Washington, DC – Behavioral Economics Symposium (9/19/19) — consumerfinance.gov

Good morning to everyone here in the room and to those watching via livestream My name is Andrew Duke I serve as the Bureau’s Policy Associate Director for External Affairs and for Consumer Education and Engagement Welcome to the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau’s symposium on behavioral economics, which is being held here at the Bureau’s headquarters in Washington, D.C This symposium is the second in a series aimed at stimulating a robust dialogue with experts reflecting diverse viewpoints across a range of subject matter areas In a moment I will have the honor of introducing the Bureau’s Director, Kathy Kraninger Before I do so, let me tell you about what you can expect at today’s symposium Following the Director’s opening remarks, the Bureau’s Section Chief for Decision-Making and Behavioral Studies in the Office of Research, Melissa Knoll, will moderate a panel discussion entitled “Methodological Foundations of Behavioral Economics.” The panel discussion will include brief statements from each of our distinguished panelists, to be followed by a moderated discussion This first panel is scheduled to end at about 10:35 a.m., after which there will be a 15-minute break Following the break, the second panel, entitled “Behavioral Law and Economics and Consumer Financial Protection” will begin It will be moderated by Jason Brown, the Bureau’s Assistant Director of the Office of Research This panel will also include brief statements from each panelist as well as a 55-minute moderated discussion The symposium will conclude at about 12:30 p.m., with brief remarks from the Bureau’s Deputy Director, Brian Johnson For those unable to attend in person or watch via livestream today, a recording will be made available on the Bureau’s website Finally, as a friendly reminder, the views of our panelists today are their views They are greatly appreciated and welcomed, yet they do not necessarily represent the views of the Bureau It is now my honor to introduce Director Kathy Kraninger Director Kraninger became the second confirmed Director of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau in December 2018 From her early days as a Peace Corps volunteer to her role establishing the Department of Homeland Security to her policy work at the Office of Management and Budget, to the CFPB, Director Kraninger has dedicated her career to public service It is my privilege to welcome her to the podium Director Kraninger, the floor is yours Thank you, Andrew Good morning, everyone I am excited to welcome you to today’s symposium on behavioral economics and consumer financial services policy I would like to take a brief moment to thank all of our panelists for participating today They will be further introduced at the start of each panel, so I won’t go into great detail, except to say that they are truly experts and they are going to bring some fantastic perspectives to this conversation I would also like to thank our moderators, Melissa Knoll and Jason Brown, and the members of the working group for all of their work developing today’s program Today is part of a broader symposia series, as Andrew mentioned, that seeks to gather experts in a variety of different fields to tackle legal and policy issues facing the Bureau We have a number of topics we plan to explore A few of the topics, like abusive acts or practices, at the symposium we recently held, and the symposium this later this year on Section 1071 of the Dodd-Frank Act, deal with statutory provisions enacted by Congress and focus on the various issues the Bureau must deal with when interpreting statutes Some of the other topics, though, touch on the broader issue of how the Bureau approaches consumer protection policy, in general Next year’s symposium on cost benefit analysis falls in that category, and so does today’s, with a focus on behavioral economics Before turning to our first panel, I want to offer a few observations on how the Bureau crafts its consumer protection policies Most fundamentally, the Bureau is guided by the objectives Congress set forth in our statute, ensuring that all consumers have access to markets for consumer financial products and services that are fair, transparent, and competitive

So in its rulemaking, the Bureau seeks, consistent with its legal authorities, to articular clear rules of the road for regulated entities that promote competition, increase transparency, and preserve fair markets for consumer financial products and services First and foremost, the Bureau promulgates regulations to implement statutes, and we, of course, promulgate the rules Congress directs us to issue In other circumstances, though, the Bureau has the discretion to create rules in a new space If we have this sort of discretion, the Bureau should focus on regulating to prevent the harm to consumers The Bureau must approach this work extremely judiciously, however, cognizant of unintended consequences To effectively achieve intended policy outcomes, agencies should be able to articulate good reasons for what they do, and those reasons should rest on solid evidence This includes whether the benefits of the proposed action justify the cost Indeed, to formulate good policy, a substantive analysis and estimation of costs and benefits, both direct and indirect, must be conducted This transparent process informs the public of the underlying reasons for both proposed and final regulations, and it can both help identify practices that warrant regulatory action and lessen the chances that the Bureau prohibits or restricts business practices that, in fact, benefit consumers or competition It cannot be stressed enough that to develop sound policy in these cases we need a demonstration and not just an assertion of a market failure, and we need to offer a remedy carefully tailored to address that failure Markets are often imperfect It is often said, wisely, that we should not