOU TAKING THE TIME TO JOIN US QUICKLY HERE LIVE I APPRECIATE YOU TAKING THE TIME TO JOIN US QUICKLY HERE LIVE I WILL START WITH YOU, MATT, TO JOIN US QUICKLY HERE LIVE I WILL START WITH YOU, MATT, WHAT ARE YOU SEEING IN THE I WILL START WITH YOU, MATT, WHAT ARE YOU SEEING IN THE NUMBERS TODAY? WHAT ARE YOU SEEING IN THE NUMBERS TODAY? >> IT HAS LOOKED STEADY TODAY, NUMBERS TODAY? >> IT HAS LOOKED STEADY TODAY, IT DEPENDS ON WHICH CAP YOU ARE >> IT HAS LOOKED STEADY TODAY, IT DEPENDS ON WHICH CAP YOU ARE LOOKING AT IT DEPENDS ON WHICH CAP YOU ARE LOOKING AT TURNOUT IN A LOT OF PLACES LOOKING AT TURNOUT IN A LOT OF PLACES BEXAR COUNTY HAD ONLY — THOUGH TURNOUT IN A LOT OF PLACES BEXAR COUNTY HAD ONLY — THOUGH IT’S BY 11:00 A.M. BUT IT PICKED BEXAR COUNTY HAD ONLY — THOUGH IT’S BY 11:00 A.M. BUT IT PICKED UP IT’S BY 11:00 A.M. BUT IT PICKED UP I THINK THE? UP I THINK THE? IS GOING TO BE THE RIO GRANDE I THINK THE? IS GOING TO BE THE RIO GRANDE VALLEY IS GOING TO BE THE RIO GRANDE VALLEY THE TURNOUTS IN THOSE COUNTIES VALLEY THE TURNOUTS IN THOSE COUNTIES WERE DOWN IN EARLY VOTING

THE TURNOUTS IN THOSE COUNTIES WERE DOWN IN EARLY VOTING THAT MIGHT NOT BE A BAD THING WERE DOWN IN EARLY VOTING THAT MIGHT NOT BE A BAD THING FOR US THAT MIGHT NOT BE A BAD THING FOR US IT IS A BAD THING FOR JOE BIDEN FOR US IT IS A BAD THING FOR JOE BIDEN ‘S EFFORT TO TRY TO WIN TEXAS IT IS A BAD THING FOR JOE BIDEN ‘S EFFORT TO TRY TO WIN TEXAS I THINK WHAT YOU’RE GOING TO SEE ‘S EFFORT TO TRY TO WIN TEXAS I THINK WHAT YOU’RE GOING TO SEE IN THESE RACES IS IF THE I THINK WHAT YOU’RE GOING TO SEE IN THESE RACES IS IF THE DEMOCRATS DON’T HAVE A IN THESE RACES IS IF THE DEMOCRATS DON’T HAVE A SIGNIFICANT LEAD, ONCE THE DEMOCRATS DON’T HAVE A SIGNIFICANT LEAD, ONCE THE ABSENTEE AND EARLY VOTES ARE SIGNIFICANT LEAD, ONCE THE ABSENTEE AND EARLY VOTES ARE REPORTED AT 7:00, THEY’RE NOT ABSENTEE AND EARLY VOTES ARE REPORTED AT 7:00, THEY’RE NOT GOING TO WIN BECAUSE I THINK REPORTED AT 7:00, THEY’RE NOT GOING TO WIN BECAUSE I THINK REPUBLICANS ARE GOING TO HAVE AN GOING TO WIN BECAUSE I THINK REPUBLICANS ARE GOING TO HAVE AN ADVANTAGE ON ELECTION NIGHT ALL REPUBLICANS ARE GOING TO HAVE AN ADVANTAGE ON ELECTION NIGHT ALL ACROSS THE STATE ADVANTAGE ON ELECTION NIGHT ALL ACROSS THE STATE THE DEMOCRATS CAN ONLY WIN IF ACROSS THE STATE THE DEMOCRATS CAN ONLY WIN IF THEY HAVE AN ADVANTAGE THE DEMOCRATS CAN ONLY WIN IF THEY HAVE AN ADVANTAGE THE REASON TRUMP IS GOING TO WIN THEY HAVE AN ADVANTAGE THE REASON TRUMP IS GOING TO WIN TEXAS IS BECAUSE HE HAD A NET THE REASON TRUMP IS GOING TO WIN TEXAS IS BECAUSE HE HAD A NET VOTE ADVANTAGE THROUGH EARLY TEXAS IS BECAUSE HE HAD A NET VOTE ADVANTAGE THROUGH EARLY VOTING VOTE ADVANTAGE THROUGH EARLY VOTING UNLESS HE LOST ELECTION TODAY — VOTING UNLESS HE LOST ELECTION TODAY — ELECTION DAY, HE IS GOING TO WIN UNLESS HE LOST ELECTION TODAY — ELECTION DAY, HE IS GOING TO WIN TEXAS ELECTION DAY, HE IS GOING TO WIN TEXAS >> I THINK WHAT YOU LOOK AT THE TEXAS >> I THINK WHAT YOU LOOK AT THE EARLY VOTE NUMBERS, WHEN YOU >> I THINK WHAT YOU LOOK AT THE EARLY VOTE NUMBERS, WHEN YOU LOOK ACROSS EARLY FOOT NUMBERS, EARLY VOTE NUMBERS, WHEN YOU LOOK ACROSS EARLY FOOT NUMBERS, THEY ARE — BEXAR COUNTY, LOOK ACROSS EARLY FOOT NUMBERS, THEY ARE — BEXAR COUNTY, DALLAS, COLLIN COUNTY, COLLIN THEY ARE — BEXAR COUNTY, DALLAS, COLLIN COUNTY, COLLIN COUNTY IS GOING TO GO BLUE THIS DALLAS, COLLIN COUNTY, COLLIN COUNTY IS GOING TO GO BLUE THIS CYCLE COUNTY IS GOING TO GO BLUE THIS CYCLE WHEN YOU LOOK AT THE NEW VOTERS, CYCLE WHEN YOU LOOK AT THE NEW VOTERS, THERE ARE 3 MILLION EARLY TEXAS WHEN YOU LOOK AT THE NEW VOTERS, THERE ARE 3 MILLION EARLY TEXAS VOTE NUMBERS THAT HAVE NEVER THERE ARE 3 MILLION EARLY TEXAS VOTE NUMBERS THAT HAVE NEVER VOTED BEFORE VOTE NUMBERS THAT HAVE NEVER VOTED BEFORE USUALLY THEY DON’T VOTE FOR THE VOTED BEFORE USUALLY THEY DON’T VOTE FOR THE INCUMBENT USUALLY THEY DON’T VOTE FOR THE INCUMBENT THE UNDECIDEDS BREAK AGAINST THE INCUMBENT THE UNDECIDEDS BREAK AGAINST THE INCUMBENT WHICH IS DONALD TRUMP THE UNDECIDEDS BREAK AGAINST THE INCUMBENT WHICH IS DONALD TRUMP I THINK FOR THE FIRST TIME, INCUMBENT WHICH IS DONALD TRUMP I THINK FOR THE FIRST TIME, TEXAS IS OBVIOUSLY VERY I THINK FOR THE FIRST TIME, TEXAS IS OBVIOUSLY VERY COMPETITIVE TEXAS IS OBVIOUSLY VERY COMPETITIVE I THINK WE ARE GOING TO SEE A COMPETITIVE I THINK WE ARE GOING TO SEE A BLUE WAVE ACROSS TEXAS I THINK WE ARE GOING TO SEE A BLUE WAVE ACROSS TEXAS THE TEXAS DEMOCRATS ARE GOING TO BLUE WAVE ACROSS TEXAS THE TEXAS DEMOCRATS ARE GOING TO TAKE BACK THE TEXAS HOUSE AND IT THE TEXAS DEMOCRATS ARE GOING TO TAKE BACK THE TEXAS HOUSE AND IT WILL LITERALLY BE A TECTONIC TAKE BACK THE TEXAS HOUSE AND IT WILL LITERALLY BE A TECTONIC SHIFT IN AMERICAN POLITICS IF IT WILL LITERALLY BE A TECTONIC SHIFT IN AMERICAN POLITICS IF IT HAPPENS SHIFT IN AMERICAN POLITICS IF IT HAPPENS MYRA: CHRISTIAN, YOU THINK THE HAPPENS MYRA: CHRISTIAN, YOU THINK THE NUMBERS WE HAVE SEEN IN BEXAR MYRA: CHRISTIAN, YOU THINK THE NUMBERS WE HAVE SEEN IN BEXAR COUNTY TODAY WAS LACKLUSTER NUMBERS WE HAVE SEEN IN BEXAR COUNTY TODAY WAS LACKLUSTER COMPARED TO WHAT THE ELECTION’S COUNTY TODAY WAS LACKLUSTER COMPARED TO WHAT THE ELECTION’S DEPARTMENT WAS HOPING FOR COMPARED TO WHAT THE ELECTION’S DEPARTMENT WAS HOPING FOR BUT RECORD BREAKING NUMBERS FOR DEPARTMENT WAS HOPING FOR BUT RECORD BREAKING NUMBERS FOR EARLY VOTING BUT RECORD BREAKING NUMBERS FOR EARLY VOTING WE HAD AN ADDITIONAL WEEK TO DO EARLY VOTING WE HAD AN ADDITIONAL WEEK TO DO THAT AS WELL WE HAD AN ADDITIONAL WEEK TO DO THAT AS WELL THAT FACTORS IN THAT AS WELL THAT FACTORS IN WHO DOES THAT HELP? THAT FACTORS IN WHO DOES THAT HELP? >> I THINK THE EARLY VOTE HELPS WHO DOES THAT HELP? >> I THINK THE EARLY VOTE HELPS THE DEMOCRATS >> I THINK THE EARLY VOTE HELPS THE DEMOCRATS WHEN YOU LOOK AT THE TOTAL THE DEMOCRATS WHEN YOU LOOK AT THE TOTAL NUMBER OF VOTES THAT WERE BANKED WHEN YOU LOOK AT THE TOTAL NUMBER OF VOTES THAT WERE BANKED IN EARLY VOTING, THEY SURPASSED NUMBER OF VOTES THAT WERE BANKED IN EARLY VOTING, THEY SURPASSED THE 2016 NUMBERS IN EARLY VOTING, THEY SURPASSED THE 2016 NUMBERS NO MATTER WHO TURNS OUT, WE ARE THE 2016 NUMBERS NO MATTER WHO TURNS OUT, WE ARE SMASHING THROUGH ELECTION NO MATTER WHO TURNS OUT, WE ARE SMASHING THROUGH ELECTION NUMBERS FROM 2016 WHICH ONLY SMASHING THROUGH ELECTION NUMBERS FROM 2016 WHICH ONLY BENEFITS THE DEMOCRATS BECAUSE NUMBERS FROM 2016 WHICH ONLY BENEFITS THE DEMOCRATS BECAUSE IT IS A TRENDING STATE BENEFITS THE DEMOCRATS BECAUSE IT IS A TRENDING STATE THE ONLY QUESTION IS WHAT YOU’RE IT IS A TRENDING STATE THE ONLY QUESTION IS WHAT YOU’RE IN THIS DECADE TO GO FULLY BLUE THE ONLY QUESTION IS WHAT YOU’RE IN THIS DECADE TO GO FULLY BLUE EYE THICKET IS GOING TO HAPPEN IN THIS DECADE TO GO FULLY BLUE EYE THICKET IS GOING TO HAPPEN RIGHT NOW EYE THICKET IS GOING TO HAPPEN RIGHT NOW I THINK IT HELPS THE DEMOCRATS RIGHT NOW I THINK IT HELPS THE DEMOCRATS DRAMATICALLY I THINK IT HELPS THE DEMOCRATS DRAMATICALLY WHEN YOU LOOK AT THE STATEHOUSE DRAMATICALLY WHEN YOU LOOK AT THE STATEHOUSE SEAT, 121, I THINK HE HAS A — I WHEN YOU LOOK AT THE STATEHOUSE SEAT, 121, I THINK HE HAS A — I THINK SHE HAS A CHANCE TO TAKE SEAT, 121, I THINK HE HAS A — I THINK SHE HAS A CHANCE TO TAKE THAT SEATBACK THINK SHE HAS A CHANCE TO TAKE THAT SEATBACK I THINK IT FALLS UP THE COLUMN THAT SEATBACK I THINK IT FALLS UP THE COLUMN OF IF TEXAS DEMOCRATS, IF WE I THINK IT FALLS UP THE COLUMN OF IF TEXAS DEMOCRATS, IF WE TAKE BACK THE TEXAS HOUSE, 121 OF IF TEXAS DEMOCRATS, IF WE TAKE BACK THE TEXAS HOUSE, 121 WILL HAVE TO GO ALL THE WAY TAKE BACK THE TEXAS HOUSE, 121 WILL HAVE TO GO ALL THE WAY TONIGHT WILL HAVE TO GO ALL THE WAY TONIGHT STEVE: MATT, I WANT TO GET YOUR TONIGHT STEVE: MATT, I WANT TO GET YOUR REACTION STEVE: MATT, I WANT TO GET YOUR REACTION I’M HEARING THAT ALL THE VOTES REACTION I’M HEARING THAT ALL THE VOTES IN BEXAR COUNTY, 30% IS FROM P63 I’M HEARING THAT ALL THE VOTES IN BEXAR COUNTY, 30% IS FROM P63 JUST PART OF DISTRICT 23 IN BEXAR COUNTY, 30% IS FROM P63 JUST PART OF DISTRICT 23 YOUR THOUGHTS? JUST PART OF DISTRICT 23 YOUR THOUGHTS? >> WHEN KRISTEN SAYS THAT TEXAS YOUR THOUGHTS? >> WHEN KRISTEN SAYS THAT TEXAS IS GOING TO GO FULLY BLUE, — >> WHEN KRISTEN SAYS THAT TEXAS IS GOING TO GO FULLY BLUE, — CHRISTIAN SAYS THAT TEXAS IS IS GOING TO GO FULLY BLUE, — CHRISTIAN SAYS THAT TEXAS IS GOING FULLY BLUE, THAT WOULD — CHRISTIAN SAYS THAT TEXAS IS GOING FULLY BLUE, THAT WOULD — WOULD MEAN THAT HE BELIEVES GOING FULLY BLUE, THAT WOULD — WOULD MEAN THAT HE BELIEVES BIDEN IS GOING TO WIN TEXAS WOULD MEAN THAT HE BELIEVES BIDEN IS GOING TO WIN TEXAS >> I AM BIDEN IS GOING TO WIN TEXAS >> I AM >> YOU BELIEVE BIDEN IS GOING TO >> I AM >> YOU BELIEVE BIDEN IS GOING TO TAKE TEXAS? >> YOU BELIEVE BIDEN IS GOING TO TAKE TEXAS? >> I DO TAKE TEXAS? >> I DO >> WELL YOU HEARD IT HERE FIRST >> I DO >> WELL YOU HEARD IT HERE FIRST TRUMPET IS GOING TO WIN TEXAS — >> WELL YOU HEARD IT HERE FIRST TRUMPET IS GOING TO WIN TEXAS — TRUMP IS GOING TO WIN TEXAS TRUMPET IS GOING TO WIN TEXAS — TRUMP IS GOING TO WIN TEXAS REALLY HAD 8.7 MILLION VOTE IN TRUMP IS GOING TO WIN TEXAS REALLY HAD 8.7 MILLION VOTE IN EARLY VOTES, THAT WOULD BE A REALLY HAD 8.7 MILLION VOTE IN EARLY VOTES, THAT WOULD BE A THIRD OF THE OF THE VOTE HAVE EARLY VOTES, THAT WOULD BE A THIRD OF THE OF THE VOTE HAVE NEVER VOTED IN TEXAS THIRD OF THE OF THE VOTE HAVE NEVER VOTED IN TEXAS ABOUT 10% OF PEOPLE WHO VOTED NEVER VOTED IN TEXAS ABOUT 10% OF PEOPLE WHO VOTED EARLY HADN’T VOTED PREVIOUS THE ABOUT 10% OF PEOPLE WHO VOTED EARLY HADN’T VOTED PREVIOUS THE IN TEXAS EARLY HADN’T VOTED PREVIOUS THE IN TEXAS THEY ARE LOW PROPENSITY VOTERS, IN TEXAS THEY ARE LOW PROPENSITY VOTERS, THEIR NEW REGISTRANTS THEY ARE LOW PROPENSITY VOTERS, THEIR NEW REGISTRANTS REPUBLICANS REGISTERED 150 THEIR NEW REGISTRANTS REPUBLICANS REGISTERED 150 THOUSAND MORE PEOPLE SINCE THE REPUBLICANS REGISTERED 150 THOUSAND MORE PEOPLE SINCE THE 2018 ELECTION THEN THE DEMOCRATS THOUSAND MORE PEOPLE SINCE THE 2018 ELECTION THEN THE DEMOCRATS DID 2018 ELECTION THEN THE DEMOCRATS DID THERE ARE SOME VERY CLOSE RACES DID THERE ARE SOME VERY CLOSE RACES WITH EIGHT OR NINE COMPETITIVE THERE ARE SOME VERY CLOSE RACES WITH EIGHT OR NINE COMPETITIVE CONGRESSIONAL RACES, STATEHOUSE WITH EIGHT OR NINE COMPETITIVE CONGRESSIONAL RACES, STATEHOUSE RACES, I’M NOT GOING TO SAY WITH CONGRESSIONAL RACES, STATEHOUSE RACES, I’M NOT GOING TO SAY WITH CERTAINTY THE DEMOCRATS WANT RACES, I’M NOT GOING TO SAY WITH CERTAINTY THE DEMOCRATS WANT TAKE THE HOUSE BACK — WON’T CERTAINTY THE DEMOCRATS WANT TAKE THE HOUSE BACK — WON’T TAKE THE ASPECT TAKE THE HOUSE BACK — WON’T TAKE THE ASPECT ALTERNATELY, THE REPUBLICANS ARE TAKE THE ASPECT ALTERNATELY, THE REPUBLICANS ARE GOING TO HOLD THESE STATEWIDE ALTERNATELY, THE REPUBLICANS ARE GOING TO HOLD THESE STATEWIDE SEATS GOING TO HOLD THESE STATEWIDE SEATS

STEVE: WE HAVE A COUPLE OF POLITICAL STRATEGISTS WITH US HELPING US READ THE TEA LEAVES POLITICAL STRATEGISTS WITH US HELPING US READ THE TEA LEAVES AND KNOW WHAT WE SHOULD BE HELPING US READ THE TEA LEAVES AND KNOW WHAT WE SHOULD BE LOOKING AT TONIGHT AND KNOW WHAT WE SHOULD BE LOOKING AT TONIGHT CHRISTIAN FROM BEXAR COUNTY LOOKING AT TONIGHT CHRISTIAN FROM BEXAR COUNTY FACTS AND MATT WHO IS A CHRISTIAN FROM BEXAR COUNTY FACTS AND MATT WHO IS A REPUBLICAN STRATEGIST WHO IS THE FACTS AND MATT WHO IS A REPUBLICAN STRATEGIST WHO IS THE CAMPAIGN FOR THE TONY GONZALES REPUBLICAN STRATEGIST WHO IS THE CAMPAIGN FOR THE TONY GONZALES DISTRICT 23 RACE CAMPAIGN FOR THE TONY GONZALES DISTRICT 23 RACE MATT, I WANT TO ASK YOU ABOUT DISTRICT 23 RACE MATT, I WANT TO ASK YOU ABOUT THAT RACE MATT, I WANT TO ASK YOU ABOUT THAT RACE HOW IMPORTANT IS BEXAR COUNTY? THAT RACE HOW IMPORTANT IS BEXAR COUNTY? I KNOW IT WAS IMPORTANT WHEN HOW IMPORTANT IS BEXAR COUNTY? I KNOW IT WAS IMPORTANT WHEN WEIL — WIL H RANERD — WILL I KNOW IT WAS IMPORTANT WHEN WEIL — WIL H RANERD — WILL HERD RAN WEIL — WIL H RANERD — WILL HERD RAN >> THE NUMBERS ONLY REPRESENT HERD RAN >> THE NUMBERS ONLY REPRESENT THE ABSENTEE AND EARLY VOTES, IT >> THE NUMBERS ONLY REPRESENT THE ABSENTEE AND EARLY VOTES, IT DOESN’T REPRESENT BALLOTS TO THE ABSENTEE AND EARLY VOTES, IT DOESN’T REPRESENT BALLOTS TO COME DOESN’T REPRESENT BALLOTS TO COME IF WE LOSE BEXAR COUNTY, WE ARE COME IF WE LOSE BEXAR COUNTY, WE ARE GOING TO LOSE IF WE LOSE BEXAR COUNTY, WE ARE GOING TO LOSE MEDINA IS IMPORTANT TO, WE NEED GOING TO LOSE MEDINA IS IMPORTANT TO, WE NEED TO HAVE HIGH MARGINS AND MEDINA IS IMPORTANT TO, WE NEED TO HAVE HIGH MARGINS AND TURNOUT, THOSE ARE STRONG TO HAVE HIGH MARGINS AND TURNOUT, THOSE ARE STRONG REPUBLICAN COUNTIES TURNOUT, THOSE ARE STRONG REPUBLICAN COUNTIES I THINK TONY IS GOING TO OVER REPUBLICAN COUNTIES I THINK TONY IS GOING TO OVER PERFORM IN THE VALLEY I THINK TONY IS GOING TO OVER PERFORM IN THE VALLEY HE HAS BEEN DOWN THERE SO MUCH, PERFORM IN THE VALLEY HE HAS BEEN DOWN THERE SO MUCH, HE IS — HE HAS BEEN IN THREE OR HE HAS BEEN DOWN THERE SO MUCH, HE IS — HE HAS BEEN IN THREE OR FOUR COUNTIES HE IS — HE HAS BEEN IN THREE OR FOUR COUNTIES WE MAY PERFORM — IN EL PASO, HE FOUR COUNTIES WE MAY PERFORM — IN EL PASO, HE HAS BEEN OUT THERE WE MAY PERFORM — IN EL PASO, HE HAS BEEN OUT THERE I THINK TONY IS GOING TO DO HAS BEEN OUT THERE I THINK TONY IS GOING TO DO WELL, I THINK HE IS GOING TO BE I THINK TONY IS GOING TO DO WELL, I THINK HE IS GOING TO BE UP — WELL, I THINK HE IS GOING TO BE UP — WE HAVE BEEN OUTSPENT, BUT WE UP — WE HAVE BEEN OUTSPENT, BUT WE HAVE DONE FAR MORE VOTER CONTACT WE HAVE BEEN OUTSPENT, BUT WE HAVE DONE FAR MORE VOTER CONTACT AND WE HAVE RUN A GREAT CAMPAIGN HAVE DONE FAR MORE VOTER CONTACT AND WE HAVE RUN A GREAT CAMPAIGN AND WE HAVE A CANDIDATE WHO HAS AND WE HAVE RUN A GREAT CAMPAIGN AND WE HAVE A CANDIDATE WHO HAS WORKED HARD AND WE HAVE A CANDIDATE WHO HAS WORKED HARD MYRA: CHRISTIAN, AND KNOW YOU WORKED HARD MYRA: CHRISTIAN, AND KNOW YOU ARE KEEPING A CLOSE EYE ON WHAT MYRA: CHRISTIAN, AND KNOW YOU ARE KEEPING A CLOSE EYE ON WHAT IS GOING TO PLAY OUT IN THE ARE KEEPING A CLOSE EYE ON WHAT IS GOING TO PLAY OUT IN THE TEXAS HOUSE TONIGHT AND HOW THAT IS GOING TO PLAY OUT IN THE TEXAS HOUSE TONIGHT AND HOW THAT MAKE SHIFT THE BALANCE OF POWER TEXAS HOUSE TONIGHT AND HOW THAT MAKE SHIFT THE BALANCE OF POWER THERE MAKE SHIFT THE BALANCE OF POWER THERE RACES YOU ARE WATCHING AND SOME THERE RACES YOU ARE WATCHING AND SOME OF YOUR PREDICTIONS FOR THOSE? RACES YOU ARE WATCHING AND SOME OF YOUR PREDICTIONS FOR THOSE? >> I THINK GINA ORTIZ JONES IS OF YOUR PREDICTIONS FOR THOSE? >> I THINK GINA ORTIZ JONES IS GOING TO WIN TONIGHT >> I THINK GINA ORTIZ JONES IS GOING TO WIN TONIGHT WHEN YOU LOOK AT SUBURBAN WOMEN, GOING TO WIN TONIGHT WHEN YOU LOOK AT SUBURBAN WOMEN, THEY ARE BREAKING AWAY FROM THE WHEN YOU LOOK AT SUBURBAN WOMEN, THEY ARE BREAKING AWAY FROM THE REPUBLICAN PARTY AND THEIR THEY ARE BREAKING AWAY FROM THE REPUBLICAN PARTY AND THEIR FAILURES IN DEALING WITH THE REPUBLICAN PARTY AND THEIR FAILURES IN DEALING WITH THE CORONAVIRUS FAILURES IN DEALING WITH THE CORONAVIRUS THEY’RE GOING BLUE AND SUBURBAN CORONAVIRUS THEY’RE GOING BLUE AND SUBURBAN NEIGHBORHOODS THEY’RE GOING BLUE AND SUBURBAN NEIGHBORHOODS WHEN YOU LOOK AT THE SENIOR NEIGHBORHOODS WHEN YOU LOOK AT THE SENIOR VOTE, TRADITIONALLY REPUBLICAN, WHEN YOU LOOK AT THE SENIOR VOTE, TRADITIONALLY REPUBLICAN, IS BREAKING AGAINST TRUMP AND VOTE, TRADITIONALLY REPUBLICAN, IS BREAKING AGAINST TRUMP AND AGAINST THE REPUBLICANS AND IS BREAKING AGAINST TRUMP AND AGAINST THE REPUBLICANS AND GOING DEMOCRATS AGAINST THE REPUBLICANS AND GOING DEMOCRATS I THINK IN BEXAR COUNTY, THERE GOING DEMOCRATS I THINK IN BEXAR COUNTY, THERE ARE THE TWO CONGRESSIONAL RACES I THINK IN BEXAR COUNTY, THERE ARE THE TWO CONGRESSIONAL RACES I THINK WENDY DAVIS IS GOING TO ARE THE TWO CONGRESSIONAL RACES I THINK WENDY DAVIS IS GOING TO MAKE A REAL RACE OUT OF THE RACE I THINK WENDY DAVIS IS GOING TO MAKE A REAL RACE OUT OF THE RACE AGAINST CHIP ROY MAKE A REAL RACE OUT OF THE RACE AGAINST CHIP ROY IT WOULD BE SURPRISING IF SHE AGAINST CHIP ROY IT WOULD BE SURPRISING IF SHE ONE IT WOULD BE SURPRISING IF SHE ONE AND THERE IS A STATE SENATE RACE ONE AND THERE IS A STATE SENATE RACE WHICH HAPPENS TO GO THROUGH AND THERE IS A STATE SENATE RACE WHICH HAPPENS TO GO THROUGH MATT’S BACKYARD WITH THE WHICH HAPPENS TO GO THROUGH MATT’S BACKYARD WITH THE CONGRESSIONAL RACE MATT’S BACKYARD WITH THE CONGRESSIONAL RACE THAT IS GOING TO BE A HOTLY CONGRESSIONAL RACE THAT IS GOING TO BE A HOTLY CONTESTED — BETWEEN GUTIERREZ THAT IS GOING TO BE A HOTLY CONTESTED — BETWEEN GUTIERREZ AND SENATOR FLOREZ

CONTESTED — BETWEEN GUTIERREZ AND SENATOR FLOREZ STEVE: CHRISTIAN, I THINK YOU’RE AND SENATOR FLOREZ STEVE: CHRISTIAN, I THINK YOU’RE GOING TO STAY WITH US STEVE: CHRISTIAN, I THINK YOU’RE GOING TO STAY WITH US MATT, I’M GOING TO LET UDO GOING TO STAY WITH US MATT, I’M GOING TO LET UDO I HAVE — I’M GOOD TO LET YOU MATT, I’M GOING TO LET UDO I HAVE — I’M GOOD TO LET YOU GO I HAVE — I’M GOOD TO LET YOU GO IF TONY WINS TONIGHT, I WANT TO GO IF TONY WINS TONIGHT, I WANT TO SEE HIM ON OUR LIVESTREAM IF TONY WINS TONIGHT, I WANT TO SEE HIM ON OUR LIVESTREAM CAN I MAKE THAT PLUG? SEE HIM ON OUR LIVESTREAM CAN I MAKE THAT PLUG? >> WE WILL DO EVERYTHING WE CAN CAN I MAKE THAT PLUG? >> WE WILL DO EVERYTHING WE CAN MYRA: WE ARE CONTINUING OUR ELECTION NIGHT COVERAGE WE HAVE CHRISTIAN WITH THIS, ELECTION NIGHT COVERAGE WE HAVE CHRISTIAN WITH THIS, HEAD OF BAYER FACTS — BEXR WE HAVE CHRISTIAN WITH THIS, HEAD OF BAYER FACTS — BEXR COUNTY FACTS HEAD OF BAYER FACTS — BEXR COUNTY FACTS AT WHAT TO GET YOUR TAKE ON COUNTY FACTS AT WHAT TO GET YOUR TAKE ON WHETHER YOU THINK THERE WAS A AT WHAT TO GET YOUR TAKE ON WHETHER YOU THINK THERE WAS A SCENARIO IF YOU THINK TONIGHT WE WHETHER YOU THINK THERE WAS A SCENARIO IF YOU THINK TONIGHT WE WILL KNOW WHO IS GOING TO BE THE SCENARIO IF YOU THINK TONIGHT WE WILL KNOW WHO IS GOING TO BE THE NEXT PRESIDENT? WILL KNOW WHO IS GOING TO BE THE NEXT PRESIDENT? >> I THINK THE NUMBERS ARE GOING NEXT PRESIDENT? >> I THINK THE NUMBERS ARE GOING TO BE COMING IN ANY SECOND IN >> I THINK THE NUMBERS ARE GOING TO BE COMING IN ANY SECOND IN NORTH CAROLINA, FLORIDA, TO BE COMING IN ANY SECOND IN NORTH CAROLINA, FLORIDA, GEORGIA NORTH CAROLINA, FLORIDA, GEORGIA IF BIDEN WOULD WIN ANY OF THOSE GEORGIA IF BIDEN WOULD WIN ANY OF THOSE THREE STATES, IT IS OVER IF BIDEN WOULD WIN ANY OF THOSE THREE STATES, IT IS OVER WHEN YOU LOOK AT THE RUST BELTS THREE STATES, IT IS OVER WHEN YOU LOOK AT THE RUST BELTS — RUST BELT STATES, IF BIDEN WHEN YOU LOOK AT THE RUST BELTS — RUST BELT STATES, IF BIDEN WERE TO WERE — WERE TO WIN ALL — RUST BELT STATES, IF BIDEN WERE TO WERE — WERE TO WIN ALL OF THOSE, IT IS OVER WERE TO WERE — WERE TO WIN ALL OF THOSE, IT IS OVER YOU FACTOR IN TEXAS, I CAN’T OF THOSE, IT IS OVER YOU FACTOR IN TEXAS, I CAN’T WAIT TO CASH IN EYE STEAK DINNER YOU FACTOR IN TEXAS, I CAN’T WAIT TO CASH IN EYE STEAK DINNER BUT I THINK TEXAS IS AT PLAY WAIT TO CASH IN EYE STEAK DINNER BUT I THINK TEXAS IS AT PLAY , SO IS GEORGIA BUT I THINK TEXAS IS AT PLAY , SO IS GEORGIA THE NEW LOOK WEST TO ARIZONA AND , SO IS GEORGIA THE NEW LOOK WEST TO ARIZONA AND IT LOOKS LIKE BIDEN IS GOING TO THE NEW LOOK WEST TO ARIZONA AND IT LOOKS LIKE BIDEN IS GOING TO WIN ARIZONA AS WELL IT LOOKS LIKE BIDEN IS GOING TO WIN ARIZONA AS WELL I WOULD MUCH RATHER BE JOE BIDEN WIN ARIZONA AS WELL I WOULD MUCH RATHER BE JOE BIDEN THEN TRUMP AT THIS POINT I WOULD MUCH RATHER BE JOE BIDEN THEN TRUMP AT THIS POINT STEVE: WE AT KSAT AND EVERY NEWS THEN TRUMP AT THIS POINT STEVE: WE AT KSAT AND EVERY NEWS ORGANIZATION IS BEING VERY STEVE: WE AT KSAT AND EVERY NEWS ORGANIZATION IS BEING VERY CAREFUL ABOUT CALLING ANY RACE, ORGANIZATION IS BEING VERY CAREFUL ABOUT CALLING ANY RACE, NOT JUST THE PRESIDENT’S RACE CAREFUL ABOUT CALLING ANY RACE, NOT JUST THE PRESIDENT’S RACE BUT TONIGHT WE ARE GOING TO BE NOT JUST THE PRESIDENT’S RACE BUT TONIGHT WE ARE GOING TO BE CAREFUL BECAUSE YOU HAVE BUT TONIGHT WE ARE GOING TO BE CAREFUL BECAUSE YOU HAVE ABSENTEE BALLOTS, YOU HAVE CAREFUL BECAUSE YOU HAVE ABSENTEE BALLOTS, YOU HAVE PEOPLE WHO VOTED BY MAIL, YOU ABSENTEE BALLOTS, YOU HAVE PEOPLE WHO VOTED BY MAIL, YOU HAVE EARLY VOTE, SO MANY PEOPLE WHO VOTED BY MAIL, YOU HAVE EARLY VOTE, SO MANY DIFFERENT THINGS IN PLAY HAVE EARLY VOTE, SO MANY DIFFERENT THINGS IN PLAY DO YOU THINK A PRESIDENTIAL DIFFERENT THINGS IN PLAY DO YOU THINK A PRESIDENTIAL WINNER WILL BE DECLARED TONIGHT? DO YOU THINK A PRESIDENTIAL WINNER WILL BE DECLARED TONIGHT? >> I DO WINNER WILL BE DECLARED TONIGHT? >> I DO SO LONG AS WISCONSIN AND >> I DO SO LONG AS WISCONSIN AND MICHIGAN IN THE NUMBERS LOOK SO LONG AS WISCONSIN AND MICHIGAN IN THE NUMBERS LOOK SOLID, PENNSYLVANIA IS GOING TO MICHIGAN IN THE NUMBERS LOOK SOLID, PENNSYLVANIA IS GOING TO BE CLOSE SOLID, PENNSYLVANIA IS GOING TO BE CLOSE I DON’T THINK THEY’RE GOING TO BE CLOSE I DON’T THINK THEY’RE GOING TO BE ABLE TO CALL PENNSYLVANIA I DON’T THINK THEY’RE GOING TO BE ABLE TO CALL PENNSYLVANIA TONIGHT BE ABLE TO CALL PENNSYLVANIA TONIGHT ANY OF THOSE OTHER STATES, ANY TONIGHT ANY OF THOSE OTHER STATES, ANY COMBINATION, THERE IS NO ANY OF THOSE OTHER STATES, ANY COMBINATION, THERE IS NO POSSIBLE MAP FOR TRUMP IF COMBINATION, THERE IS NO POSSIBLE MAP FOR TRUMP IF GEORGIA, FLORIDA, NORTH POSSIBLE MAP FOR TRUMP IF GEORGIA, FLORIDA, NORTH CAROLINA, ARIZONA WERE TO FALL GEORGIA, FLORIDA, NORTH CAROLINA, ARIZONA WERE TO FALL TO BIDEN CAROLINA, ARIZONA WERE TO FALL TO BIDEN THERE IS NO MAP THAT HAS TRUMP TO BIDEN THERE IS NO MAP THAT HAS TRUMP BEING REELECTED

THERE IS NO MAP THAT HAS TRUMP BEING REELECTED TO ANSWER THAT DIRECTLY, I THINK BEING REELECTED TO ANSWER THAT DIRECTLY, I THINK WE TO ANSWER THAT DIRECTLY, I THINK WE WILL KNOW THAT TONIGHT WE WILL KNOW THAT TONIGHT WILL KNOW THAT TONIGHT I DON’T THINK WE WILL KNOW THE I DON’T THINK WE WILL KNOW THE RESULTS OF PITS OF ANY TONIGHT I DON’T THINK WE WILL KNOW THE RESULTS OF PITS OF ANY TONIGHT OR MAYBE EVEN MICHIGAN — THE RESULTS OF PITS OF ANY TONIGHT OR MAYBE EVEN MICHIGAN — THE RESULTS OF PENNSYLVANIA TONIGHT OR MAYBE EVEN MICHIGAN — THE RESULTS OF PENNSYLVANIA TONIGHT OR MAYBE EVEN MICHIGAN RESULTS OF PENNSYLVANIA TONIGHT OR MAYBE EVEN MICHIGAN EVEN IF THEY’RE NOT FINALIZED, OR MAYBE EVEN MICHIGAN EVEN IF THEY’RE NOT FINALIZED, WHAT — EVEN IF THEY’RE NOT FINALIZED, WHAT — STEVE: WHAT IS AT STAKE FOR THE WHAT — STEVE: WHAT IS AT STAKE FOR THE TEXAS HOUSE? STEVE: WHAT IS AT STAKE FOR THE TEXAS HOUSE? TALK ABOUT THAT TEXAS HOUSE? TALK ABOUT THAT >> IT HAS BEEN SO LONG, IT HAS TALK ABOUT THAT >> IT HAS BEEN SO LONG, IT HAS BEEN NEARLY 20 YEARS SINCE THE >> IT HAS BEEN SO LONG, IT HAS BEEN NEARLY 20 YEARS SINCE THE DEMOCRATS CONTROLLED THE TEXAS BEEN NEARLY 20 YEARS SINCE THE DEMOCRATS CONTROLLED THE TEXAS HOUSE DEMOCRATS CONTROLLED THE TEXAS HOUSE IT GOES RIGHT TO REDISTRICTING HOUSE IT GOES RIGHT TO REDISTRICTING AND HOW THE STATE HAS IT GOES RIGHT TO REDISTRICTING AND HOW THE STATE HAS REDISTRICTED UNFAIRLY AND HOW THE STATE HAS REDISTRICTED UNFAIRLY AGAINST DEMOCRATS REDISTRICTED UNFAIRLY AGAINST DEMOCRATS IF THE TEXAS DEMOCRATS TAKE AGAINST DEMOCRATS IF THE TEXAS DEMOCRATS TAKE CONTROL OF THE HOUSE AND ELECT A IF THE TEXAS DEMOCRATS TAKE CONTROL OF THE HOUSE AND ELECT A SPEAKER, I THINK THE SPEAKER CONTROL OF THE HOUSE AND ELECT A SPEAKER, I THINK THE SPEAKER MIGHT COME FROM SAN ANTONIO IF SPEAKER, I THINK THE SPEAKER MIGHT COME FROM SAN ANTONIO IF THE DEMOCRATS WENT MIGHT COME FROM SAN ANTONIO IF THE DEMOCRATS WENT — WIN THE DEMOCRATS WENT — WIN THEN THERE IS JUST FAIR — WIN THEN THERE IS JUST FAIR REDISTRICTING THEN THERE IS JUST FAIR REDISTRICTING SO MANY MORE DISTRICTS BECOME REDISTRICTING SO MANY MORE DISTRICTS BECOME COMPETITIVE WHICH JUICES THE SO MANY MORE DISTRICTS BECOME COMPETITIVE WHICH JUICES THE TURNOUT AND TEXAS CHAINS COMPETITIVE WHICH JUICES THE TURNOUT AND TEXAS CHAINS FOREVER TURNOUT AND TEXAS CHAINS FOREVER — AND CHANGES — TEXAS CHANGES FOREVER — AND CHANGES — TEXAS CHANGES FOREVER — AND CHANGES — TEXAS CHANGES FOREVER MYRA: SO MANY PRODUCTIONS FOREVER MYRA: SO MANY PRODUCTIONS MYRA: WE HAVE A LONG LIST OF GUESTS WEIGHING IN TONIGHT ON RACES AND RESULTS GUESTS WEIGHING IN TONIGHT ON RACES AND RESULTS WE ARE RENTING OUT OUR RACES AND RESULTS WE ARE RENTING OUT OUR CONVERSATION WITH OUR FIRST, WE ARE RENTING OUT OUR CONVERSATION WITH OUR FIRST, CHRISTIAN WITH BEXAR FACTS CONVERSATION WITH OUR FIRST, CHRISTIAN WITH BEXAR FACTS I DON’T KNOW IF YOU CAN MAKE CHRISTIAN WITH BEXAR FACTS I DON’T KNOW IF YOU CAN MAKE ANYMORE PART — ANYMORE I DON’T KNOW IF YOU CAN MAKE ANYMORE PART — ANYMORE PREDICTIONS AT THIS POINT ANYMORE PART — ANYMORE PREDICTIONS AT THIS POINT [LAUGHTER] PREDICTIONS AT THIS POINT [LAUGHTER] WHAT OUR FINAL THOUGHTS YOU HAVE [LAUGHTER] WHAT OUR FINAL THOUGHTS YOU HAVE AS WE TAKE TOWARDS THE POLLS WHAT OUR FINAL THOUGHTS YOU HAVE AS WE TAKE TOWARDS THE POLLS CLOSING AS WE TAKE TOWARDS THE POLLS CLOSING >> AS WE ARE DEALING WITH THIS CLOSING >> AS WE ARE DEALING WITH THIS PANDEMIC, I THINK BEXAR COUNTY >> AS WE ARE DEALING WITH THIS PANDEMIC, I THINK BEXAR COUNTY HAS DONE AN AMAZING JOB OF