let the search for the perfect be the enemy of the good, but the Bureau should only address market imperfections if it is clear that intervention would improve the status quo It is also generally well understood, and there is overwhelming evidence to demonstrate it, that markets allocate resources more efficiently than government agencies That is why the presumption should be in favor of the market and the onus should be on the government to demonstrate it can improve that status quo For consumer protection policy, specifically, the Bureau generally seeks to empower consumers to make the best decisions for themselves, and in developing such policies we start from the presumption that with timely and understandable information consumers will be empowered to make decisions in their best interests Today’s symposium explores whether behavioral economics can offer insights on practices in the markets we regulate In recent years, the field of behavioral economics has offered criticisms of standard economic models, and the field of behavioral law and economics has attempted to apply behavioral economics to legal and policy-making issues This symposium provides an opportunity for academics and policymakers to discuss the use of behavioral economics and psychology in consumer protection It will explore the merits of, and drawbacks to, the application of behavioral economics within the regulatory environment I am looking forward to today’s symposium and the opportunity to hear from experts on these issues Broadly speaking, my hope is that this symposia series will serve as a launching pad for further economic and empirical research in the consumer protection space We have a great need to understand how consumers evaluate the information they receive about consumer financial services We must understand what makes consumers tick so that we can use our supervision, enforcement, regulation, and education tools to be the best consumer protection agency we can be Fortunately, we have great panelists here today to share their research, experience, and thoughts, to help us understand consumers and consumer protection policy even better I look forward to an enlightening and spirited exchange of view Thank you very much Thank you, Director At this time I would like to invite Melissa Knoll and the panelists to please take their seats up here on the panel And, Melissa, the floor is yours Great Thank you Good morning, everyone, and thank you for joining us today We are pleased to get started with our discussion related to the methodological foundations of behavioral economics

Fortunately, as the director said, we have four very accomplished experts on our panel to help us work through some important issues in this area They come to us with a variety of perspectives and extensive experience in topics related to these issues With us today are Dr. Michael Baye, Bert Elwert Professor of Business at Indiana University’s Kelley School of Business; Dr. David Gal, Professor of Marketing from the University of Illinois at Chicago; Dr. John Lynch, Senior Associate Dean for Faculty and Research at the University of Colorado Leeds School of Business; and Dr. Brigitte Madrian, Dean and Marriott Distinguished Professor, Brigham Young University Marriott School of Business As a supplement to today’s discussion, our panelists have also submitted written statements outlining some of their views on behavioral economics, and behavioral science, more generally, and its relevance to policy-making I would encourage all of you to take a look at these statements after today’s panel They were quite interesting to read, and, in many cases, provide an even deeper dive into the issues that we will discuss today This symposium is intended to generate discussion about behavioral economics, a topic potentially relevant to many aspects of the Bureau’s work I will be posing questions to the panelists that the Bureau developed in collaboration with them As a friendly reminder, again, the views of our panelists today are their views They are greatly appreciated and welcomed Yet the questions and the panelist statements do not necessarily reflect the views of the Bureau So to kick off the panel this morning I am going to ask each of the panelists to speak for about 5 minutes to provide some opening thoughts that will help frame this morning’s discussion, and then we will follow with a series of questions that we hope will generate some interesting dialogue And so we would like to kick it off with Brigitte Madrian giving her opening statement So I’m going to start with what I hope is an obvious assertion, but I think it sets the stage for at least how I think of the role of behavioral economics and public policy-making, and that is the purpose of all public policy intervention is, in fact, to change behavior by either individuals or organizations Public policy is designed to either encourage more of social welfare-enhancing behaviors, like getting more vaccinations, or less of behaviors that reduce social welfare, like pollution or financial fraud Maybe that would be more relevant to the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau I’m going to make another assertion, and that is that the purpose of models—and as a trained economist I’m thinking of economic models but I think this is true of models in the hard sciences as well—the purpose of models is to provide a simplified view of a problem in a way that elucidates important mechanisms that explain the problem at hand, and models are an abstraction from reality I’ll come back to that in a minute As Kathy mentioned in her opening remarks, traditional economic analysis gives us a taxonomy of market failures that motivate policy intervention The traditional set of market failures are externalities, public goods, market power, or information failures An additional motivation for policy intervention would be to achieve different distributional aims that you get from a market left to its own devices And from these traditional market failures we get a set of traditional policy tools that have been used for a long time These include attempts to change market prices through taxes or subsidies, information provision or disclosure to combat information asymmetries, regulation of how firms and individuals can behave in markets, or direct public provision of services by the government So what does behavioral economics bring to this table? I’m going to argue that there are a few things that behavioral economics brings to the table First of all, it brings a recognition that some of the abstractions in traditional economic models ignored potentially important factors for certain economically important outcomes, in certain circumstances To give one example, traditional economic models do a pretty good job of predicting the types of choices that consumers make when they are making tradeoffs over time between things in the distant future and things in the far distant future They do a really poor job at predicting the choices that individuals make for outcomes that involve something in the immediate present versus something in the future So traditional economics, the abstraction away from present bias—I’ll get to that in a minute—does matter so much for a certain set of choices It matters a lot for a whole other set of choices So behavioral economics forces us to recognize that some of the abstractions that have made historically don’t hold water for some of the outcomes we are trying to analyze Two, behavioral economics gives us additional motives for public policy intervention beyond

the traditional taxonomy of market failures Congdon et al. outlined three broad categories of additional motives for policy intervention, number one, that individuals are imperfect optimizers They are inattentive, they have biased reasoning Individuals do a really lousy job in dealing with probabilistic outcomes, for example Individuals have bounded self-control They procrastinate Sometimes they are subject to addiction And third, individuals’ preferences, to the extent we can use that term, are very context-dependent They don’t exist in a vacuum So preferences depend on how the options are framed They depend on how individuals perceive themselves relative to others Things like fairness matters Social norms matter And this poses a real problem for thinking about revealed preference as a tool for assessing what individuals actually want and what is in their welfare I should note that these biases don’t necessarily imply a market failure In some contexts, firms may have incentives that are such that they want to help individuals overcome some of these behavioral problems, so the market might actually correct these issues But in many cases firms might have an incentive to exacerbate or even exploit some of these biases Finally, behavioral economics gives us additional policy tools to help combat market failures One that has received a lot of attention in the literature, and one on which I’ve written, is the broad category of choice architecture, which would include things like what is the default option, what are the number of choices individuals have to make, are they simple or are they complicated, when do individuals make choices, how often do they make them, how are they framed, are they given help to help make choices? Those are all elements of choice architecture So that would be one category of additional policy tools, but there are many others Behavioral economics also gives us ways to increase the effectiveness and the cost-effectiveness of traditional policy tools, and I think this is really important Take, for example, the use of incentives, a very traditional public policy tool What we have learned from behavioral economics is that incentives can be more or less effective at changing behavior, and in some circumstances a probabilistic incentive, so think a lottery-like incentive, can be much more motivating than a guaranteed incentive There is plenty of research suggesting that immediate incentives are much more effective than delayed incentives That is important for thinking about, for example, how the tax code might be an effective or an ineffective tool at changing behavior People are more responsive to incentives that are simple to understand than incentives that are complicated That also speaks to the effectiveness of, for example, the tax code, at changing behavior And individuals respond differently to intrinsic versus extrinsic incentives And if you can intrinsically motivate people to do something, that is often a much more cost-effective way to change behavior than relying on extrinsic motivation in the form of actual monetary incentives Another example would be disclosure Disclosure is another very traditional public policy tool, and what we have learned from a lot of behavioral economics research is that there are many circumstances in which disclosure is ineffective, and there are, indeed, some circumstances in which disclosure can be counter-productive And behavioral economics gives us a framework for thinking about when disclosure, or how to make disclosure more effective, rather than just an assumption that if we provide information, individuals will consume it and use it accurately So, for example, disclosure about financing terms is more effective if the disclosure actually does the calculations Individuals do a poor job of thinking in terms of percentages They do a much better job if you give them actual dollars to think about If the disclosures are translated into objectives that matter to individuals—so calorie information is more effective if you tell people how many hours they are going to have to run to burn the calories off than if you just tell them what the calories are Individuals do a better job of assessing disclosures if they are relative, if you are comparing A relative to B, rather than just telling individuals information about A in the abstract If you expand important outcomes, for example, if the cost over a 10-year period you actually multiply by 10 rather than relying on individuals to do the math Disclosure is more effective if you can standardize things across multiple outcomes, and more