PANDEMIC, I THINK BEXAR COUNTY HAS DONE AN AMAZING JOB OF GIVING ACCESS TO ALL OF OUR HAS DONE AN AMAZING JOB OF GIVING ACCESS TO ALL OF OUR VOTERS GIVING ACCESS TO ALL OF OUR VOTERS THE ELECTIONS OFFICE HAS DONE AN VOTERS THE ELECTIONS OFFICE HAS DONE AN AMAZING JOB THE ELECTIONS OFFICE HAS DONE AN AMAZING JOB I LOVE DISABILITY OF THE AMAZING JOB I LOVE DISABILITY OF THE PROCESS I LOVE DISABILITY OF THE PROCESS WE BANKED SO MANY — THE PROCESS WE BANKED SO MANY — THE CIVILITY OF THE PROCESS WE BANKED SO MANY — THE CIVILITY OF THE PROCESS WE BANKED SO MANY EARLY VOIDS CIVILITY OF THE PROCESS WE BANKED SO MANY EARLY VOIDS — EARLY VOTES WE BANKED SO MANY EARLY VOIDS — EARLY VOTES IN EARLY VOTING, WE SUPERSEDED — EARLY VOTES IN EARLY VOTING, WE SUPERSEDED VOTING IN THE TWO TO 16 IN EARLY VOTING, WE SUPERSEDED VOTING IN THE TWO TO 16 ELECTION VOTING IN THE TWO TO 16 ELECTION — 2016 ELECTION ELECTION — 2016 ELECTION STEVE: ARE SO MANY PEOPLE I — 2016 ELECTION STEVE: ARE SO MANY PEOPLE I TALKED TO, I HAVE A LINE OF STEVE: ARE SO MANY PEOPLE I TALKED TO, I HAVE A LINE OF PEOPLE I TALKED TO ON ELECTION TALKED TO, I HAVE A LINE OF PEOPLE I TALKED TO ON ELECTION DAY PEOPLE I TALKED TO ON ELECTION DAY YOU ARE ONE OF THEM, I TALK TO DAY YOU ARE ONE OF THEM, I TALK TO TO GET A PULSE OF WHAT IS GOING YOU ARE ONE OF THEM, I TALK TO TO GET A PULSE OF WHAT IS GOING ON TO GET A PULSE OF WHAT IS GOING ON I HAVE PEOPLE TELLING ME WHAT ON I HAVE PEOPLE TELLING ME WHAT THEY THINK IS GOING ON BUT WHEN I HAVE PEOPLE TELLING ME WHAT THEY THINK IS GOING ON BUT WHEN YOU HAVE SO MANY PEOPLE WHO HAVE THEY THINK IS GOING ON BUT WHEN YOU HAVE SO MANY PEOPLE WHO HAVE NOT DEVOTED BEFORE IN THE STATE YOU HAVE SO MANY PEOPLE WHO HAVE NOT DEVOTED BEFORE IN THE STATE OF TEXAS, THAT IS A BIG? NOT DEVOTED BEFORE IN THE STATE OF TEXAS, THAT IS A BIG? OF TEXAS, THAT IS A BIG? — THAT IS A BIG QUESTION — THAT IS A BIG QUESTION A LOT OF PEOPLE GUESS WHERE — THAT IS A BIG QUESTION A LOT OF PEOPLE GUESS WHERE THEY’RE GOING TO GO BUT I HAVE A LOT OF PEOPLE GUESS WHERE THEY’RE GOING TO GO BUT I HAVE HAD MORE UNCERTAINTY THAN I HAVE THEY’RE GOING TO GO BUT I HAVE HAD MORE UNCERTAINTY THAN I HAVE BEFORE HAD MORE UNCERTAINTY THAN I HAVE BEFORE >> IT IS SUCH A STRANGE TIME BEFORE >> IT IS SUCH A STRANGE TIME OUR POLITICS HAS BECOME SO >> IT IS SUCH A STRANGE TIME OUR POLITICS HAS BECOME SO DIVISIVE OUR POLITICS HAS BECOME SO DIVISIVE MATT MADE A POINT ABOUT THE DIVISIVE MATT MADE A POINT ABOUT THE REPUBLICAN VOTER REGISTRATION, MATT MADE A POINT ABOUT THE REPUBLICAN VOTER REGISTRATION, ON THE DEMOCRATIC SIDE OF THINGS REPUBLICAN VOTER REGISTRATION, ON THE DEMOCRATIC SIDE OF THINGS THERE IS “MOVE TEXAS.” ON THE DEMOCRATIC SIDE OF THINGS THERE IS “MOVE TEXAS.” THEY HAVE DONE AN AMAZING JOB OF THERE IS “MOVE TEXAS.” THEY HAVE DONE AN AMAZING JOB OF REGISTERING VOTERS THEY HAVE DONE AN AMAZING JOB OF REGISTERING VOTERS TRADITIONALLY, WHEN UNDECIDEDS REGISTERING VOTERS TRADITIONALLY, WHEN UNDECIDEDS AND NEW PEOPLE GET IN THE TRADITIONALLY, WHEN UNDECIDEDS AND NEW PEOPLE GET IN THE PROCESS, USUALLY THEY DON’T STAY AND NEW PEOPLE GET IN THE PROCESS, USUALLY THEY DON’T STAY ON THE SIDE OF THE INCUMBENT PROCESS, USUALLY THEY DON’T STAY ON THE SIDE OF THE INCUMBENT THAT IS THE REPUBLICANS OF ON THE SIDE OF THE INCUMBENT THAT IS THE REPUBLICANS OF TEXAS THAT IS THE REPUBLICANS OF TEXAS I THINK JOE BIDEN AND KAMALA TEXAS I THINK JOE BIDEN AND KAMALA HARRIS ALONG WITH OTHER I THINK JOE BIDEN AND KAMALA HARRIS ALONG WITH OTHER CANDIDATES PROVIDE AN HARRIS ALONG WITH OTHER CANDIDATES PROVIDE AN ALTERNATIVE TO THE STATUS QUO CANDIDATES PROVIDE AN ALTERNATIVE TO THE STATUS QUO ETHICS SUBURBAN WOMEN AND ALTERNATIVE TO THE STATUS QUO ETHICS SUBURBAN WOMEN AND SENIORS ARE GOING TO BREAK ETHICS SUBURBAN WOMEN AND SENIORS ARE GOING TO BREAK TOWARD THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY SENIORS ARE GOING TO BREAK TOWARD THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY TONIGHT TOWARD THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY TONIGHT MYRA: THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR TONIGHT MYRA: THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR BEING WITH US MYRA: THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR BEING WITH US WE ARE GOING TO HEAR FROM YOU BEING WITH US WE ARE GOING TO HEAR FROM YOU LATER ON WE ARE GOING TO HEAR FROM YOU LATER ON STEVE: HE IS TO JOIN US AT AGAIN LATER ON STEVE: HE IS TO JOIN US AT AGAIN — JOIN US AT 11:00 — AT 8:00 STEVE: HE IS TO JOIN US AT AGAIN — JOIN US AT 11:00 — AT 8:00 LIVESTREAM — JOIN US AT 11:00 — AT 8:00 LIVESTREAM THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME LIVESTREAM THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME

Georgia Coronavirus | Local leaders react to shelter-in-place order expiring

>>> 11ALIVE NEWS PRIMETIME ON THE ATL STARTS NOW >>> NEXT ON PRIME TIME, EXPIRING AT MIDNIGHT, BUT NOT BACK TO LIFE AS USUAL WE BREAK DOWN RESTRICTIONS STILL IN PLACE EVEN AFTER THE ORDER ENDS >>> PLUS YOU HEARD OF THE SWAB TEST AND THE ANTIBODY TEST BUT NOW THERE IS A THIRD KIND, IT COSTS A LOT LESS AND IS EASIER TO PERFORM YOU SHOW YOU HOW IT WORKS AND HOW IT CAN PLAY A BIG ROLE IN ALLOWING MORE PEOPLE TO GET TESTED >>> SEND THE LOVE A DECATUR WOMAN HELPING OTHERS ONE STITCH AT A TIME TO A VERY SPECIAL BIRTHDAY PARADE IN FAYETTEVILLE WE ARE SHARING HER STORIES OF HOW YOU ARE STAYING CONNECTED THROUGH ALL OF THIS >>> WELCOME EVERYONE ON THIS THURSDAY NIGHT WOULD BEGIN WITH GOVERNOR KEMP’S WILL NOT, HE WILL NOT EXTEND THE STATE’S SHELTER-IN-PLACE ORDER WHICH HAD BEEN SET TO EXPIRE AT MIDNIGHT TONIGHT CHERYL PREHEIM TALK WITH THE GOVERNOR THIS AFTERNOON >>> THE GOVERNOR URGING PEOPLE IN GEORGIA TO STAY AT HOME AND GETTING THE PUBLIC HEALTH STATE OF EMERGENCY THE ORDER MAY BE ENDED BUT THE STATE IS STILL ASKING ALL OF US TO FOLLOW VERY STRICT GUIDELINES THE GOVERNOR MADE THE ANNOUNCEMENT ON TWITTER EARLY THIS AFTERNOON GEORGIA’S MAIN SHELTER-IN-PLACE ORDER WILL EXPIRE TONIGHT FOR MANY OF US BUT THERE ARE STILL RESTRICTIONS IN PLACE FOR SOME GEORGIANS HERE IS WHAT WE ARE TALKING ABOUT GOVERNOR CAMPS GOVERNOR KEMP HAS EXTENDED THE SHELTER-IN- PLACE ORDER FOR CERTAIN GROUPS UNTIL JUNE 12, ABOUT A MONTH AND A HALF FROM WHERE WE ARE RIGHT NOW, PEOPLE 65 OVER, THOSE IN LONG-TERM CARE FACILITIES AND THOSE WHO HAVE PRE-EXISTING CONDITIONS LIKE A CHRONIC LUNG HEALTH DISEASE ISSUES, SEVERE HEART DISEASE, DIABETES, MODERATE TO SEVERE ASTHMA AND SEVERE OBESITY JUST TO NAME A FEW ALL THE BUSINESSES THAT REOPENED WITHIN THE PAST FEW WEEKS WILL CONTINUE TO OPERATE THAT IS GEMS, BARBERS, STYLISTS, NAIL TECHS AND TATTOO SHOTS AND BOWLING ALLEYS ALONG WITH DINE-IN RESTAURANT SERVICE AND MOVIE THEATERS THEY MUST STILL BE FOLLOWING PREVIOUSLY RELEASED SANITARY AND SOCIAL DISTANCING GUIDELINES BARS, NIGHTCLUBS, AMUSEMENT PARKS, LIVE PERFORMANCE VENUES AND PUBLIC SWIMMING POOLS REMAIN CLOSED THROUGH 11:59 ON MAY 13 UNLESS THE TIMELINE IS EXTENDED THE RULES VARY BY BUSINESS FOR A MEASURED HEALTH DRIVEN APPROACH >> THE HEALTH AND WELL-BEING OF GEORGIANS IS MY TOP PRIORITY AND MY DECISIONS ARE BASED ON DATA AND ADVICE FROM HEALTH OFFICIALS I WILL DO WHAT IS NECESSARY TO PROTECT THE LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS OF OUR PEOPLE

>> THE BAN ON LARGE GATHERINGS DOES REMAIN IN PLACE BUSINESSES AND GOVERNMENTS CANNOT ALLOW MORE THAN 10 PEOPLE IN A SINGLE LOCATION UNLESS THEY ARE SIX PETE SIX FEET APART BUT THAT DOES NOT INCLUDE FAMILY UNITS OR SINGLE- FAMILY HOUSEHOLD >>> TONIGHT WE HEAR FROM CITY AND COUNTY LEADERS ABOUT THE REACTION THE NEXT STEPS THE MAYOR OF ATHENS CLARKE COUNTY WHO EXPRESSED CONCERNS ABOUT HIS COMMUNITY >> Reporter: ATHENS MAYOR, KELLY GERTZ IS WORRIED ABOUT HIS COMMUNITY NOW THAT GOVERNOR KEMP DECIDED TO ALLOW FOR THE SALT SHELTER-IN-PLACE ORDER TO EXPIRE TONIGHT, HE SAYS DATA DOES NOT SEEM TO INDICATE THAT WE ARE AS A STATE IN THE CLEAR YET HE WILL CONTINUE TO ENCOURAGE ATHENS TO SHELTER-IN-PLACE UNTIL THERE IS A TWO WEEK DECLINE IN ACTIVE NEW COVID-19 CASES THEN HE WILL START A FACE-TO- FACE APPROACH HE SAYS HE IS CONCERNED ABOUT MIXED MESSAGES DURING THE PANDEMIC WITH GOVERNOR KEMP’S DECISION TO MOVE FORWARD BY ALLOWING THE SHELTER-IN-PLACE ORDER TO EXPIRE AN INDIVIDUAL COMMUNITY LEADERS ASKING THEIR CITIES TO STAY PUT >> WE ARE A COMMUNITY OF 130,000 PEOPLE UNDER NORMAL CIRCUMSTANCES MORE THAN 40,000 PEOPLE COME INTO OUR COMMUNITY EVERY DAY TO WORK SO WE DO NEED TO BE UNIFIED AND THE UNIFYING MESSAGE I WILL CONTINUE TO SEND IS TO LOOK AT THE DATA AND WHEN THE DATA INDICATES IT IS SAFE FOR THE FIRST DAYS OF REOPENING, THAT IS WHEN I WILL ENCOURAGE THAT >> Reporter: GERTZ ALSO WORRIES IF WE DON’T CONTINUE TO SHELTER- IN-PLACE THAT WE WILL CONTINUE TO SEE NOT ONLY A SECOND WAVE OF CASES BUT POSSIBLY A SERIES OF WAVES >>> THE CONVERSATION ABOUT REOPENING HAS CENTERED AROUND WHETHER FEWER PEOPLE IN GEORGIA ARE GETTING SICK THE LATEST NUMBERS SHOW MORE THAN 23rd — 26,000 PEOPLE TESTED POSITIVE, UP ABOUT 20% FROM LAST WEEK MORE THAN 1100 PEOPLE HAVE DIED , A 28% INCREASE FROM LAST WEEK BUT MORE TESTING OF COURSE MEANS MORE REPORTED CASES 11ALIVE’S CHERYL PREHEIM HAD A CHANCE TO SPEAK DIRECTLY WITH GOVERNOR KEMP ABOUT THE DECISION TO LET THE SHELTER-IN- PLACE EXPIRE AND WHAT HE SEES IN THE DATA >> I KNOW IT IS KIND OF COUNTERINTUITIVE WHEN THEY SEE THE NUMBER OF CASES GOING UP THAT IS ACTUALLY A GOOD THING BECAUSE IT MEANS WE ARE TESTING MORE BUT WHAT ELSE IS GOOD IS THAT WE ARE SEEING RIGHT NOW, AND REALLY WATCHING THIS TREND, THE NUMBER OF CASES, TESTS ARE GOING UP AND THE PERCENTAGE OF THE POSITIVE CASES TO THE NUMBER OF TESTS CONTINUES TO DROP AND THAT IS WHAT WE WANT TO CONTINUE TO SEE SO WE ARE TESTING MORE BUT THE NUMBER OF POSITIVES, THAT PERCENTAGE IS DROPPING SO THAT IS A VERY GOOD SIGN >> Reporter: YOU TALK A LOT ABOUT EXTENDING THE CAPACITY AND THE NUMBER OF VENTILATORS WHAT IS THAT STANDARD HOW MUCH DOES IT FACTOR INTO THE DECISION TO LIFT THE SHELTER-IN- PLACE? >> THE BIG PART OF IT THAT IS SOME OF THE DATA WE ARE FOLLOWING THOSE NUMBERS LITERALLY, EVERY DAY I GET AN UPDATE SEVEN DAYS WEEK ON THAT WE HAD THE LOWEST VENTILATORS USED TO DATE THEN WE HAVE HAD IN A LONG TIME OUR HOSPITAL BED CAPACITY CONTINUES TO BE IN REALLY GOOD SHAPE SO THAT IS REALLY WHAT THE — ALL THE PREVIOUS ORDERS WERE DOING WAS ALLOWING US TIME TO FLATTEN THE CURVE AND BUILD UP THAT CAPACITY AND NOW THAT WE HAVE DONE THAT, I FEEL LIKE IT WAS TIME FOR US TO MOVE FORWARD >> WE WILL HAVE CHERYL’S FULL INTERVIEW WITH GOVERNOR KEMP COMING UP IN THE NEXT HALF HOUR >>> THE GOVERNOR SAYSTHE STATE WILL LOOK AT NUMBERS TO MAKE DECISIONS AND THE VIRUS IS NOT GOING AWAY A LOT OF YOU HAVE ASKED US HOW WE WILL KNOW IF REOPENING A BUSINESS WILL LEAD TO ANOTHER SPIKE IN CASES JOE HENKE TALKS WITH ONE OF THE TOP DOCTORS IN THE STATE OF GEORGIA TO GET YOU SOME ANSWERS >> THERE HAS ALREADY BEEN RECENT EVENTS SUCH AS BUSINESSES REOPENING THAT LED TO PEOPLE LEAVING THEIR HOUSES NOW THE SHELTER-IN-PLACE ORDER FOR THE STATE IS SET TO EXPIRE AT MIDNIGHT I TALKED WITH AN EPIDEMIOLOGIST FROM THE UNIVERSITY — EMORY UNIVERSITY, WHO TELLS ME THAT HE WILL BE INTERESTED TO SEE THE REPORTING OF NEW COVID-19 CASES FOR THE STATE IN ABOUT 2 TO 3 WEEKS WHEN — STARTS SHOWING UP IN THE REPORTING BY THE STATE HE HAS BEEN WATCHING NUMBERS THIS WEEK FOR EASTER AND PASSOVER WORK SINCE WE ARE TWO WEEKS OR MULTIPLE RESULT FROM THOSE EVENTS AND HE WAS CURIOUS TO SEE IF FAMILIES CAME TOGETHER IN PERSON FOR THE HOLIDAYS THAT COULD HAVE POTENTIALLY LED TO A SPIKE IN NUMBERS BUT HE WILL BE INTERESTED TO SEE THE NUMBERS IN A COUPLE OF WEEKS. HAIR SALONS, BARBER SHOPS, BUSINESSES OPENING LAST FRIDAY AND RESTAURANT OPEN ON MONDAY AND OF THE SHELTER-IN-PLACE SET TO EXPIRE AT MIDNIGHT AND TOMORROW, SOME PROPERTIES HAVE ANNOUNCED THEY ARE OPENING SEVEN GEORGIA MALLS >>> EVEN IF WE SEE SOME OF THE NUMBERS START TO DECLINE A LITTLE BIT OVER THE NEXT FEW WEEKS, THAT DOESN’T MEAN THEY CAN’T COME BACK UP AGAIN ONCE INDIVIDUALS HAVE BEEN

EXPOSED HAVE THAT TIME TO BECOME ILL AND GOING GET TESTED >> DR. BERNARD CHECK SAYS RESEARCH STILL SHOWS 14 DAYS IS THE WINDOW SOMEONE CAN GO FROM BEING INFECTED UNTIL THE END OF WHEN THEY WOULD HAVE SYMPTOMS SHOWING IT TAKES TIME FOR THEM TO GET TESTED BUT THOSE RESULTS WILL BE REPORTED BACK TO THEM THAT IS WHERE IT COULD TAKE TWO WEEKS IF NOT UP TO THREE WEEKS BEFORE WE KNOW THE ACTUAL IMPACT OF GEORGIA’S DECISION TO REOPEN >>> AS SOON AS THE GOVERNOR MADE THE ANNOUNCEMENT, WE BEGIN HEARING FROM PEOPLE ALL ACROSS THE STATE OF GEORGIA SOME OF YOU AGREE WITH THE DECISION TO LET THE ORDER EXPIRE SOME OF YOU, UPSET OR WORRIED AND YOU DO WANT TO WEIGH IN SO YOU CAN CAST YOUR VOTE IN ON OUR ONLINE POLL BY GOING TO 11ALIVE .COM/VOTE HERE IS WHAT A FEW GEORGIANS HAD TO SAY ABOUT THE DECISION >> MY NAME IS CAROLYN SHEPPARD AND I AM CALLING FROM ATHENS, GEORGIA >> I LIVE IN SOUTH FULTON, ATLANTA WITH THIS GREG FROM CANTON >> AS FOR THE GOVERNOR AND WHAT HE IS DOING — >> SEEN ALL THE PEOPLE GOING ABOUT AS NORMAL WITHOUT MASKS >> MY NAME IS MARIAM I THINK GOVERNOR KEMP IS DOING THE RIGHT THING. IT IS JUST HORRIBLE >> I HATE THAT GOVERNOR KEMP REOPENED THE CITY BECAUSE IT HAS GIVEN FALSE HOPE >> IT CAN CAN’T GEORGIA CLOSED I KNOW IT IS HARD FOR PEOPLE BUT IF YOU DO SOCIAL DISTANCING, IT WILL WORK >> I DEFINITELY DO NOT LIKE THE IDEA OF CAMP REOPENING THE SMALL BUSINESSES. IT IS NOT SAFE >>> I HOPE AND PRAY GOVERNOR KEMP DOES NOT EXTEND THE SHELTER-IN-PLACE >> I HAVE MIXED FEELINGS ABOUT LIFTING THE STAY IN PLACE TONIGHT I CAN UNDERSTAND BOTH SIDES WE NEED TO GET OUT AND START TRIMMING BACK TO SOME SEMBLANCE OF EVERYDAY LIFE BUT I JUST HOPE THAT EVERYBODY IS CONSIDERATE AND HAS SOME TYPE OF RESPONSIBILITY IN MOVING FORWARD WE CAN’T GO BACK TO WHERE WE WERE 3 MONTHS AGO OR IT IS GOING TO BE EVEN WORSE >> THANK YOU AND BE SAFE >> WE WANT TO HEAR WHAT YOU THINK ABOUT GEORGIA’S SHELTER- IN-PLACE ORDER EXPIRE IN CALL AND LEAVE US A MESSAGE AT 678-765-9514 BE SURE TO LEAVE YOUR NAME, NUMBER AND WHERE YOU LIVE WE MAY SHARE YOUR COMMENTS ON AIR >>> MANY OF US KNOW SOMEONE DIRECTLY AFFECTED BY THE VIRUS AND YOU ARE REACHING OUT TO US TO SHARE GOOD NEWS OF RECOVERY TODAY AFTER 30 DAYS IN AN ICU, A METRO ATLANTA MAN WAS FINALLY RELEASED TO THE HOSPITAL KAITLYN ROSS SHARES HIS STORY TONIGHT >> YOU CAN’T GO OUT THE DOOR >> Reporter: FOR 30 DAYS, ROBERT HAS LIVED IN A 12 BY 40 ROOM AT EMORY, ST. JOSEPH’S >> I COULD NOT MOVE HOW CAN WE DO THIS? I WANT OUT OF HERE I’M SO AFRAID >> HE WAS ON A VENTILATOR FOR 13 OF THOSE DAYS HE COULD NOT UNDERSTAND WHY HE COULD NOT SEE HIS WIFE >> I WOULD TELL THEM I WANT MY WIFE AT THE TIME I COULD NOT BEGIN TO REALIZE THERE WAS NO VISITORS ALLOWED IN THE HOSPITAL FOR HE SAYS TALKING WITH HER OVER FACETIME EVERY DAY GOT HIM THROUGH COVID-19 >> MY WIFE HAS BEEN VERY SUPPORTIVE IF I NEED SOMETHING, SHE WOULD BRUSH IT OFF >> Reporter: HE WAS ENCOURAGED, TOO BY EVERYONE WHO TOOK CARE OF HIM OVER THE PAST MONTH HE IS SO GRATEFUL FOR THE CARE AND SUPPORT HE GOT FROM THE HEALTHCARE WORKERS WHO ALWAYS BELIEVED HE WOULD RECOVER >> HAVE FAITH AND DO WHAT YOUR DOCTORS TELL YOU TO DO >> Reporter: ROBERT IS BEING DISCHARGED TODAY BUT CANNOT GO HOME YET BUT HE WILL BE TRANSPORTED TO A REHAB THE CITY WHERE HE WILL CONTINUE TO GAIN STRENGTH AND HOPEFULLY CONTINUE HIS RECOVERY >>> NEXT ON PRIMETIME, LOOKING FOR THE THIRD CORONAVIRUS TEST DR. ROY JOINS US TO TALK ABOUT TESTS AND HOW THEY WORK >>> AND DON’T FORGET WE ARE STREAMING ALL THREE HOURS OF 11ALIVE NEWS PRIMETIME ON OUR YOUTUBE CHANNEL RIGHT NOW YOU CAN SUBSCRIBE AND GET IN ON THE CONSULATE CONVERSATION AND

LET US KNOW WHAT YOU THINK IN >>> IN ATLANTA, A LANDMARK TURNING INTO A CORONAVIRUS TESTING FIGHT THE ARTHUR BANK AND COOL RESPONSE ARE SETTING UP A SITE AT THE HOME DEPOT BACKYARD NEAR MERCEDES-BENZ STADIUM THE PLAN IS FOR TESTING TO TAKE PLACE WEEKDAYS FROM 10 AM TO 4 PM THEY WOULD LIKE PEOPLE TO PREREGISTER BUT THERE IS ALSO ON-SITE REGISTRATION >>> WHEN I COUNTY TRANSIT SYSTEM TAKING STEPS TO MAKE IT SAFER BUT ISSUES REMAIN ON THE METRO DOUG RICHARDS HAS MORE ON WHAT IS AT STAKE >> Reporter: WHEN I COUNTY IS STILL CONTINUING TO RUN BUSES AND ITS DRIVERS ARE TRYING TO FIND WAYS TO REDUCE THE WAYS THAT THEY AND PASSENGERS WOULD BE EXPOSED ON BUSES TO COVID-19 GWINNETT COUNTY BUSES HAVE LIMITED THE NUMBER OF PASSENGERS ON EACH BUS AND IMPLEMENTED OTHER STEPS TO REDUCE COVID-19 EXPOSURE THAT IS A RISK FOR BOTH PASSENGERS AND BUS OPERATORS OPERATORS REPRESENTED BY THE AMALGAMATED TRANSIT UNION HAVE BEEN IN TALKS WITH GWYNETH, MARTA AND COBB COUNTY BUS SYSTEMS TO LOWER THE RISKS THE UNION HAS ASKED FOR HAZARD PAY, BPE AND OTHER SAFETY GEAR, REQUIRING MASKS FOR PASSENGERS AND PAID COVID-19 TESTING FOR TRANSIT WORKERS AMONG OTHER THINGS >> WE ARE LOOKING FOR, IN ADDITION WHAT WE ARE LOOKING FOR IS PANDEMIC LEAVE, PROTECTION >> Reporter: FRED IS THE LOCAL UNION PRESIDENT >> WE NEED SOMETHING THAT IF THEY NEED TO TAKE OFF FOR THIS COVID-19 IT WILL ACTUALLY PROTECT THEM AS FAR AS THEIR WAGES AND THEIR BENEFITS >> Reporter: THE COMPANY THAT OPERATES GWINNETT COUNTY BUS SYSTEM SAYS SOME OF THOSE REQUESTS HAVE BEEN ADDRESSED AND THAT DRIVERS ARE STILL GETTING PAID FULL-TIME WHILE WORKING FEWER HOURS DURING THE STATE OF EMERGENCY THE HEALTH AND SAFETY OF OUR EMPLOYEES AND THE COMMUNITY WE SERVE REMAINS OUR TOP PRIORITY AT ALL TIMES JEFF HULLINGER GWINNETT COUNTY TRANSIT HAVE BEEN CLOSELY COLLABORATING TO ADDRESS THE EMERGING SITUATION THE COMPANY OPERATING GWYNETH TRANSIT TOLD US IN A STATEMENT >> THE UNION HAS BEEN IN TALKS WITH COBB COUNTY’S TRANSIT SYSTEM WHERE THE COMPANY THAT OPERATES THAT TRANSIT SYSTEM TO WORK IMPROVE CONDITIONS THERE BUT THE UNION SAYS MARTA HAS ACTUALLY GIVEN DRIVERS A ONE- TIME BONUS FOR WORKING DURING THE PANDEMIC >>> PRESIDENT TRUMP HAS LAUNCHED OPERATION WARP SPEED TO GET A VACCINATION FOR COVID- 19 AS FAST AS POSSIBLE DR. ANTHONY FIVE SHE SAYS HE BELIEVES THE UNITED STATES DR ANTHONY FAUCI BELIEVES THE UNITED STATES COULD HAVE A VACCINE BY JANUARY BUT THEY NEED TO MOVE QUICKLY BUT WE NEED TO MAKE SURE ANY VACCINE IS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE JOINING US NOW IS NBC NEWS MEDICAL CORRESPONDENT, DR LIBBY ROY THANKS FOR THE TIME AS COMPANIES MAKE A MOVE TO TRY TO FAST TRACK DEVELOPING A VACCINE, HOW MIGHT THAT SPEED UP THE PROCESS AND IN WHAT WE HAVE BEEN WARNED TO BE LONG AND METHODICAL? >> I THINK THE WHITE HOUSE IS CALLING THIS OPERATION WARP SPEED, IF THAT MEANS MORE FUNDING, TO RECRUIT MORE SCIENTISTS AND DOCTORS AND RESEARCHERS AND MORE MANPOWER AND MAYBE MORE SUPPLIES THAT IS GREAT BUT THERE ARE CERTAIN PART OF THE PROCESS OF VACCINE DISCOVERY THAT REALLY CAN’T BE RUSHED, NOT IF YOU WANT TO DO IT ACCURATELY AND WELL WISHES REALLY THE CLINICAL TRIAL PART WHERE WE ARE TESTING THE VACCINE IN ACTUAL HUMAN BEINGS REMEMBER THE PHASE 1 OF CLINICAL TRIALS IS SAFETY, PHASE 2 IS EFFICACY AND PHASE 3 IS DOING PHASE 1 AND TWO AND A LARGE SCALE

ALL OF THAT TAKES A LONG TIME IT TAKES, ON AVERAGE, 5 YEARS IF NOT LONGER TO MAKE A VACCINE SO THE FACT WE ARE TRYING TO RUSH IT INTO LESS THAN TWO YEARS, IT IS GOING TO BE VERY DIFFICULT SO YEAH, I DON’T ANTICIPATE A VACCINE COMING OUT IN UNDER A YEAR AT LEAST >> Reporter: THERE HAS BEEN SOME PROGRESS WHEN WE TALK ABOUT TESTING WE HAVE HEARD SO MUCH ABOUT THE TWO DIFFERENT KINDS WHICH WOULD BE THE INFECTION TEST AND THE ANTIBODY TEST BUT TALK ABOUT THIS THIRD TEST NOW, THE ANTIGEN TEST AND HOW IT IS, WHAT, CHEAPER TO MAKE AND EASIER TO USE? >> SO YES, THAT IS A GREAT QUESTION AND IT GETS CONFUSING WITH ALL OF THE DIFFERENT TESTING REGIMENS THE PCR TEST WE ARE SEEING, THE NASOPHARYNGEAL SWAB IS A DIAGNOSTIC TEST LOOKING FOR VIRAL PARTICLES THE ANTIGEN TEST WOULD BE SIMILAR TO THAT, THE PCR TEST AND ALSO A DIAGNOSTIC TEST BUT LOOKING FOR SOMETHING DIFFERENT ON THE ACTUAL VIRUS SURFACE PARTICLES ON THE VIRUS’S SURFACE IDEALLY, IT WILL BE A RAPID TEST BUT THE KEY PIECES GOING TO BE THAT WHETHER IT IS ACCURATE THE LAST THING WE NEED IS A TEST THAT DOESN’T HAVE SENSITIVITY OR SPECIFICITY AND THE LAST THING WE WANT IS FALSE NEGATIVES AND FALSE POSITIVES SO WE NEED TO MAKE SURE, YES IT IS IDEALLY, RAPID BUT ALSO THAT IT IS ACCURATE >> Reporter: DR. ROY, THANKS FOR THE TIME APPRECIATED >>> LESTER HOLT WILL HAVE MUCH MORE COMING UP ON NBC NIGHTLY NEWS AT 6:30 INCLUDING MORE INFORMATION ABOUT A VACCINE AND HOW IT WOULD BE DISTRIBUTED >>> I’M METEOROLOGIST CHRIS HOLCOMB FROM THE 11ALIVE STORMTRACKERS BUT I KNOW YOU SAW THE COOLER AIR AND BREEZY CONDITIONS TODAY IT WILL REMAIN COOL TONIGHT BUT BREEZES WILL START DYING DOWN THROUGH THE EVENING WATCH OUR TEMPERATURES WILL FALL FROM THE 60s THIS HOUR INTO THE 50s NEXT HOUR AND THROUGH THE LATE-NIGHT HOURS AND THEN FALLING INTO THE LOWER 50s HERE BY TOMORROW MORNING YOU WILL SEE THAT THE CLOUD SYMBOL IS DISAPPEARING FROM THE GRAPHIC THAT INDICATES THAT CLEARING SKY THAT WE WILL EXPERIENCE TONIGHT A GREAT DAY SATURDAY, DESPITE THE COOLER START IN THE MORNING, IN THE LOW 50s WE WILL GET INTO THE 70s IN THE AFTERNOON FINALLY, WARMING UP TODAY WITH A LOW AVERAGE TOMORROW JUST BELOW THE AVERAGE BUT STILL AN 11 ON THE WIZOMETER WITH BRIGHT SUNSHINE, DRY AIR IN PLACE CRYSTAL CLEAR, LOOKING VERY NICE FOR TONIGHT, WE WILL BE CLEARING IN THE CLOUDS DISAPPEAR TONIGHT AND IN THE MORNING, MOSTLY SUNNY SKIES, COOL START BUT YOU WILL NOTICE TEMPERATURES WARMING PRETTY QUICKLY DURING THE DAY TOMORROW MOSTLY SUNNY SKIES AND BY AFTERNOON WE GET INTO THOSE 70s , LOW TO MID 70’S IN SOME SPOTS AND THE WARMING TREND CONTINUES INTO SATURDAY SATURDAY MORNING, WE START OFF WITH MOSTLY SUNNY SKIES THEN WE HAVE A COUPLE OF CLOUDS MIXING AND AT TIMES IN THE AFTERNOON STILL MOSTLY SUNNY, LOOKING REALLY NICE OUT THERE DURING THE DAYTIME HOURS, AND THEN WE GO THROUGH AFTER LUNCH, WE WILL SEE GREAT VISIBILITY FOR THE FLYOVER OF THE THUNDER BOARDSTHUNDERBIRDS AND BLUE ANGELS, SUNNY SKIES, MORE AIR, 77 THAT THEY HAVE CHANGED THE TIME A LITTLE BIT WE REPORTED EARLIER AFTER 2:00 AND NOW THEY ARE SAYING 1:35 AND WE STILL DON’T KNOW THE EXACT FLIGHT PATH YET THEY ARE SUPPOSED TO RELEASE THAT ON FRIDAY HERE’S A LOOK AT THE EXTENDED OUTLET OUTLOOK ON SUNDAY, STILL LOOKING GOOD, MONDAY A COUPLE OF SHOWERS MAINLY IN NORTH GEORGIA, TUESDAY, SCATTERED SHOWERS MOVE OUR WAY AND MAYBE A LITTLE BIT OF THUNDER RIGHT NOW IT DOES NOT LOOK LIKE A SYSTEM TO WORRY ABOUT BUT WE WILL KEEP YOU POSTED IF IT CHANGES SEVEN-DAY OUTLOOK, 73 HIGH FRIDAY, 81 SATURDAY, WARM UP CONTINUES SUNDAY THROUGH TUESDAY, MID 80s BUT WE WILL SEE A 20 TO 30% CHANCE FOR SOURS MONDAY TO TUESDAY, 20% TUESDAY, CLEARING OUT WEDNESDAY >>> WE GO TO FULTON COUNTY WHERE CHUCK IS BEING USED IN AN INSPIRING WAY 7-YEAR-OLD HAZEL LIVES LOVES TO DROP SO SHE LOVES TO DRAW ART WITH CHALK AND THE NEIGHBORS DRIVEWAY IN EXCHANGE FOR DONATIONS SHE WAS NOT EXPECTING MUCH BUT IN ONE WEEK SHE HAS OVER 20 ORDERS, FOOD DONATIONS, COLLECTED MORE THAN $800 SHE PLANS TO DONATE THE PROCEEDS TO THE COMMUNITY ASSISTANCE CENTER IN SANDY SPRINGS >>> BE SURE TO LET US KNOW THE GOOD THINGS YOU ARE SEEING AROUND YOU JUST USE THE #SEND THE LOVE ATL >>> NEXT ON PRIME TIME, IS THE

WHITE HOUSE REALLY SELLING >>> THE VIRITI VERIFY TEAM IS HERE TO GET FACTS LIKE THESE THE CLAIM THAT THE WHITE HOUSE IS SELLING COMMEMORATIVE COINS FOR COVID-19 SPARKING OUTRAGE FROM MANY WE WILL VERIFY IS THIS THE WHITE HOUSE IS SELLING THESE COINS? WE TRACKED THE COINS DOWN TO THE SITE, WHITE HOUSE GIFT SHOP COM THAT IS OUR FIRST CLUE A GOVERNMENT RUN WEBSITE WOULD BE.GOV, NOT .COM THOUGH PRETTY SICK SURPRISE SOME ARE CONFUSED WITH THE SEAL IN THE CORNER, PHOTOS OF THE WHITE HOUSE IN A SIMILAR COLOR SCHEME IT LOOKS LIKE THE OFFICIAL WHITE HOUSE PAGE THE VERIFY TEAM SPOKE WITH THE CEO OF THE GIFT SHOP VIA EMAIL IT TURNS OF THE VARIATION OF THE SHOP HAS BEEN AROUND SINCE 1946 IT WAS ONCE LOCATED IN THE WHITE HOUSE BASEMENT BUT HE CONFIRMED THAT IS NOT THE CASE ANYMORE.’S COMPANY, GIANNINI STRATEGIC LLC HAS CLEARLY WRITTEN ON THE WEBSITE, NO GOVERNMENT FUNDS ARE EVER USED IN THE SHOT WE CAN VERIFY, FALSE, THE WHITE HOUSE IS NOT SELLING COVID-19 COMMEMORATIVE COINS TO PRIVATE COMPANIES BY THE WAY, GIANNINI TELLS ME THEY HAVE SOLD NEARLY 1000 COINS NETTING ABOUT $100,000 HE SAYS HE IS GOING TO PURSLANE A MATCH EVERY DOLLAR WITH ALL THE MONEY GOING TO THE CDC FOUNDATION AND THE JOHN HOPKINS CHEMO CANCER CENTER >>> NEXT ON PRIME TIME, PEOPLE