disclosure if you can make what you’re talking about vivid Okay I think I’m done Next we have David Gal Go ahead Yeah What is behavioral economics? I think that’s an important question Well, it arose from the behavioral decision-making tradition in psychology that sought to identify deviations from normative standards of decision-making And these fun, predictably irrational, systematic anomalies documented in effects such as anchoring, the endowment effect, the compromise effect, and many other effects, have captured the imagination of business people, policymakers, and the public In part, the attraction was, and is, that through subtle changes in how information is presented these effects could be used to induce large behavioral changes Yet, through a bit of bait and switch, some boring, quote/unquote, old information design, and other interventions, like even sending text reminders, have been sold under the fun and exciting label of behavioral economics Indeed, the term behavioral economics appears to have expanded to include any intervention that make assumptions about psychology In other words, any intervention intended to influence behavior, which, in my view, renders the term essentially meaningless Now, at the same time, from a policy perspective, it is important to note that these original fun and interesting, irrational anomalies that gave rise to behavioral economics don’t inherently reveal any suboptimal behavior that needs to be corrected So take the case of the endowment effect One example of the endowment effect, the majority of people given a mug kept it rather than trade it for a chocolate bar, whereas the majority of people given the chocolate bar kept it rather than trade it for the mug This apparent preference and consistency is commonly viewed as an irrational mistake, typically explained via loss aversion However, the mistake is not in the behavior but in the assumption that preferences are stable and well defined If, instead, we assume preferences are fuzzy, then the effect can be trivially explained without any resort to error Many people might have had no clear preference between the mug and the chocolate bar, and so they stick with whatever they had initially, simply out of inertia Indeed, I think many of the systematic preference and consistencies documented by behavioral economists and psychologists can more parsimoniously be explained by fuzzy preferences than by invoking errors in decision-making Moreover, when policymakers have sought to take advantage of these effects to influence behavior, the impacts have generally been small and unreliable For instance, policymakers have sought to nudge consumers towards lower electricity consumption by informing them when they use more electricity than their neighbors However, when tested, the effects of these interventions have been small to negligible Now does this mean that the psychological insights frequently relied upon or derived by behavioral economists and others in related fields, like psychologists are not of value? In my view not at all It is that many of these ideas and insights such as the fuzziness of preferences, that people often lack insight into their preferences, that identity drives behavior, confirmation bias, they don’t lend themselves to obvious simple answers or even to obvious questions In fact, the focus on these interventions that involve slight changes to how information is presented or choice represented, I think they are important but I think they can also distract from the big picture For example, I agree with John, your comments, just a little bit, you made the comment that the more important mistake people made in the financial crisis was choosing the wrong house, not choosing the wrong mortgage And so, accordingly, even if we frame information in a way that would have allowed people to pick a better mortgage, that’s a value, but it would have had comparative little impacts on their financial well-being compared to the house they chose, choosing the wrong house, meaning choosing one that put them in a precarious financial position So why did people pick the wrong house? Well, we can think about a mix of favors For example, the lay belief, reinforced by a lot of social proof that house prices always go up, trusted institutions that promoted mortgages and home ownership, status seeking, low financial literacy, cultural factors, low future time orientation, and so forth So understanding these factors and considering policy to address them requires stepping well outside the heuristics and biases tradition of decision-making on which behavioral economics was founded As another example, lottery winners and well-compensated professional athletes routinely end up in financial distress or bankrupt What can explain this? Again, it is unlikely that heuristics or biases associated with how information is presented has anything to do with this phenomenon or can do much to correct it, and by way of inference, why many other people can’t or don’t save Instead, we might consider as factors low financial literacy, status seeking, low future time orientation, which itself could be a function of personality culture, family environment, structure of incentives in society, and related factors So both these examples illustrate the point that psychological insights have potentially important policy implications, but these insights are not well realized through simple changes in how information or choices are presented Instead, successful interventions are likely to take advantage of psychological insights,

but to be much more multi-faceted complex, having ended and sustained and to require a more careful evaluation of uncertainty and tradeoffs than many of the ones advocated until now by behavioral economists And to take a final example, confirmation bias, which is the tendency of people to interpret new information to be in line with their existing strongly held beliefs, suggests no easy fixes, but it does offer potential insights for policy For example, it suggests the need for structures that facilitate redundancy in policy evaluation and for creating paths for contrarian ideas to receive a hearing And I thank the CFPB for providing this forum for such ideas Thank you And next up we have John Lynch So by way of background, I am different from many of the people in this room I was an undergrad econ major but my PhD is in psychology, and I have studied consumer behavior for my 40 years as a business professor in a marketing department And, like David, I am in a minority, because most of the people are experts in economics and law I have studied consumer memory, attention, and learning On the topic that both Brigitte and David talked about, I’ve studied how people construct their preferences when they do not have established preferences, making them highly sensitive to various context and framing effects I also do work about how people think about the future And finally, relevant to this session, where I think we are going to talk about methodological issues, I do work on external validity, which is the issue of examining how general findings are coming from a given study And if you read the papers associated with this panel, my fellow panelist, Michael Baye, has a great point in his that you have to target the right pathology to have an effective policy remedy And so I would say that economics gives concepts and findings to help us understand what pathology is underlying a set of symptoms, but it is not alone in allowing such insights, and other behavioral sciences do so So I consider myself a behavioral scientist Probably apropos of David’s things, I don’t consider myself a behavioral economist Like I said, a behavioral scientist Every discipline has its strong suit In my view, the strong suit of economics is that it has, first of all, a powerful toolkit, a single unifying theory, and alone among behavioral sciences, it models the interactions of buyers and sellers and how they adapt to each other Other behavioral sciences, like mine in psychology, tend to ignore the strategic adaptation of sellers to buyers in the markets However, other behavioral sciences, in some cases, have an advantage in descriptive accuracy about buyer behavior, and help us understand how people actually behave and why they do so So often that is in the form of giving us process insights about why we are observing what we do and why certain kinds of seemingly plausible interventions intended to help consumers do not work as intended, much as what Brigitte was describing I would also say—and this is agreeing with one of David’s themes—that in all cases it’s wise to do the careful work to test a proposed policy remedy and understand all the—and I think Janis is going to talk about this in her remarks—to do the very careful mapping to understand exactly how this is playing out before launching, on some broad scale, a policy action that will affect particular segments differentially I would say just three ideas and sets of findings from my own field that I think are highly relevant to the work of the Bureau The first is the idea of consumers’ consideration sets, which is probably, I think, the most important idea in marketing, understanding consumer choice That is the set of alternatives actively considered And anything that the Bureau can do to promote transparency in the financial competitive marketplaces will involve trying to enlarge and study the nature of consumers’ consideration set Work in marketing shows that if you’re trying to understand what actually gets chosen, most of the explainable uncertainty has to do with whether an alternative was considered or not, not the issue of what the relative evaluation is to Alternative A versus another, Alternative B, that is considered And most information remedies by policymakers tend to target the ladder effect, which, again, work in marketing shows a second order, explaining a much smaller percent of the variants than the issue of what alternatives are considered Second, I would say that information remedies, such as financial education and product-specific disclosures often have limited effects, and the reason for those small effects are originally surprising but they can be understood in terms of psychological principles And then my third point is one that the previous speakers have touched upon This is work that I’ve done some of the early work on One of the most important conclusions from the last about 35 years of research in judgment decision-making is that people often lack stable utility functions to guide their decisions

Not always, but if I haven’t had to make a decision yet I don’t have it in my head what my preferences are And so in those cases, it turns out, people are highly sensitive to various context and framing effects that affect decisions they make However, if people have thought about it before, and they have inputs to their decisions that are stable, acceptable, and they perceive to be diagnostic and relevant, then they are largely insensitive to many of these behavioral effects that we have discussed And so why do you get that discrepancy? In the case where I have those stable preferences, there is going to be a close match between my expected utility and what Kahneman has called experienced utility, that is my ex post utility But in cases where people lack those prior preferences, that isn’t the case, and people may systematically mis-predict both the likelihood of events but also how they would feel about events once they happen And so, in many cases, that is noble in advance to the policymaker or the seller, but not to the consumer And so the implication of that is that the more laissez-faire approaches to financial services regulation are more appropriate in cases where people do have these