>>> AT MIDNIGHT, GEORGIA’S SHELTER IN PLACE ORDER WILL EXPIRE, GOVERNOR KEMP CHOOSING NOT TO RENEW BUT URGING PEOPLE TO STAY HOME AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE AND PRACTICE STRICT SOCIAL DISTANCING GUIDELINES HE SAID AT RISK GROUPS SHOULD SHELTER IN PLACE UNTIL JUNE 12 FOR PEOPLE 65 AND OLDER THOSE LIVING IN NURSING HOMES OR LONG-TERM CARE FACILITIES AND THOSE WITH PRE-EXISTING CONDITIONS LIKE CHRONIC LUNG DISEASE, SEVERE HEART DISEASE, DIABETES, MODERATE TO SEVERE AFTER ASTHMA AND SEVERE OBESITY TO RENAME IF YOU PICKING UP WITH THE SHELTER IN PLACE STANDING TONIGHT SOME BUSINESSES STILL MUST STAY CLOSE BARS, NIGHTCLUBS, MUSIC PARKS, LIVE PERFORMANCE VENUES AND PUBLIC SWIMMING POOLS ALL MUST STAY CLOSED UNTIL MAY 13 THE GOVERNOR SAYS THE RULES VARY BY BUSINESS FOR A MEASURED HEALTH DRIVEN APPROACH IT IS IMPORTANT TO GIVE YOU CONTEXT ABOUT WHERE GEORGIA IS STANDING RIGHT NOW IN TERMS OF CASES AND DEATHS THE LATEST NUMBERS SHOWING MORE THAN 26,000 PEOPLE HAVE TESTED POSITIVE FOR THE VIRUS THAT IS UP ABOUT 20% FROM LAST WEEK, MORE THAN 1100 PEOPLE HAVE DIED AND 28% INCREASE FROM LAST WEEK THE GOVERNOR SAYS WE ARE SEEING CASES GO UP RIGHT NOW BECAUSE TESTING HAS EXPANDED SO MUCH IN OUR AREA 11ALIVE CHERYL PREHEIM SPOKE WITH THE GOVERNOR EARLIER TODAY ABOUT HIS DECISION AND WHAT GEORGIANS SHOULD EXPECT OVER THE NEXT FEW MONTHS >> Reporter: TALK MORE ABOUT YOUR DECISION TO EXTEND THE GEORGIA STATE OF EMERGENCY THROUGH JUNE 12 AND WHY THAT IS IMPORTANT? >>> WELL, YOU KNOW, I HAD SOME CONVERSATIONS WITH LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR ROSS AND THEY BOTH AGREED WE NEEDED TO EXTEND THE ORDER THAT GIVES US THE ABILITY THROUGH THE DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH AND OTHER EMERGENCY POWERS TO CONTINUE THE GOOD WORK WE HAVE BEEN DOING IN RECENT DAYS TO RAMP UP OUR TESTING. WE HAVE SEEN A RECORD DAY THIS WEEKEND REALLY SOME EXPONENTIAL GROWTH THERE WE NEED TO CONTINUE TO DO MORE BUT IT ALSO ALLOWS ME THE ABILITY FROM A WAIVER PERSPECTIVE WITH POTENTIAL OUTSIDE DOCTORS AND NURSES FROM OUTSIDE THE STATE COMING IN, HOSPITAL BED CAPACITY ISSUES THERE IS A LOT OF REASONS TO EXTEND THAT TO MAKE SURE THAT WE CAN HAVE 100% RESPONSE TO COVID-19 IN THE STATE OF GEORGIA >> Reporter: YOU HAVE TALKED A LOT ABOUT EXTENDING THE HOSPITAL BED CAPACITY AND ALSO THE NUMBER OF VENTILATORS WHERE DOES THAT STAND AND HOW MUCH HAS THAT FACTORED IN TO YOUR DECISION TO LIFT THE OVERALL SHELTER IN PLACE? >> WELL, THE BIG PART OF IT, THAT IS SOME OF THE DATA THAT WE ARE FOLLOWING THAT THOSE NUMBERS LITERALLY EVERY DAY I GET AN UPDATE EVERY W7 DAYS ON THAT WE HAVE THE LOWEST VENTILATOR USED TO DATE THAT WE HAVE HAD IN A LONG TIME OUR HOSPITAL BED CAPACITY CONTINUES TO BE IN REALLY GOOD SHAPE SO THAT IS REALLY WHAT THE , ALL OF THESE PREVIOUS ORDERS WERE DOING WAS ALLOWING US TIME

TO FLATTEN THE CURVE AND REALLY BUILD UP THE CAPACITY AND NOW THAT WE HAD DONE THAT, I FELT LIKE IT WAS TIME FOR US TO MOVE FORWARD CONTINUING TO FOCUS ON THE PEOPLE THAT ARE REALLY AFFECTED BY THIS, THOSE IN THE LONG-TERM CARE FACILITIES, THE ELDERLY AND MEDICALLY FRAGILE BUT ALSO EASING UP ON THE SHELTER IN PLACE FOR OTHER GEORGIANS BECAUSE THEY HAVE DONE WHAT WE ASKED THEY HAVE HELPED US TO FLATTEN THE CURVE AND BUILD THE INFRASTRUCTURE OUT AND ALSO GET OUR TESTING AND CONTACT TRACING STARTING TO RAMP UP AS WELL >> PEOPLE HAVE DONE WHAT THE STATE HAS ASKED FOR THE MOST PART AND HOW IMPORTANT IS IT NOW MOVING FORWARD THAT PEOPLE CONTINUE MAKING SOME OF THOSE PERSONAL DECISIONS ABOUT HOW MUCH THEY ARE OUTDOOR WHETHER THEY WEAR MASKS, A LOT OF PEOPLE GOING TO HAVE TO MAKE DAY-TO-DAY CHOICES ABOUT HOW THEY MOVE FORWARD? >> I THINK THAT IS REALLY THE MESSAGE THAT I HAVE FOR PEOPLE IS NUMBER ONE, THANK YOU FOR HELPING US FLATTEN THE CURVE AND HAVE THE TIME TO DO ALL OF THIS WORK AND BE PREPARED BUT ALSO, I FEEL LIKE IT IS TIME TO FREE THEM UP A LITTLE BIT IT IS TIME TO GET OUR ECONOMY BACK STARTED WE CANNOT CONTINUE DOWN THIS ROAD WE ARE GOING TO HAVE DEPRESSION LIKE UNEMPLOYMENT IF WE DO AND WE ARE GOING TO HAVE PEOPLE THAT ARE GOING CRAZY TRYING TO GET FOOD AND MEDICINES FOR THEIR FAMILIES AND THAT IS NOT WHAT WE WANT IN THE STATE OR THIS COUNTRY AND WE ARE TAKING A MEASURED STEP FORWARD TO ALLOW THAT BUT WE HAVE ALSO GOT TO CONTINUE TO HAVE OUR CITIZENS BE PART OF THE SOLUTION AND NOT PART OF THE PROBLEM WE STILL HAVE THE SOCIAL DISTANCING REQUIREMENTS IN PLACE WE HAVE THE LARGE GATHERING BAN IN PLACE WE ARE CONTINUING TO KEEP SOME ESTABLISHMENTS CLOSED LIKE BARS AND NIGHTCLUBS AND ENTERTAINMENT VENUES WE WILL CONTINUE TO WATCH THE DATA AS WE MOVE INTO PHASE 2 ABOUT EASING UP ON THAT BUT EVEN THOUGH WE ARE FREEING PEOPLE UP TO MOVE AROUND A LITTLE MORE THAN THEY HAVE, WE DO NEED THEM TO, YOU KNOW, WEAR A MASK IS GOING TO THE GROCERY STORE OR THE PHARMACY, I HAVE TALKED WITH DR. TO ME ABOUT THAT THAT IS WHAT SHE DOES BUT WHEN SHE GOES TO THE NEIGHBORHOOD PARK TO WALK HER DOG SHE IS NOT WEARING A MASK AND SHE CAN SOCIAL DISTANCING HERSELF FROM PEOPLE WE JUST NEED PEOPLE TO USE GOOD COMMON SENSE AND I KNOW OUR BUSINESS COMMUNITY, THOSE THAT DECIDED TO OPENED AND THAT WAS NOT A MANDATE BUT A CHOICE, BUT THEY HAVE DONE A GREAT JOB OF FOLLOWING THE GUIDELINES THAT WE HAVE TO PROTECT THEMSELVES, THEIR EMPLOYEES AS WELL AS THEIR CUSTOMERS >> Reporter: ONE OF THE MOST COMMON QUESTIONS WE ARE GETTING IS ABOUT THE NUMBERS PEOPLE SEEING THE NUMBER OF CASES GOING UP TALK ABOUT WHAT YOU ARE SEEING WITH THE CURVE AND THOSE CASE NUMBERS? >> THERE ARE A LOT OF DIFFERENT METRICS WE ARE FOLLOWING EVERY DAY AND I KNOW IT IS KIND OF COUNTERINTUITIVE TO PEOPLE WHEN THEY SEE THE NUMBER OF CASES GOING UP THAT IS ACTUALLY A GOOD THING BECAUSE IT MEANS THAT WE ARE TESTING MORE BUT WHAT ELSE IS GOOD IS THAT WE ARE SEEING RIGHT NOW, REALLY WATCHING THIS TREND, THE NUMBER OF CASES, TESTS ARE GOING UP AND THE PERCENTAGE OF THE POSITIVE CASES TO THE NUMBER OF TESTS CONTINUES TO DROP AND THAT IS WHAT WE WANT TO CONTINUE TO SAVE SO WE ARE TESTING MORE BUT THE NUMBER OF POSITIVES WE ARE GETTING, THAT PERCENTAGE IS DROPPING SO THAT IS A VERY GOOD SIGN WE ARE NOT GOING TO GET RID OF THE VIRUS. NONE OF THESE THINGS THAT WE ARE DOING IS DESIGNED TO GET RID OF THE VIRUS IT IS DESIGNED FOR US TO BE ABLE TO HAVE THE HEALTH CARE OF CAPACITY AND TO MEET THE NEEDS OF ANY PATIENT IN GEORGIA THAT NEEDS TO HAVE A HOSPITAL BED OR MEDICAL ATTENTION THAT IS WHERE THE GUIDELINES AT THE FEDERAL LEVEL WERE DESIGNED FOR WE NEED THOSE GUIDELINES TO MOVE INTO PHASE 1 SO THAT IS WHAT WE HAVE DONE BUT WE HAVE TO CONTINUE TO MAKE SURE THAT AS WE SEEK COMMUNITY SPREAD, WE DON’T NEED IT TO TURN INTO A HOTSPOT OR EPICENTER PEOPLE FOLLOWING BEST PRACTICES, THAT WE ARE GOING TO CONTINUE TO SEE GOOD NUMBERS AS WE MOVE FORWARD DOCTORS HAVE SAID THERE ARE SO MANY UNKNOWNS, THE WHAT NEXT IS A BIG QUESTION MARK HOW MUCH HAS THE STATE TALKED THROUGH POTENTIAL NEXT STEPS AS WE SEE THE IMPACTS UNFOLD OVER THE NEXT COUPLE OF WEEKS? >> I CONTINUE TO BE IN TOUCH WITH A LOT OF OUR HOSPITALS, CEOs ON THE BED CAPACITY ISSUE AND THESE DISCUSSIONS ABOUT SLOWLY REOPENING GEORGIA’S ECONOMY ARE A BIG PART OF THAT THEY HAVE SO MANY EMPTY HOSPITAL BEDS THEY ARE BECOMING FINANCIALLY NOT VIABLE THAT IS A BIG CONCERN TO THEM THAT IS THE LAST THING WE NEED IS FOR HOSPITALS TO START LAYING OFF NURSES AND DOCTORS AND CLOSING THEIR DOORS BECAUSE THEY ARE NOT FINANCIALLY VIABLE WE HAVE GIVEN THE SIGNAL THAT THEY CAN START SOME OF THESE ELECTRIC ELECTIVE SURGERIES BACK

BUT ALSO GET SOME GOOD HEALTH OUTCOMES FOR PATIENTS SO THEY ARE IN SUPPORT OF THOSE TYPE THINGS EVERYBODY REALIZES THAT WE ARE HEARING THIS FROM THE WHITE HOUSE AND DR. BIRX AND DR FAUCI EVERYBODY HAS THEIR EYES ON THE ALL ONCE WE GET THROUGH WHERE WE ARE HERE HOPEFULLY IN THE NEXT TWO OR THREE WEEKS, NEXT MONTH OR SO, MOVE INTO A DIFFERENT PHASE WE ALSO HAVE TO PREPARE FOR REBOUND THIS FALL IF THE VIRUS COMES BACK WHO KNOWS WHAT THAT IS GOING TO LOOK LIKE WHO KNOWS IF WE WILL HAVE MEDICAL TREATMENTS AVAILABLE THERE ARE SOME PROMISING THINGS OUT THERE POTENTIALLY, A VACCINE, I AM NOT THE EXPERT ON THAT THERE IS A LOT OF REALLY SMART PEOPLE WORKING ON THAT ISSUE AND I CERTAINLY HOPE AND PRAY THEY ARE SUCCESSFUL BUT A LOT OF THE THINGS WE ARE DOING, WE STOOD UP TO BE IN PLACE FOR A LONG TIME WE KNEW THIS WOULD NOT BE OVER IN JUNE AND MAYBE CALM DOWN IN JUNE AND LIFE MAY GO BACK TO RELATIVELY NORMAL FORMAT WITH CERTAINLY A NEW WORLD ORDER FOR SOCIAL DISTANCING AND THINGS OF THAT NATURE BUT WE ALSO KNOW THAT WE HAVE TO PREPARE FOR THIS TO COME BACK IN THE FALL AND CONTINUE TO DO THAT, QUITE HONESTLY, UNTIL THERE IS A VACCINE OR SOME SORT OF MEDICAL TREATMENT >> Reporter: ONE STEP AT A TIME, I GUESS GOVERNOR, THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR THE TIME APPRECIATED >> THANKS FOR HAVING ME ON >>> WE LOVE TO SEE YOU SHARING THE GOOD THINGS THAT ARE HAPPENING IN AND AROUND OUR COMMUNITIES AND A FAMILY IN FAYETTE COUNTY IS DOING JUST THAT ETHAN STANLEY REACHED OUT TO SHOW WHAT HE IS DOING WHATEVER IT IS TAKE TO MAKE AN IMPACT HE IS HEAVILY INVOLVED IN A LOCAL ORGANIZATION AND HAS BEEN THE MANAGER OF THE HIGH SCHOOL BASKETBALL TEAM FOR 10 YEARS NOW, MORE THAN THAT HE HAS WORKED SO HARD FOR HIS 30th BIRTHDAY HE ORGANIZED A PARADE IN MORE THAN 50 CARS PARTICIPATED IT IS CERTAINLY A BIRTHDAY HE WILL NEVER FORGET REMEMBER, YOU CAN GET IN ON THE ACTION AND LET US KNOW THE GOOD THINGS HAPPENING AROUND YOU SEND US YOUR VIDEOS, PICTURES AND USE THE #SENDTHELOVEATL

YOU CAN ALSO TEXT THEM >>> COVID-19 HAS BEEN AROUND LONG ENOUGH THAT WE NOW HAVE SURVIVORS TO CELEBRATE BUT IT WILL TAKE MONTHS, EVEN YEARS FOR SOME TO RECOVER FROM THE FINANCIAL TOLL OF FIGHTING THE VIRUS REBECCA LINDSTROM TAKE A LOOK AT THE CONFUSION SURROUNDING MEDICAL COSTS >> Reporter: THEY ARE THE MOMENTS TO KEEP HOPE ALIVE THE CHEERS AND REUNIONS WITH LOVED ONES >> THOSE DOCTORS AND NURSES, I MEAN, THEY DESERVE EVERY PENNY THEY GET PICKED >> Reporter: NOT ONLY DID COOK SURVIVE COVID-19 BUT SO DID HER FATHER AND DAUGHTER WHO SPENT 11 DAYS ON A VENTILATOR BUT COOK HERSELF, ALMOST DID NOT GO TO THE HOSPITAL >> IN MY HEAD I WAS GOING, WE CAN’T TAKE ANOTHER BILL WE ARE GOING TO LOSE OUR HOUSE HOW I’M I GOING TO PAY FOR THIS? AND IT IS A LOT >> Reporter: SO FAR THE BILLS FOR COOK’S CARE IS $18,000 SHE IS WAITING TO SEE WHAT HER INSURANCE WILL PAY BUT SHE FEARS IT WON’T BE MUCH BUT I READ THE OTHER DAY THEY PAY LIKE $300 A DAY FOR A HOSPITAL STAY AND I’M LIKE, HOLY COW >> Reporter: SHE HAD NO IDEA WHAT HER DAUGHTERS CARES WOULD COST >> HI, DADDY >> RICHARD PELLEGRINO, AND MANNY COBB COUNTY WAS ON A VENTILATOR FOR ABOUT A WEEK HIS BILL? >> IT WAS $199,000 AND CHANGE AND IT WAS SURPRISING BECAUSE I HAVE NEVER SEEN THAT BIG A BILL IN MY LIFE FOR ANYTHING >> Reporter: 18,000 OF THAT COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH TWO VISITS TO THE EMERGENCY ROOM WHERE HE WAS TURNED AWAY WITHOUT RECEIVING THE COVID-19 TEST PELLEGRINO ALSO RECEIVED AN EXPERIMENTAL TREATMENT >> I WAS OFFERED AND ACCEPTED THE ANTIMALARIAL DRUGS >> Reporter: NOT ALL HEALTH INSURANCE COMPANIES HAVE AGREED TO COVER THAT — >> Reporter: BURNETT HAYES WITH THE CONSUMER ADVOCACY NONPROFIT GEORGIA WATCH HAS A GUYS THAT FAMILIES CAN USE TO NAVIGATE INSURANCE PROVIDERS ON THE GOVERNMENT MOST SAY THEY WILL COVER TESTING >> THE TREATMENT ASPECT OF COVID-19 HEALTHCARE IS WHERE THE CONFUSION IS >> Reporter: THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT SAID IT WILL FOOT THE BILL FOR THE UNINSURED AND MEDICARE WHICH PELLEGRINO HAS STILL, HIS LAST STATEMENT HAS HIM ON THE HOOK FOR $38,000 >> WE ARE LIVING DAY-TO-DAY >> Reporter: JUST SEARCH GOFUNDME COVID-19 MEDICAL BILLS AND YOU WILL FIND AN ALMOST ENDLESS LIST OF FAMILIES ASKING FOR HELP FAMILIES LIKE COOK WHO MADE THE TOUGH DECISION NOT TO GET THE INHALER PRESCRIBED AS PART OF HER COVID-19 RECOVERY >> WAS LIKE $360. THAT IS A CAR PAYMENT THAT IS PART OF A HOUSE PAYMENT >> SHE SAYS SHE DOES NOT REGRET THE DECISION TO GO TO THE HOSPITAL HER HUSBAND PUT IT SIMPLY, >> I’D RATHER PAY A HOSPITAL BILL THAN A FUNERAL BILL FOR YOU AND I KIND OF, THAT RESONATED IN MY HEAD >> Reporter: FROM TESTING TO COST OF ADMISSIONS, WHAT ARE YOU BEING ASKED TO PAY? WE WANT TO HEAR FROM YOU EMAIL US AT COVID-19 MEDICAL BILLS@11ALIVE.COM AGAIN, THAT’S COVID-19 MEDICAL BILLS 11ALIVE .COM IF YOU ARE WONDERING WHAT TO DO NEXT, WE HAVE PUT A LINK TO THIS RESOURCE GUIDE ON OUR WEBSITE >>> I’M METEOROLOGIST, CHRIS HOLCOMB FROM THE 11ALIVE STORM TRACKER SPEC WE HAD COOLER IN PLACE TODAY, TOPPING OUT BELOW AVERAGE TEMPERATURES IN THE LOW END MID 60s IN SOME SPOTS AND THE COOLER WILL STICK WITH US AS WE GO THROUGH THE NIGHT HOURS TOMORROW IT WILL BE A COOL START BUT COOLER AIR STARTS TO RETREAT BACK TO THE NORTH AND THAT WILL OPEN THE DOOR FOR THE WARMER AIR MOVING INTO OUR AREA WE WILL BE FEELING THAT ON SATURDAY WE GO BACK TO THE LOWER 80s AND BY SUNDAY, WARMER AIR CONTINUES TO MOVE IN, WE WILL BE IN THE MID-80s AND WE HOLD IN THE MID- 80s AS WE GO INTO THE BEGINNING OF THE WEEK THEN YOU WILL NOTICE HERE THE COOLER AIR TO THE NORTH TRYING TO FILL BACK DOWN INTO OUR AREA BY WEDNESDAY AND THURSDAY WE WILL SEE TEMPERATURES STARTING TO DROP AGAIN WHERE WE GO BACK DOWN INTO THE 70s HERE IS THE OUTLOOK INTO NEXT WEEK THE CLIMATE PREDICTION CENTER SHOWING FOR MAY 7 TO THE FIFTH 13th BELOW AVERAGE TEMPERATURES MOVING INTO OUR AREA FOR NEXT WEEK THE AVERAGE NEXT WEEK IS ABOUT 78 FOR THE HIGH WE DO THINK WE WILL BE BELOW THAT NEXT WEEK TOMORROW WE WILL SEE A WARM-UP MOVING OUR WAY AND WE WILL WAIT TO SEE IF THAT HALVES ANY IMPACT ON THE POLLEN COUNT

IT WAS REALLY LOW OR MEDIUM TODAY, OFFICIALLY 35 IN THE MEDIUM RANGE BUT I KNOW WE ALL CELEBRATE A POLLEN COUNT IN THE 30s THE MAIN POLLENS ARE HICKORY, OAK, PINE, WALNUT AND MULBERRY GRASSES ARE IN THE MODERATE RANGE NO ISSUES WITH GRASS WEEDS RIGHT NOW MOLD IS IN THE HIGH RANGE NOW, TOO >>> TOMORROW, IT COOL START BUT WE WARM-UP IN THE 70s, PLAY OF SUNSHINE IT IS GOING TO BE A BEAUTIFUL DAY HERE FOR TOMORROW HERE’S A LOOK AT YOUR HEADLINES WE ARE GOING TO SEE WARMING AS WE HEAD UP TO THE WEEKEND WITH A DRY PATTERN AHEAD WE WILL FINALLY HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO DRY OUT A LITTLE BIT THEN THE RAIN CHANCE IS GOING TO RETURN NEXT WEEK BUT AS OF RIGHT NOW IT DOES NOT LOOK LIKE A MAJOR EVENT COMING IN NEXT WEEK ENJOY PICTURE 11 ON THE WIZOMETER TOMORROW, LOWER 50, HIGH OF 73 FORECAST TONIGHT, QUIET CONDITIONS, CLEARING SKIES AND THEN TO THE DAY TOMORROW, IT WILL BE A NICE DAY WITH PLENTY OF SUNSHINE AROUND AND TEMPERATURES REBOUNDING LOWER TO MID 70’S HERE TOMORROW AND THE WARM-UP CONTINUES GOING INTO SATURDAY JUST A COUPLE OF CLOUDS AROUND WE WILL EVENTUALLY GET INTO THE LOWER 80s SATURDAY AND THEN MID 80s SUNDAY HERE IS THE SEVEN-DAY OUTLOOK WHERE WE SEE THE WARM-UP, 73 FRIDAY, 81 SATURDAY, MID 80s SUNDAY, MONDAY AND TUESDAY YOU WILL NOTICE RAIN CHANCES COMING BACK, A LOW RANCHETTES MONDAY AT 20% 30% CHANCE FOR SHOWERS OR MAYBE THUNDERSHOWERS ON TUESDAY GOING BACK DOWN TO A 20% >>> FAVOR IS ONE OF THE MAIN SYMPTOMS OF COVID-19 AND IT IS SOMETHING YOU CAN TEST AT HOME WITH A THERMOMETER THE PROBLEM IS THERE ARE DOZENS OF THERMOMETERS AND WAYS TO USE THEM OUR VERIFIED TEAM LOOKS INTO

THE BEST PRACTICES FOR THE BEST RESULTS HERE IS JASON PUCKETT >> Reporter: SEARCH ONLINE AND THERE ARE LOTS OF THERMOMETERS YOU CAN BY WHICH IS BEST AND HOW CAN YOU GET THE MOST ACCURATE RESULTS? TO FIND OUT WE ASKED THE NURSE MANAGER IN ENDOSCOPY AND BIOCONTAINMENT AT JOHNS HOPKINS HOSPITAL >> WE HAVE FOUND THIS, THE TEMPORAL THERMOMETER ACTUALLY WORKS THE BEST >> Reporter: TEMPORAL THERMOMETERS ARE A NEWER TYPE THAT YOU PAY PLACE AGAINST YOUR FOR HAD TO GET A READING >> IT IS THAT FAST, TOO? >> YES, IT IS THAT FAST AND YOU ARE SIMPLY WIPING IT DOWN WITH AN ALCOHOL WIPE AND YOU CAN TAKE THE NEXT EMPLOYEE COMING IN >> Reporter: THEY ARE BY FAR THE MOST ACCURATE BUT THEY ARE MORE EXPENSIVE AND NOT AS EASY TO FIND WHAT ABOUT INFRARED OR DIGITAL FOR THERMOMETERS? THEY ARE ALL OVER ONLINE AND IN STORES IS THAT BETTER THAN NOTHING? >> ABSOLUTELY, NO QUESTION AND EVERYBODY SHOULD HAVE A THERMOMETER LIKE THIS AT HOME >> Reporter: SHE SAYS MOST MODERN THERMOMETERS ARE PRETTY ACTIVE ACCURATE BUT THE DIGITAL ONES ARE MORE LIKELY TO BE AFFECTED BY OUTSIDE FACTORS LIKE THE TEMPERATURE OF THE ROOM OR SEMI BUT ANY THERMOMETER WORKS IF YOU TEST AT THAT TIME >> GET YOUR BASIC TEMPERATURE BEFORE YOU ARE FABER ALL PERMIT FOR MOST, HOT TEMPERATURES ABOVE 104 DEGREES BUT SOME PEOPLE RUN HOT OR COLD SO IF YOU TEST BEFORE A FEVER YOU CAN COMPARE THE NUMBER WHEN YOU ARE FEELING SAFE IF YOU ARE ABOVE OR BELOW AVERAGE YOU WILL KNOW IF THE TEMPERATURE IS HIGH FOR YOU NOW YOU HAVE A THERMOMETER, WHERE SHOULD YOU TEST ON YOUR BODY? SHE SAYS RECTAL TESTS ARE THE MOST ACCURATE BUT MOST PEOPLE WON’T DO THAT NEXT IS ORAL BUT THOSE ARE OFTEN OFF BY A FEW DEGREES SHE HIGHLY RECOMMENDS THE TEMPORAL FOR THERMOMETER FOR MY QUESTIONS AND CONCERNS, YOU’RE NOT ALONE 11ALIVE IS DEDICATED TO GET YOU MORE ANSWERS SEND US A TEXT AT THIS NUMBER OR MESSAGE US ON SOCIAL >>> YESTERDAY THE NCAA MADE A DECISION THAT HAS MADE IT A REAL POSSIBILITY THAT SOON ATHLETES COULD PROFIT OFF THEIR MAIN IMAGE AND LIKENESS THERE COULD BE ADVERTISEMENTS

BUT AS ALICE ALEX GLAZE TELLS US, — >> Reporter: ALEX GLAZE HERE WITH — AN ATTORNEY WHO REPRESENTS COLLEGE AND PRO ATHLETES >> WE TALK ABOUT STUDENT ATHLETE S USING THEIR IMAGE AND LIKENESS, IT IS GOING TO BE THAT SOCIAL MEDIA ASPECT AND ATHLETES BEING ABLE TO MARKET THEMSELVES >> Reporter: WHEN YOU LOOK AT THIS FROM THE NCAA’S PERSPECTIVE WHAT IS THE PROBLEM WITH THE? >> THE FEAR IS YOU OFF SOMEBODY THAT I 5 RESTAURANT IN TOWN AND HAS A HUGE BACKER OF THE SCHOOL AND DEFEND THAT WILL PUT SOME CRAZY NUMBER ON THE VALUE OF THAT INSTAGRAM POST AND OR WORSE, TRYING TO ATTRACT KIDS BEFORE THEY EVEN GO TO SCHOOL >> SOME MIGHT SAY YOU ARE ONLY WORTH WHAT SOMEONE IS WILLING TO PAY YOU SO HOW DO YOU REGULATE THAT? >> THAT IS VERY TRUE AND THERE ARE A LOT OF PEOPLE WHO FEEL THAT ATHLETES SHOULD MAKE AS MUCH BUT THE NCA DOESN’T FEEL THAT WAY SO IT IS GOING TO BE KIND OF A GIVE AND TAKE THE NCA WILL HAVE TO POLICE THE SOME PATROL IT SO IN ORDER FOR THEM TO FEEL COMFORTABLE WITH THE PROCESS, IT WILL BE THE WILD WEST START I IMAGINE, THE RULES WILL HAVE TO BE CHALLENGED AND THERE WILL BE ALL SORTS OF INTERPRETATIONS NECESSARY AND IT IS GOING TO BE A CHALLENGE FOR COMPLIANCE OFFICES AT EVERY LEVEL OF THE SPORTS WORLD IT WILL BE DIFFICULT BUT ULTIMATELY, I THINK IT IS THE RIGHT THING TO DO KIDS SHOULD BE ABLE TO MAKE MONEY WHILE IN COLLEGE JUST LIKE KIDS NOT PLAYING SPORTS >>> 11ALIVE NEWS PRIME TIME ON THE ATL STARTS NOW >>> IT IS TIME TO GET OUR ECONOMY BACK STARTED. WE WILL NOT CONTINUE DOWN THIS ROAD >>> GEORGIA’S SHELTER-IN-PLACE ORDER EXPIRES IN SIX HOURS WE LOOK AT THAT THE GOVERNOR IS ASKING WE ALL DO TO KEEP FIGHTING TO FLATTEN THE COVID- 19 CURVE >>> WITH RESTRICTIONS LOOSENING, EMPTY CITY SEEMS LIKE THIS MAY BE A DISTANT MEMORY SOON NOT ALL OF YOU WELCOME THE CHANGE WHAT YOU HAD TO SAY ABOUT IT TONIGHT >>> ATLANTA IS SENDING THE LOVE ONE-WOMAN’S MILESTONE OF A LIFETIME THAT HAS THE WHOLE COMMUNITY CELEBRATING >>> FIRST TONIGHT, GOVERNOR BRIAN KEMP CHOOSING NOT TO EXTEND THE STATE SHELTER-IN- PLACE WHICH EXPIRES AT MIDNIGHT TONIGHT HOWEVER, HE IS STILL URGING PEOPLE TO STAY HOME WHEN POSSIBLE HE SAYS THE FIGHT AGAINST CORONAVIRUS IS “FAR FROM OVER.” TEAM COVERAGE BEGINNING WITH JENNIFER BELLAMY BREAKING DOWN WHAT IS STILL IN PLACE AND WHO IT AFFECTS >> Reporter: THE GOVERNOR MADE HIS ANNOUNCEMENT ON TWITTER THIS AFTERNOON GEORGIA’S MAIN STATEWIDE SHELTER-IN-PLACE ORDER EXPIRES TONIGHT FOR MANY OF US BUT THERE ARE STILL RESTRICTIONS IN PLACE FOR CERTAIN GEORGIANS GOVERNOR KEMP HAS A EXTEND OF THE SHELTER-IN-PLACE TO JUNE 12 FOR THOSE 65 AND OLDER, THOSE LIVING IN NURSING HOMES OR LONG- TERM CARE FACILITIES, AND THOSE WITH PRE-EXISTING CONDITIONS LIKE CHRONIC LUNG DISEASE, SEVERE HEART DISEASE, DIABETES, MODERATE TO SEVERE ASTHMA AND SEVERE OBESITY TO NAME A FEW ALL OF THE BUSINESSES THAT REOPENED LAST WEEK CAN CONTINUE TO OPERATE LIKE THE GYM, BARBERS AND STYLISTS, NO TECHS AND BOWLING ALLEYS ALONG WITH DINING RESTAURANT SERVICES AND MOVIE THEATERS MUST STILL MEET PREVIOUSLY RELEASED SANITARY AND DISTANCING GUIDELINES SOME BUSINESSES ARE STILL A NO GO BARS, NIGHTCLUBS, AMUSEMENT PARKS, LIES LIVE PERFORMANCE VENUES IN PUBLIC SWIMMING POOLS MUST REMAIN CLOSED UNTIL 11:59 ON MAY 13 UNLESS EXTENDED THE GOVERNOR SAID IT WILL VARY BY BUSINESS FOR A METHOD MEASURED, HEALTH DRIVEN APPROACH >> THE HEALTH AND WELL-BEING OF GEORGIANS ARE MY TOP PRIORITIES AND MY DECISIONS ARE BASED ON DATA AND ADVICE FROM HEALTH OFFICIALS I WILL DO WHAT IS NECESSARY TO PROTECT THE LIVES AND THE LIVELIHOODS OF OUR PEOPLE >> ANOTHER THING TO NOTE THE BAN OF LARGE GATHERINGS REMAINS IN PLACE BUSINESSES AND GOVERNMENT CANNOT ALLOW MORE THAN 10 PEOPLE IN A SINGLE LOCATION UNLESS THERE IS SIX FEET BETWEEN THEM BUT THAT DOES NOT INCLUDE FAMILY UNITS OR SINGLE HOUSEHOLDS >>> A LOCAL COUNTY AND CITY LEADERS DOING THEIR PART TO KEEP THE COMMUNITIES SAFE AMID THE SHELTER-IN-PLACE ORDER EXPIRING TONIGHT, 11ALIVE’S ELWYN LOPEZ CONTINUES COVERAGE PERMIT I WAS ABLE TO CATCH UP WITH THE COMMUNITY LEADERS WHO TOLD ME THEY WERE NOT SURPRISED BY THE ANNOUNCEMENT TODAY >> I HAVE ALWAYS SAID IT IS MORE OF AN INDIVIDUAL DECISION HE IS IN BETWEEN A ROCK AND A HARD PLACE, WANTED TO DO WHAT IS BEST FOR THE HEALTH OF GEORGIANS AND AT THE SAME TIME CONCERNED ABOUT THE ECONOMY OF GEORGIA SO I THINK THIS IS ANOTHER BABY STEP TOWARD GETTING BACK TO SOME SENSE OF NORMALCY >> Reporter: FULTON COUNTY COMMISSIONER SAYS HE BELIEVES MANY GEORGIANS WILL CONTINUE TO SHELTER-IN-PLACE AFTER TONIGHT THIS INCLUDES BUSINESS OWNERS AND FULTON COUNTY WHO HAVE YET

TO OPEN THEIR DOORS EVEN THOUGH SOME OF THEM WERE ALLOWED TO REOPEN LAST FRIDAY >> IT IS TAKING BABY STEPS IS THE BEST WAY TO DESCRIBE IT >> Reporter: DeKALB COUNTY CEO MICHAEL THURMAN SAYS HE HOPES GOVERNOR KEMP’S DECISION WAS THE RIGHT MOVE BUT HE ISN’T GOING TO WAIT TO FIND OUT >> YOU CAN’T RUN THE COUNTY THE SIZE OF THE CAB WITH 750,000 PEOPLE BASED ON HOPE WE HAVE TO ALSO BE PRACTICAL AND REALIZE THAT THERE IS A HUGE RISK ASSOCIATED WITH THE REOPENING OF THE STATE AT THIS TIME >> Reporter: THIS COMING WEEKEND, THURMAN SAYS THEY WILL DISTRIBUTE THOUSANDS OF MASKS AND HAND SANITIZER’S TO RESIDENTS THERE NOW THAT THE SHELTER-IN-PLACE ORDER WILL BE LIFTED >> WE HAVE TO DO MORE IN REACTION TO THE FACT THAT MORE PEOPLE WILL BE OUT, MORE PEOPLE WILL BE INTERACTING WITH ONE ANOTHER AND CONSEQUENTLY INCREASING THE PROBABILITY THAT WE WILL REIGNITE THE HORRIBLE DISEASE >> Reporter: A POSSIBLE ROUND TWO OF COVID-19 CASES IS ALSO A CONCERN ATHENS MAYOR KELLY GERTZ SHARES AS HE CONTINUES TO ENCOURAGES COMMUNITY TO STAY PUT >> IF WE DON’T CONTINUE TO SHELTER-IN-PLACE, IT MEANS COMING THROUGH THIS MIGHT NOT BE JUST A SECOND WAVE BUT A SERIES OF WAVES OF INFECTION AND SO I WANT THAT TO BE AVOIDED >>> IT IS IMPORTANT TO GIVE YOU SOME CONTEXT ABOUT WHERE GEORGIA STANDS AS THE SHELTER- IN-PLACE ORDER EXPIRES MORE THAN 26,000 PEOPLE HAVE TESTED POSITIVE FOR THE VIRUS ABOUT A 20% INCREASE SINCE LAST WEEK 1100 PEOPLE HAVE DIED, THAT IS UP 28% FROM LAST WEEK NOW, GOVERNOR KEMP TOLD OUR VERY OWN CHERYL PREHEIM TODAY THAT GEORGIA MUST MOVE FORWARD ONE STEP AT A TIME TO SAVE LIVES AND THE LIVELIHOOD OF ALL GEORGIANS BUT THE GOVERNOR ALSO STATED THAT IS TESTING GOES UP SO WILL THE CASES AS WELL THE PRUDENTIAL CENTER’S WHAT IS THE PERCENTAGE OF PEOPLE TESTING POSITIVE IS GOING DOWN >> WE HAVE TO CONTINUE IF WE ARE GOING TO SEE COMMUNITY SPREAD WE DON’T NEED IT TO TURN INTO A HOTSPOT OR EPICENTER PEOPLE FOLLOWING BEST PRACTICES, WE WILL CONTINUE TO SEE THESE GOOD NUMBERS AS WE GO FORTH >> THE GOVERNOR SAYS IT IS IMPORTANT FOR ALL GEORGIANS TO STAY PROACTIVE AND SAFE AS WE CONTINUE TO BATTLE THIS PANDEMIC VICKI SAID THE VIRUS IS NOT GOING AWAY AND WE MUST BE VIGILANT UNTIL THERE IS A TREATMENT OR A VACCINE YOU WILL HEAR A LOT MORE FROM THE FULL INTERVIEW FROM CHERYL PREHEIM COMING UP IN THE NEXT HALF HOUR >>> MEDICAL EXPERTS WE HAVE SPOKEN WITH ARE ALSO WORRIED GEORGIA SHELTER-IN-PLACE ORDER IS EXPIRING TOO EARLY JOE HENKE EXPLAINS HOW WE WILL BE ABLE TO GAUGE IF PEOPLE ARE STILL FOLLOWING SOCIAL DISTANCING GUIDELINES AS THE ORDER ENDS >> Reporter: BEFORE GOVERNOR BRIAN KEMP’S ANNOUNCEMENT, TOP INFECTIOUS DISEASE EXPERTS TOLD US WE WOULD NEED TO WAIT TO SEE THAT IMPACT PLAY OUT BUT THEY SAID IF THE SHELTER-IN-PLACE ORDER EXPIRES THAT IT WOULD BE UP TO ALL GEORGIANS TO CONTINUE SOCIAL DISTANCING AND STAYING AT HOME WHEN POSSIBLE NOW THE SHELTER-IN-PLACE ORDER IS SET TO EXPIRE AND HIS ANNOUNCEMENT HIMSELF, BRIAN KEMP SAYS HE IS URGING GEORGIANS TO STAY HOME AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE I TALKED WITH AN EPIDEMIOLOGIST WHO SAYS NOW HE IS FOCUSED ON SEVERAL EVENTS THAT COULD LEAD TO A SPIKE IN CASES INCLUDING GOING BACK TO EASTER AND PASSOVER WHEN EARLIER THIS MONTH FAMILIES MAY HAVE COME TOGETHER FOR THE HOLIDAYS THIS PAST FRIDAY, ONE SALONS, BARBER SHOPS, BOWLING ALLEYS AND OTHER BUSINESSES COULD OPEN, ANOTHER SHELTER-IN-PLACE EXPIRES AND TOMORROW MALLS IN GEORGIA INCLUDING LENOX SQUARE AND PHIPPS PLAZA WILL OPEN IT COULD TAKE 2 TO 3 WEEKS FOR THESE EVENTS TO POSSIBLY LEAD TO SPIKES IN CASES FOR NOW, DOCTORS ARE TELLING US ALL OF THE HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDELINES WE FOLLOWED UNDER THE SHELTER-IN-PLACE ORDER REMAIN IMPORTANT >> LOAD AS LITTLE AS POSSIBLE USE A MASK WASH YOUR HANDS PRACTICE SOCIAL DISTANCING THE MORE PEOPLE DO THAT, THE LESS SPIKE WILL OCCUR >> THE 14 DAY WINDOW IS WHAT WE THINK ABOUT OUR BEST ESTIMATE OF HOW LONG CASES CAN REALLY GO BETWEEN SOMEONE IS INFECTED AND MAY ACTUALLY SHOW SIGNS OF THE DISEASE >> Reporter: DR. ROBERT BERNARD CHECK MENTIONED THE 14 DAY WINDOW FROM INFECTION TO SYMPTOMS AND IT ALSO TAKES ADDITIONAL TIME FOR SUMMER TO GET TESTED AND FOR RESULTS TO COME BACK SO IT COULD TAKE TWO UP TO THREE WEEKS, JEFF BEFORE WE KNOW THE TRUE IMPACT OF GEORGIA’S STEPS TO REOPEN >>> WE ARE HEARING FROM YOU FROM ALL OF THE STATE AND YOU HAVE A LOT OF OPINIONS ABOUT THE GOVERNOR’S DECISION, SHOULD REOPEN, SHOULD WE NOT 1500 OF YOU HAVE PULLED ALREADY AND VOTED AND 75% OF YOU SAID NO, WE SHOULD NOT OPEN. 25% SAY, HEY, THIS IS A GOOD DEAL THIS IS A GOOD IDEA LET US KNOW WHAT YOU THINK, FOLKS GO TO OUR WEBSITE,

11ALLIVE.COM/VOTE WE WANT TO HEAR FROM YOU >>> THIS IS WHAT OTHER FOLKS ARE SAYING ABOUT THE GOVERNOR’S DECISION >> HELLO, MY NAME IS — >> MY NAME IS KENYA, A COBB COUNTY RESIDENT >> MY NAME IS LINDA EDWARDS I LIVE IN DECATUR >> GREGORY BROWN AM A AND I THINK THIS IS REALLY WAY TOO SOON >> MY NAME IS TONYA WILLIS AND I LIVE IN LAWRENCEVILLE WE HAVE SEEN HOW WELL THE QUARANTINE AND THE SHELTER-IN- PLACE HAS WORKED IN OTHER COUNTRIES >> I DO NOT BELIEVE THE SHELTER- IN-PLACE ORDER SHOULD BE REMOVED THIS EVENING AND GEORGIA AND AMERICAN PEOPLE IN GENERAL HAVE NOT TAKEN IT SERIOUSLY ENOUGH >> I THINK IT IS THE PROPER TIME TO RELEASE THE SHELTER-IN- PLACE ORDER SIMPLY BECAUSE NO QUESTIONS HAVE BEEN ANSWERED PROPERLY >> MY CONCERN ABOUT THE SHELTER- IN-PLACE EXPIRING TONIGHT IS THAT I HAVEN’T HEARD ANY NUMBERS THAT SUPPORT THIS >> I DON’T PLAN ON BEING A PART OF THIS SECOND WAVE IF MY QUESTIONS OR ANSWERS, WE WILL CONTINUE IN A NEW NORMAL >>> 11ALIVE IS WHERE ATLANTA SPEAKS AND WE WANT TO HEAR FROM YOU WHAT DO YOU THINK ABOUT GEORGIANS SHELTER-IN-PLACE ORDER EXPIRING TONIGHT TO CALL AND LEAVE A MESSAGE AT THE NUMBER ON YOUR SCREEN, 670-765- 9514 BE SURE TO LEAVE YOUR NUMBER, YOUR NAME AND WHERE YOU LIVE BECAUSE WE MAY SHARE YOUR COMMENTS ON OUR NEWSCAST >>> I’M DOUG RICHARDS AND GWINNETT COUNTY WERE BUS DRIVERS WANT THE COMPANY THAT RUNS THE COUNTY TRANSIT SYSTEM TO TIGHTEN UP ITS RULES TO REDUCE THE RISK OF COVID-19 TRANSIT WORKERS HAVE BEEN IN TALKS WITH WHEN I, MARTIN AND COBB COUNTY TRANSIT SYSTEMS BASIC HAZARD PAY, PPE AND OTHER SAFETY GEAR, REQUIRING MASKS FOR PASSENGERS AND PAID COVID- 19 TESTING FOR TRANSIT WORKERS AMONG OTHER THINGS >> THEY ARE ON THE FRONT LINES WHAT THEY ARE DOING WITH HAVING THE PROTECTIVE GEAR >> Reporter: THE UNION SAYS THE TRANSIT SYSTEMS RESPONSES HAVE BEEN BURIED MARTA HAS GIVEN DRIVERS HAZARD PAY >>> SCIENCE IS MOVING FASTER IN THIS PANDEMIC THEN IN PAST ONCE THAT SHOULD BE ENCOURAGING TO EVERYONE EVERY RESEARCHERS PART OF THE CLINICAL TRIAL OF THE FIRST COVID-19 TREATMENT TO SHOW IT IS HELPING PATIENTS RECOVER FASTER THAT IS GOOD NEWS BUT THE RESEARCHER SAID PROGRESS IS SIGNIFICANT >> I’VE BEEN INVOLVED IN MULTIPLE OUTBREAKS IN THE PAST AND I HAVE NOT SEEN THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE GO SO QUICKLY A LOT OF THAT IS BASED OFF THE WONDERFUL NEW TECHNOLOGIES WE HAVE BUT ALSO A LOT OF THAT IS JUST THE WONDERFUL COLLABORATION BETWEEN PEOPLE ACROSS THE WORLD AND ACROSS THE UNITED STATES THAT ARE ALL REALLY WORKING TOGETHER AND WORKING HARD TOGETHER TO GET THESE ANSWERS FOR ALL OF US >> EMORY UNIVERSITY PLAY TO LEAVE LEADING ROLE IN THE TRIAL OF THE COVID-19 DRUG, MORE THAN ANY OTHER FIGHT IN THE WORLD ACCORDING TO PRELIMINARY DATA HOSPITALIZED PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED COVID-19 IN THERE LUNGS RECOVERED FASTER WHEN THEY TOOK THE DRUG THE TRIAL PROVED A DRUG CAN BLOCK THE VIRUS BUT MORE TESTING IS NEEDED THE FDA HAS NOT APPROVED THE TREATMENT RIGHT NOW, REMDESIVIR IS ONLY BEING USED FOR THE SICKEST PATIENTS IN THE HOSPITAL IT WILL NOT SHOW UP AT PHARMACIES ANYTIME SOON >>> THE TRUMP ADMINISTRATION HAS LAUNCHED A NEW INITIATIVE CALLED OPERATION WARP SPEED TO PUSH DRUGMAKERS TO DEVELOP A CORONAVIRUS VACCINE BY JANUARY >>> FOR SMALL BUSINESS OWNERS, A FAR-OFF DREAM OF ECONOMIC RELIEF NEXT ON PRIME TIME, WE WILL CHECK IN WITH ONE WOMAN STILL HOLDING OUT HOPE TO GET A PORTION OF A PAYCHECK PROTECTION FUND >>> WE WERE TRACKING STORMS THIS TIME LAST NIGHT, MOVING OUT OF THE AREA NOW, RADAR IS CLEAN NO REIGN IN OUR AREA AND EVEN AROUND THE SOUTHEAST, WE ARE WATCHING RAIN EXIT BUT NOTHING REALLY COMING OUR WAY I WILL LET YOU KNOW IF THIS DREYER PATTERN AND COOLER PATTERN IS GOING TO STICK AROUND >>> AND THANKS FOR SHARING GOOD NEWS WITH US AND THINGS HAPPENING AROUND YOU SO ATLANTA IS SENDING THE LOVE AND IT IS A PARTY IN FULTON COUNTY LUCY YOUNG HAS LIVED IN SOUTH FULTON ALL HER LIFE LAST WEEK, SHE TURNED 100 YEARS OLD NO PARTY ALLOWED BECAUSE OF SOCIAL DISTANCING BUT STILL, THE LOVE AND RECOGNITION SHE DESERVES WAS GIVEN ON DISPLAY WITH SIRENS BLAZING, POLICE, CITY OFFICIALS, FAMILIES AND FRIENDS HOLDING A DRIVE-BY PARADE IT GAVE THEM THE OPPORTUNITY TO SAFELY WISH HER A HAPPY 100th BIRTHDAY HERE SO GLAD THEY SHARED THIS VIDEO WITH US >>> WE WANT TO KNOW THE GOOD

THINGS YOU ARE SEEING AROUND YOU YOU CAN SEND US YOUR VIDEOS USING #SENDTHELOVEATL OR TEXT >>> WELCOME BACK, EVERYONE TONIGHT WE HAVE AN INSIDE LOOK AT THE NEW ANTIBODY TESTING WHICH COULD PLAY A KEY ROLE IN OPENING UP THE ENTIRE COUNTRY TESTS ARE BECOMING MORE ACCESSIBLE TO MILLIONS CHIEF INVESTIGATOR, REVEAL INVESTIGATOR, BRENDAN KEEFE BREXIT DOWN FOR US TONIGHT >> Reporter: WHAT ARE ANTIBODIES AND WHY WOULD WE WANT TO TEST FOR THEM IN A LARGE PORTION OF THE POPULATION? ANTIBODIES ARE LIKE THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF YOUR IMMUNE SYSTEM AND EACH ONE REPRESENTS A DISEASE TO WHICH YOU HAVE BEEN EXPOSED AT SOME POINT IN YOUR LIFETIME THAT SEASONAL FLU STRAIN FROM A COUPLE OF YEARS AGO? WELL, YOUR IMMUNE SYSTEM RESPONDED BY CREATING JUST THE RIGHT ANTIBODY TO CONNECT WITH THAT VIRUS ALMOST LIKE A LOCK AND KEY AND THEN, MADE MILLIONS OF COPIES OF THAT ANTIBODY, DESTROYING THE VIRUS, MAKING YOU FEEL BETTER BUT THOSE ANTIBODIES REMAIN IN YOUR SYSTEM THE NOVEL CORONAVIRUS IS DIFFERENT NOVEL SIMPLY MEANS NEW PIC THERE IS NOT A SINGLE PERSON ON THE PLANET WHO ALREADY HAD ANTIBODIES TO THIS FIRE IS LAST YEAR WHAT THAT MEANS IS NONE OF US HAVE THE ANTIBODIES IN THE LIBRARY OF OUR IMMUNE SYSTEM TO FIGHT THIS NEW VIRUS THAT MEANS THE BODY WOULD HAVE TO CREATE ITS OWN NEW ANTIBODIES TO SEE EXACTLY WHICH ONE WOULD FIT WITH THE CORONAVIRUS AND DESTROY IT ONCE IT DOES, THE BODY WOULD MAKE MILLIONS OF COPIES OF THOSE ANTIBODIES. MIKE TESTING THE BLOOD FOR THE PRESENCE OF THE ANTIBODY, WE CAN TELL NOT ONLY PEOPLE WHO HAVE BEEN AFFECTED IN THE PAST BUT ALSO WHO MAY ALREADY HAVE IMMUNE SYSTEMS PRIMED TO FIGHT THE INFECTION >>> ONE BEACON OF HOPE AT LEAST FOR SMALL BUSINESS OWNERS IS RENEWED FUNDING FOR THE PAYCHECK PROTECTION PROGRAM JENNIFER BELLAMY HAS THE STORY OF ONE STORE OWNER WHO IS HOLDING OUT HOPE THAT SHE CAN GET PART OF THAT FUND >> Reporter: FOR LAWRENCE SAUNDERS, IT IS BUSINESS FROM A DISTANCE SHE OWNS INMAN PARK TECH WORKS AND LIKE MANY SMALL BUSINESSES, THE PANDEMIC HAS TAKEN A MAJOR BITE OUT OF HER OPERATIONS >> WE ARE ON AVERAGE ABOUT 50% DOWN IN SALES >> Reporter: SHE SELLS ASSORTED PET FOODS AND SUPPLIES AND OFFICE SPA SERVICES FOR 4- LEGGED CLIENTELE BUT MOST OF THAT HAS BEEN KICKED TO THE CURB, LITERALLY SAUNDERS IS ONE OF THE OVER 30 MILLION SMALL BUSINESSES THAT HELP POWER THE U.S. ECONOMY UNFORTUNATELY THEY CAN BE THE MOST VULNERABLE DURING A DOWNTURN WHICH IS WHY THE PAYCHECK PROTECTION PROGRAM IS COVETED, PROVIDING MUCH-NEEDED RELIEF BUT FOR SAUNDERS IT SEEMS LIKE A FAR-OFF DREAM >> I WENT ONLINE AND GOT THE NECESSARY DOCUMENTS THEY NEEDED THEY REVIEWED THAT AND THEN THEY WENT TO THE NEXT STEP AND UNFORTUNATELY, THE FUNDS WERE ALREADY DEPLETED FROM THE NEARLY $350 BILLION WORTH OF EMERGENCY RELIEF FUNDS RAN OUT IN A MATTER OF TWO WEEKS SOME OF IT SNAPPED UP BY PUBLICLY TRADED COMPANIES AND MANY SMALL BUSINESS OWNERS THINK THEY FELT THEY WERE AT A DISADVANTAGE >> Reporter: VICE PRESIDENT OF CITIZENS TRUST, ONE OF THE LARGEST BLACK OWNED BANKS IN THE NATION >> Q HAVE — YOU ARE AHEAD OF

SOMEBODY THAT HAS 250 THAT IS THE ORDER THAT IT COMES >> HE SAYS WHEN IT COMES TO THE PAYCHECK PROTECTION PROGRAM, TIME IS OF THE ESSENCE WORKING WITH THE BANK THAT KNOWS YOU CAN MAKE THE DIFFERENCE >> EVEN BEFORE WE KNEW HOW WE WERE GOING TO PROCESS OUR APPLICATIONS, WE KIND OF REACHED OUT TO SOME OF THE PEOPLE THAT HAVE BEEN LOYAL CUSTOMERS TO US AND WE SAID HEY, THIS IS COMING DOWN THE PIKE YOU KNOW, YOU MIGHT WANT TO GET YOUR DUCKS IN A ROW FOR MACK BROWN TWO OF THE PAYMENT PROTECTION PROGRAM KICKED OFF EARLIER THIS WEEKEND SAUNDERS WONDERS IF SHE WILL STRIKE PAYDIRT THIS TIME AROUND >> I DON’T KNOW WHERE IN THE QUEUE I AM THERE COULD BE 1 MILLION APPLICATIONS AHEAD OF ME >> Reporter: SAUNDERS SAYS IT IS A WAITING GAME AND TIME IS NOT ON HER SIDE >> WE ARE TRULY THE LANDLORD IS HELPING US WITH THE RENT HERE SO THAT IS GIVING US A BIT OF A BREAK BUT YOU KNOW, I JUST HAVE TO RELY ON SOME OF MY PERSONAL SAVINGS ACCOUNT TO KEEP OUR STAFF ON AND KEEP THE DOORS OPEN >>> I’M METEOROLOGIST, CHRIS HOLCOMB FROM THE 11ALIVE STORMTRACKERS AND WE ARE EXCITED THAT WE HAVE A QUIET NIGHT TONIGHT IF YOU ARE WATCHING US ON TV YOU MAY BE WONDERING WHAT IS THE PHONE DOING HERE IN THE SHOT? THAT’S BECAUSE I’M ALSO DOING A FACEBOOK LIVE WE HAVE JUST UNDER 200 PEOPLE WE WERE OVER 300 EARLIER NOW JUST UNDER 200 CONNIE LEE FROM GAINESVILLE SAYS HELLO DENNIS CARTY SAYS LOOKING FORWARD TO GOOD RUNNING WEATHER THAT IS GOOD TO KNOW AND APRIL DAVIS SAYS HAVE A GREAT NIGHT SO A LOT OF COMMENTS COMING ON IF YOU WANT TO BE A PART OF THE CONVERSATION, GO TO MY FACEBOOK PAGE, CHRIS HOLCOMB 11ALIVE AND YOU CAN ASK QUESTIONS AS WELL LET’S TAKE A BREAK FROM FACEBOOK THE FACEBOOK FOLKS ARE WATCHING AS I DO THIS FORECAST AS WELL AND A LOT QUIETER TONIGHT THAN WHAT WE WERE DEALING WITH LAST NIGHT WHERE WE DON’T HAVE ANY RAIN AROUND. NO STORMS IN FACT LOOKING AROUND THE SOUTHEAST YOU CAN TO THE STORM SYSTEM THAT MOVED WELL-OFF INTO THE ATLANTIC A LITTLE WRAPAROUND MOISTURE ON THE BACKSIDE KIND OF KICKED UP A COUPLE OF SPRINKLES OVER PARTS OF FAR NORTH GEORGIA TODAY BUT MOST OF US WERE STAYING DRY I AM SURE YOU HAVE ALL NOTICED TODAY AND WE TOLD YOU YESTERDAY THAT IT WAS GOING TO BE A LOT COOLER TODAY WE ONLY GOT UP TO 63 DEGREES FOR A HIGH TEMPERATURE THIS AFTERNOON NOW WE ARE INTO THE 50s SO IF YOU HAVE BEEN OUT TONIGHT I AM SURE YOU NOTICED ON THE WALK OR TAKING OUT THE TRASH OR THE DOG OUT THAT IT IS GOING DOWN IN THE 50s NOW DULUTH IN THE LOWER 60s BUT MOSTLY EVERYBODY ELSE IN THE 50s WE WILL CONTINUE TO WATCH THE TEMPERATURES FALLING AS WE GO THROUGH THE NIGHTTIME HOURS YOU CAN SEE US MOVING DOWN INTO THE LOW 50s I THINK THE UPPER 40s ARE MORE FOR THE OUTLYING AREAS HERE IN THE CITY WE WILL STAY RIGHT THERE AND LOW 50s I’M GOING 54 A LOW IN THE MORNING AND THE HIGHER 73 I WILL STILL GO WITH AN 11 ON THE WIZOMETER THOUGH THE TEMPERATURES ARE JUST A LITTLE BIT LOWER THAN WHAT WE SHOULD BE FOR THIS TIME OF YEAR WE ARE GOING TO HAVE PLENTY OF SUNSHINE, CRYSTAL-CLEAR DAY, GREAT VISIBILITY A NICE FEEL TO THE AIR OUT THERE SO WE RATE THE WEATHER ON A SCALE FROM 1 TO 11 WHERE 11 IS THE PERFECT DAY AND THAT IS WHAT WE ARE DOING AN 11ALIVE DAY TOMORROW HERE’S THE FORECAST TRACK WITH DRY CONDITIONS TONIGHT AND THE CLOUDS TODAY WERE A LITTLE STUBBORN TO BREAK UP BUT THEY ARE CLEARING NOW WE WILL CONTINUE TO SEE CLEARING SKIES TOMORROW THAT IS GOING TO GIVE US MORE SUNSHINE DURING THE DAY TEMPERATURES WILL START TO REBOUND WE WERE ONLY IN THE 63 FOR THE HIGH TODAY AND I THINK WE WILL BE 10 DEGREES WARMER TOMORROW WITH A HIGH OF 73 WITH THE SUNSHINE AROUND ON SATURDAY, SUNNY SKIES, A COUPLE OF CLOUDS HERE AND THERE BUT A GOOD DAY SATURDAY AND THE WARM-UP IS GOING TO CONTINUE GOING INTO SATURDAY AS WELL HERE’S A LOOK AT THE SEVEN-DAY OUTLOOK WHERE IT WILL BE A BEAUTIFUL DAY TOMORROW FOR HIGHS NEAR 73 WATCH THE WARMING TREND, UP TO 81 SATURDAY, MID 80s SUNDAY, MONDAY AND TUESDAY WITH A MIX OF SUN AND CLOUDS YOU WILL SEE THE RAIN CHANCE, A LOW CHANCE MONDAY AT 20%, I THINK THAT IS MORE TO THE NORTH 30% CHANCE FOR SHOWERS TUESDAY, MAYBE THUNDER WITH THAT AND WEDNESDAY, GOING BACK DOWN TO 20% AND CLEARING OUT AGAIN THURSDAY AND FRIDAY THE TEMPERATURES IN THE MID-80s FOR THIS WEEK AND WILL TREND BACK DOWN INTO THE 70s FOR THE MIDDLE AND END OF NEXT WEEK CLICK >>> THE MAGNIFICENT MEN IN THERE FLYING MACHINES, THE NAVY’S BLUE ANGELS AND THE AIR FORCE THUNDERBIRDS FLUID FORMATION OVER NEW YORK CITY EARLIER THIS WEEK TO HONOR CORONAVIRUS ESSENTIAL WORKERS THIS WEEKEND, THEY BRING THEIR AERIAL SHOUT OUT TO ATLANTA AS PART OF OPERATION AMERICA STRONG HERE’S WHAT THAT LOOKS LIKE FROM INSIDE THE COCKPIT THE THUNDERBIRDS WERE FOUNDED IN 1953 AND THE BLUE ANGELS IN 1946 THIS IN THE WAKE OF WORLD WAR II AND NOW THEY TAKE TO THE SKIES OVER CITIES ACROSS THE COUNTRY TO SALUTE THOSE ON THE FRONT LINES OF THE PANDEMIC THE PILOTS WILL SHOW OFF THEIR PRECISION FLYING SKILLS OVER

ATLANTA ON SATURDAY STARTING AT 1:30 5 PM THE SHOW WILL LAST ABOUT 25 MINUTES THEY WILL RELEASE THEIR EXACT ROUTE TOMORROW SO CHECK 11ALLIVE.COM FOR THE BEST TIME TO LOOK UP >>> NEXT ON PRIME TI >>> THE VERIFY TEAM IS HERE TO GET THE FACTS WE DISPEL IN MISINFORMATION ONLINE LIKE THESE THE CLAIM THAT THE WHITE HOUSE IS SELLING COMMEMORATIVE COINS FOR COVID- 19, SPARKING OUTRAGE FORM MANY WE WILL VERIFY IS AT THE WHITE HOUSE SELLING THESE COINS? WE TRACK THE CLAIMS DOWN TO THE SITE, WHITE HOUSE GIFT SHOP COM THAT IS OUR FIRST CLUE A GOVERNMENT RUN WEBSITE WOULD BE.GOV, NOT .COM IT IS NO SURPRISE THAT SOME ARE CONFUSED WITH THE SEAL IN THE CORNER, PHOTOS OF THE WHITE HOUSE HAD A SIMILAR COLOR SCHEME IT LOOKS LIKE THE OFFICIAL WHITE HOUSE PAGE THE VERIFY TEAM SPOKE WITH THE CEO, TONY GIANNINI BY EMAIL IT TURNS OUT A VARIATION OF THE SHOP HAS BEEN AROUND SINCE 1946 AND WAS ONCE LOCATED IN THE WHITE HOUSE BASEMENT BUT GIANNINI CONFIRMED THAT IS NOT THE CASE ANYMORE HIS COMPANY, GIANNINI STRATEGIC LSE TOOK OVER IN 2012 AND IT IS CLEARLY WRITTEN ON THE WEBSITE NO GOVERNMENT FUNDS OR RESOURCES ARE EVER USED IN THE OPERATION OF THE SHOP WE CAN VERIFY. THE WHITE HOUSE IS NOT SELLING COVID-19 COMMEMORATIVE COINS. IT IS A PRIVATE COMPANY BY THE WAY, GIANNINI TELLS ME THEY HAVE SOLD NEARLY 1000 OF

THE CO >>> ADMIN, GEORGIA’S SHELTER-IN- PLACE ORDER WILL EXPIRE GOVERNOR KEMP CHOOSING NOT TO RENEW IT BUT URGING ALL PEOPLE TO STAY HOME AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE AND PRACTICE STRICT SOCIAL DISTANCING GUIDELINES HE ALSO SAYS AT-RISK GROUPS SHOULD CONTINUE TO SHELTER-IN- PLACE UNTIL JUNE 12. THAT IS FOR PEOPLE 65 AND OLDER, THOSE WITHIN NURSING HOMES OR LONG- TERM CARE FACILITIES, AND THOSE WITH PRE-EXISTING CONDITIONS LIKE CHRONIC LUNG DISEASE, SEVERE HEART DISEASE, DIABETES, MODERATE TO SEVERE ASTHMA AND SEVERE OBESITY TO NAME A FEW EVEN WITH THE SHELTER-IN-PLACE ORDER ENDING TONIGHT, SOME BUSINESSES MUST STILL STAY CLOSED BARS, NIGHTCLUBS, AMUSEMENT PARKS, LIVE PERFORMANCE VENUES AND PUBLIC SWIMMING POOLS ALL MUST STAY CLOSE THROUGH MAY 13 THE GOVERNOR SAYS THE RULES VARY BY BUSINESS FOR MEASURED HEALTH DRIVEN APPROACH IT IS IMPORTANT TO GIVE YOU CONTEXT ABOUT WHERE GEORGIA STANDS RUN RIGHT NOW IN TERMS OF DEPTHS THE LATEST NUMBERS SHOW MORE THAN 26,000 PEOPLE TESTED POSITIVE FOR THE VIRUS, UP ABOUT 20% FROM LAST WEEK MORE THAN 1100 PEOPLE HAVE DIED, UP 28% FROM JUST LAST WEEK THE GOVERNOR SAYS WE ARE SEEING CASES GO UP RIGHT NOW BECAUSE TESTING HAS EXPENDED 11ALIVE’S CHERYL PREHEIM SPOKE WITH GOVERNOR KEMP EARLIER TODAY AT LENGTH ABOUT HIS DECISION AND WHAT GEORGIANS SHOULD EXPECT OVER THE NEXT FEW MONTHS >> Reporter: TELL US MORE ABOUT YOUR DECISION TO EXTEND THE GEORGIA STATE OF EMERGENCY THROUGH JUNE 12 AND WHY THAT IS IMPORTANT? >> Reporter: I HAVE SOME CONVERSATIONS WITH LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR DUNCAN AND SPEAKER ROSS AND THEY BOTH AGREED WE NEEDED TO EXTEND THE ORDER THAT GIVES US THE ABILITY TO THE DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH AND OTHER EMERGENCY POWERS TO CONTINUE ALL THE GOOD WORK WE HAVE BEEN DOING IN RECENT DAYS TO WRAP UP TESTING WE HAVE A HAD SOME EXPONENTIAL GROWTH AND WE NEED TO CONTINUE TO DO MORE BUT ALSO IT ALLOWS ME THE ABILITY TO FOR A WAIVER PERSPECTIVE DEALING WITH POTENTIAL OUTSIDE DOCTORS AND NURSES FROM OUTSIDE THE STATE COMING IN, HOSPITAL BED CAPACITY ISSUES, THERE ARE A LOT OF REASONS TO EXTEND THAT TO MAKE SURE THAT WE CAN HAVE 100% RESPONSE TO COVID-19 IN THE STATE OF GEORGIA >> Reporter: YOU TALKED A LOT ABOUT EXTENDING THE HOSPITAL BED CAPACITY AND THE NUMBER OF VENTILATORS WHERE DOES THAT STAND AND HOW MUCH IT HAS AFFECTED YOUR DECISION TO LIFT THE OVERALL SHELTER-IN-PLACE? >> A BIG PART OF THAT, SOME OF

THE DATA THAT WE ARE FOLLOWING, THOSE NUMBERS LITERALLY EVERY DAY I GET AN UPDATE SEVEN DAYS A WEEK ON THAT WE HAD THE LOWEST VENTILATOR USE TO DATE THAN WE HAVE HAD IN A LONG TIME OUR HOSPITAL BED CAPACITY CONTINUES TO BE IN REALLY GOOD SHAPE SO THAT IS REALLY WHAT THE — OF THE PREVIOUS ORDERS WERE DOING WAS ALLOWING US TIME TO HELP FLATTEN THE CURVE AND BUILD UP THE CAPACITY AND NOW THAT WE HAVE DONE THAT, I FELT LIKE IT WAS TIME FOR US TO MOVE FORWARD CONTINUING TO FOCUS ON THE PEOPLE THAT ARE REALLY AFFECTED BY THIS, THOSE IN LONG-TERM CARE FACILITIES, THE ELDERLY AND MEDICALLY FRAGILE, BUT ALSO EASING UP ON THE SHELTER-IN- PLACE FOR OTHER GEORGIANS BECAUSE THEY HAVE DONE WHAT WE ASKED THEY HAVE HELPED US FLATTEN THE CURVE AND BUILD THE INFRASTRUCTURE AND HELP GET TESTING AND CONTACT TRACING STARTING TO RAMP UP AS WELL >> Reporter: PEOPLE HAVE DONE WHAT THE STATE HAS ASKED FOR THE MOST PART AND HOW IMPORTANT IS IT NOW MOVING FORWARD THAT PEOPLE CONTINUE MAKING SOME OF THOSE PERSONAL DECISIONS ABOUT HOW MUCH THEY ARE OUT OR WHETHER THEY WEAR MASKS A LOT OF PEOPLE WILL HAVE TO MAKE DAY-TO-DAY CHOICES ON HOW THEY MOVE FORWARD >> AND THAT IS THE MESSAGE I HAVE FOR PEOPLE NUMBER ONE, THANK YOU FOR HELPING US FLATTEN THE CURVE AND HAVE THE TIME TO DO ALL OF THIS WORK AND BE PREPARED BUT ALSO, I FEEL LIKE IT IS TIME TO FREE THEM UP A LITTLE BIT IT IS TIME TO GET OUR ECONOMY BACK STARTED WE CANNOT CONTINUE DOWN THIS ROAD WE ARE GOING TO HAVE DEPRESSION LIKE UNEMPLOYMENT IF WE DO AND WE ARE GOING TO HAVE PEOPLE THAT ARE GOING CRAZY TRYING TO GET THROUGH TO GET FOOD AND MEDICINES FOR THE FAMILY THAT IS NOT WHAT WE WANT IN THE STATE OR IN THIS COUNTRY AND RETAKE A MEASURED STEP FORWARD TO ALLOW THAT BUT WE ALSO HAVE TO CONTINUE TO HAVE CITIZENS BE PART OF THE SOLUTION AND NOT PART OF THE PROBLEM WE STILL HAVE THE SOCIAL DISTANCING REQUIREMENTS IN PLACE, LARGE GATHERING BAM IN PLACE, CONTINUING TO KEEP SOME ESTABLISHMENTS CLOSED LIKE BARS AND NIGHTCLUBS AND ENTERTAINMENT VENUES WE WILL CONTINUE TO WATCH THE DATA AS WE MOVE INTO PHASE 2 ABOUT EASING UP ON THAT EVEN THOUGH WE ARE FREEING PEOPLE UP TO MOVE AROUND A LITTLE MORE THAN THEY HAVE, WE DO NEED THEM TO WEAR THE MASK IF THEY ARE GOING TO THE GROCERY STORE, OR THE PHARMACY I HAVE TALKED WITH DR. TOOMEY ABOUT THAT THAT IS WHAT SHE DOES BUT WHEN SHE GOES TO THE NEIGHBORHOOD PARK TO WALK HER DOG SHE IS NOT WEARING A MASK SO SHE CAN SOCIAL DISTANCING HERSELF FROM PEOPLE IN AN OPEN-AIR ENVIRONMENT SO WE JUST NEED PEOPLE TO USE GOOD COMMON SENSE AND I KNOW THIS IS COMMUNITY DECIDED TO OPEN, NOT A MANDATE BUT A CHOICE THEY HAVE DONE A GREAT JOB OF FOLLOWING GUIDELINES THAT WE HAD TO PROTECT THEMSELVES AND THEIR EMPLOYEES AS WELL AS CUSTOMERS >> Reporter: ONE OF THE MOST COMMON QUESTIONS WE ARE GETTING IS ABOUT THE NUMBERS. PEOPLE SAY THE NUMBER OF CASES IS GOING UP TALK ABOUT WHAT YOU ARE SEEING WITH THE CURVE AND THOSE CASE NUMBERS? >> THERE IS A LOT OF DIFFERENT METRICS HERE THAT WE ARE FOLLOWING EVERY DAY AND I KNOW IT IS KIND OF COUNTERINTUITIVE TO PEOPLE WHEN THEY SEE THE NUMBER OF CASES THAT ARE GOING UP THAT IS ACTUALLY A GOOD THING BECAUSE IT MEANS THAT WE ARE TESTING MORE WHAT ELSE IS GOOD IS THAT WE ARE SEEING RIGHT NOW AND REALLY WATCHING THIS TREND, THE NUMBER OF CASES, THE NUMBER OF TESTS ARE GOING UP BUT THE PERCENTAGE OF THE POSITIVE CASES TO THE NUMBER OF TESTS CONTINUES TO DROP AND THAT IS WHAT WE WANT TO CONTINUE TO SEE SO WE ARE TESTING MORE BUT THE NUMBER OF POSITIVES WE ARE GETTING, THAT PERCENTAGE IS DROPPING SO THAT IS A VERY GOOD SIGN. WE ARE NOT GOING TO GET RID OF THE VIRUS NONE OF THESE THINGS THAT WE ARE DOING IS DESIGNED TO GET RID OF THE VIRUS IT IS DESIGNED FOR US TO BE ABLE TO HAVE THE HEALTHCARE CAPACITY AND MEET THE NEEDS OF ANY PATIENT IN GEORGIA THAT NEEDS A HOSPITAL BED OR NEEDS MEDICAL ATTENTION THAT IS WHAT, YOU KNOW, THE GUIDELINES AT THE FEDERAL LEVEL WERE DESIGNED FOR WE NEED THOSE GUIDELINES TO MOVE INTO PHASE 1 SO THAT IS WHAT WE HAVE DONE WE HAVE TO CONTINUE TO MAKE SURE THAT AS WE ARE GOING TO SEE COMMUNITY SPREAD, WE DON’T NEED IT TO TURN INTO A HOTSPOT OR AN EPICENTER PEOPLE ARE FOLLOWING THE BEST PRACTICES WE ARE GOING TO CONTINUE TO SEE THESE GOOD NUMBERS AS WE GO FORTH >> Reporter: DOCTORS HAVE SAID THERE IS SO MANY UNKNOWNS THE WHAT NEXT IS ALWAYS A BIG QUESTION MARK HOW HAS THE STATE TALKED TO THROUGH POTENTIAL NEXT STEPS AS WE SEE THE IMPACTS UNFOLD OVER THE NEXT COUPLE OF WEEKS? >> I CONTINUE TO BE IN TOUCH WITH A LOT OF OUR HOSPITAL CEOs ABOUT THE ISSUE AND THESE DISCUSSIONS ABOUT SLOWLY REOPENING GEORGIA’S ECONOMY THEY WERE A BIG PART OF THAT THEY HAVE SO MANY EMPTY HOSPITAL BEDS, THEY ARE BECOMING FINANCIALLY NOT VIABLE THAT IS THE BIG CONCERN TO THEM

THAT IS THE LAST THING WE NEED IS FOR HOSPITALS TO START LAYING OFF NURSES AND DOCTORS AND CLOSING THEIR DOORS BECAUSE THEY ARE NOT FINANCIALLY VIABLE THEY HAVE, YOU KNOW, WE HAVE GIVEN OR SENT THE SIGNAL THEY CAN START SOME OF THESE ELECTIVE SURGERIES BACK THAT WILL PUT PEOPLE TO WORK BUT ALSO GIVE SOME GOOD HEALTH OUTCOMES FOR THEIR PATIENTS THEY ARE IN SUPPORT OF THOSE TYPE THINGS EVERYBODY REALIZES THAT WE ARE HEARING THIS FROM CERTAINLY THE WHITE HOUSE AND DR. BIRX AND DR. FAUCI EVERYBODY HAS THE RISE ON THE FALL, ONCE WE GET THROUGH WHERE WE ARE NOW, HERE HOPEFULLY IN THE NEXT 2 TO 3 WEEKS OR NEXT MONTH OR SO, MOVE INTO A DIFFERENT PHASE WE ALSO HAVE TO PREPARE FOR A REBOUND THIS FALL IF THE VIRUS COMES BACK WHO KNOWS WHAT THAT IS GOING TO LOOK LIKE WHO KNOWS IF WE WON’T HAVE MEDICAL TREATMENTS AVAILABLE THEN THERE ARE PROMISING THINGS OUT THERE, POTENTIALLY, A VACCINE, I’M NOT THE EXPERT ON THAT BUT A LOT OF REALLY SMART PEOPLE WORKING ON THAT ISSUE AND I CERTAINLY HOPE AND PRAY THEY ARE SUCCESSFUL BUT A LOT OF THE THINGS THAT WE ARE DOING, WE STOOD UP TO BE IN PLACE FOR A LONG TIME WE KNEW THIS WOULD NOT BE OVER IN JUNE AND MAYBE CALM DOWN IN JUNE AND MAY GO BACK TO A RELATIVELY NORMAL FORMAT OF LIFE WITH CERTAINLY A NEW WORLD ORDER FROM SOCIAL DISTANCING AND THINGS OF THAT NATURE BUT WE ALSO KNOW THAT WE HAVE TO PREPARE FOR THIS TO COME BACK IN THE FALL AND CONTINUE TO DO THAT, QUITE HONESTLY, UNTIL THERE IS A VACCINE OR SOME SORT OF MEDICAL TREATMENT >> Reporter: ONE STEP AT A TIME, I GUESS GOVERNOR, THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR THE TIME APPRECIATED >> THANKS FOR HAVING ME ON >>> ALL RIGHT, SWITCHING GEARS RIGHT NOW, GOOD NEWS FOR THE BRAVES FANS IF YOU PURCHASED A SEASON TICKET, YOU KNOW, AT FIRST, MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL SAID THEY WOULD NOT REFUND ANY OF THE GAMES NOT PLAYED IN APRIL AND MAY WELL, ALL OF THAT HAS CHANGED FOR OBVIOUS REASONS BECAUSE THEY ARE NOT GOING TO SEE ALL OF THE FULL SLATE OF GAMES THIS SEASON THERE IS A POSSIBILITY GAMES WILL BE PLAYED WITHOUT FANS SO MLB TOLD TEAMS THEY CAN DETERMINE THEIR OWN REFUND FOLLOW POLICY THE BRAVES SENT LETTERS TO SEASON TICKET HOLDER SAYING THEY CAN BE REFUNDED THE VALUE OF THE TICKETS FROM ABLE AND MAY OR RECEIVE CREDIT TOWARD FUTURE PAYMENTS AND TICKETS SINGLE-GAME TICKET HOLDERS WILL HAVE A SIMILAR OPTION >>> THE IDEA OF FEMINIST GAMES SEEMS TO BE CONSTANT AMONG PROFESSIONAL SPORTS RIGHT NOW PRESIDENT TRUMP SHARED HIS THOUGHTS ON SPORTS RETURNING TODAY SAYING HE WANTS TO SEE STANDS FULL OF FANS ONCE IT IS SAFE >> IF I WATCH ALABAMA PLAY LSU, I DON’T WANT TO SEE 20,000 PEOPLE INSTEAD OF 120,000 PEOPLE WE WANTED TO BE THE WAY IT WAS NOW, WE HAVE TO WAIT UNTIL IT IS DONE AND IT WILL BE GONE AND WE HAVE DONE A LOT TO GET RID OF IT BUT WE WANT TO OPEN OUR COUNTRY THE PEOPLE WANT THIS COUNTRY OPEN >>> COMING UP, THE STRUGGLE TO STAY OPEN IS A REALITY FOR MANY GEORGIA BUSINESSES RIGHT NOW NEXT ON PRIME TIME, HOW HELP FROM THE GOVERNMENT IS MAKING SURE ATLANTA FAMILIES CAN STILL GET FREE MEDICAL CARE >>> DRY AIR IS IN PLACE RIGHT NOW INDICATED BY BLUE AND PURPLE COLORS ON THE MAP WE HAVE A DRY PATTERN AHEAD AT LEAST FOR THE NEXT FEW DAYS