established preferences but less so when people do not And in this regard, one of the remarks in Thaler and Sunstein’s book is when would these nudges be desirable—decisions that are hard, infrequent, no opportunity to learn from feedback, no established preferences, and the markets are not going to correct our mistakes So my thought is that that is where the role of the more psychological research can come into play I would just say, in closing, that in May I attended a conference at Wharton that was honoring this distinguished cognitive psychologist and consumer decision researcher, Wes Hutchinson, and the whole thing was about whether consumers are boundedly rational and where, in fact, they are more or less rational And his conclusion, after serving this wide array of research, was the following He said, “We are very good at selecting important information, learning from past experience, similarity-based reasoning We are pretty good at verbal and non-verbal communication, simple symbolic inference, and predicting the very near future But we truly suck at complex problem-solving and understanding the long-term consequences of our current actions.” And so that angle of these complex problems, where there are long-term consequences, those are the areas where I think are most in need of consumer protection, and behavioral science is going to help us understand that psychology Thanks so much Thanks, John And finally we have Mike Baye Well, first of all, thanks to the director and her staff for putting this together I know how much work it is to herd a bunch of academic cats up here to give a little talk I promise to keep my opening remarks here at a very high level I think it’s more important, given this is a behavioral conference, to frame where I’m coming from so you understand my biases so they are on the table I had the pleasure of serving as the Director of the Bureau of Economics at the Federal Trade Commission in 2007-2008, a couple of years before the Bureau was created, and in that capacity I was obviously working with staff on antitrust matters, but also consumer protection matters, like fair lending, payday loans, FACTA study, mortgage disclosures, and a whole host of other things And I have to say, as an academic, I found the consumer protection issues far more interesting than I found the antitrust work But just to put this into context, I have a vivid memory of going into meetings with parties on an antitrust matter It was a hospital merger And staff’s concern—this would have been staff in on the antitrust side of the Bureau of Economics at the FTC—staff’s concern about the merger was that it was going to create anti-competitive harm because it was going to reduce choices of customers in hospital markets That very afternoon, I went to a seminar in the Bureau of Economics where a behavioral economist came in, and was explaining that unless we limit the choices on Medicare, people were just going to be unable to make decisions So I throw that out just to point out that it’s easy for us to say “I’m for this,” “I’m for that.” But these are very complex issues and that’s why I applaud the Bureau for tacking these issues They are not simple answers to these questions That said, I also want to disclose that my academic work has done theoretical work as well as empirical work, using models of irrational or behavioral models, if you like, models with rational players My empirical work has featured analyses with field data, I’ve used survey data, and I’ve

used experimental data So I’m all over the map as an individual And what I’d like to share with you, at a very high level, is some issues that I think are important for the Bureau to think about as it especially goes into next year’s symposium on cost benefit analysis, because in my mind, that’s the tough issue, and that was the toughest issue that I dealt with in trying to understand staff’s concerns on that matter Let me just say, at a high level—we’ll get into this in the back-and-forth, I’m sure—my view is both models of rational behavior, traditional economic models, if you will, and models of behavioral economics, they are both useful in explaining behavior So it’s not an either-or It’s a both In fact, I would argue, consistent with what some other panelists have suggested, is the bright-line differences between the predictions of behavioral models and traditional economic models aren’t as bright-line-ish as you might think One can explain many behavioral anomalies with a more sophisticated model of rational behavior And on the behavioral side there are competing models of behavioral economics that explain this same phenomenon Differences in behavior are important, but the real challenge here is not to identify something that might impact consumers’ behavior or an irrational choice that consumers might make In my experience, the difficulty is attempting to do that difficult cost benefit analysis, to quantify the harm to consumers, to contemplate the potential unintended consequences of the remedy, and to ensure that when you make an enforcement decision or you adopt a policy that you are considering all costs and benefits So just to give you one real simple example, one might think of a policy that encourages entities to restrict the number of options they give people, in the medical area, in the pension area, or whatever, to get people over that shackle of just indecision, being unable to make a decision because they are bombarded with choices When I think about that as an economist, I think about, wait a minute, that might be true in some environments but not necessary every environment So if you think about a restaurant, for example, does a restaurant only want to have four choices on a menu, because people are unable to make a decisions? As an economist, I would say a rational business, if people get bombarded with information can’t make decisions, you’re only going to have four items on the menu So that’s a situation where the market may