>>> AS YOU CAN IMAGINE, THERE ARE COUNTLESS METRO ATLANTA SMALL BUSINESS OWNERS TRYING TO GET A PIECE OF THE $310 BILLION PAYCHECK PROTECTION LOAN PROGRAM 11ALIVE’S BILL LISS HAS MORE ON HOW IT SAVED ONE KEY HEALTHCARE CENTER ON ATLANTA’S WEST END >> Reporter: FOR THE FAMILY HEALTH CENTERS OF GEORGIA SERVING LOW INCOME AND INDIGENT PATIENTS ON THE CITY’S WEST END, GETTING AN SBA LOAN WAS CRITICAL FOR ITS SURVIVAL >> WE’VE BEEN STRUGGLING TO MAKE PAYROLL AND STRUGGLING WITH OTHER FINANCIAL OBLIGATIONS >> Reporter: WITH A SET UP OF 120 EMPLOYEES, THE PRESIDENT AND CEO OF FAMILY HEALTH, DR MICHAEL BURKS SAYS THE MORE THAN $1 MILLION HE GOT AFTER NOT GETTING ANYTHING IN THE FIRST ROUND IS CRITICAL TO ONE OF THE CORE MISSIONS OF THE CENTER >> WE ARE SEEING PATIENTS WHO ARE UNEMPLOYED AND UNINSURED WE SEE THEM ALL WE DO NOT REFUSE CARE TO ANYONE >> Reporter: ONE OF THOSE KATE PATIENTS IS EBONY, A SINGLE MOTHER OF TWO WHO HAS BEEN LIVING IN ATLANTA’S WEST END FOR 20 YEARS AND RELIES ON THE CLINIC FOR ALL HER MEDICAL NEEDS >> IT IS VERY IMPORTANT TO ME BECAUSE IF I AM A LOW INCOME FAMILY, I NEEDED IT, IT’S CONVENIENT AND I NEEDED THE SERVICES WHAT WOULD YOU HAVE DONE? >> NOTHING I JUST WOULD BE OUT IN THE STREET >> Reporter: ANOTHER KEY ROLE IN THE FAMILY HEALTH CLINICS IS OFFERING FREE COVID-19 TESTING THEY HAVE BEEN DOING THAT NOW FOR MORE THAN A MONTH THEY SAY THAT LOANS WILL KEEP THAT GOING THE PRESIDENT OF THE AFRICAN IT AMERICAN OWNED COMMUNITY BANK, GEORGE ANDREWS IS MAKING SURE FAMILY HEALTH AND OTHER SMALL BUSINESS OWNERS ARE PROPERLY SUBMITTING THEIR SBA LOAN APPLICATIONS TO ENSURE THEY ARE GETTING THE MONEY THAT THEY SO DESPERATELY NEED >> WE ESTIMATE WE ESTIMATED OVER 100 APPLICATIONS AND 25 WERE APPROVED, REPRESENTING SOMEWHERE IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD OF FIVE TO $10 MILLION >>> >> Reporter: ALL THAT MONEY IS KEEPING SMALL BUSINESSES ALIVE ON ATLANTA’S WEST END WITHOUT IT, ANDREWS SAYS MANY MOM-AND-POP STORES AND RESTAURANTS WOULD BE FORCED TO CLOSE PERMANENTLY >>> FEVER IS ONE OF THE MAIN SYMPTOMS OF COVID-19 AND IT IS SOMETHING YOU CAN TEST AT HOME WITH A THERMOMETER THE PROBLEM IS THERE ARE DOZENS OF THERMOMETERS AND WAYS TO USE THEM WE HAD OUR VERIFY TEAM LOOK INTO THE BEST PRACTICES TO GET THE BEST RESULTS HERE IS JASON PUCKETT >> Reporter: SEARCH ONLINE AND THERE ARE LOTS OF THERMOMETERS YOU CAN BUY WHICH IS BEST AND HOW YOU CAN GET THE MOST ACCURATE RESULTS? TO FIND OUT WE ASKED NISA ERNST, THE NURSE MANAGER IN ENDOSCOPY AND BIOCONTAINMENT AT JOHNS HOPKINS HOSPITAL >> WE HAVE FOUND THAT THE TEMPORAL THERMOMETERS ACTUALLY WORK THE BEST >> TEMPORAL THERMOMETERS ARE A NEWER TYPE YOUR PLACE AGAINST YOUR FOREHEAD TO GET A READING IT IS THAT FAST, TOO >> Reporter: YES, IT IS THAT FAST THEN YOU ARE SIMPLY WIPING IT DOWN WITH AN ALCOHOL LIKE WHITE >> — >> Reporter: THEY ARE BY FAR THE MOST ACCURATE BUT EXPENSIVE AND NOT EASY TO FIND SO WHAT ABOUT INFRARED OR DIGITAL THERMOMETERS? THEY ARE ALL OVER ONLINE AND IN THE STORE IS THAT BETTER THAN NOTHING?

>> ABSOLUTELY, NO QUESTION AND EVERYBODY SHOULD HAVE A THERMOMETER LIKE THIS AT HOME >> Reporter: SHE SAYS MOST MODERN THERMOMETERS ARE ACCURATE BUT THE INFRARED AND DIGITAL ONES ARE MORE LIKELY TO BE AFFECTED BY OUTSIDE FACTORS LIKE THE TEMPERATURE OF THE ROOM OR SUNLIGHT STILL, ANY THERMOMETER WORKS AS LONG AS YOU TEST AT THE RIGHT TIME >> GET A BASIC THERMOMETER AND TAKE YOUR BASIC TEMPERATURE BEFORE YOU ARE FEBRILE >> THE CDC SAYS FOREMOST TEMPERATURE IS ABOVE 104 DEGREES BUT SOME PEOPLE RUN HOT OR COLD SO IF YOU TEST BEFORE YOU HAVE A FEVER YOU CAN COMPARE THE NUMBER WHEN YOU ARE FEELING SICK THAT EVEN IF YOU ARE ABOVE OR BELOW THE AVERAGE YOU WILL KNOW IF THE TEMPERATURE IS HIGH FOR YOU NOW YOU HAVE A THERMOMETER WHERE SHOULD YOU TEST? ERNST SAYS RECTAL TESTS ARE MOST ACCURATE BUT MOST PEOPLE WON’T DO THAT NEXT WOULD BE AN ORAL TEST AND SHE SAID HERE THERMOMETERS ARE OFTEN OFF BY A FEW DEGREES SO BOTTOM LINE, SHE HIGHLY RECOMMENDED TEMPORAL THERMOMETERS, ESPECIALLY FOR BUSINESSES LOOKING FOR A QUICK AND SANITARY WAY TO TEST EMPLOYEES COMING BACK TO THE OFFICE SHE ALSO SAID ANY THERMOMETER IS BETTER THAN ON TRICK NONE THE KEY IS TESTING BEFORE YOUR TEMPERATURE IS HIGH SO YOU KNOW IF YOU ARE NORMAL IF YOU HAVE MORE QUESTIONS, SEND US AN EMAIL >>> WELL TODAY, WE HAD IMPROVING WEATHER WE STARTED OFF WITH SUNSHINE AND CLOUDS FILLED BACK IN AS WE WERE TELLING YOU YESTERDAY IT WOULD BE A WHILE BEFORE THE CLOUDS TOTALLY MOVED AWAY TODAY WE WERE ABLE TO SEE SUNSHINE BREAKING THROUGH LATER IN THE AFTERNOON AND NOW WE ARE CLEARING AND THE POLLEN COUNT TODAY WAS NOT BAD AT ALL ONLY 35 THAT IS THE POLLEN COUNT REMEMBER AT THE BEGINNING OF THE MONTH AND THE END OF MARCH, THE POLLEN COUNT WAS IN THE 8000? SO YES, NUMBERS ARE COMING DOWN BUT STILL, IF YOU ARE ALLERGIC TO HICKORY, OAK, PINE, WALMART WALNUT AND MOWBRAY, YOU MIGHT BE FEELING THE 35 COUNT VERSUS THE 8000 BECAUSE MAYBE ONE OF THESE IS YOUR ALLERGEN GRASS POLLENS ARE MODERATE NO ISSUES WITH WEED POLLEN NOW AND THE MOLD IS BACK UP TO THE HIGH RANGE AT THIS HOUR SO YOU MIGHT BE DEALING WITH SOME MOLD ISSUES AS WELL IF THAT IS ONE OF YOUR ALLERGIES >>> WE UPDATED THE HIGH FOR TODAY EARLIER WE WERE REPORTING 62 IT WENT UP TO 63 THIS IS THE OFFICIAL HIGH FOR THE DAY LOOK AT THIS WE SHOULD BE AROUND 76 FOR THIS TIME OF YEAR THAT IS 13 DEGREES BELOW AVERAGE AND WE FELT THAT OUT THERE IT FELT COOLER THAN WHAT IT SHOULD BE THE LOW THIS MORNING WAS 53, 3 DEGREES BELOW THE AVERAGE WE STILL HAVE A SURPLUS OF MORE THAN 14 INCHES ABOVE WHERE WE SHOULD BE IN RAINFALL WE ARE DUE A NICE DRY SPELL WE CAN AFFORD IT WE HAVE A SURPLUS LIKE THAT THE COOLER TEMPERATURES WE ARE DEALING WITH NOW, 57 IN TOWN, DULUTH, STILL ONLY IN THE LOWER 60s EVERYBODY ELSE IN THE 50s AND LOW 50s AROUND COVINGTON, CARROLLTON, LAGRANGE IN THE LOW 50s, IN THE MOUNTAINS OF NORTH GEORGIA TOMORROW IS FRIDAY AND I KNOW YOU HAVE BEEN WORKING INSIDE, WORKING FROM HOME, TRYING TO HELP YOUR KIDS WITH SCHOOLING WE ALWAYS TRIED TO GIVE YOU AN OPPORTUNITY OR AN EXCUSE TO GET OUTSIDE AND ENJOY IT A LITTLE BIT IF YOU WANT TO HEAD OUT TOMORROW MORNING FOR A MIDMORNING RECESS WITH THE KIDS AS PART OF THE CURRICULUM, YOU KNOW, THEY HAVE TO GET OUT AND REST, RIGHT? GET OUT AND GET SOME EXERCISE? IF YOU GO OUT AT 10 IN THE MORNING IT WILL STILL BE A LITTLE COOL WITH TEMPERATURES AROUND 57 BUT SUNNY SKIES AND DRIVE A BACKYARD LUNCH WOULD BE GOOD, WARMING UP A LITTLE MORE AT 64 DEGREES BY NOON TIME IN THE AFTERNOON, GO AHEAD AND CLOCK OUT EARLY FROM WORKING FROM HOME HEAD OUTSIDE, IT WILL BE SUNNY AT 4:00 FOR THE EARLY CLOCK OUT WITH TEMPERATURES ABOUT 10 DEGREES WARMER TOMORROW THEN WE HAD UP THERE FOR TODAY HERE’S A LOOK AT THE HEADLINES EVEN WARMER AIR COMING IN FOR THE WEEKEND ARE DRY PATTERN AHEAD. THAT WILL BE NICE TO HAVE AN OPPORTUNITY TO DRY UP THAN THE RAIN CHANCE RETURNS AS WE HEAD INTO NEXT WEEK TOMORROW, AN 11 ON THE WIZOMETER, LOW 50, HIGH 73, LOOKING REALLY NICE OUT THERE FORECAST TRUCK SHOWING NOTHING MAJOR MOVING IN HIGH PRESSURE BUILDS IN THAT GIVES US A NICE QUIET DRIVE PATTERN WITH WARMER AIR ON THE WAY 73 FRIDAY 81 SATURDAY

MID 80s SUNDAY, MONDAY >>> GREAT IDEAS SPREAD FAST SO MANY OF YOU SENT IN PICTURES OF YOUR KIDS’ TRUCK CREATIONS THAT WE SHARED THE STORY OF A FAMILY IN SUWANEE AND THEIR AMAZING ART THEY NEVER EXPECTED SUCH A BIG REACTION >> Reporter: THERE IS NEVER A DULL MOMENT AS LONG AS THERE IS SOME TALK, ROOM ON THE DRIVEWAY AND TIME TOGETHER THE TUCKER FAMILY IN SUWANEE GEORGIA HAS BEEN BUSY DREAMING OF ADVENTURES FOR CHARLOTTE WHILE THEY ARE AT HOME TOGETHER >> IT HAS BEEN KIND OF A FUNNY THING TO SEE WE CAN CREATE THAT >> Reporter: THE TIME SHARED BY TENS OF THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE ON FACEBOOK >> MORE THAN I THOUGHT POSSIBLE IT WAS NOT THE INTENTION WE JUST WENT WITH IT >> SINCE WE INTRODUCED YOU TO THE TUCKER’S, WE HAVE HEARD FROM OTHER FAMILIES, INSPIRED TO GIVE IT A TRY, TOO >>> LITTLE SISTERS SKATEBOARDING AND LOTS OF BALLOONS, CARRYING KIDS AWAY AS THE CREATIVITY CATCHES ON >> Reporter: PASSING ON POSITIVITY, PRAYERS AND PLENTY OF THANK YOU’S >>> WE WILL SEE A REALLY NICE DAY TOMORROW, A COOL START WITH TEMPERATURES RIGHT AROUND 50 THEN WE GET UP TO 73 IN THE AFTERNOON AND THE WARMING TREND CONTINUES THROUGH THE PERIOD, TALKING LOWER 80s SATURDAY, MID

80s THROUGH THE WEEKEND WITH >>> TONIGHT THE GOVERNOR WILL NOT EXTEND THE STATES SHELTER IN PLACE ORDER WHICH IS SET TO EXPIRE IN ABOUT TWO HOURS >> THE GOVERNOR SAYS RESTRICTIONS WILL REMAIN IN PLACE FOR MANY EVEN WITH THE STAY-AT-HOME ORDER ENDING.>> IT’S NOT AS IF WE WILL GOING FROM THIS BACK TO THIS OVERNIGHT, AT LEAST NOT IN THE PLAN OF THE GOVERNOR THAT HE ANNOUNCED ON TWITTER >> EMERGING GEORGIANS TO CONTINUE TO STAY HOME WHENEVER POSSIBLE, THE FIGHT IS FAR FROM OVER.>> WE STILL HAVE SOCIAL DISTANCING REQUIREMENTS IN PLACE >> Reporter: THE GOVERNOR TELLING US THAT DATA SUPPORTS LETTING THE STAY-AT-HOME ORDER EXPIRE FOR MOST PEOPLE IN GEORGIA >> WE ARE TESTING MORE BUT IT’S A VERY GOOD SIGN >> Reporter: PEOPLE 65 AND OLDER, PEOPLE IN LONG-TERM CARE FACILITIES, PEOPLE WITH MODERATE TO SEVERE ASTHMA AND OTHER PRE-EXISTING CONDITIONS AND CHRONIC ILLNESSES REPRESENTATIVE WILLIAM BODIE BELIEVES LOOSENING RESTRICTIONS NOW WILL LEAD TO WORSE LATER >> LIVES WILL BE LOST AND ALSO THE ECONOMY MIGHT NOT BE ABLE TO REBOUND FROM HAVING ANOTHER OUTBREAK.>> WE KNEW THIS WOULD NOT BE OVER IN JUNE BUT I ALSO KNOW THAT WE HAVE TO PREPARE FOR THIS TO COME BACK IN THE FALL UNTIL THERE IS SOME SORT OF MEDICAL TREATMENT.>> Reporter: THE GOVERNOR ALSO EXTENDED THE DECLARATION OF STATE PUBLIC HEALTH UNTIL JUNE 12 CAN TALK ABOUT THE REASON FOR THAT?>> HE THOUGHT THAT EXTENDING THE EMERGENCY ORDER ANOTHER MONTH WOULD EMPOWER HIM TO CONTINUE TO INCREASE HOSPITAL CAPACITY AND TESTING CAPACITY AND CONTACT RAISING CAPACITY AND HE SAID IT ALSO EMPOWERS THEM TO REACT QUICKLY IN CASE SOMETHING MIGHT HAPPEN UNEXPECTEDLY >> WITH THE SHELTER IN PLACE ORDER EXPIRING SOCIAL DISTANCING OUTFALLS TO CITY AND COUNTY LEADERS THE EARLIEST MOST STEPS TO TAKE PEOPLE AT HOME WE REACHED OUT TO THE MAYOR FOR HIS REACTION TO THE GOVERNORS DECISION.>> IF

WE DON’T CONTINUE TO SHELTER IN PLACE IT MEANS THAT COMING THROUGH THIS MIGHT NOT BE JUST A SECOND WAY FOR THE SERIES OF WAVES OF INFECTION SO I WANT THAT TO BE AVOIDED >> HE HOPES THE GOVERNOR DECISION WAS THE RIGHT MOVE BUT IS NOT GOING TO WAIT TO FIND OUT OVER THE WEEKEND HE SAYS THEY WILL BE DISTRIBUTING THOUSANDS OF MASKS AND HAND SANITIZER TO RESIDENCE THERE >> WE HAVE TO DO MORE IN REACTION TO THE FACT THAT MORE PEOPLE WILL BE OUT IN ACTIVE WITH ONE ANOTHER AND INCREASING THE POSSIBILITY OF REIGNITING THIS HORRIBLE DISEASE >> WITH EXPIRATION OF THE STATEWIDE SHELTER IN PLACE ORDER WE RECEIVED A LOT OF QUESTIONS ABOUT WHAT WOULD BE OPEN AND WHAT WILL SAY CLOSED SO HERE’S ALL THE FACTS YOU NEED TO KNOW ALL THE BUSINESSES THAT REOPEN OF THE LAST WEEK WILL STAY OPEN THAT INCLUDES GYMS, BARBERS, HAIR AND NAIL SALONS, TATTOO SHOPS AND BOWLING ALLEYS DINING RESTAURANT SERVICE AND MOVIE THEATERS CAN ALSO CONTINUE TO OPERATE A HANDFUL OF BUSINESSES WILL REMAIN CLOSED THROUGH 11:59 PM THAT INCLUDES BARS, NIGHTCLUBS, AMUSEMENT PARKS, LIFE PERFORMANCE VENUES AND PUBLIC SWIMMING POOLS THE BATTLE LARGE GATHERINGS IS STILL IN EFFECT, NO MORE THAN 10 PEOPLE ARE ALLOWED TOGETHER AT A SINGLE LOCATION UNLESS EVERYONE IS SIX FEET APART >>> THE GOVERNOR HAS BEEN ADAMANT THAT JORDAN MUST GET BACK TO WORK SO WITH MANY OF YOU STRUGGLING TO PAY HER BILLS AND CERTAINLY PUT FOOD ON THE TABLE FOR YOUR FAMILY THIS IS AN ISSUE THAT HAS BEEN AT THE FOREFRONT SINCE MID-MARCH THE STATE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SAYS IT HAS PAID OUT $388 MILLION IN UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS AND IT’S DRAINING THE STATES TRUST FUND ALMOST DOWN BY ABOUT 20% LAST WEEK THE STATE PROCESS 265,000 NEW CLAIMS AND THOSE DETAILS TONIGHT ARE INCLUDED IN THIS MACY’S IS ONE OF THE FIRST MAJOR DEPARTMENT STORES TO SAY IS READY TO REOPEN CNBC REPORTING IT WILL OPEN SEVERAL STORES ON MONDAY, SEVERAL SHOPPING CENTERS ALSO SET TO OPEN ON FRIDAY.>>> MEMORY RESEARCHER PART OF THE CLINICAL TRIAL THE FIRST COVID- 19 TREATMENT SHOWS IT’S HELPING PATIENTS RECOVER FASTER IN PROGRESS IS SIGNIFICANT >> I’VE BEEN INVOLVED IN MULTIPLE OUTBREAKS AND HAVE NOT SEEN THIS ADVANCEMENT GO SO QUICKLY ALL OF THAT IS BASED ON THIS WONDERFUL NEW TECHNOLOGY WE HAVE BUT ALSO A LOT OF THAT IS JUST THE COLLABORATION BETWEEN PEOPLE ACROSS THE WORLD AND THE UNITED STATES ARE ALL WORKING TOGETHER TO GET THESE THINGS GOING FOR ALL OF US.>> UNIVERSITY PLAYED A LEADING ROLE IN THE TRIAL OF THE DRUG AND ROLLING 100 PATIENTS IN ATLANTA MORE THAN ANY OTHER SIDE IN THE WORLD ACCORDING TO DATA HOSPITALIZED PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED COVID-19 AND THEIR LUNGS RECOVER FASTER WHEN THEY TOOK THE DRUG MORE TESTING IS STILL NEEDED THE FDA HAS NOT OFFICIALLY PROVE THE TREATMENT SO RIGHT NOW IT IS ONLY BEING USED FOR THE SICKEST PATIENTS ALREADY IN THE HOSPITAL IN IV FORM SO DON’T EXPECT A PILL TO SHOW UP INFIRMITY PHARMACIES ANYTIME SOON MEANWHILE THE TRUMPET MINISTRATION LAUNCHED A NEW INITIATIVE TO PUSH DRUGMAKERS TO DEVELOP A CORONAVIRUS VACCINE BY JANUARY >> Reporter: AT A PLACE NORMALLY RESERVED FOR TAILGATES AND CELEBRATIONS IT’S NOW THE SITE OF TESTING >> IS AN EXCITING GROUP OF PEOPLE >> Reporter: SEAN PENN FOUNDATION TEAMED UP WITH YORKER FOUNDATION TO OFFER FREE TESTING AT THE HOME DEPOT BACKYARD RIGHT NEXT TO MERCEDES- BENZ STADIUM >> IF YOU THINK ABOUT THE IMPACT THIS CRISIS IS HAVING ON PEOPLE OF COLOR AND THE WEST SIDE FOR US IT WAS A CLEAR MANDATE.>> CORRESPONDED 10 YEARS AGO, EARLIER THIS MONTH THE ORGANIZATION WANTS TESTING SITES IN CALIFORNIA BUT IS NOW EXPANDING TO OTHER CITIES INCLUDING ATLANTA

>> YOU JUST DROP IT IN THE BASKET.>> PRETEST WILL BE OFFERED TO THOSE WHO HAVE SYMPTOMS ALONG WITH THE HIGH- RISK AND ORDERLY.>> THE CITIZENSHIP OF THE VOLUNTEERS AND THE COMMUNITY >> WE HAVE MORE INFORMATION ON HOW TO GET TESTED OUTSIDE THE STADIUM THIS IS NOT THE FIRST TIME THAT THE NONPROFIT HAS BEEN HERE IN GEORGIA.>> IS A COUPLE WEEKS AGO THE ORGANIZATION CORE DONATED $45,000 TO HELP WITH A RESPONSE THAT MONEY WENT TO PEOPLE WHO ARE HOMELESS AND PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES AND THE ELDERLY >>> CHECK OUT THIS PARTY IN FULTON COUNTY PATTY YOUNG LIVED IN SOUTH FULTON OUR WHOLE LIFE, LAST WEEK SHE TURNED 100 YEARS OLD SOCIAL DISTANCING PREVENTED HER FROM HAVING A BIG PARTY BUT THAT DID NOT STOP HER FAMILY FROM PLANNING SOMETHING REALLY SPECIAL AND I STRIVE I PRAY GIVE THEM THE OPPORTUNITY TO WISH HER A HAPPY 100th BIRTHDAY FROM A SAFE DISTANCE >>> ESSENTIAL WORKERS ARE CONTINUING TO FIGHT FOR SAFER CONDITIONS WHAT THE CORNET TRANSPORTATION WORKERS SAY THEY NEED TO FEEL SAFE >>> AND HE FELT THAT WHEN TODAY IN THE COOLER AIR IN PLACE, IT’S GOING TO REMAIN COOL IN THE MORNING ABOUT THE WARMER AIR OUT TO THE WEST IS MOVING >>> STEPS ARE BEING TAKEN TO MAKE BUSES SAFER BUT ISSUES REMAIN AT TRANSIT SYSTEMS AROUND METRO ATLANTA WE HAVE MORE ON WHAT IS AT STAKE >> Reporter: WHEN THE COUNTY BUSES HAVE LIMITED THE NUMBER OF PASSENGERS ON EACH BUS AND IMPLEMENTED OTHER STEPS TO REDUCE EXPOSURE THAT IS A RISK FOR BOTH PASSENGERS AND BUS OPERATORS OPERATORS REPRESENTED BY THE TRANSIT UNION HAVE BEEN IN TRUST WITH THE BUS SYSTEMS TO LOWER THOSE RISKS THE UNION HAS ASKED FOR HAZARD PAY, PPE AND OTHER SAFETY YEAR, REQUIRING MASKS FOR PASSENGERS AND PAID TESTING FOR TRANSIT WORKERS AMONG OTHER THINGS.>> IN ADDITION WHAT WE ARE LOOKING FOR IS PANDEMIC LEAVE PROTECTION.>> THE LOCAL UNION PRESIDENT SAYS THIS >> WE NEED SOMETHING THAT IF THE NEED TO TAKE OFF IT WILL ACTUALLY PROTECT THEM AS FAR AS THEIR WAGES AND BENEFITS.>> THE COMPANY THAT OPERATES THE BUS SYSTEMS AS SOME OF THOSE

REQUESTS HAVE BEEN ADDRESSED AND THAT DRIVERS ARE STILL GETTING PAID FULL-TIME WHILE WORKING FEWER HOURS DURING THE STATE OF EMERGENCY THE HEALTH AND SAFETY OF OUR EMPLOYEES AND THE COMMUNITY WE SERVE REMAINS OUR TOP PRIORITY AT ALL TIMES GWINNETT COUNTY TRANSIT HAS BEEN CLOSELY COLLABORATING TO ADDRESS THE EMERGING SITUATION THE COMPANY OPERATING GWINNETT TRANSIT TOLD US IN A STATEMENT >>> TEMPERATURES ARE DROPPING MORE TONIGHT, THEY WILL WARM UP NICELY FOR THE WEEKEND BY THE TIME WE GET TO THE WEEKEND WE WILL BE TALKING ABOUT THE BLAST FURNACE WHICH IS RIGHT DOWN THE ROAD >> WE WERE BELOW AVERAGE TODAY HIGH TEMPERATURE 63 DEGREES, WE SHOULD BE AROUND 76 THIS TIME OF YEAR SO ABOUT 13 DEGREES BELOW AVERAGE THE GOOD THING IS WE DON’T HAVE ANY RAN AROUND, THIS TIME LAST NIGHT WE WERE WATCHING THE LAST BIT OF THE RAIN AS IT WAS COMING THROUGH THE STATE AND EXITING OUR AREA IN THE NORTHWEST WIND KICKED IN AND THAT’S WHAT’S BEEN BRINGING IN THE COURIER IT WAS BREEZY TODAY BUT THE WIND IS DYING DOWN NOW THE COOLER AIR IS IN PLACE FOR OVERNIGHT AND IN THE MORNING NO RAIN, THERE’S THE STORM SYSTEM THAT MOVED INTO THE ATLANTIC A BIT OF MOISTURE TO THE NORTH, NO ISSUES WITH THAT THAT’S JUST THE LAST BIT OF CLOUD COVER THAT CONTINUES TO BREAK UP TONIGHT LOOK AT THESE TEMPERATURES, 50s NOW COOL OUT THERE TONIGHT AND IT WILL GET COOLER THROUGH THE OVERNIGHT HOURS WE ARE GOING TO DROP DOWN TO LOW 50s AND SOME FOLKS OUTSIDE THE CITY WILL WAKE UP IN THE 40s YOU’RE GOING TO WAKE UP AND IT’S GOING TO BE COLD, CLEAR SKIES AND A LOT OF SUNSHINE AROUND TO START THE DAY BUT THROUGH THE DAY TEMPERATURES WILL WARM UP QUICKLY AND GO FROM 50 DEGREES A DATA CLOCK IN THE MORNING TO 58 BY 10 AND THEN CONTINUE TO RISE EVENTUALLY MAKING IT INTO THE 70s FOR THE HIGH TOMORROW WE ARE GOING TO HAVE A LOT OF SUNSHINE WITH CRYSTAL CLEAR SKIES AND GREAT VISIBILITY, IT’S GOING TO BE A BEAUTIFUL DAY AND WE ARE GOING TO GIVE IT 11, THAT’S OUR SCALE FROM 1 TO 11 WHERE WE RATE YOUR WEATHER AND 11 IS A PERFECT DAY WERE GOING TO GO WITH THAT TOMORROW EVEN THOUGH THOSE TEMPERATURES MIGHT BE SLIGHTLY BELOW WHERE WE SHOULD BE FOR THIS TIME OF YEAR THE FORECAST RECORD SHOWING VERY QUIET WHETHER THROUGH TOMORROW MORNING IN THE AFTERNOON, PLENTY OF SUNSHINE AND THEN IS JUST GOING TO TAKE A WHILE FOR THOSE TEMPERATURES TO REBOUND AND WE WILL GET BACK INTO THE 70s AND THEN HEADING INTO SATURDAY A COUPLE OF CLOUDS MY MIXON, WERE SO GOING TO GO WITH MOSTLY SUNNY SKIES AND EVEN WARMER COMING ON SATURDAY, LOWER 80s AND THEN IT KEEPS ON GOING INTO THE MID-80s BY SUNDAY WITH MOSTLY SUNNY SKIES ON SATURDAY IT’S GOING TO BE ARE LOOKING REALLY NICE AND WE HAVE A SPECIAL EVENT GOING ON SATURDAY IN ATLANTA WERE THE BLUE ANGELS AND THUNDERBIRDS ARE GOING TO DO A SPECIAL FLYOVER, WE DON’T KNOW THE FLIGHT PATH YET THAT SUPPOSED TO BE RELEASED TOMORROW ONLY KNOWS IT SHOULD BE AROUND 1:35 TOMORROW, IT’S GOING TO BE CLOSING THOSE FLYING OVER THE CITY TEMPERATURES AT THAT TIME ARE GOING TO BE IN THE 70s AND WE WILL HAVE PLENTY OF SUNSHINE, GREAT VISIBILITY SO WE WILL WAY TO SEE EXACTLY WHERE THOSE JETS ARE GOING TO BE FLYING ON SATURDAY TAKING A LOOK AT THE FORECAST TRACK THE EUROPEAN MODEL SHOWING AS WE GET INTO SUNDAY THERE’S ANOTHER GOOD DAY WITH A MIX OF SUN AND CLOUDS, MONDAY WE REINTRODUCED SOME SCATTERED SHOWERS BUT THOSE CHANCES WILL BE HIGHER OVER NORTH GEORGIA AND LOWER IN METRO ATLANTA ON MONDAY BUT THEN ON TUESDAY THE SYSTEM ROSEN THAT WILL GIVE US A CHANCE FOR SOME SHOWERS, AT THIS POINT IT DOES NOT LOOK LIKE IT’S GOING TO BE THAT STRONG BUT IT IS SOMETHING WERE GOING TO BE WATCHING OVER THE NEXT FEW DAYS HERE’S WHAT WERE WATCHING FOR FRIDAY, EISNER 73 AND 81 SATURDAY, 85 SUNDAY HOLDING IN THE MID-80s MONDAY AND TUESDAY BUT WE WILL ALSO SEE MORE MOISTURE COMING IN, 20% CHANCE FOR A SHOWER MONDAY 30% TUESDAY BACK TO 20% WEDNESDAY AND THEN WE CLEAR OUT FOR THURSDAY SERVICE OR SHOPPING BACK INTO THE 70s THIS ACTUALLY COMES FROM LAST NIGHT FROM SOME OF THE SHOWERS WE HAD, CARA CARMICHAEL IN CARROLLTON THESE ARE THE STORMS THAT ROLLED THROUGH LAST NIGHT THE WAY WE DO THAT A LOT OF TIMES WE GET THOSE FROM THE STORM TRACKER, YOU CAN BECOME A MEMBER OF THAT PAGE >>> IN COBB COUNTY JOHN’S IDEAS TO GIVE FRIENDS, HE IS A LUCKY MAN, THE HUSBAND OF JILL BECKER AND A LONGTIME PART OF THE FAMILY SHE IS A TALENTED PHOTOGRAPHER, HIS GRANDDAUGHTERS LOVEBIRDS SO

JOHN STARTED TAKING PICTURES.>> IN THE MIDDLE OF MARCH WHEN WE WERE ASKED TO SHELTER IN PLACE, THEY WOULD LOVE TO COME TO OUR HOUSE THEY LOVEBIRDS SO I STARTED SHOOTING PICTURES OF THE BIRDS FROM MY WINDOW OUT AND SENDING THE PICTURES SO THEY COULD STILL SEE THE BIRDS AT OUR HOUSE.>> THIS PRODUCT WAS ONLY SUPPOSED TO BE FOR FACEBOOK BUT IT TURNED INTO A SCRAPBOOK FOR HIS GRANDDAUGHTERS FILLED WITH MEMORIES THAT WILL LAST A VERY LONG TIME >>> AFTER 30 DAYS IN ICU FIGHTING COVID-19 A METRO ATLANTA MAN HAS FINALLY BEEN RELEASED FROM THE >>> SO MANY OF US KNOW SOMEBODY DIRECTLY AFFECTED BY THE VIRUS AND WE ARE REACHING OUT TO SHOW THE GOOD NEWS OF RECOVERY TODAY AFTER 30 DAYS IN METRO ATLANTA MAN WAS FINALLY RELEASED FROM THE HOSPITAL >> HAVE A AND DO IT THE DARKER SIDE TODAY.>> Reporter: ROBERT IS BEING DISCHARGED BUT CAN’T GO HOME YET >>> WE HAVE MORE COMING YOUR

WAY >>> THE ATHENS MAYOR SAYS HE’S WORRIED ABOUT HIS COMMUNITY NOW THE GOVERNOR HAS DECIDED TO ALLOW FOR THE SHELTER IN PLACE ORDER TO EXPIRE TONIGHT HE SAYS THAT IT DOESN’T SEEM TO INDICATE WE’RE IN THE CLEAR, HE SAYS HE WILL CONTINUE TO ENCOURAGE ATHENS TO SHELTER IN PLACE UNTIL THEY SEE A TWO-WEEK

DECLINE IN ACTIVE NEW CASES THEN START A FACE-TO-FACE APPROACH HE SAYS HE’S CONCERNED ABOUT MIXED MESSAGES DURING THE PANDEMIC WITH THE GOVERNORS DECISION TO MOVE FORWARD BY ALLOWING THE CHILDREN PLACE ORDER TO EXPIRE AND INDIVIDUAL LEADERS ASKING THEIR CITY SO THEY PUT>> UNDER NORMAL CIRCUMSTANCES MORE THAN 40,000 PEOPLE COME INTO OUR COMMUNITY EVERY DAY TO WORK SO WE DO NEED TO BE UNIFIED IN A MESSAGE WE NEED TO SEND US A LOOK AT THE DATA AND WHEN THE DATA INDICATES IT IS SAFE FOR THE FIRST PHASE OF REOPENING THAT’S WHAT I’M GOING TO ENCOURAGE THAT >> HE ALSO WORRIES IF WE DON’T CONTINUE TO SHELTER IN PLACE WE COULD NOT ONLY SEE A SECOND WAVE OF CASES BUT POSSIBLY A SERIES OF WAVES >>> WE NOW HAVE SURVIVORS IS ALREADY, BUT IT WILL TAKE MONTHS OR YEARS FOR SOME TO RECOVER FROM THE FINANCIAL TOLL OF THE VIRUS WE’RE LOOKING AT THE CONFUSIONS RUNNING MEDICAL CAUSE.>> Reporter: THE MOMENTS THAT KEEP HOPE ALIVE, THE CHEERS AND REUNIONS WITH LOVED ONES >> THE NURSES DESERVE EVERYTHING THEY GET.>> Reporter: SHE SURVIVED AND SO DID HER FATHER AND DAUGHTER WHO SPENT 11 DAYS ON A VENTILATOR BUT COOK HERSELF ALMOST DID NOT GO TO THE HOSPITAL.>> IN MY HEAD I WAS GONE WE CAN’T TAKE ANOTHER BILL, WERE GOING TO LOSE OUR HOUSE AND IT’S A LOT.>> SO FAR THE BILL IS $18,000 SHE IS WAITING TO SEE WHAT HER INSURANCE WILL PAY BUT SHE FEARS IT WILL NOT BE MUCH.>> THE OTHER DAY THEY PAY LIKE $300 A DAY FOR A HOSPITAL STAY AND I’M LIKE HOLY COW.>> SHE HAS NO IDEA WHAT HER DAUGHTERS CAROL COST RICHARD PELLEGRINO WAS ON A VENTILATOR FOR ABOUT A WEEK >> IT WAS SURPRISING TO ME BECAUSE I NEVER SAW A LIKE THAT IN MY LIFE FOR ANYTHING.>> 18,000 OF THAT ASSOCIATED WITH TWO VISITS TO THE EMERGENCY ROOM WHERE HE WAS TURNED AWAY WITHOUT RECEIVING THE TEST HE ALSO RECEIVED AN EXPERIMENTAL TREATMENT.>> I WAS OFFERED AND ACCEPTED THE ANTI- MALARIA DRUG.>> Reporter: WHICH NOT ALL HEALTH INSURANCE COMPANIES HAVE AGREED TO COVER >> Reporter: WHILE MOST SAY THEY WILL COVER TESTING.>> THE TREATMENT ASPECT IS WHERE THE CONFUSION COMES INTO PLAY >> THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT SAID IT WILL FOOT THE BILL FOR THE UNINSURED AND MEDICARE WHICH PELLEGRINO HAS STILL HIS LAST STATEMENT HAS THEM ON THE HOOK FOR $38,000.>> WE ARE LIVING DAY-TO-DAY >> IT WAS LIKE $360 THAT’S A CAR PAYMENT OR PART OF OUR HOUSE PAYMENT.>> Reporter: COOK DOES NOT REGRET THE DECISION TO GO TO THE HOSPITAL HER HUSBAND PUT IT SIMPLY >> I WOULD RATHER PAY HOSPITAL BUILDING A FUNERAL BILL FOR YOU THAT RESONATED IN MY HEAD >>> MANY ARE STRUGGLING IN GEORGIA RIGHT NOW WITH MANY BUSINESSES CLOSE 18% OF THE WORKFORCE IN THE UNITED STATES IS OUT OF A JOB RIGHT NOW, THE UNIMPORTANT NUMBERS KEEP CLIMBING HERE IS A LOOK AT HOW HARD IT HAS HIT OUR ECONOMY JUST OVER THE PAST SIX WEEKS YOU CAN LOOK AT THE MOST RECENT CLAIMS, ON THE BOTTOM YOU CAN SEE THE NUMBER OF NEW UNEMPLOYMENT FILINGS GOING DOWN BUT THOSE FILINGS ADD UP TO MORE THAN 30 MILLION MORE PEOPLE ARE RECEIVING CONTINUOUS BENEFITS AND DURING THE PEAK OF THE RECESSION ONE BEACON OF HOPE IS RENEWED FUNDING FOR THE PAYCHECK PROTECTION PROGRAM WE HAVE THE STORY OF ONE STORE OWNER HOLDING OUT HOPE THAT SHE COULD GET PART OF THAT FUND >> Reporter: LIKE MANY OTHER SMALL BUSINESSES THE PANDEMIC HAS TAKEN A MAJOR BITE OUT OF OPERATIONS.>> WE ARE ON AVERAGE

ABOUT 50% DOWN IN SALES.>> SHE SELLS ASSORTED PET FOOD AND SUPPLIES AND OFFERS SPA SERVICES FOR HER FOUR-LEGGED CLIENTELE BUT MOST OF THAT HAS BEEN KICKED TO THE CURB IT’S ONE OF THE OVER 40 MILLION SMALL BUSINESSES THAT HELP OUR THE U.S. ECONOMY UNFORTUNATELY THERE MOST VULNERABLE DURING AN ECONOMIC DOWNTURN WHICH IS WHY A PAYCHECK PROTECTION PROGRAM IS SO COVETED AND WILL PROVIDE SO MUCH NEEDED FINANCIAL RELIEF.>> I DID IT ONLINE I GOT ALL THE NECESSARY DOCUMENTS THAT THEY NEEDED THEY REVIEWED THAT AND THEN WENT TO THE NEXT STEP AND UNFORTUNATELY ALL THE FUNDS WERE ALREADY DEPLETED.>> THE INITIAL EMERGENCY RELIEF FUNDS RUN OUT IN A MATTER OF TWO WEEKS SOME OF IT SNAPPED UP BY PUBLICLY TRADED COMPANIES AND MANY SMALL BUSINESS OWNERS FELT THAT THEY WERE AT AN UNFAIR DISADVANTAGE THE VICE PRESIDENT AS CITIZENS PLUS SAYS THE OLDEST BANKS HERE IN THE NATION >> Reporter: WHEN IT COMES TO THE PAYCHECK PROTECTION PROGRAM TIME IS OF THE ESSENCE, AND WORKING WITH A BANK THAT KNOWS YOU CAN MAKE ALL THE DIFFERENCE.>> EVEN BEFORE WE KNEW HOW WE WERE GOING TO PROCESS APPLICATIONS WE REACHED OUT TO SOME OF THE PEOPLE THAT HAVE BEEN LOYAL CUSTOMERS US AND WE SAID THIS IS COMING DOWN THE PIPE YOU MIGHT WANT TO GET YOUR DUCKS IN A ROW >> Reporter: ROUND TWO AT THE PROGRAM KICKED OFF EARLIER THIS WEEK AND HE WONDERS IF THEY’LL PAY THIS TIME AROUND.>> THERE COULD BE 1 MILLION APPLICATIONS AT OF ME.>> Reporter: A WAITING GAME AND TIME IS NOT ON HER SIDE.>> THE LANDLORD IS HELPING US OUT WITH THE RENT HERE SO THAT IS GIVING US A BIT OF A BREAK WE JUST HAVE TO RELY ON SOME OF OUR PERSONAL SAVINGS ACCOUNT TO KEEP OUR STAFF ON AND KEEP THE DOORS OPEN.>> MOST EVERYBODY IS TRYING THE BEST THEY CAN TO STOP THE SPREAD OF CORONAVIRUS AND KEEP IT OUT OF THEIR HOMES BUT ARE YOU CLEANING YOUR SHOES? ONE STUDY SUGGESTS YOU MIGHT WANT TO WE SPOKE WITH EXPERTS TO VERIFY WHAT YOU NEED TO DO.>> THINK ABOUT ALL THE STEPS YOU TAKE DAILY WHETHER IT’S ON A WALK OR THROUGH GROCERY STORE NOW CONSIDER ALL THE GERMS THAT THE SOULS OF YOUR SHOES TOUCH THEY COULD CARRY COVID-19 IT’S NO SECRET THE SOLES OF YOUR SHOES ARE NOT ALL THE CLEANEST BUT A NEW STUDY REVEALS JUST HOW DIRTY THEY CAN BE RESEARCHERS EXAMINED THE SHOES OF MEDICAL STAFF AT THE EPICENTER AND THEY FOUND THAT THE VIRUS CAN BE TRACKED AROUND THE FLOOR AS INDICATED BY THE 100% RATE POSITIVITY FROM THE PHARMACY WHERE THERE WERE NO PATIENTS FURTHERMORE HALF THE SAMPLES TESTED POSITIVE THEREFORE THE SOLES OF MEDICAL STAFF SHOES MY FUNCTION AS CHARACTERS, WE SPOKE WITH HIM AND ASKED HIM TO VERIFY >> A LOT OF PARTICLES ON THE FLOOR CAN ONLY BE TRANSMITTED TO OTHER PLACES >> Reporter: THE DOCTOR SUGGEST LEAVING SHOES OUTSIDE YOUR HOME OR SANITIZING THE BOTTOM SOUL >> IT WILL REMOVE ALL THE POTENTIAL THINGS THAT ARE ON THE SURFACE THAT MIGHT CONTACT THE FLOOR.>> WE HAVE SOMETHING THAT CAN HELP PEOPLE >> Reporter: UPON HEARING ABOUT THE REPORT THE CEO OF A SHOE COMPANY SPECIALIZING IN SHOES THAT SLIP ON AND OFF WITHOUT USING YOUR HANDS IS GIVING AWAY 1000 PAIRS TO HEALTHCARE WORKERS NATIONWIDE AS FOR THE STUDY WHILE IT IS A WAKE-UP CALL NOT EVERYONE SHOULD BE ALARMED AS LONG AS YOU’RE DOING WHATEVER YOU CAN TO MITIGATE THE SPREAD.>>> YOU ARE REACHING OUT TO US TO SHARE HOW YOUR LIVES HAVE BEEN THROWN OFF COURSE BY THE PANDEMIC WE INTRODUCE YOU TO A WOMAN INDICATOR WHO WAS MAKING HER MARK ON SUCH A TIME >> IT’S REALLY EASY RIGHT NOW TO SEE ALL OF THE HARD AND TERRIBLE THINGS ARE HAPPENING IN THE WORLD I THINK IT’S EASY TO GO TO THE NEGATIVE >> IF ANYONE HAD REASON IT WAS HER HER AND HER FIANCI POSTPONED THERE MAY WEDDING AND IT’S PUT BOTH OUT OF WORK, FORCES YOU INTO THEIR SAVINGS.>> IT HAS JUST BEEN REALLY HARD AND IT’S

BEEN AN ONGOING THING >> Reporter: MAIA DECIDED TO BRING HOPE, SHE FOUND HER MOMS OLD SEWING MACHINE IN THE ATTIC SHE LEARNED TO SEW, SHE BEGAN MAKING MASKS FOR HEALTHCARE WORKERS SHE EXTENDED HER ARMS TO HER COMMUNITY.>> I HELD UP A LITTLE THING THAT SAID PLEASE READ THIS POST AND I ASKED THEM IF THEY WOULD BE ABLE TO DONATE TWO DOLLARS OR FIVE DOLLARS AND I WOULD BE ABLE TO CONTINUE TO PURCHASE MATERIALS AND MAKE MASKS BY THE NEXT DAY WE RAISED $1590 IT BLEW ME AWAY IT WAS JUST SO TOUCHING TO ME.>> SO FAR THEY MADE MORE THAN 100 MASKS, IT DOES NOT CHANGE THE OVERWHELMING NEED OR THE OVERWHELMING NEGATIVE OF THIS PANDEMIC HER GOAL IS TO PROVIDE A PATH OF POSITIVE >> PEOPLE WANT A PERFECT RIGHT NOW ANY TIME IS DIFFICULT FOR A LOT OF PEOPLE MYSELF INCLUDED, I THINK IT WAS JUST A REALLY GREAT EXAMPLE OF HOPE >> SO MAIA IS MAKING ALL THESE MASKS BUT NOT DOING IT BY HERSELF, SHE’S PART OF A GROUP THAT HAS SPREAD NATIONWIDE COUNSELING MASKS FOR AREA HOSPITALS >> WE LOVE THAT, HELPING SOMEBODY OR EVEN SEEING SOMEBODY HELP OTHERS AND KEEP US ALL OUT OF THE NEGATIVE THIS GROUP HAS DONE A LOT.>> THE CHAPTER IN ATLANTA ALONE HAS MORE THAN 8500 MEMBERS AND THEY HAVE COMBINED TO PRODUCE AND DELIVER MORE THAN 22,000 MASKS >>> THE STRUGGLE TO STAY OPEN IS A REALITY FOR MANY BUSINESSES NOW, HEAD HOW AN ASSIST FROM THE GOVERNMENT IS HELPING TO MAKE SURE FAMILIES CAN STILL GET MEDICAL CARE RIGHT NOW.>>> STORMS ARE WELL OFF TO THE EAST BUT BACK BEHIND THE SYSTEM WE HAVE A NORTHWEST FLOW IN PLENTY OF COOL AIR WHERE IS COMING BACK, WE WILL TALK ABOUT THE TIMING OF THAT AND YOUR WEEKEND >>> MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL

CH >>> SMALL BUSINESSES ARE RUSHING TO GET PART OF THE LOAN PROTECTION PROGRAM THE MONEY TRAIL HAS NOW SAVED ONE KEY HEALTHCARE CENTER IN ATLANTA’S WEST END.>> FOR THE FAMILY HEALTH CENTERS OF GEORGIA SERVING LOW INCOME PATIENTS ON THE CITIES WEST END GETTING ALONG WITH CRITICAL FOR THE SURVIVAL >> WE WOULD HAVE BEEN STRUGGLING TO MAKE PAYROLL AND OTHER OBLIGATIONS >> Reporter: WITH A STAFF OF 120 EMPLOYEES THE CEO AND PRESIDENT SAYS MORE THAN $1 MILLION HE GOT AFTER NOT GETTING ANYTHING IN THE FIRST ROUND IS CRITICAL FOR ONE OF THE CORE MISSIONS OF THE CENTER.>> WE ARE SEEING PATIENTS THAT ARE UNEMPLOYED AND UNINSURED.>> Reporter: ONE OF THOSE PATIENTS IS A SINGLE MOTHER OF TWO LIVING IN THE WEST END FOR 21 YEARS AND REALIZING THE CLINIC FOR ALL OF HER MEDICAL NEEDS.>> IT’S VERY IMPORTANT FOR ME BECAUSE I NEEDED IT’S CONFUSING >> Reporter: AN ALERT GYRO IS OFFERING FREE COVID-19 TESTING WHICH THEY HAVE BEEN DOING OUT FOR MORE THAN A MONTH THEY SAY THE LOAN WILL KEEP THAT GOING THE PRESIDENT OF THE AFRICAN- AMERICAN ON UNITY NATIONAL BANK IS HELPING MAKE SURE THAT FAMILY HEALTH AND OTHER SMALL BUSINESS OWNERS ARE PROPERLY SUBMITTING THEIR LOAN APPLICATIONS TO ENSURE THEY ARE GETTING THE MONEY THAT THEY DESPERATELY NEED >> ALL OF THE MONEY IS KEEPING SMALL BUSINESS IS ALIVE ON ATLANTA’S WEST END WITHOUT IT MANY STORES WILL BE FORCED TO CLOSE PERMANENTLY >>> THE SHOWERS AND STORMS MOVED OUT OF OUR AREA AND I LEFT ON THIS, AND NORTHWEST FLOW THAT HAS BEEN GIVING US SOME BREEZY CONDITIONS TODAY AND THEN ALSO BRINGING IN THE COOLER AIR, THAT’S GOING TO BE WITH US TONIGHT ARE GOING TO START OFF WITH TEMPERATURES BELOW AVERAGE, IT’S GOING TO BE A LITTLE CHILLY FOR THIS TIME OF YEAR BUT THEN LOOK WHAT HAPPENS DURING THE DAY, THAT COOLER AIR STARTS TO RETREAT AND IT’S GOING TO BE REPLACED BY WARMER HERE TOMORROW WE MOVE INTO THE LOWER TO MID 70s AND THEN LOOK WHAT HAPPENS INTO THE WEEKEND, MORE OF THIS WARM AIR IS GOING TO STREAM IN AS WE SEE THE WIND SHIFTS A LITTLE BIT COMING OUT OF THE WEST AND THEN EVENTUALLY THE SOUTHWEST SATURDAY’S HIGH WILL BE IN THE LOWER 80s AND WARMER ON SUNDAY WITH MID 80s HERE AND AND THAT’S GOING TO STICK WITH US ON MONDAY AND ALSO ON TUESDAY AND THEN ONCE WE GET TOWARDS THE MIDDLE OF NEXT WEEK ANOTHER FRONT COMES IN AND WE WILL HAVE ANOTHER FEW SCATTERED SHOWERS AROUND THAT WILL CALL US BACK DOWN AGAIN TEMPERATURES IN THE 70s LATER IN THE WEEK AND THAT CORRESPONDS WITH WHAT WE ARE SEEING WITH OUR EXTENDED OUTLOOK FROM THE CLIMATE PREDICTION CENTER THIS IS SHOWING US MAY 7 THROUGH THE 13th COOLER THAN AVERAGE TEMPERATURES MOVING OUR WAY WHILE THE ARTICLE TONIGHT AND EARLY IN THE MORNING WERE GOING TO BE REALLY WARM OVER THE WEEKEND BUT THAT IS NOT ME IN THE MID-80s ARE GOING TO STICK WITH US WERE STILL GOING TO COOL DOWN AGAIN LATER ON IN THE WEEK

WE WERE AT 63 TODAY WE SHOULD BE AROUND 76 DEGREES FOR THE HIGH FOR THIS TIME OF YEAR, THE LOWEST JUST ABOUT THREE DEGREES BELOW AVERAGE SO WE ARE GOING TO SEE TEMPERATURES WARM UP A LITTLE BIT TOMORROW IN FACT THIS IS THE TIMELINE WE START OFF IN LOW 50s TOMORROW GOING ON IN THE MID-50s, LOOK AT THESE BIG GEMS THROUGH THE DAY AND EVENTUALLY TOPPING OFF IN THE 70s IN THE AFTERNOON A LOT OF SUNSHINE NO CLOUDS, WE WILL SEE THE WARM AIR MOVING IN FOR THE REST OF THE WEEKEND, MID-80s FOR SUNDAY MONDAY AND TUESDAY AND IT’S ALSO GOING TO BE A DRY PATTERN AHEAD, NO SHOWERS RETURN UNTIL WE GET INTO NEXT WEEK AND RIGHT NOW THEY LOOK LIKE THEY’RE SCATTERED WE RATE YOUR WEATHER ON A SCALE FROM 1 TO 11 WHERE 11 IS A PERFECT DAY AND WERE GOING TO HAVE THAT TOMORROW EVEN THOUGH TEMPERATURES ARE A BIT BELOW AVERAGE IT’S GOING TO BE BRIGHT AND SUNNY WITH DRY AIR IN PLACE AND CRYSTAL CLEAR SKIES IT’S GOING TO BE A GREAT DAY AND YOU CAN SEE THAT HERE ON THE FORECAST TRACK JUST THAT TEMPERATURE THAT STARTS TO WARM UP A LITTLE BIT MORE WITH THAT SUNSHINE AND ON SATURDAY IS A COUPLE CLOUDS MIGHT MIX-AND-MATCH AND TEMPERATURES CONTINUE TO WARM INTO THE LOWER 80s AND HERE’S THAT TEMPERATURE TREND, 70s FRIDAY TODAY WE WERE IN THE 60s, 80s ON SATURDAY AND THEN MID-80s SUNDAY MONDAY AND TUESDAY, SOMETHING ELSE WERE GOING TO SEE MONDAY AND TUESDAY’S LITTLE MORE MOISTURE AND A 20% CHANCE FOR AN ISOLATED SHOWER, 30% CHANCE TUESDAY AND THEN RAIN CHANCES GO DOWN WEDNESDAY AND THURSDAY IS TEMPERATURES GO DOWN AGAIN BACK TO THE 70s.>>> YESTERDAY THE NCAA MADE A DECISION THAT MADE IT A VERY REAL POSSIBILITY THAT’S AND ATHLETES CAN PROFIT OFF THEIR NAME, IMAGE AND LIKENESS MEANING THEY CAN BE IN ADVERTISEMENTS AND GET PAID FOR THOSE APPEARANCES BUT THERE IS STILL A LOT TO FIGURE OUT >> AN INTERESTING ASPECT IS GOING TO BE THE SOCIAL MEDIA ASPECT AND ATHLETES BEING ABLE TO MARKET THEMSELVES WHEN YOU’RE LOOKING AT THIS FROM THE NCAA PERSPECTIVE WHAT IS THE PROBLEM WITH HER? >> THE THEORY IS THAT SOMEBODY THAT OWNS FIVE RESTAURANTS IN THE TOWN IS A HUGE BACKER OF THE SCHOOL AND PUTS SOME CRAZY NUMBER ON THE VALUE OF THAT POST AND TRY TO ATTRACT KIDS BEFORE THEY EVEN GO TO SCHOOL >> SOME MIGHT SAY YOU ARE ONLY WORTH WHAT SOMEONE IS WILLING TO PAY YOU SO HOW DO YOU REGULATE THAT?>> THAT’S VERY TRUE AND A LOT OF PEOPLE FEEL LIKE STUDENT ATHLETES SHOULD MAKE AS MUCH AS THEY CAN WHEN THEY CAN MAKE IT IT’S GOING TO BE KIND OF A GIVE AND A TAKE THEY WILL HAVE TO POLICE AND CONTROL THIS IN ORDER TO BE COMFORTABLE WITH THIS PROCESS IT WILL BE A WILD WEST START THE RULES WILL HAVE TO BE CHALLENGED AND THERE WILL BE ALL SORTS OF INTERPRETATIONS IT’S GOING TO BE A CHALLENGE FOR COMPLIANCE OFFICES AT EVERY LEVEL OF THE SPORTS WORLD BUT ULTIMATELY I THINK IT’S THE RIGHT THING TO DO KIDS SHOULD BE ABLE TO MAKE MONEY JUST LIKE THOSE THAT ARE NOT PLAYING SPORTS >>> AND FOR BRAVES FANS WHO PURCHASE TICKETS TO THE TEAM THIS SEASON, MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL WAS NOT ALLOWING REFUNDS FOR GAMES IN APRIL THAT MIGHT HAVE BEEN POSTPONED AND HOW THAT’S CHANGING THAT’S BECAUSE IT’S CLEAR THAT THERE WILL NOT BE A FULL SLATE OF GAMES AND THERE’S A POSSIBILITY THE GAMES WILL BE PLAYED WITHOUT FRIENDS SO TEAMS CAN DETERMINE THEIR OWN REFUND POLICIES, THE BRAVES SENT A LETTER TO SEASON TICKET HOLDERS SAYING THEY CAN EITHER BE REFUNDED, THE VALUE OR RECEIVE A CREDIT TOWARDS FUTURE PAYMENTS AND TICKETS SINGLE-GAME TICKET HOLDERS WILL HAVE SIMILAR OPTIONS >>> PRESIDENT DONALD TRUMP HIS THOUGHTS ON SPORTS RETURNING AND WHAT HE WANTS TO SEE ONCE THE THREAT HAS DECREASED HE WANTS TO SEE STANDS FULL OF FANS ONCE IT SAFE >> IF I WATCH ALABAMA PLAY LSU I DON’T WANT TO SEE 20,000 PEOPLE INSTEAD OF 120,000 PEOPLE WE WANT IS TO BE THE WAY IT WAS NOW ARE GOING TO WAIT UNTIL IT’S GONE AND IT WILL BE GONE AND WE DONE A LOT TO GET RID OF IT BUT WE WANT TO OPEN OUR COUNTRY, THE PEOPLE WANT IS COUNTRY OPEN >> STILL A LONG WAY TO GO TO FIGURE OUT IF YOU CAN HAVE THAT MANY PEOPLE TOGETHER SITTING IN STANDS, HOW DOES THAT WORK OUT? THERE ARE SO MANY ISSUES ABOUT SOCIAL DISTANCING AT SPORTING EVENTS AND HOW IT’S DEFINED THAT’S BEYOND MY PAY GRADE AS THEY SAY SOLUTIONS

SEND AS A TEXT AND WE WILL GET YOUR INFORMATION WITH FACTS >>> A COOL START IN THE MORNING WITH PLENTY OF SUNSHINE AND THEN WE WARM UP DURING THE DAY, I TEMPERATURES UP TO ABOUT 73 DEGREES EVEN WARMER SATURDAY UP TO 81, WERE GOING TO STAY DRY THROUGH THE WEEKEND AND IT GETS WARMER ON SUNDAY INTO THE MID- 80s, THE RAIN CHANCE IS LOW COMING BACK ON MONDAY WITH A 20% TRANSFER SHOWERS THEN BACK DOWN TO 20% WEDNESDAY WITH COOLER AIR NEXT WEEK

>>> THE GOVERNOR PUSHES FORWARD WITH THE NEW PLAN >> TOGETHER WE WILL DEFEAT THIS VIRUS AND EMERGE STRONGER >> IN LESS THAN AN HOUR GEORGIA REOPENS AHEAD LIVE TEAM COVERAGE ON THE NEW CHANGES TO YOUR DAILY LIFE >> HELP FROM HOLLYWOOD NEW, SEAN PENN COMES TO GEORGIA

Art Photography Virtual Open House with Alumni + Faculty

All right so I’m going to begin. Hi everyone uh welcome to our open house webinar at the art photography program at Syracuse University. My name is Yasser Agour. I’m joined by my colleagues Laura Heyman, Doug Dubois, and Susannah Saylor. We are here to have a conversation with some alumni who are going to talk to us a little bit about kind of real world experiences of what it’s like to leave Syracuse and try to make a living Just a few housekeeping issues of those of you that are just coming in late we are trying to figure out the closed caption but once that’s available you should see a little icon on the bottom of your screen that you can turn on or off For those of you that are here to talk about the program as soon as the panel discussion is over we will be, the faculty will be available to answer any specific questions you have for both the undergraduate and the graduate program so please do stay. You’ll see that we have both Q&A function and a chat function we’re going to use a chat function for this information You can see our, the faculty email as well as our panelists instagrams and websites and any other kind of information that will be available for us throughout the uh question and answer, however, if you do want to have a specific question later for the panelists please use your Q&A icon on the center of the bottom of Zoom okay. So let me uh once again I wanted to say one of our big traditions at Syracuse photography, those of you alumni will remember this, that every year we have a big uh event in NYC where we invite alumni to NYC uh to my house and we have a big dinner party and current students and alumni get to interact and we get to you know meet our old students and see what they’re up to. Obviously because of COVID that was not possible this year. A lot of things got canceled, a lot of bad things obviously from the fallout uh in COVID but it does, COVID did provide us with this great opportunity to bring together a lot of our former alumni. We have six alumni here, three undergraduates and three graduate students. We’re going to ask them a few questions about their experiences both at SU and mainly about what it’s like to go on to the job market, what the job market is like these days. One advantage of course of COVID is that we can all dress fairly comfortably. I’m in my sweatpants so we have very nice designer sweatpants but sweatpants nonetheless So we can all be relaxed from our homes Our students from Syracuse after they graduate they kind of scatter all over the country uh and indeed all over the world at this point. I just wanted to ask real quick where where our panelists are right now uh Aaron I am in uh Cincinnati, Ohio. Okay Jamie I’m in Syracuse. I’m in central Florida close to Sarasota but I live in Miami. Cool so you’re the one we’re the most jealous of right now. Joe I’m in Newport, New York where I live Cool and India. I’m in Atlanta, Georgia Atlanta and Ohima. Brooklyn. Brooklyn I’m in Brooklyn as well. I think uh the rest of the faculty I believe are in Syracuse so I’m just going to begin with bios. Laura is going to show a PowerPoint as I talk through this and um at the end of each introduction I’m going to ask each of you a question so be prepared. I’m doing it alphabetically so India you’re first Media Blast is a visual artist who grew up in Ithaca, NY and currently resides in Atlanta Georgia she holds a BS from Ithaca college and received her MFA from Syracuse in 2016 She’s currently an assistant professor in the department of art and visual culture at Spillman College in Atlanta, Georgia she also works as a freelance photographer for clients such as the New York Times, the Atlantic, the Washington Post and the New Yorker. She uses photography, collage, video and books to address matters of sexuality, intimacy and her lived experience as a girl, woman and mother. She delicately weaves stories concerning circumstance, value and power and uses her work to create a physical and allegorical space presented through a black feminine lens.The result is an environment that is dependent upon the belief that in order to maintain resiliency a magical outlook is necessary. She has completed artist residencies at Constance Sultan’s Soul foundation for the Arts and the Center for Photography at Woodstock

Her work has been featured in the book Mufon, a journal of women photographers of the African Diaspora, the Huffington Post, Dazed and Confused Magazine, Strange Fire, Collective Refinery 29, Hypoallergic pdn Photography magazine and more media is recognized for her body of work entitled ‘the girls who spun gold’ which is a collection of images that resulted from a girl empowerment group that she founded after observing a lack of space in community for teen girls of African descent in Ithaca New York. In 2019 she was named one to watch by the British journal of photography I just want to add you know I definitely would recommend going on everyone’s websites. We only have like four images just uh in terms of the introduction but everyone here I promise you, has made great work and I highly encourage you to go on to their websites So Nydia how’s how’s Atlanta. Atlanta is good, it’s great. Big change right.Yes very big change. You grew up almost all your life in the Northeast and now. Yeah my entire life yeah this is my first big move so yeah wow. And how is it hard to find models now? It is. I’m like I photograph people I know and I don’t really know anybody especially with COVID um but I’ve been doing a lot of freelance work which is great um and getting to know people as much as I can and so my practice has shifted I think a little bit but I’m excited to kind of see what happens All right so I’ll be back in a moment more discussion. How long have you been in school now sorry. I’m in my second year second year. Yeah so it’s hard I guess it’s like uh uh to have uh starting school in the middle of I mean it’s hard for students but it’s also hard for faculty I would imagine I feel bad for the students mostly All right so Rose. Hi Rose. Rosemary Cromwell is a photo and video artist whose work explores the effects of globalization on human interaction and social politics. She’s also interested in the tenuous space between the political and the spiritual. Rose is originally from Seattle. She spent the last 15 years between New York and Latin America and is currently based in Miami (jealousy) Her first book a libro supremo de la suerte was published in 2018 by TIS books as and was awarded the lightwork photobook prize It was named one of the 25 best photo books of 2018 by Time magazine. In this book Rose explores the complexities of her time in Cuba through non-linear narratives alluding to the mystical ways of luck She is currently working on her second book which is a 10-year project about a community living alongside the panama canal and history of U.S. military intervention in Panama. She’s she has also had solo exhibitions at Diablo Rosso Gallery and Anticipate Gallery both in Panama City, Panama Her work has been exhibited Aperture Foundation in New York, Prism Art Fair in Miami, the Philadelphia Photo Art Center and the Silver Eye Art Center in Pittsburgh. Among many others Rose is a recipient of a full bike grant a Getty Reportage grant and was a Lightwork artist in residence She also works as a freelance editorial journalist and commercial photographer. Clients include the New York Times, the New Yorker, Time, Calvin Klein and Apple. She is represented by Claxton projects Rose is also a small wave surfer and became a mother last December. How’s it with an infant by the way during this COVID stuff. You know I think having an infant is better than having a five-year-old perhaps because she doesn’t need to be in school um and I’ve also been able to spend a lot of time with her yeah when otherwise you know I would maybe be traveling a lot for work Another question I have because what’s it like to have a gigantic billboard and to like be on the street and see that image. You know I’ve only experienced it through like my phone You haven’t seen it in person? No I haven’t been in- I haven’t left uh Florida in a year Ah so you know I gave you know I gave birth and then COVID started so Wow. Yasser you should go see it and tell me I’ve seen it you know I have something that was like I was like wow. I was jealous actually to be honest when I saw it, that was my reaction But it’s great it was really great to see Thank you. All right um next up is Ohima Ohima Dixon is a photographer located in the New York area.She received her BFA last spring from SU Her interdisciplinary work focuses on capturing moments of the black experience and black feminine narratives through the mechanisms of afrofuturist thought and the archive

Since graduating the pandemic has brought challenges, however, she’s been able to work through it and achieve many things. In the wake of the unrest in June she was able to produce a print sale of her work with one hundred percent of the profits going towards black visions collective, raising over twenty-five hundred dollars Additionally, she has produced her thesis which is now on show at the Candela gallery in Richmond, Virginia until December 31st She’s additionally published a book a photo book titled TanpaIzin which is available internationally and featured in publications such as Office Magazine and the British Journal of Photography. It’s a great book that has to do with your travels in Indonesia. I highly recommend um Omgimo also works contractually for Sky High Farm doing digital communication So um I actually have two questions for you, one not so serious and one a little bit more serious How does one get an employee discount for… I know because I think the first time I mentioned yes too right now I’m on contract because like that’s part of the thing with the pandemic so I don’t even have a discount yet I just kind of do contractually and I’m really close with the team over there but what I when I know I’ll let you know. Just in case anyone from Columbia someone’s listening I’m wearing one of your shirts, kind of promotion, so if you want to give me a discount totally uh please uh but a more serious question what was it like to uh to put your work in the in that sort of heart of the confederacy the old capital of the confederacy what was the reception? Like well it was super interesting because it was right at the time of the election the day my show opened was actually the day that it was like I’ve decided so like as I was driving up the street to see everything there was like a group of Trump supporters blocks down at the city hall um but Richmond’s a really interesting place for those conversations because it’s a city that represents. It was the heart of the confederacy and now a lot of those ideas are being taken down but those old attitudes are still there um so it made a really interesting kind of dynamic in the town. I think if you’ve been there it’s like a lot different than what you expect um especially like the main arts row there um but it brought up a lot of interesting conversations and people for sure In a way it’s almost like a site-specific project it’s almost like the perfect place to Yeah and I didn’t think about it at first when it first happened and then as I like was thinking about like the placement of it um it was like very serendipitous like kind of what was happening Cool so uh next up is Erin Geideman Erin’s undergraduate thesis in 2013 culminated in a photo book titled I Can See Right Through You This work chronicles the ramifications her best friend faced after he was shot in the stomach during a mugging in 2010 working with both candid and staged images, film and digital formats. Erin combined a unique sequence of images that articulated the intimacy alienation and pain caused by the events I Can See Right Through You has been featured in several publications including Muse Magazine, Gup magazine, F-stop and Burn, and selected photographs have been exhibited in group shows at the Cincinnati Art Museum, the Center for Fine Art Photography in Fort Collins, Colorado. Yes sir. Art Center in Paducah Kentucky, Barrett Art Center in Poughkeepsie, New York Beard and Well galleries in Norton, Massachusetts and Portobello Photography Gallery in London. Since graduation Erin relocated to her hometown of Cincinnati, Ohio and shifted focus from creating art to supporting artists. For the last five years she has worked at the Cincinnati Art Museum starting in the museum’s mailroom Erin leveraged the skills obtained during her undergraduate studies and within a year pivoted to a position in the museum’s marketing department as project manager of design and marketing for the museum. She is responsible for the management of the museum’s award-winning quarterly magazine 1881 as well as countless other design projects. In addition Erin aids the marketing department in creating photographic assets for publication and social media accounts. Hi Erin. Hi Yasser. So uh a little bit of like interesting art history A lot of you may have in your back of your head Cincinnati was the site of a very famous court case back in 1989 uh your sister museum. I think the Cincinnati Contemporary Arts Center. You are correct the uh the curator there Dennis Berry was actually arrested for obscenity for um curating a show on Maplethorpe back in 1989. He was eventually found not guilty but I figured as you work in the marketing department and public relations you probably have access to a lot of complaints from from uh from uh the public. Do you wanna, can you share any of those kinds of more interesting

complaints that you’ve heard. Well most of the complaints that I receive are about the magazine that I manage and most of them have to do with legibility so we, I actually sit on my museum’s accessibility committee so I’m always striving to make my magazine more successful so I can get rid of those complaints. Cool thank you. Next up Joe Lingamon grew up between Indiana and Ohio, the son of a sculptor and a librarian. He likes to make pictures that are fun to look at especially when they involve food, garbage or vanilla objects and spaces. His work has appeared in New York Magazine, Time, The New York Times, Vanity Fair, Allure and his work has been exhibited nationally. Joe graduated from our MFA program in 2013. He lives in NY with his wife and two children. Joe was another person I would definitely recommend going through his website and Instagram. It’s just like this carnival of beautiful color and beautiful lighting He’s like a true stylist it’s really great to see to see his work. I have a couple two of my favorite images actually in there um one was the the the bus photograph. I think that’s next on the slide Yes this was part of an assignment no um but this is a bus so Do you okay so I’ll tell you I guess. I live in Newport and I’m from Newport. There’s a Trailways bus that drives from here to the city Tthat’s like how people commute in and it’s like an hour and a half drive and it’s sort of like um if you’ve ever seen Jim Jarmusch’s Dead Man, the scene where he like travels from NYC out west- the riders on the bus sort of gradually become more like grizzled um that’s kind of like um what it’s like to ride this bus you sort of start at this like rural outpost and then you go um into port authority. Anyway so these are the buses right they’re like this tacky stuff yeah yeah it just reminds me of so many like I think we’ve all experienced like a greyhound or a trailblazer’s glass. You’re like how did I yeah. This is a trailways yeah it’s great uh and then I think there’s another picture after this it’s uh of is this is it was this a commercial worker. Was this more personal work? No, it’s that was uh uh at a Holiday Inn Express in I think it was like in Chinatown This is just it wasn’t like you weren’t working for holiday. No this is just what I like about your work is sometimes it can be hard to tell like where where the commercial begins and where the where the art begins. I think that’s true for a lot of you uh actually but uh I think most specifically with Joe’s work I love these last two images by the way Thanks Jason um so uh last but not least we have Jamie Pershing’s personal work has been largely environmentally based his largest project was, which he has been working on for three years, revolves around the Onondaga Lake, which is about five miles northwest of the university for those of you not from Syracuse, is considered the most polluted lake in America. 25 years ago for the seventh generation is a research-based body of work that combines present-day imagery, archival photographs and images created with the assistance of the polluted waters of Onondaga Lake Jamie has stayed in Syracuse to continue working on a thesis project in order to turn it into a book. He currently has a job as a canvasser as a local environmental nonprofit called Citizens Campaign for the Environment and recently he began working part-time at Lightwork to assist with printing and distribution of the States of Change Fundraiser. He most recently designed a virtual exhibition we with CNY Arts for an annual show which had to be online due to COVID. Jamie grew up outside Washington D.C. and rode his bicycle from NYC to San Francisco with his sister in the summer of 2017. Hi Jamie hello how are you doing You’re doing all right. You and Ohima are like our most recent and you both graduated Oh yeah in this crazy moment COVID grads, yeah but what I want to ask you actually is about any thoughts about graduate school. Yeah um I definitely am planning on it at some point. I need a break from education for a while. I spent the last

I don’t even know how many years like 15 years in education so I’m taking a break like doing something with my life and then definitely in the next couple years thinking about grad school Okay so um that’s our bios.I’m going to start asking questions um don’t feel like everyone has to answer every question. I’m going to probably um first question I’m going to actually point initially to Rose and Joe uh but obviously everyone can jump in at a certain point partly because I’m asking you because you guys are you know hustling. You’re on your- paychecks are dependent upon um freelancing and so I just wanted to get your sense of what publishers and employers are looking for right now in terms of uh photographic photography in the field and how covid has affected everything I found a lot of magazines have actually closed down, not to be not to start off on a negative note but I’d say, you know especially you know I had a couple of travel magazines as clients and they’re gone or they’re on hold for now. But I also feel like now the landscape is really about pitching um you know coming to publications with stories which is something that I started, I have always done, so I’m in luck But now it’s even more competitive um so um I do you know I think a lot of people I know are still working you know it’s not like it’s um there’s still jobs to be had. For sure. It’s not all negative but just I think things are just changing all the time you know and editors are moving around, creative directors are moving around, nothing is static. How’s that for you Joe? What’s the sense of things? I think people definitely want, I mean I shoot mostly kind of still life and food and definitely the kind of work that I, the kind of still life work that I do is you know people are definitely looking for a unique voice um. I think my understanding is that you know there’s there’s a time where you know you just sort of take direction from an art director um sort of execute what they want. When I was assisting I assisted on jobs like that, um but that’s not usually the kind of stuff that people end up hiring me for You know kind of the stronger your voice as an author is your voice as an artist is kind of the better off you’re going to be um. COVID has not been bad for me um, well I think it kind of halted some momentum that I that my career had um but um I have a studio at home and I can kind of play stylist um so I’ve been able to shoot a lot of stuff here um some commercial work even um as well as some magazine work so that’s been good. What’s that, did you set up the studio beforehand or do you always have that or does it? It yeah I had a space that I used as a studio but um it became a shooting studio um and if uh my commercial clients are like beauty clients so you know they’re like lipsticks and things like that so you don’t need that much space It doesn’t have much space but you can’t get a deep shadow really um just because it’s like small and the walls are white um but uh but yeah as far as what um employers are looking for and what photo editors are looking for I think definitely like a strong strong creative voice for sure I also, thank you, I also wanted to hear from our most recent graduates You’re the ones I think they’re dealing with at the in a way the most intensely uh Jamie um Jamie first I mean I don’t know because I didn’t like end up going directly into something related to my field so I found a job to pay my rent um that’s like how I went about it Given that covid’s been just kind of crazy and the job market especially in the Syracuse area which is where I knew I wanted to be is not the most lucrative for the photo world um but I don’t know. I think the biggest things I’ve found not even related to like any sort of art skills is just like your interpersonal skills and how you’re able to interact and make connections with people and use those connections to advance yourself in whatever direction you want to go even if it isn’t art based. I think from the university that’s one of the biggest things i

learned um and then translating that into the employment world um just that’s like been the biggest thing for me is how you’re able to keep connections and keep up to date with people yeah um I in terms of like shooting active work right now I honestly like around like maybe September this all got a little too bleak for me so like I just kind of wanted to focus on my old stuff and not work on anything new so I didn’t really like put in my usual efforts for things I’m supposed to start shooting editorial for Teen Vogue in the New Year but I don’t even have my camera right now for like I’ll just like keep it real. um I don’t have my camera right now for like any like really new work, besides I’m just finishing up old stuff but really what I’ve found is just I’ve been approached by editors and just kind of like keeping up those kind of relationships in general um and also um the number one thing I did that I think that helped me was I made a skill set outside of photography which is communications um and so what I’ve found is that um those two realms interact in like a really nice way so a lot of times I’ll be in a place um working with like you know com let’s say and then I’ll be brought in then for photo um and so that’s kind of been what I’ve been doing lately um in terms of that and like shooting active stuff and yeah Great thank you. My next question, and then this is what we in the business call a leading question, how did the photo program help you prepare for professional life, and this is where you’re supposed to really gush about SU so I’m going to start with Nydia for this one. Why thank you! I think that I talk about this when I give my artist talk a lot is that I think undergrad helped me um like solidify that photography was something that I wanted to do and that I wanted to use photography as a tool to talk about things that were really important to me like race and and gender and sexuality and then I think at SU what was really important that I really took away was how to go about making a body of work like really figuring out uh what the work needs, what is the best way I would say even simply from like shooting, like how to go about like getting what I need in terms of uh my ideas right and then I think at one point my work needed lighting and so then there was that so I think crit was like a good space for that um uh to figure out those types of things like um. Then I also worked with books or I worked with video or I worked you know different ways to figure out um you know the best way to see my work or interact with the work um but I also think the connections that I made at Syracuse were really important um. I think uh people that I’m in school I’m like working with an hour they reach out to do things or, Leah just edited some of my photos for me the other day, stuff like uh that was really helpful. But yeah right and I think somewhere in there I was just decided that I was gonna teach um somewhere at Syracuse, I was like I’m just going to teach and I’m going to make some work that I really want to make and people are going to like reach out to me to ask me to make work like my work and and so luckily that’s kind of, I manifested that It’s worked out well. Yeah Erin how about you, can you talk a little bit about your experiences at SU and working at a museum? Yes of course. I think one of the most instrumental things um that I got from the SU program was my work experience I was awarded a work-study grant for all four years while I was there and through that I was able to get two separate jobs that I think very much informed my later career decisions. So for my freshman and sophomore year I worked in an art gallery in downtown Syracuse that I think now is a Funk and Waffles. As things kind of go here um and that experience was instrumental in getting to know how galleries work installation things like that very applicable to the museum field and then as a junior, Susannah had come on as a professor, and her and her partner were looking for an assistant for their non-profit Canary Project which I believe is now called Tool Shed and I worked with them for two years as their assistant um and I learned instrumental skills through my time working with Susannah and Ed um that were, are still so valuable to me to this day um. So I think those two big opportunities were what was what I was able to leverage to get into the museum field when I had relocated back home on top of that I would say that you know the networking aspect provided by Syracuse was really great but it’s something to consider if you are relocating back to another city um can be something that you lose. So um you know the professors and things didn’t really have many contacts back in Cincinnati when I come back home um so it did take me a little bit longer to break into that field I think because of that Just something else to consider as you’re looking at programs. Great you know a big part of our program is our is the thesis experience all of

you have gone, through either a BFA or a MFA thesis, any particular memories from that? I know for Jamie and Ohima they were the ones that didn’t quite get to um complete their thesis in the way they would have wanted to at SU though Ohima you did get to show it in Richmond but um could any of you talk about you know your last year at SU and those experiences. I think um one thing that I learned really well and my thesis was just about work, so the curriculum in your last year is really kind of focused on here’s your idea but what are the things kind of around and kind of extrapolating all the different aspects um and I think the more and more I come into like contact with a lot of different people that work in photography maybe without same background, I realize like you know those like little things that you pay for like those nuances as you know there’s the network but also things like having an active quit group but also just like knowing how to write about your work um and that was a big thing kind of working on that with you know all of our professors and so I think that’s one thing I think in terms of thesis development that was really helpful. I’ll always, I’ve always said to like anyone who’s ever asked me about joining a photo program is I think the number one thing that you really gain is a group of people that you can work and show your work with and get criticism from um and learning how to like work with criticism learning how you know having that many opinions available um you know kind of putting your ego down working with work and knowing how to do that and it really helps you kind of leave it being able to look at your work um with like you know a new lens and not just always your own, just all focused on what you have to say. Sarah you have turned actually your thesis work into books like Rose, you’re one of them I feel like my three years in the in the MFA program at Syracuse was an incubator for that work and the work I came into the program looks so different than the work three years later that I went out with it and it’s probably been one of the most productive uh times in my life for my personal work um because it gave me that time and space to really concentrate and the critical feedback that you’re not you’re not going to get else elsewhere and um you know the body of work that I developed and then continued to develop after after school and then eventually turn into a book has been like the launching pad of my freelance career. You know like Joe was saying you know editors um or [ __ ] was saying too they you know they hire you for your strong personal vision and I think that also these days that really people love to see people making personal work. You know, I know that’s not why we all make it but it definitely helps to come out with something finished or finish something soon afterwards and publish it and that found that to be really helpful in in becoming and going fully freelance I also want to say that you know light work obviously is a huge you know meeting a lot of artists that were um doing residencies at lightwork provided me with a professional network that I wouldn’t have had otherwise which has been helpful too might be a good segue for Laura. She’s uh take over uh and ask some questions That’s a question that’s a yeah there’s a specific question about that and a lot of you I mean I think all of you spent a lot of time at Light Work in different ways so um. Rose has already spoken about it um can someone else share their experience Joe you worked there on your own but also on like other artist projects. I always saw you you were working with um Sam and doing some work for me um can you talk a little bit about that Yeah for sure I mean I went in a pretty different direction my work kind of went in a pretty different direction after graduate school um and I basically started over and I went back to like photo assisting um and kind of the path to that which I don’t know if I necessarily advise that um you know in your 30s but um uh but the the catalyst for that came from um some experiences that light work um working with there was one month where uh photographer named daniel shea and uh calpegra were there and it was sort of like oh okay here are these like two working photographers who are like you know toughing it out in the freelance world um taking pictures for a living and that was kind of um let me say this i guess and i think this this applies to most people’s practices i think being at light work exposed me and would probably expose a lot of people to a lot of different types of photographic practice um you know not all those people are working photographers or teaching or um or whatever so

it’s because they’re kind of seeing how everyone’s um sort of lives intersect with photography and i was able to see that light work and that kind of led me down the path that i took for sure and um nydia i know that you were printing not so long ago like remotely at light work have you like um this is one of the great things like artists that work in residence there and also students continue to print there um can you talk a little bit about your experience with him i just accepted a quote today from lightwork so i still get uh um stuff printed at lightwork if anybody knows me you know that i don’t edit my photos too it’s just uh i was always really um wanting to support people who are really good at that and i just didn’t put much time ever into that i was more conceptual and worried about my vision and what i had to say so light work was really helpful um to me with my thesis too and working with somebody who helped um edit my work or i helped them edit my work and i still get stuff printed from there all the time and i’m in touch with light work probably once a month so yeah it’s super helpful and jamie you’re freelancing there now right yeah um so i don’t i don’t know how many people heard about the states of change fundraiser um that lightwork ended up printing but they sold like upwards of 12 000 prints um all of the money about 1.5 million dollars is or went towards fighting voter suppression in swing states for the election so it was like this incredibly cool fundraiser but for those who have printed work 12 000 prints it’s just kind of a ridiculous number um so i’m helping out there really just trimming and packaging prints um but it’s i can’t say enough about light work as far as like up like a place and its affiliation with the university it’s i think it’s just one of the best things about the university is that there is this space with all of these people who are incredibly knowledgeable about what they’re doing um and it’s just like this this other outlet for people at the university to get affiliated with like others have said how you can translate your life whatever that may be into the photo world um but it’s just this collection of incredible people and just like this great resource that i can’t say enough about but yeah and for those who are um tuned in who are unfamiliar lightwork is a center for photography located on campus that’s a sort of a quasi-university entity it’s a partnership with the university they have they run a residency program an international residency program that literally any photographer of any import that you could think of from the past 30 years has come through that space either as an artist in residence either been published in their magazine contact sheet or they’ve been exhibited in their gallery and um we have another alumni uh sending something in the chat hey jason um it is a non-profit um and uh for people that want to support it it’s um doug put the link in the chat yes they are a non-profit and can always uh like all non-profits um use additional funds so all of our students are have memberships at lightwork and have access to their facilities and end up as you can hear working really closely with the artists that come through that program um so uh i’m gonna in the interest of time jump to our next question which was about um international experience um some of you have uh like during your time as a student participated in some of the international programs um some official and some less official ohima i know you did and nydia you um participated in like a one time only um situation that wasn’t uh repeated um but uh if the two of you could talk about that ohima if you want to start yeah um so i did the regular abroad program in the fall in italy and then that kind of brought me into the whole world of just um international experiences and then i got the creative works grant um from the undergraduate research office and that was actually to do more archive based photo work in paris um and then so i was like three things at once i did that and then i also got hired at an arts magazine to be a an arts editor there and then i also was doing the peri noir program there which was like the black diaspora program from syracuse um led by dr janice mays um kind of exploring that whole world so that got me like at least four months of work experience working

in paris and around and that even brought me then down to indonesia to do the work that i did there um so i really really valued that and i also really valued um it was it’s a very different scene i think one thing i was like working in the art so heavily not shooting a lot of back to work in pairs but just in that whole world and just like in particularly it’s not at all like this like how you can kind of move so freely and like maybe like a new york art scene this is like a lot more bureaucratic and a lot more like you know there’s like one main school and things like that and so it’s interesting getting those different experiences um i really want to go to germany to berlin they have like great public arts funding so there’s a lot of like really cool international art experiences and photo experiences um that can be available not just but just i think sometimes we forget as photo majors that we have a visual skill set so just you know arts magazines and you know all these different things that you get involved in and oh yeah and um i think only that was in my last year um getting my mfa got to travel sorry did you want to follow up with that laura oh no i just i just was sort of interested generally in in people’s experiences of any kind of international experience that students had had while they were at campus it’s kind of a yeah so i just was presented with a unique opportunity to go to rome italy i think for 10 days i went with another student and we got to work on a william kentridge project in the city of rome i think it was called tetravino um again it was just a really cool experience we got to make videos also in addition to photos um and i think that was like the day after the mfa show i had to like hop on a plane to rome but it was uh it was unexpected and really really dope yeah so the school has official um intern has official semester-long experiences available in like a really wide range of places but we also are always trying to build in these other opportunities and that was a partnership with a really long running project that we were able to get students involved in the actual final production the work for that project had been ongoing for years um so um and did anyone else here do erin yeah did you go um so i actually focused on my minor while i did my study abroad which was in art history and i studied in london during my second semester my sophomore year and while i was there i took two very important art history classes that helped introduce me to the museum field i think each class met one day a week in class and then the other day a week at a london museum so it was just for me a really great exposure into that kind of non-profit museum field as well i went to berlin with um with doug for picture berlin the the i think the spring of my final year at syracuse and that was amazing three weeks where we visited artists studios in berlin and we had a local artist facilitator april girler and you know went to amazing museums and galleries in berlin it just was an immersion in a different city that a lot of us hadn’t spent time in either yeah so there was a picture of berlin and then there was a similar project that another faculty member is running in moscow and april of course is now running portfolio berlin that’s it an independent project that’s a really fascinating project people are interested in that um i’m gonna pass questions now over to susanna thanks laura um i know jamie also uh spent a semester in copenhagen and i always say to my undergrads like in the first year you know you really can go wherever you want um globally as long as you plan it um you know it’s it’s very easy to go to the programs where we have offer photography classes and you know and you don’t have to plan ahead too much to do that but like jamie really wanted to study in copenhagen and he was able to do that because he took care of his requirements and while he was there he actually didn’t take that many photography classes but he planned ahead and was able to do that um yeah so i wanted um i wanted to ask the the group to talk a little bit about how social media functions for you professionally um you know this is sort of a really i think important emerging um method for promoting your work and um and i just hoped you could talk a little bit about that i’ll just throw it out to everyone because i think you all are doing um great things with your instagram well maybe i’ll point to joe because i love you i love your instagram joe thanks um

yeah i mean instagram for me is huge um i think my first meeting with a photo editor he just sent a quick email um he said he found my work on instagram you know i don’t even have like that many followers you know i’m not like instagram famous um but i remember there came a point um i felt like okay you know like i have all these pictures and i’m not really they’re not like out in the world um and i just kind of decided one day i’m just gonna like put you know real photographs on instagram and um yeah and so uh i don’t you know what happens after that i have no idea but i think that started again when i started when i finished my degree i started working in the city as a photo assistant um i started assisting with this guy daniel arnold anyone know daniel being harold okay um i think uh getting to know him uh his he’s a street photographer who’s i think came to prominence through instagram i think um and working with him and being in contact with him i was like oh maybe this is like a legitimate platform but now you know like art directors and photo editors um are constantly kind of coming to me from instagram that’s like i had a meeting with um gemma fletcher who’s like an art director type person she does these mentorship um sort of sessions um and she’s like yeah the first thing that a photo editor or an art buyer is going to look at is going to be your instagram then your website at least in the kind of commercial commercially world so it’s like everything kind of for me yeah social media has been like i think definitely the number one thing that has connected like so much like just like a random anecdote like one day like i logged on and i see this dm this is wolfgang’s and i thought it was like a spam account and then it was like the real person saying that he like liked my work and like wanted to get involved i was like wait why it was confusing and like just that goes to show just like the world that lies out there i think my first collector came off of instagram i think almost any editor i’ve ever met came off of instagram i constantly am like reaching out to like editors and magazines on instagram so it’s like definitely a place where so much happens especially because it’s one of the main places where we have image proliferation that exists on a platform and it’s so so powerful i’m like kind of bad where like i don’t really post like my work like very like you know whatever um but still like just as a tool and like who you can meet off of there and just the accessibility um like i’ve met like huge figureheads off of that i got jobs off of it you know whenever i send an email to anyone i always follow up on instagram dm i’m like i know it’s you know not normal but i just wanted to make sure i reached out here as well and you know it’s been really really helpful in that sense that’s great advice i love that anybody else it’s a good research tool as well you know you kind of um you can figure out something that can be can be hard to figure out who works where like if you want to work for a certain magazine or newspaper but everybody’s on instagram and usually when other photographers work for other people they tag them and so when i was starting out i found i did a lot of my research through instagram and i also find that people will hire you like for your casual photography or they also will know where you are because you’re posting on instagram and um one thing too i forgot to mention when you guys asked about what people are looking for these days and especially in times of covet i think they like they want it to and when the photographer has to do a lot more like perhaps photograph you know people around them or produce they they want to know a little bit more about you and however it’s hard for me to you know to put myself out there but i think it’s important these days that you have a little bit of online personality um yeah great um what about you aaron i mean you’re actually in marketing so i’d love to hear your um yeah um social media is um instrumental for the museum um i know we have kind of switched gears in the past four years that i’ve been working with them from doing mostly print advertising to uh social media advertising i know the museum focuses mostly on our facebook page and our instagram account but we have you know seen success with other people um starting to use tick tock and some of the newer platforms that are coming out as well but i think one of the main things that we have found just kind of as a non-profit institution and

you know if you’re somebody that wants to start a magazine or you know your own sort of non-profit paid promotion on social media platforms works um you can get all sorts of data analytics um all sorts of anything um and it’s just a really great way um to kind of um reach your audience um and develop an audience and to gain a following um i think on top of that i would also say that um i think uh sorry i lost my train of thought um oh i found a lot of um job opportunities and uh calls for empty on um instagram and facebook as well so i think you can find a lot of resources um like that upon those platforms there’s a great instagram account called pickuptheflow.xyz or something and they post like art grants like every single day um and there’s like lots of accounts like that i think it’s pick up the flow. i’ll find it i’ll put it but there’s like there’s so many great resources like all the grants and everything that are on their jobs it’s really great for that stuff i think we could do a whole panel on on social media thanks oh he may be great if you can put that in the chat um well we we’re wanting to move to q a in about six minutes so i’m actually going to hand it over to doug to take over the questions though i have sort of the uh for lack of a better word the up questions which the first one is really simple but hard which is where do y’all see yourselves in five years which you know out because of of a certain age i know that five years go by really quick so my answer would be i’d be five years older but um i also know that you all are really if not you know you’re very ambitious group of people and i have seen your trajectory i mean looking at like sort of certainly rose joe and nida who have been out the longest um aaron as well actually um you know you you are on a really good five-year plan you know i i’m i’m very impressed of where how you landed and where and what you have done so if you could talk about maybe just where you’re headed some things that maybe you have in the works and how you kind of organize yourselves to achieve your goals that would be terrific um i can talk uh jeez i just was realizing i need some new goals i’ve kind of like met the goals that i had and felt like i was working towards for a long time um i’m a really big believer in like manifesting what you want um and uh and so i i don’t know i’m feeling i’m working on some books right now i’m talking about a book of the girls who spun gold i’m working on another book um for some work that i’m making about the south and about atlanta um so that’s really great because books was something that i was kind of doing at first at syracuse and then i kind of fell off so it’s nice to return to them i’ve been looking at some of my uh work that i’ve never done anything with that’s and kind of making sense of that some polaroids and some other stuff um but yeah i just see myself i would like to i think shoot some more fashion um photography i’m so i’m kind of thinking more commercial in that way i really like teaching i’m in a 10-year track position um and i really like atlanta and so i see myself here for a while um and yeah so i’m working on some new goals i also really like making video i’d like to work maybe in video or films and so yeah so i’m going somewhere i just have to figure it out and then again uh yeah you definitely are going somewhere it’s great it’s great to hear that that’s fantastic well rose i know you’re you’re working on you have a book in the works right um and um you know it’s an amazing book because yeah i’ve seen i’ve seen it it’s really fantastic you want to talk about where you’re where you’re headed and a new child as well so yeah um yeah i’m working on this a second book that’s been a long term project about a community that that was located next to the panama canal an old us military barracks and i i worked there um i helped found a non-profit with a pastor who who grew up there and um i photographed a lot of some of his adopted boys and then also um not only telling the story of coming of age in the space but also the parallel history of u.s military intervention in panama

and so i’m trying to combine these you know a personal narrative with a political narrative and my book now is like all over my wall in my studio and i think it’s going to be a one or two year process you know my uh the last book i took i published took a couple years after you know putting um the images on the wall and editing it into a book and and but i mean i’m trying to embrace this process you know for me photography making the images is the fun part and putting it all together is a confusing and hard and complicated part for me um but you know that’s really my five-year goal is to spend more time on personal work and now that you know i spent the last five years developing a stable freelance practice i feel like now my you know my next five-year goals are to go back in to the studio and spend more time on personal work you know through um through grants or through print sales you know i’m not exactly sure how but that that’s probably in the next five years yeah fantastic fantastic anyone else joe what do you got going um so i feel like i’m on the earlier part of rose’s curve i feel like i’m still kind of um getting serious i shouldn’t say getting serious because i am serious obviously but like i need to sort of level up um my commercial work um most of what i’m shooting is editorial stuff and i have a you know a couple commercial clients so right now i’m in a pretty serious push to find a rep um who can sort of help me um you know with as much of the picture um uh as they can um you know when from you know bidding higher to um you know figuring out contracts and things like that um definitely i need to learn motion which i have like very little experience with um so that’s a major thing that i feel like i have to kind of wrap my arms around and i think that’s going to be important probably for every photographer and it is now that’s something that i found that people are also asking for a lot now these days is video too no yeah absolutely absolutely but y’all i’m going to tell you i get i get always so jazzed when i see your work and i and i get really excited when i look at an image and i go i think that’s joe and then i checked the credit and i did it sometimes like it’s good so it’s really terrific cool aaron you start you um yeah no it really is it really is amazing yeah so clearly yourself in a magazine oh yeah yeah it’s like oh cool even if it’s like a weird beauty product oh good oh good um aaron you you started you know did it am i did i hear that right you were you were in the mail room there in uh yes that’s amazing so you you had you you i don’t know man i don’t know if you plotted your eyes you’re like okay it’s interesting um because the reason i ended up at the museum was the job that i was working at prior um where i was at fidelity investments trying to just make money to you know pay your expenses and not caring about necessarily being in the field and doing art on the side um i found that that was not the path for me um but i was able to leverage that skill um you know the mail room position at the museum was in the finance department and so that was my um and my i guess my um entry into that field was through my finance experience not necessarily my art experience but my interview was with the cfo and i was very transparent with her that this was not my end goal that i was going to use this position to show you what i was capable of and you were going to promote me and it happened within 11 months um there was an opening over in the marketing department um you know and my current boss jill dunn who is a um incredible mentor to me um just professionally and what have you um you know recognized my skills in photography um you know there was a marketing department of two people they didn’t have a photographer that was making um you know things for their brochures their social media accounts um and she wanted my skill set so um within you know that 11 months i got that promotion i think i’ve had four job titles at the museum um so now i’m the project manager of design and marketing um and as for where i see myself going in five years um right before the pandemic i was interviewing for a job in seattle at the frey museum of art for um i think it was a director of public or not a director a manager of publications and exhibitions um and i think i would really like to get more into the exhibition side um of the museum field or publications um now i am tied to nonprofit work for the next five years while i’m trying to get my

federal student loans forgiven um but that could all change on jan 21st if biden signs that um that law um so we’ll see how that goes um but if i don’t stay in the museum realm um i really enjoy working on the magazine that i manage um and i could definitely see myself getting into finer publishing as well um so supporting artists who are making books and things like that fantastic fantastic and just jamie and ohima you are you all are on year one year one of the five year plan so you’re just beginning to take the long view i think right so one of the was one of the things that happened when you’re when you become out on your own you got to look a little more to the horizon and work it out so what do you have in the works where do you think you’re headed um go ahead go ahead you go you go you go um i think like in school for the longest time i had so many projects at once so then i could kind of like always go to like another idea and so i found myself in the fandom that’s like what’s my next things that i want to do um i have some work um working off of a family archive from my family down south um so i think i’m gonna start working on some grant um to get that funded and i met some cool people um candela in richmond that kind of want to help me get that done and then in the long term i one thing i’ve realized um kind of like leaving syracuse and not having like spaces like work in the studio at the basement is i need a space to work so i’m kind of like working on finding like a cool studio space here that’s just like a cool deal off so i could like have a separate space to like do all that kind of work um and i would like to get you know do some do a big cycle of applying for grants and fellowships hopefully like next year or maybe the end of this year who knows mainly jamie yeah um so my biggest thing is like finishing my thesis work and planning on publishing a book um sometime in 2021 so that’s like a short-term goal and the reason i stayed in syracuse as far as like long-term goals um i’ve been working in the non-profit world for the last few months and i’ve actually loved it and think it’s like this great space to be um so probably continuing along that sort of trajectory and then maybe towards the end of that five years going to grad school um sort of like the end goal maybe around that i’ll be finishing that up i don’t really know um five years is a long time at this point in my life so like i don’t know but yeah that’s that’s that’s sort of my my ideas very good really good really good um i think we i think we need you know i have uh uh sort of if anybody has uh an additional point they want to um you know get across the wall that we didn’t have a chance to talk about but i think we’re also in need of headed to the um some questions from our attendees and i think because of our timing we might want to just jump into that unless anybody has something that um i wanna i wanna say one thing um which is just like as far as this program goes the faculty are like my favorite part of it you guys are awesome um even like post graduation everyone’s been like incredibly helpful responsive willing to work with beyond what i’m doing now and just like those connections for me were the most valuable thing about the program so i just wanted to say thank you guys oh that’s sweet i think one thing i would say quickly to before the q a i think one thing i also realized graduating so quickly is how much you take for granted being in such a creative space and i would say i wish i printed like more work i uh and like print all the work you can because having space is like light work there where you have it like in like walking distance and can print on a big printer like that like it’s just i mean are there space like that in new york of course yes but it’s not the same access um so just like use all those like its fullest extent like having studio lighting with yaser and like all these different things you know yeah full extent yeah back students can always come back we’re always like super happy to welcome people to come back to syracuse um yeah actually i wanted to to highlight that about light work um because in addition to the artist residency program and the exhibitions and all that’s going on there it is like one of the probably state-of-the-art printing and scanning facilities in the world i mean people all kinds of professional artists send their work there to be printed or come to do it and our students actually have access to the to this to print their work which is extraordinary um so yeah this would be a great time to move into the q a um we’ve got about 20 minutes and um there’s a few questions

um are coming up in the q a and um feel free to throw more in there also um anyone who’s uh got got other things they want to talk about um uh max wants to know what kind of cameras y’all use that’s a great question if you’re thinking about school and what kind of equipment to come so um anyone want to reveal their their tools nikon d850 or 10 um i mean my my personal camera is a canon 6d but largely i used equipment in the cage um so there’s like great access to other gear that i can’t afford um especially while you’re a student which is awesome so i see one of the questions it’s doing if you shoot on film i shot a lot of film while i was in school i’m doing less of that now because i can’t afford it but um there’s just any gear that you want to use is available if you’re a student so that’s i used like the sony’s and i used the mia a lot while i was in school i’m so that’s what i would say to that i definitely agree i loved having access to the cage and even i could check it out and take it like uh i was traveling a lot to cuba during that time i’d take it to cuba and bring it back of course but um you know i i just actually ended up buying a mamia rz and i used to always check that camera out from the from the cage um i shoot on the back camera mia 7 both film cameras medium format for all my personal work and my editorial and commercial is mainly on it’s mainly digital these days just the canon 5d mark v i think um mark iv i can’t even remember but with fixed lenses and then crop it to make it look like film but these days like there’s no time and then a lot of people don’t want to pay for film and i kind of realized that if you crop it and you have you know you can um have somebody who can help you can do it yourself to like make the colors look more filmic then you’re pretty much good to go in that regard yeah i’ll film in graduate school large format and medium format and uh probably a lot of what i do now is have you know came from the transition to digital but i really had to like get a fixed lens on the digital camera to kind of make it feel like the momia 7 you know um you know you can get manual focus though modern manual focus lenses that will work on the nikon cameras so um great um uh there’s a really good question here coming from um joshua atkins in the um chat um and he’s asking how much overlap or freedom for interdisciplinary practice is available um in the mfa program um and so any of you mfa folks like to talk about that guess not my experience was as pretty much a straight photographer in the program um but i did feel like there were some opportunities um i think in laura’s practicing in public class that’s like code was at the time of co-taught by sam van aiken um and so you know that was an opportunity where i feel like we had to sort of like interact with you know people outside of the transmedia world sorry i think you could take whatever classes you wanted to well i mean i definitely remember a lot of people did like joe or sorry jay was in poetry class and um you know i know i definitely interacted a lot with um the latin american studies department and like and also ran a film like a film series through them um so i didn’t you know i wasn’t making sculptures but i think you definitely could if you wanted to yeah we have a lot of students who you know in their thesis incorporate um video and sculpture um so that’s that’s pretty common and um taking and and we really encourage uh students to take critiques outside of the photo area as much as possible and and welcome those students and into our critique as well so um yeah i think that’s that’s really welcome we’ve got a couple questions um coming in about book publishing um from timmy

and and rita um timmy asks to the people who published books how was that process and how did you manage to find and sort through who you wanted to work with i think i had a really different like exposure to that whole world it was like super informal because i just happened to know two people who were starting um this kind of like starting off in publishing and they kind of known that i had this project at first i definitely had a very different exposure to the book world than like most people do um and so they approached me about it and i already had in john o’toole’s class i had kind of developed it and kind of made it into a physical dummy um so i had that all done and they kind of came and they didn’t want to you know design they just wanted to give me the money to sponsor um that so it was like a really really nice process their name is catastrophe media they do a lot of like cool kind of environmental and kind of their focuses on catastrophes of the world and kind of like looking at these different issues um it’s founded by josie strick and angela ricardi and they’re really really great um so i really enjoy them and i kind of it’s nice because i don’t like to a lot of rules and they feel like a pretty free wrong to work and everything um for me i had a very long road into finding the right publisher i had designed my book dummy with a designer a friend of mine and it was very specific and it also was complicated my book has some pages are half pages there’s a small book within the book you know i didn’t i had never published the books i didn’t realize how expensive that would be to make a book like that um and i also became kind of stuck on that idea so um a lot of publishers you know um were turned off by the complications of my book um and or or slash wanted to design the book themselves and um and also you know a lot of publishers want um you know ten twenty thirty thousand dollars like that you have to sell fund and i didn’t have access to that those funds um so i was looking for somebody who would be able to um to to uh to front the costs and publishing and i actually i met um nelson chan through through doug at one an apad fair like a number of years uh prior and he had asked me to speak to nelson chan who is also a teacher and asked me to speak to one of his classes and and i had kind of just kept up communication with him and that he was one of the publishers that i approached and we had a number of continuing conversations about the book and eventually um you know he he told me that if i would you know make some concessions and that bookmaking is an act of compromise that he wanted to do it and i really had a great experience with um with tis books and it was also really great that lightwork awarded the book its first book prize which then we were able uh with with pis we published 500 copies um and then lightwork the with the support from lightwork we were able to make it 700 copies so um but my advice would be to be to look at um to look for publishers that um who are making books that you like and where you think your work might fit alongside those other books and then um i know it’s really tempting to approach people at book fairs but i think that’s really hard for publishers to look then but perhaps you know see who who the publishers are are and maybe see who somebody who knows them somebody you may know may know them and a lot of times they also have open submissions as well but networking your way to somebody is i think a good approach that sounds kind of similar to um like galleries right in some ways i feel like the book world for photography has supplanted the gallery system to a certain degree but the process um is similar right don’t cold call you have connections make sure it fits yeah i think so suzanne i think you’re muted i think okay okay um i have an interesting question here um so um this is kind of about i would say about like artistic motivation or and style um so the question is are there questions you ask yourself when it came to developing your personal or artistic photographic style or is there any advice you can give when starting this process of trying to learn yourself how to vocalize your personal style does it help to see if you can find these themes in your work

sorry this is a long question um but yeah does anyone want to speak to that about like how you can how you find your personal style and you know where you look for that inspiration um i think i can a little bit um so i think it’s important i work really intuitively so i just make things um and i found my process is that i make and make and then after i remember doing this with yasser like looking at all my work on like a white board and being like oh my gosh what is this about and i felt so overwhelmed like i i knew kind of what i was making and the ideas that i that i was having but when i saw all the finished work i was like like what is this all about like what have i been doing this entire time and for me i sort of worked backwards to understand um uh understand my work so like what themes were reoccurring what colors were i using what do those colors mean why where like i use gold right what does gold mean what do these reference um and then how does that and then how did i tie that into the things that i was already thinking about right so like how to make like a color relevant and speak to the work that i was already making about a group of girls and about power and sexuality right and race and gender and so i think it’s really important my bit of advice is is to like i know that we’re in school and we have to know right like that’s part of school is the knowing part but also i um i always tell my students like i don’t want that to bog you down so much that you don’t make and that you get in this spot where like you’re scared to make things or you’re like i have to know so i can’t make it or if i don’t know i can’t make it so i would say to like just make and make and not always think too much about it um think but don’t think too much about it and then to sort of like maybe work backwards to to understand um i remember thinking a lot about like my even where did i first become introduced to images why are they even important to me and um and then i think uh you know you’re the really the most important thing about your work too right and nobody is you nobody is you in your body where you grew up the experiences you had and can make the things that you make um so also like reflection on yourself and like who you are as a person and where you came from and all that good stuff i would say uh just to piggyback on uh nydia’s comment there i feel like so much of what you call style kind of happens like by intuition or by accident um and i think um yeah it’s i think her advice is so good to just make and make and make and then see what you made and look backward you know look back and kind of work backwards it’s definitely what i have done in a couple different stages but um yeah by intuition by accident actually i remember it was i think maybe my first week in the program it was john um oh my gosh bill viola came to talk at light work and he spoke about how art should be like just an extension of the body and making art should just be an extension of the body and i feel like um uh that that’s a thing that i think about a lot when i when i look at one of my images and when i think about making images like is this my picture you know does this feel like something that’s from me um those are really great responses thank you um so this is um more of a question for our bfa um people on the panel um devin’s asking what’s the most important advice you would give to an incoming photography first-year student i mean i think for me it’s like i went in knowing that i wanted to study photography but no idea like what that meant at all um and just like being totally open to the feedback that you’re receiving from everyone else in your class and just like i think trying to integrate yourself with your class i think our class is really close as far as i mean i don’t really know because i wasn’t any of the other ones but i feel like our class had really good connections with each other and just like tried try and make your photo class your friends because i think they have so much great insight that you can take from what they’re doing and they’ll give you feedback on what you’re doing but like those connections try and embrace them i think that’d be my biggest piece of advice yeah i would say definitely make friends of your peers like speaking to jamie here like jamie

i always kind of go to him when i have like certain specific questions about like let’s say like framing or like more technical things um and like you know game would kind of go back to me and talk about more like creative and whatever and having that kind of like using your classmate because we all are talented in like various ways and there’s so many cool cool people like even like my cohort like there’s so many people um and then i think another thing that kind of reflects on something video was saying was i think when you first get into the photo program and like you know the second first modern introduction to photography it can be a little intimidating you’re showing like all these images and you’re sitting there and you’re not taking that great rid of pictures yet and you’re like wait my work doesn’t look like any of this like what’s going on and i think i found like sometimes i try to cycle my voice or try to make it look like other things and i would say like your freshman year to just like metaphorically word vomit like every idea you have shoot it any question you have you know do it and just put it all out and then start to sort through like don’t worry about i think i kept trying to make like good work my freshman year and like i just needed to accept the reality that it wasn’t going to be that great in terms of like a long run but just like pushing it all out there and like letting yourself really be like free creatively and then kind of working back and then filtering from there it’s a lot easier sometimes i think than trying to start off and do specific things um we have a great question from a high school photography teacher in uh in florida actually um and asking advice and i think this is kind of a question for the faculty um asking about uh what students high school students should think about as they’re putting together their portfolios or applications i think students conversations about relying on each other in terms of getting advice from their peers show that work to somebody else it’s possible to do a portfolio review before submitting your portfolio you can reach out to the recruiting department also like show your friends if you have a program at school talk to your teachers um ask your family right to get some to get outside of your own head to a certain degree is really useful in that regard uh because you know the other really simple thing to say is oh show your best work but it’s as you can um hear from everyone’s conversations it can be sort of difficult to negotiate that to kind of parse that out um another another takeaway that i think the panelists also um sort of put out here is um try to communicate who you are and what makes you you because that’s something we’re gonna look for and there’s a couple ways to do that certainly it’s through the work to a certain degree but remember there’s a writing component in your application and that’s one of the best ways that we can hear your voice and um if we when we come across a singular voice that seems um full of potential um that’s speaks to us immediately immediately so work on that writing um tell us who you are tell us what’s in your head and um you’re gonna do great i would just add to that i think one one thing you see a lot of students will do feel like they need to do a travel photograph and a portrait and a document you know they they feel like they need to cover the full range full genre of photography but i would advise students to you know pay attention to what they care about most we’re not looking for someone who can photograph 10 different kinds of things but someone who has a clear point of view yeah i totally agree with that with what yasser just said um is like for us to be able to see that someone is already developing a voice or you know has ideas is really important and that’s what we wanna that’s what we’d love to see in the portfolio um okay i think we have time for one more question here um but the the faculty are gonna stay on after um so that if there are questions from possible applicants we can answer them but this question is this might be geared more towards recent graduates but i was wondering uh what was going through your minds as you started your final year at syracuse and might have realized that you would no longer have immediate educational safety um the safety bubble and the university resources is there any advice that you would give seniors in their last year anything you you know would make sure you do before you graduate um so

yeah anyone want to take that one on sounds like one of our students i know so i’m just gonna say i mean that this last year has been just a disaster um like on on in all every sense of the word um so i feel like i don’t know but i i think you could do it in a pandemic so in a year hopefully we’re no longer in this part of 2020 so um it’s i don’t know i think i think there’s so many opportunities out there in so many different parts of the world that even if immediately you’re not being not throwing yourself into your own field there’s so many different ways that you can apply yourself and your skill sets and to not put too much pressure on those first like two months out of school like it’s it’s gonna be okay i think what i would say um is think about like maybe like just like past like thesis and photo stuff but just think about like where it is that you want to go after school and um start doing research on places that are like studio and printing spaces um before you get there um i think one thing i’m just kind of being lazy maybe or just a little bit shy but i’m it’s hard for me to like now go do this work to like find this new space that’s not light work because i just don’t want to leave it and so kind of like doing that work beforehand so that you feel a little more comfortable perhaps and you know kind of like know their facilities um and i think the next thing i was gonna say um is it’s really nice like living in like art and things like that but it doesn’t start off like that immediately is one thing i would say and i would say that even though you’re developing your thesis and that you know i know this like maybe like super like i’m not a very corporate person that sounds like it it’s good to find a job um you’re gonna get out there and like you know photo jobs like you like right away um start off like doing like you know great commissions like right out of school and stuff um just like find something for you whatever that is that aids your bills um don’t just think about your thesis um like think about also like how you can have a roof so you can make more work um and i think sometimes that can be like kind of like lost on sometimes like photo students because like you focus so much on the photo and then you’re like oh wait um and so kind of like doing that work back from like november um you know back from early about just like what is it exactly that i’m gonna do to make all these great things happen eventually because it doesn’t always happen right off the bat also just adding to that i think for me going to syracuse was so much more than just the photo program um so like for me i partially decided to go there because it’s a huge university with all these other opportunities in different disciplines um and so like ohms said like realizing that you don’t have to be in that photo world right off the bat like i didn’t start there and now it’s sort of developing in that way for me and like opportunities are coming up but like there’s so many opportunities at the university to learn things in different disciplines and like using that and realizing that you have skills outside of photo um yeah i would say the two best also skill sets that i would say that i like observe in like my work um with just a photo background is communications and ux design if you can take a class web design or and like communications before you leave and build and also a video class i wish i did that um those three things are like they keep coming up in jobs and like i’m i’ve taught myself web design in communications but i wish i had a new video so just those three things tie in really nicely with the photo background and um being really useful for a job actually extremely it is totally golden advice um i really agree um and uh and it’s it’s it’s almost still november so oh oh recommended that you start looking for your job in november but we’re close enough so so i think you’ll have time um i’m also available oh sorry i feel like one thing too is that like i wish i reached out to more alum and like knew that they were there and i feel like i would i mean i’ll answer anything like to anybody like any email or dm i want to be like a like you know a help that i did not that i didn’t get but like i didn’t know that i had there so i’m like super super open like whatever whatever resources that i have really even just talking like to any student um yeah and you know it’s it what what you just mentioned um makes me think that this kind of event is like a really nice way for along to reconnect um and we’re actually going to do another one of these in january um from light work and i know there were a lot of um

there was a lot of interest in light work so we’ll be there um for the next one and sending that info about that um but just like a huge thanks to the panelists um this has been fantastic um thank you so much yes thanks everyone for participating this is really great to see you all really really nice to see you all the next alumni party at yasser’s is going to be really really big next time we meet in person i don’t know we might have to um annex the next door building or something yeah and rent some private jets there you go yes is this gonna be in 2023 something like that yeah i i actually do think that uh i really do think we’re gonna have a normal fall optimist i’m an optimist but i think fingers crossed i i do think that my guess is that there’s gonna be some kind of mandate for vaccines and that they seem to be very effective i think we’re gonna have normal fault i’m an optimist but it’s true okay um the faculty is going to stay on uh if people have questions and um thank you to all the panelists thank you thank you guys for having us thank you so much hi guys bye super proud of you guys good job definitely thanks

Coronavirus Briefing: Dr. Cohen and Director Sprayberry (05/13/20)

♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ >> GOOD AFTERNOON, I’M COHEN SECRETARY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES AND I’M JOINED BY THE DIRECTOR OF EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT MIKE SPRAYBERRY KAREN MAGINNIS MONICA MCGHEE ARE OUR AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE INTERPRETERS AND WORKING BEHIND THE SCENES OUR SPANISH ♪ LANGUAGE INTERPRETERS JACKIE AND JASMINE METIVIER >> I’LL START WITH A RUNDOWN OF THE NUMBERS AS OF THIS MORNING, THERE ARE 15,816 LABORATORY-CONFIRMED CASES >> IN 99 COUNTIES IN NORTH CAROLINA. 521 PEOPLE ARE CURRENTLY HOSPITALIZED AND SADLY THERE HAVE NOW BEEN 500 AND 97. DEATHS >> AS WE BEGIN TO EASE RESTRICTIONS. WE NEED TO STAY VIGILANT TO ENSURE THAT OUR HEALTH CARE SYSTEM CAN BE READY. IF WE SEE AN INCREASE IN PATIENTS WITH SERIOUS ILLNESS FROM COVID-19. YESTERDAY GOVERNOR COOPER ISSUED AN EXECUTIVE ORDER THAT ALLOWS FOR COMPLIANCE WITH FEDERAL DIRECTIVES AND CREATE ADDITIONAL REGULATORY FLEXIBILITY TO HELP ENSURE THAT OUR HEALTH CARE SYSTEM. OUR LOCAL HEALTH DEPARTMENTS AND OUR COUNTIES CONTINUE TO HAVE THE CAPACITY NEEDED TO RESPOND TO THIS PANDEMIC. I’M ALSO PLEASED TO ANNOUNCE THAT STARTING TODAY FAMILIES IMPACTED BY SCHOOL CLOSINGS DUE TO COVID-19 ARE BEGINNING TO RECEIVE ADDITIONAL FOOD BENEFITS WITH SCHOOL BUILDINGS BEING CLOSE WE NEEDED TO MAKE SURE THAT THE CHILDREN WHO GET MOST OF THEIR MEALS AT SCHOOL HAVE ENOUGH TO EAT. THE NEW PROGRAM STARTING TODAY PROVIDES FAMILIES WHO UTILIZE THE FREE AND REDUCED LUNCH PROGRAMS AT SCHOOL WITH EXTRA HELP BUYING GROCERIES AND PUTTING FOOD ON THE TABLE. FAMILIES WILL RECEIVE ABOUT $370 IN BENEFITS PER CHILD PROVIDED OVER 2 INSTALLMENTS THE GREAT NEWS IS

THAT FAMILIES DON’T NEED TO APPLY FOR THE PROGRAM AT ALL BEGINNING TODAY, MOST ELIGIBLE FAMILIES ALREADY RECEIVING FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE BENEFITS WILL RECEIVE ADDITIONAL FUNDS ON THEIR EXISTING EBT CARD THAT PTT ELIGIBLE FAMILIES THE NEW FAMILIES NOT ALREADY ENROLLED IN A FOOD AND NUTRITION PROGRAM WILL BE MAILED A NEW CARD ON IN MID TO LATE MAY. SO PLEASE REMEMBER AS WE CONTINUE INTO PHASE 2 AND PHASE ONE OF THE EASING RESTRICTIONS, STAYING HOME IS STILL THE BEST WAY TO CONTINUE TO SLOW THE SPREAD OF THE VIRUS AND PROTECT OUR FAMILIES AND NEIGHBORS. IF YOU DO GO OUT REMEMBER THE 3 W’S WHERE WAIT WASH. WHERE A CLOTH FACE COVERING, WAIT 6 FEET APART AND WASH YOUR HANDS OFTEN OR USE HAND SANITIZER WITH THAT I’LL TURN IT OVER TO DIRECTOR MIKE SPRAYBERRY FOR SOME REMARKS >> THANK YOU MADAM SECRETARY, GOOD AFTERNOON. TODAY IS DAY 65 OF THE STATE’S EMERGENCY OPERATIONS CENTERS COVID-19 RESPONSE. AS WE CONTINUE WORKING TO OBTAIN PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT FOR THE COVID-19 RESPONSE TEAMS DELIVERED TO 34 COUNTIES AND FOR HEALTHCARE PREPAREDNESS COALITIONS YESTERDAY. SHIPMENTS INCLUDED PROCEDURE MASK GLOVES FACE SHIELDS COVERALLS THERMOMETERS SAFETY GLASSES AND HAND SANITIZER SOURCING AND PROCUREMENT OF PPE ESPECIALLY GALLONS REMAINS A MAJOR PRIORITY FROM THE STATE EMERGENCY RESPONSE TEAM WE’RE WORKING WITH OUR PARTNERS AT THE DHHS OFFICE OF EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES TO PLANNED DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT. 2 MORE THAN 3800 LONG TEAR CARE HOMES ACROSS THE STATE. STAFF FROM THESE ADULT CARE HOMES, NURSING HOMES AND OTHER CARE FACILITIES WILL BE ABLE TO VISIT LOCAL DISTRIBUTION LOCATIONS AND PICK UP A 2 WEEKS SUPPLY OF PPE INCLUDING FACE SHIELDS PROCEDURE MASS GLOVES AND SHOE COVERS ALONG WITH A GUIDANCE DOCUMENT ON PROPER USE TO PREVENT OUTBREAKS BEFORE THEY HAPPEN. AND DETAILS ON REQUESTING MORE PPE WHEN IT’S NEEDED. WE’RE FINALIZING THOSE PLANS NOW WILL BEGIN THAT DISTRIBUTION LATER THIS WEEK, IT’S GOOD WORK. OUR UNITED PARTNERS AT NC 2, 1, 1, CONTINUE TO TAKE CALLS DAILY HELPING PEOPLE MEET NEEDS RELATED TO COVID-19. THE UNITED WAY 2, 1, 1, HAVE NOW ANSWERED MORE THAN 41,000 CALLS FOR ASSISTANCE AND REMAIN READY TO SERVE THOSE WHO NEED HELP WOULD FOOD RENT UTILITIES OR OTHER BASIC NEEDS. JUST CALL 2, 1, 1, FOR THEIR HELP. IN THE STATES FOODS BANKS, THANKS TO YOU ARE STILL DOING GREAT WORK SUPPORTING PEOPLE YOU NEED GROCERIES EACH WEEK. YOU CAN SUPPORT THE FOOD BANKS BY GOING TO FEEDING THE CAROLINAS .ORG AND MAKING A DONATION. THE NORTH CAROLINA NATIONAL GUARD SUPPORTING THAT THE BANKS WOULD SOLDIERS AIRMAN IN VEHICLES THAT HAVE TRANSPORTED MORE THAN 2 MILLION POUNDS OF FOOD AND DISTRIBUTED MORE THAN 970,000 MEALS. IT’S GREAT WORK BAG, NORTH CAROLINA NATIONAL GUARD TEAM. THE ALWAYS READY READY TEAM. REMEMBER YOUR 3 DEBBIE IS WHERE A CLOTH FACE COVERING, WAIT AT LEAST 6 FEET APART AND WASH YOUR HANDS OFTEN THAT’S WHERE WEIGHT AND WASH FOLLOW SECRETARY COHEN’S GUIDANCE AS ALWAYS DON’T FORGET TO LOOK OUT FOR YOUR FAMILY FRIENDS AND NEIGHBORS. CALL YOUR LOVED ONE’S DAILY. GUARANTEED TO LOVE IT WITH KINDNESS AND COOPERATION WILL ALL GET THROUGH THIS TOGETHER AS ONE TEAM. ONE MISSION ONE FAMILY, THANK YOU VERY MUCH, NOT TURN IT BACK OVER TO MADAME SECRETARY FOR QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS >> TERRIFIC THANK YOU DIRECTOR SPRAYBERRY AND WILL TURN OVER TO YOUR QUESTIONS >> A DAY FROM BRETT BALL THAT WAS FOX 46 IN CHARLOTTE >> HI DOCTOR THERE WAS A REPORT RELEASED BY NBC NEWS FROM THE WHITE HOUSE THAT SHOWS CHARLOTTE NORTH CAROLINA AS A WHOLE OUR ON LOCATIONS TO WATCH BECAUSE OF THE LARGE WEEK TO WEEK INCREASE IN COVID-19 CASES AND I KNOW THERE IS A LOT MORE TESTING BEING DONE AND THAT MAY BE DUE TO THE INCREASE THAT THEY’RE SEEN IF NORTH CAROLINA CONCERNED ABOUT BEING ON THIS LIST ARE DOWN AS THE HEAD OF THE DISCUSSIONS WITH THE WHITE HOUSE ABOUT THIS LIST >> THANKS SO MUCH FOR THAT QUESTION AND WE ARE CONTINUING TO WATCH OUR TRENDS VERY CLOSELY WE HAVE THAT ON OUR DASHBOARD EVERY SINGLE DAY WE LOOK AT A NUMBER OF METRICS

BECAUSE WE KNOW NOT ANY ONE OF THOSE METRICS CAN BE LOOKED AT IN ISOLATION. WE ARE SEEING OUR DAY OVER DAY NEW CASE COUNTS BEING ABOUT WE’RE SOMEWHERE BETWEEN 4 TO 600 NEW CASES A DAY WHICH IS STILL A NUMBER OF NEW CASES A DAY. I THINK NORTH CAROLINA HAS BEEN IN A DIFFERENT PLACE THAN A NUMBER OF OTHER STATES THAT SAW AN INITIAL SURGE OR HAD A PEAK AND ARE NOW SEEING DECLINES AND ARE HAVING STILL THE SAME NUMBER OF DAY OVER DAY NEW CASES IN NORTH CAROLINA DOES BUT FOR THEM, IT’S A DECREASE AND FOR US IT’S MORE OF A LEVELING OR A STABILITY IN THE NUMBERS SO I THINK IT DOES PUT NORTH CAROLINA IN A SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT PLACE WHICH IS WHY WE WERE WE WERE VERY TRANSPARENT FROM THE BEGINNING AM MORE THAN 3 WEEKS AGO. PUT OUT THE METRICS THAT WE WERE GOING TO BE USING TO LOOK AT. WE DON’T WANT TO USE JUST NEW LAB CASES DAY OVER DAY WE WANT TO LOOK AT OUR SURVEILLANCE DATA. WE ALSO WANT TO KNOW WHAT IS THE PERCENT POSITIVE OF ALL THE TESTS THAT WE’RE DOING WHAT IS A PERCENT OF THEM THAT ARE POSITIVE AND WE’VE BEEN TRENDING DOWNWARD IN SOMEWHERE NEAR OF THE TESTS WE DO OVERALL ARE POSITIVE THAT’S VERY STRONG AND WE CONTINUE TO HAVE A LOT OF CAPACITY IN OUR MEDICAL SYSTEM AND OVERALL ARE HOSPITALIZATIONS HAVE REMAINED STABLE FLUCTUATING YOU KNOW BUT BUT LARGELY AND VERY STABLE SO THOSE ARE THE THINGS THAT WE WE LOOK AT WE ARE IN COMMUNICATION WITH OUR FEDERAL PARTNERS ON A VARIETY OF TOPICS AT THE CDC AT THE WHITE HOUSE AT FEMA AND OTHERS AND WE CONTINUE TO TALK ABOUT HOW DOES NEW YORK AND HOW DOES NORTH CAROLINA COMPARED TO SOMETHING LIKE A NEW YORK GIVEN THAT WE WE HAD VERY DIFFERENT EXPERIENCES IN THE MARCH AND APRIL TIME FRAME AND HOW SHOULD WE LOOK AT OUR CASES BUT I THINK IT ALSO RIGHTLY POINTS OUT WE NEED TO BE MEASURED AND CAUTIOUS AS WE GO WE HAVE VIRUS HERE WE CONTINUE TO SEE A LOT OF NEW CASES DAY OVER DAY AND SO WE NEED TO MAKE SURE THAT WE ARE DOING THE 3 W’S WEARING A FACE CLOTH, WASHING HANDS WAITING 6 FEET APART. AND WE ALSO WANTED TO TAKE THAT MEASURED APPROACH TO RE REOPENING WE ARE DIFFERENT I THINK THAN OTHER STATES AND SO WE WANTED TO TAKE THAT MEASURED APPROACH TO REOPENING STARTING WITH SOME OF THE LOWER-RISK ACTIVITIES BECAUSE WE NEVER SAW THAT SURGE. WE DON’T KNOW EXACTLY HOW THIS VIRUS IS GOING TO BE HERE IN NORTH CAROLINA SO WE NEED TO TAKE THAT MEASURED APPROACH AS WE GO AND I THINK RIGHT NOW I SEE THINGS HOLDING A STABLE I WILL DO A FULL UPDATE OF NUMBERS FOR FOLKS TOMORROW AND THE GOVERNOR RETURNS WITH US BUT WE FEEL OVERALL WE ARE ABOUT WHERE WE’RE SEEING A SUSTAINED LEVELING ON A LARGE NUMBER OF OUR OUR TRENDS AND METRICS >> THANK YOU >> JOE NICK POPE NEWS AND OBSERVER >> IT WASN’T JUST OPEN THE YOU KNOW A COUPLE OF QUESTIONS ON FIRST. SOME COUNTIES ARE CLAIMING THAT THEY CAN’T REALLY SEE THE CODE DATA FOR A NUMBER OF PEOPLE THAT THEY DIDN’T PURSUE HOMES. FOR STATE THAT’S TRUE THAT’S TRUE AND IT’S SO WHY IS THAT AND THEN THE SECOND QUESTION SENATE LEADER PHIL BERGER TO RELEASE JENNA BARBOUR LAWS SHOULD REOPEN THAT LIKE TO GET YOUR TAKE ON THAT THANK YOU >> SO WE DO COUNTIES ZIP CODE DATA AND OTHER I THINK YOU SAID CONGREGATE LIVING OR NURSING HOME DATA. SO THE THAT WE SHOULD KNOW HOW THE THE SEQUENCE OF DATA COLLECTION GOES, IT’S UNFORTUNATELY VERY MANUAL PROCESS RIGHT FOLKS ARE AT A NURSING HOME. AN OUTBREAK WHICH IS 2 MORE CASES MIGHT HAPPEN. THEY ARE WORKING HARD OBVIOUSLY TO CONTAIN THAT THAT INFECTION DO A LOT OF TESTING THEY OFTEN WILL BRING IN PARTNERS FROM THEIR LOCAL PUBLIC HEALTH DEPARTMENTS TO HELP WITH A TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE AND MAKING SURE THEY DO IN THE INFECTION CONTROL OR TO HELP WITH TESTING. AND SO HAS THAT DATA MOVES ALONG RIGHT WE ALL ARE WORKING HARD TO PROVIDE YOU WITH AS MUCH OF A CONSISTENT BUT ACCURATE PICTURE OF ALL OF THE DATA AND I THINK THAT’S WHAT WE’RE TALKING THAT WE WERE TRYING TO GET OUT OF THIS TO SINK RENOVATION OF SOME OF THE COUNTIES REPORTING AND WE WE REPORT AND JUST WANTING TO HAVE 1 ONE THAT EVERYONE IS ABLE TO HAVE IN TERMS OF ACCURATE NUMBERS AND SO IT’S NOT IT’S NOT A PERFECT SYSTEM BECAUSE OF THE VERY VERY MANUAL WAY AND A LOT OF THE WAY THIS DATA GETS COLLECTED. SO I DON’T THINK IT’S THAT ANYTHING MORE THAN US TRYING TO GET SYNCHRONIZED ON GIVING EVERYONE ACCURATE DATA WE HAVE THAT DATA DOWN TO ZIP CODE LEVEL NOW AS YOU MENTIONED WE ARE PROVIDING A CONGREGANT LIVING SETTING INFORMATION UM SO WE’RE WE’RE PROVIDING A TON OF OF INFORMATION ON OUR DASHBOARD AND WE AGAIN ARE TRYING TO DO OUR OUR BEST TO STAY SYNCHRONIZED ACROSS ALL OF THE VARIOUS FOLKS WHO REPORT INTO LAST WITH ALL THAT DATA ON YOUR SECOND RELATE TO SENATOR

BERGER, YES, SOMEONE FLAGGED FOR JUST BEFORE THAT THAT HE WAS ASKING ABOUT A BARBER SHOPS AND SALONS TOTALLY UNDERSTAND THAT THAT HAS BEEN A QUESTION THAT WE WE HAVE BEEN YOU KNOW HEARING AS WE’VE BEEN TALKING AS WE WE WANTED TO MOVE THROUGH THE PHASES HERE IN IN A MEASURED WAY. WE STARTED IN PHASE, ONE WITH ACTIVITIES THAT WERE LOWER RISK BY NATURE THINGS THAT WERE EITHER OUTDOORS OR IF YOU WENT INDOORS WERE ONES WHERE YOU COULD CIRCULATE AND WALK AROUND AND NOT BE STATIONARY AND BECAUSE WE KNOW THIS VIRUS IS TRANSMITTED MORE WHEN SOMEONE IS IN CLOSE PROXIMITY. OVER A LONGER PERIOD OF TIME. AND BY NATURE OF A SALON IN A BARBERSHOP OBVIOUSLY THAT THAT IS A YOU ARE SITTING DOWN FOR A LONGER PERIOD OF TIME AND FOLKS ARE CLOSE TOGETHER BECAUSE YOU’RE WORKING ON ON SOMEONE’S HAIR. NOW THE ISSUE IS WE WANT TO HAVE THOSE ACTIVITIES RETURN AND IN PHASE 2 WE CONTEMPLATE THAT RETURNING OF THOSE ACTIVITIES. THE ISSUE IS ABOUT RISK RIGHT IS WE WANT TO FOLKS TO FIRST START WITH SOME OF THE LOWER-RISK ACTIVITIES AND THEN WE WOULD MOVE FORWARD TO SOME OF THESE HIGH RISK ACTIVITIES IT’S HARD TO GO FORWARD WITH A BOTTLE BARBERSHOP URSULINE BUT NOT A RESTAURANT, THOSE IRSE YOU KNOW BOTH SIT DOWN INDOOR ACTIVITIES AND WE FELT LIKE GOING TO ALL OF THOSE RIGHT AT FIRST MIGHT BE TOO MUCH FOR NORTH CAROLINA AGAIN I THINK GOING BACK BRETT EARLIER QUESTION IS THAT WE STILL SEE A LOT OF VIRUS HERE AND WE WANT TO BE SURE THAT WE’RE NOT GOING TO SEE A SURGE OF CASES AND WE’VE BEEN VERY SUCCESSFUL PREVENTING THAT FOR OUR STATE WE WANT TO KEEP DOING THAT AND SO THAT’S WHY STARTING WITH THE LOW NO RISK ACTIVITIES WAS REALLY OUR FOCUS AND WE ARE ON NOW LESS THAN 2 WEEKS AWAY THINKING ABOUT OF A MOVE TO PHASE 2. WHERE WE CONTEMPLATE THE SALONS IN THE BARBERSHOP SO HOLD ON THERE. I KNOW EVERYONE WANTS A HAIR CUT, INCLUDING ME BUT HOLD ON I’M A BIT LONGER AS WE WATCH OUR TRENDS. PLEASE KEEP DOING THE 3 W’S I DO THINK THAT WE WILL GET THERE WHEN WE PULL TOGETHER AS A STATE WE ARE IN THIS TOGETHER RIGHT ALL OF OUR ACTIONS INFLUENCE EVERYTHING THAT’S GOING ON AND I THINK IF WE CAN PULL TOGETHER AS A STATE THAT WE WILL WE’LL BE BACK GETTING HAIRCUTS AN AT OUR FAVORITE RESTAURANT BUT IN A DIFFERENT WAY WE’LL HAVE TO PROTECT IN DIFFERENT WAYS THAN THAN WE HAVE BEFORE BUT WE WILL GET BACK THERE. ALL RIGHT THANK U NEXT QUESTION >> INDIANA JONES SPECTRUM NEWS GOOD AFTERNOON I TO QUESTION SO THE FIRST I DID AN INTERVIEW WITH AN ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SUPERVISOR FOR COUNTY HERE IN NORTH CAROLINA. WHEN ASKED HOW RESTAURANT INSPECTIONS ARE BEING CONDUCTED I WAS TOLD INFECTION. OUR BETWEEN YEARLY AND QUARTERLY AND THEIR NATURAL. MY FIRST QUESTION IS WHO HOLD REFUND OR WILL HOST RESTAURANT. ACCOUNTABLE FAR FOLLOWING THE CDC’S RECOMMENDATION IF THEY DO NOT HAVE A SCHEDULED INSPECTION AND MY SECOND QUESTION IS MORE AND MORE PEOPLE ARE GETTING ANTIBODY TEST THING WHAT DOES THE RESULT TELL US AND WHAT DO THEY NOT TELL >> THANKS SO MUCH GOOD QUESTIONS ON ON YOUR FIRST RELATED TO WHO IS THE ONE THAT THAT COME IN AND REGULATE RESTAURANTS YOU’RE EXACTLY RIGHT. IT IS OUR LOCAL HEALTH DEPARTMENTS THAT HAVE ENVIRONMENTAL HOW SUPERVISORS WE OBVIOUSLY ESTABLISH SOME OF THE POLICY IN THE PROCEDURES AND THE TIMING AT THE STATE LEVEL WE HAVE AT THE AT THE STATE DIVISION OF PUBLIC HEALTH WHO HELP MAKE SURE ALL OF THAT WORK IS OVERSEEN, BUT IT IS THE FOLKS IN THE LOCAL AREAS THAT OVERSEE THOSE AND YOU’RE RIGHT IT IS IT THAT THEY ARE THEY’RE USUALLY TIMED INSPECTIONS OVER A PERIOD OF TIME. AND SO LIKE ANYTHING THERE’S ALWAYS REGULATIONS THAT ARE THERE AND THEN THE THE INSPECTIONS AND THE OVERSIGHT OR PERIODIC AND IT WILL REMAIN THAT WAY IN THESE CASES AS WELL. SO RIGHT A LOT OF THIS IS FOLKS NEEDING TO TAKE A REALLY GOOD LOOK AT THE GUY DIDN’T HOW TO IMPLEMENT IT AND I KNOW THAT THEY WANT TO PROTECT THEIR OWN EMPLOYEES THEY WANT TO HAVE A A ENVIRONMENT FOR THEIR CONSUMERS. SO WE KNOW THE VAST VAST MAJORITY ARE ARE ALREADY THINKING ABOUT HOW THEY CAN DO ALL THESE THINGS AND THEN OUR JOB AS REGULATORS EITHER AT THE STATE OR THE LOCAL LEVEL IS TO COME COME IN AND AND BE SURE BUT WE’RE NOT THERE EVERY DAY EVERY HOUR THAT CAN THAT’S NOT POSSIBLE WHEN IT NEVER IS FOR AS WE RESTAURANTS DAY TODAY BUT REGULATIONS DO EXIST AND THE EXPECTATIONS. THEY’RE FOLLOWING THEM AND THAT THAT PROCEDURE WILL WILL CONTINUE AS WE AS WE MOVE MOVE THROUGH THESE AND AGAIN I KNOW IN TALKING TO THE RESTAURANT ASSOCIATION’S AND RESTAURANT OWNERS. THEY ARE BEING VERY THOUGHTFUL ABOUT HOW

TO CREATE ENVIRONMENTS THAT CAN BE SAFE AND WE’RE USING THIS TIME WHILE WE’RE IN PHASE ONE TO GET READY FOR WHAT PHASE 2 WILL LOOK LIKE IT WON’T BE THE SAME. THERE WILL BE NO ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS THERE AND THEY THEY RECOGNIZE THAT I THINK MANY ARE PREPARING FOR THAT. ON YOUR SECOND QUESTION RELATING TO ANTIBODY TESTING GREAT QUESTION. IT THAT MATTERS MORE AND TO BUY TESTING AVAILABLE THROUGHOUT THE STATE WERE STILL AT THE BEGINNING OF KNOWING WHAT DOES ANTIBODY TESTING REALLY. HOW DOES THAT REALLY HELP US HERE PARTICULARLY HOW LONG DID ANTIBODIES LAST SO IF YOU FIND THAT YOU HAD ANTIBODIES THAT MEANS THAT YOU ARE EXPOSED TO COVID-19 IN THE PAST DOESN’T MEAN YOU DON’T HAVE IT RIGHT NOW AND YOU ARE EXPOSED TO IT IN THE PAST. BUT WE DON’T KNOW YET IS HOW LONG DOES THAT IMMUNITY LAST OBVIOUSLY WITH SOMETHING SO NEW THAT COVID-19 THAT’S REALLY HARD TO KNOW WE HAVE TO SEE MORE TIME GO BUY SO I THINK THAT THERE IS STILL DEFINITELY SCIENTIFIC WORK THAT NEEDS TO BE DONE RELATED TO ANTIBODIES TO KNOW EXACTLY WHAT DO THEY MEAN WHAT LEVEL OF ANTIBODIES HOW LONG DO WE SEE THEM DO WE NEED REPEAT ANTIBODY TESTING I THINK ALL THOSE THINGS UNCLEAR I THINK THEY’RE A AND A GOOD TOOL TO HELP US GET A SNAPSHOT OF WHAT’S CALLED UP PREVALENCE RATE OF COVID-19 HERE IN NORTH CAROLINA COULD POTENTIALLY HELP US THEY WILL HOW MANY PEOPLE HAVE REALLY BEEN EXPOSED BECAUSE WE KNOW OUR LAB CONFIRMED CASES ARE NOT THE TOTAL UNIVERSE OF EVERYONE WHO’S HAD COVID-19 WITH THAT JUST WHO’S BEEN TESTED. SO THE ANTIBODY TEST CAN GIVE US A SENSE OF HOW MANY PEOPLE HAVE BEEN EXPOSED AND HAVE HAD COVID-19 WE’RE SEEING SOME FROM SOME OF THE EARLY RESULTS IS A VERY VERY FEW PEOPLE IN NORTH CAROLINA AROUND 2% POTENTIALLY AGAIN. THOSE ARE REALLY EARLY RESULTS. I DON’T WANT TO OVER EMPHASIZES BUT REALLY EARLY RESULTS SHOWING THAT NOT A LOT OF PREVALENCE HERE WHICH IS NOT SURPRISING. WE DID NOT HAVE A SPEAK A PEAK OR A SPIKE OF OF CASES. SO IT’S NOT SURPRISING THAT WE HAD A LOW RATE THAT’S COMING BACK TO THESE ANTIBODY TEST SO STAY TUNE FOR A LOT MORE RESEARCH IN THE SCIENTIFIC AND THE COMMUNITY THAT I KNOW IS ONGOING ON AN ANTIBODY TESTING >> ANDREA BLANFORD, ABC 11 ♪ HI DOCTOR CALL AND ANDREA WITH A CONCEALED WEAPON. STOP WHICH HAS ABOUT HALF THE AMOUNT OF POT. THE CASES APPEAR IN NORTH CAROLINA THEY JUST ANNOUNCED THAT THEY HAVE 400 CONTACT TRACERS ON THAT APP AND HAS RETAINED ANOTHER 1400 ARE WE STILL SITTING AT 250 CONTACT LATER TODAY AND HOW MANY HAVE BEEN HIRED. AND WATCHING THAT COLLABORATED KNEW AND WHEN WILL THEY BE DEPLOYED. THANK YOU >> THANKS ANDREA FOR THAT QUESTION I’M GOING TO LOOK AT THEIR THEY’RE RAMPING UP TO 4 1400 TO WHERE WE ARE WE’RE ALREADY IN A GOOD PLACE AS THE STATE BECAUSE WE HAVE FOLKS IN OUR LOCAL HEALTH DEPARTMENT THAT WE’RE DOING THIS WORK ALREADY BE IT SOMETHING LIKE 250. WE WERE GEARING UP TO HAVE 250 MORE I’M VERY VERY SHORTLY AND THEN UP TO PROBABLY ANOTHER 250 AFTER THAT WHAT’S BEEN FANTASTIC IS THAT WE’RE LOOKING TO LAYER ON NOT THOSE THAT WE’RE GOING TO HIRE AS NEW TRACERS BUT ALSO LOOKING HOW WE CAN USE OUR LOCAL HEALTH DEPARTMENT AND THEIR TEAMS THAT ARE ALREADY EXISTING TO DO TRACING EFFORTS AND THEIR OTHER VOLUNTEERS THAT HAVE COME FORWARD SINCE WE’VE BEEN TALKING SO MUCH CONTACT TRACING SO NOW WE’RE FIGURING OUT HOW DO WE DEPLOY SORT OF A VOLUNTEER CORPS WITH ARE TRAINED AND HIRED COURSE OF THOSE ARE THE THINGS THAT WERE SORT OF WORKING THROUGH NOW SO THAT WE FEEL LIKE WE HAS AS MANY HANDS ON DECK THAT WE WE WE NEED IN NORTH CAROLINA AS WE MOVE FORWARD. SO THAT THAT HIRING IS IS IS GOING ON THE TRAINING IS IS BEGINNING AND WE WE ARE PARTNERING WITH AN ORGANIZATION CALLED PARTNERS IN HEALTH. THEY HAVE THEY THEY ARE STANDING UP THE CONTACT TRACING A WORK IN A NUMBER OF STATES AND WE ARE ABLE TO SORT OF GLEAN FROM THEIR EXPERTISE SON BOTH THE APPROACH AND THE TRAINING AND HOW DO WE ACTUALLY A STEP THROUGH THIS WHERE WE’RE LEARNING A LOT AS WE GO AND ONE OF THE THINGS THAT WE’RE LEARNING IS THAT HAS GET CALL FROM A CONTACT TRACER I THINK WE ALL DO THIS RIGHT WE SEE A NUMBER ON OUR PHONE THAT WE DON’T RECOGNIZE THAT WE DON’T PICK THAT UP RIGHT. WE SCREEN ANY NUMBERS WE DON’T KNOW HOWEVER THAT COULD BE A PHONE CALL COMING FROM A CONTACT TRACER WANTING TO GET IN TOUCH WITH THE EU ABOUT POTENTIALLY BEING A CONTACT SO WE’RE GOING TO HAVE TO WORK IN A NUMBER OF WAYS I THINK HAVING THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE ON BOARD IS REALLY IMPORTANT OBVIOUSLY JUST WANT THE MAN POWER AND THE PEOPLE POWER TO MOVE FORWARD. BUT BUT THEN THERE’S THESE OTHER LITTLE THINGS THAT WE’RE LEARNING AS WE’RE DOING WITH HIS CONTACT

TRACING SO HOW DO WE MAKE SURE WE CAN ACTUALLY REACH PEOPLE AND SO WE’RE GOING BE WORKING ON OUR COMMUNICATION EFFORTS OF PEOPLE UNDERSTAND THAT THEY MIGHT BE GETTING A CALL AND WHAT WOULD THAT MEAN FOR THEM AND. AND HAD A PET IS STEP FOLLOWING THOSE THE GUIDANCE FROM FROM THOSE CONTACT TRACERS AS WE GO SO >> TAKE UNIT WILL NEED YOUR HELP ON IN THE THE THE MEDIA SIDE GETTING ♪ OUT THAT GOOD INFORMATION TO FOLKS AS AS WE STEPPED THROUGH THIS >> ELIZABETH ANNE BROWN ASHEVILLE CITIZEN TIMES WELL ENOUGH TO GO AND LET THEM FROM THE ASHEVILLE CITIZEN-TIMES NEWSPAPER UP MY QUESTION IS AND THE NATURE OF UNEMPLOYMENT AND HEALTH CONCERN TO MOVE FORWARD AS A MORE BUSINESSES ARE ALLOWED TO OPERATE THEY WANT AND THEN LATER IN A FEW. HOW ARE PEOPLE WHO HAVE CONCERNS ABOUT THEIR ONGOING HEALTH AND SAFETY ARE GUARDED IN TERMS OF UNEMPLOYMENT. THAT IS I’M I’M THINKING ABOUT THOSE EMPLOYERS WHO THINK IT WOULDN’T BE A BUSINESS OPERATE THEY LEGALLY COULD. AND THEN EMPLOYEE WHATEVER HEALTH CONCERNS THEY MAY HAVE THERE ARE CONFIDENT ABOUT RETURNING TO WORK THAT THEIR GOD IS STILL THERE FOR THEM. HOW WILL THAT. THERE >> THANKS FOR THAT THAN FOR THAT UM I THINK YOU ARE HIGHLIGHTING IMPORTANT ISSUE HERE WHERE THIS IS NOT JUST ABOUT IS THE BUSINESS OPEN OR NOT THERE ARE A LOT OF FACTORS THAT GO INTO I IMAGINE ANY BUSINESS DECISION ABOUT WHEN TO REOPEN HOW TO REOPEN WENT HAD TO BRING FOLKS BACK. THERE MAY BE BUSINESSES THAT KNOW MANY OF THEIR EMPLOYEES ARE AT HIGHER RISK THEY MAY BE OLDER THEY MIGHT HAVE CHRONIC THEY MAY BE ARE CANCER. SO THERE ARE A LOT OF CONSIDERATIONS THAT GO INTO THIS IN AND THERE’S NO ONE SIZE FITS ALL WE HAVE TO SET A FLOOR FOR THE STATE TO SAY LOOK BASED ON THE TREND WE DON’T THINK THAT THAT THAT FOLKS SHOULD DO THESE X Y AND Z THINGS BUT BUT HERE’S THE FLOOR AND THEN FOLKS NEED TO WHETHER YOU’RE A BUSINESS OWNER. OR AN INDIVIDUAL CITIZEN YOU’RE NEEDING TO THINK ABOUT YOUR OWN INDIVIDUAL RISK AND SO THERE ARE A LOT OF CONSIDERATIONS FOR BUSINESSES AS THEY THINK ABOUT REOPENING. WHAT I WOULD SAY OUR GUIDANCE TO THOSE EMPLOYERS THAT WE’RE SAYING ANYONE WHO WHO IS AT HIGHER RISK. WE WOULD ASK THOSE BUSINESSES TO WORK WITH THOSE EMPLOYEES TO PUT THEM IN LOWER-RISK SETTINGS SO IF YOU CAN IMAGINE. A BAKERY FOR EXAMPLE, IF YOU MAYBE NOT THE PERSON WHO YOU AT THE CASHIER BUT MAYBE ANSWERING THE PHONE OR IN THE BACK DOING THAT THE BAKING AND CAN WE DO ACCOMMODATIONS THAT ALLOW CERTAIN WORKERS TO BE IN RISK SETTINGS SOMETIMES THAT’S NOT POSSIBLE AND THEN WE HAD TO THINK ABOUT WELL WHAT OTHER ACCOMMODATIONS CAN THEY MAKE WHETHER DIFFERENT KINDS OF FACE COVERING WARM ON OTHER MODIFICATIONS TO DO THEIR JOB I THINK THAT THESE ARE REALLY HARD ISSUES THAT WE WANT TO JUST GIVE THE BEST GUIDANCE WE CAN FROM THE PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVE AND THEN FOLKS ARE GOING TO HAVE TO. USE THEIR JUDGMENT BASED ON WHAT WHAT’S GOING ON IN THEIR COMMUNITY, THEIR OWN INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYEES, THE NATURE OF THEIR BUSINESS TO SORT OF MAKE THE GOING FORWARD WE’RE JUST HOPING WE CAN GIVE AS MUCH GUIDANCE AS WE CAN AND AGAIN. THE SCIENCE HERE CONTINUES TO EVOLVE AND WE LEARN NEW THINGS I’D SAY ONE OF THE THINGS WE HAVE LEARNED SINCE THE BEGINNING OF THIS OF THE PANDEMIC IS HOW MUCH SPREAD OF THIS VIRUS HAPPENS. WHEN YOU DON’T EVEN KNOW YOU HAVE IT AND I THINK THAT IS A BEEN A BIG LEARNING FOR FOR ME PERSONALLY, BUT ALSO FOR THE SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY. UNLIKE THE FLU WHERE THERE’S A MUCH SHORTER TIME WINDOW BETWEEN WHEN YOU ARE CONTAGIOUS AND WHEN YOU SHOW SYMPTOMS HERE THERE ARE FOLKS WHO NEVER KNOW THAT THEY HAVE COVID-19 AND CAN BE SPREADING THE VIRUS AND THAT IS REALLY OF CONCERN TO ME IS I THINK ABOUT THESE KINDS OF DECISION MAKING ACTIVITIES THAT I KNOW BUSINESSES AND INDIVIDUALS AND FAMILIES ARE ARE GOING THROUGH WHICH IS AGAIN WHY WE GO BACK TO THE FACE COVERING. WHEN THERE’S A LOT OF SPREAD OF THE VIRUS FROM PEOPLE DON’T KNOW THAT THEY HAVE IT WEARING A FACE COVERING CAN REALLY HELP PREVENT THE SPREAD OF THE VIRUS TO OTHER PEOPLE >> OUR FINAL QUESTION TODAY WILL BE FROM 10 SMITH WRE OUT BUT AFTER THE COLD FRONT SLIPS ON THE OFFENSIVE TAKING MY CALL LISTEN AS NORTH IS SURROUNDED BY STATES THAT ARE REOPENING THIS I’M CONCERNED THAT KNEW HER FROM A ON CAPITOL HILL YESTERDAY FROM THE >> OF FOLKS LIKE DOCTOR FAUCI JUST REALLY CONCERNED ABOUT STATES AS WE REOPEN. I KNOW THE GOVERNOR IS GOING TO GO THROUGH THE NUMBERS TOMORROW BUT

IS THERE ANY WAY THAT YOU CAN PUT THE GENIE BACK IN THE BOTTLE IF IF THE TREND DON’T GOING IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION AND WHAT WILL THAT LOOK LIKE >> KEN THANKS FOR THAT QUESTION AND LOOK THIS HAS BEEN SUCH AN UNPRECEDENTED TIME FOR OUR STATE OUR COUNTRY OUR WORLD AND THAT IT’S HARD TO PREDICT WHAT WHAT IF THIS WOULD HAPPEN WHAT WOULD WE DO THEN WHAT WHAT WE WILL CONTINUE TO SAY IS THAT WILL LOOK AT THE NUMBER IS AND CONTINUE TO TRY TO MAKE THE BEST DECISION WE CAN BASED ON SCIENCE AND DATA >> WE ACKNOWLEDGE THAT THERE IS MORE GOING ON IN OUR STATE THAN JUST COVID-19 AND WE HAVE TO THINK ABOUT BOTH SAFETY AND PROTECTING PEOPLE’S HEALTH AS WELL AS WHAT IS GOING ON IN TERMS OF MENTAL HEALTH SPIRITUAL HEALTH FINANCIAL SO WE HAVE TO PUT THOSE THINGS TOGETHER AND WE DO WHEN WE’RE CONSIDERING THESE DECISIONS AND WE WILL CONTINUE TO PUT THAT AT THE FOREFRONT OF OUR THINKING ABOUT ABOUT THE PEOPLE THAT WE SERVE HERE IN NORTH CAROLINA AND TRY TO MAKE THE BEST DECISIONS BASED ON WHAT THE THE PUBLIC HEALTH DATA AND THE SCIENCE OFFERS US KNOWING THAT THAT SCIENCE IS IS CHANGING AS WE GO HERE. SO I I KNOW THAT WE’RE TRYING TO STRIKE THE RIGHT BALANCE OF TAKING AND MEASURED AND PHASED APPROACH TO REOPENING. HERE AS AS WE GO AND WE WILL GO THROUGH THIS LIKE AS YOU MENTIONED IN MORE DETAIL SO STAY TUNED. I THINK NO MATTER >> AH, HOW HOW ASKED HOW SLOW >> I THINK WE ARE GOING TO HAVE A DIFFERENT WAY OF MOVING THROUGH THE WORLD AND THAT’S WHY I KEEP COMING BACK TO THE 3 W’S ABOUT WEARING THE FACE COSTING 6 FEET APART. AND WASHING YOUR HANDS I THINK THAT THAT’S GOING TO BE PART US MOVING THROUGH THE WORLD WHILE THE VIRUS IS IS WITH US HERE IN NORTH CAROLINA THAT’S GOING TO BE A BASIS OF RECOMMENDATIONS AND THEN WE’LL TRY TO MAKE APPROPRIATE MEASURE DECISIONS GOING FORWARD AND IF WE NEED TO WE WILL WALK BACK WE WILL WALK BACK TO STAY AT HOME IF WE NEED TO TO PROTECT PUBLIC AND THE PEOPLE OF NORTH CAROLINA SO WE WILL WE APPRECIATE ON ALL THE QUESTIONS WILL BE BACK WITH YOU TOMORROW WITH SOME CHARTS AND GRAPHS SAID THANK YOU SO MUCH HAVE A GOOD AFTERNOON