solve a problem On the other hand, let’s imagine that people aren’t putting enough money in their 401(k)s, or they’re not making health care choices because they’re just bombarded with too many choices and they are unable to make decisions As we restrict the number of choices that consumers have, which choices do we, as a regulator, allow them to make? Who determines that those choices are? Are there unintended consequences as we limit their number of choices? Does that give advantages to small numbers of players? Might that impact the prices that consumers are paying for those products? So those are the types of issues that, as an economist, irrespective of whether I’m a behavioral economist or I’m a traditional economist, that I’ve got to help the commission, be it the Federal Trade Commission or the Bureau, do to rectify its different policies So hopefully we will have a great back-and-forth here Thanks Thank you so much to all the panelists Now we will dive into a number of questions that I think will bring up a lot more of these issues First up, in recent years, empirical findings from the field of behavioral economics have been used as a way to explain consumer choices and behaviors that deviate from a standard neoclassical model of consumer decision-making Based on your expertise and review of the literature, what findings from behavioral economics have the strongest support and what findings have the weakest support? Where does behavioral economics do well? Where do neoclassical models do well? What implications are there for consumer protection when they diverge? As part of this, feel free to bring in findings from other social sciences that you think also have relevance to our understanding of consumers and consumer protection Brigitte, you can kick us off here Yeah So I’m going to take a couple pieces of your question in reverse order In general, where do traditional economics models do well, and, in general, where does a behavioral lens help, and I’m going to reiterate something that John said near the end of his remarks Traditional economic models do a pretty good job of predicting behavior for decisions that consumers make frequently and where the costs and benefits are happening at the same point

in time, and where individuals can learn from feedback and they can map their preferences into the course of action that will give them what they want Traditional models do much less well with choices that involve intertemporal tradeoffs, with risk and uncertainty, and with complicated decisions where it’s difficult to map which choice is actually going to deliver the outcome that you actually want And a lot of the financial decisions that individuals make, and a lot of the concern around consumer financial protection, has to do with these intertemporal choices—saving, insurance against long-term risks, things like that In terms of the evidence on behavioral economics, I think we have volumes of evidence that choice architecture matters a lot, and the choices that individuals make can be swayed in significant ways, not in trivial ways, not in nudge-like ways, but in significant ways in certain circumstances through the use of choice architecture My own research documented, now almost 20 years ago, that changing the default option in the case of retirement savings plans, can lead to up to a 50 percentage point change in the fraction of people who are participating in a 401(k) That is not a small effect That is a huge effect, and it dwarfs, by several orders of magnitude, the largest estimated effects in the literature, from traditional approaches to facilitate savings, namely financial incentives So the change in behavior you get from a substantial financial incentive is a tiny fraction of what you get from changing choice architecture We find similar effects with organ donation The magnitude is just as large, if not larger We find similar effects with getting consumers to sign up for energy plans that give encouragement to use less energy during periods of peak demand, and defaulting consumers into an energy plan like that you get 60, 70 percentage point differences in the fraction of consumers who are on that type of a price plan versus another plan, depending on what the default is So choice architecture and the default is just one example of that It has pretty robust support that it can have large effects in certain circumstances I would say the area of evidence where at least I think the generalizability and the predictability of the results is more in question would be social norms We know that individuals respond to information about what other people are doing Those effects can sometimes be big Often times they’re small Sometimes they’re actually perverse You tell people what other people around them are doing and they act in a reactionary way, and you get effects going the other direction So I would say that’s one area where I think the evidence is weaker, because it’s a little bit more all over the map, and we need more research into understanding when those types of interventions work and when they don’t Great We can just go down the line, or— Yeah, maybe I can say something I agree that the framing and kind of the opt-in and opt-out type of decisions can be very, very important Certainly, as a behavioral matter, there is lots of laboratory evidence that suggests that is the case It creates a challenge, though, when you are attempting to do some type of cost benefit analysis of the effects of a policy For example, one of the issues that we grappled with at the FTC was privacy policies So it turns out if you look at the behavioral literature on privacy, if you ask someone, “How much are you willing to pay to keep your data private?” they say, “Not much.” If you ask that same person, “How much would I have to pay you to give up your privacy?” they say, “A whole lot.” That’s a preference reversal That’s a behavioral anomaly So it happens What do you do as a policymaker? Which of those preferences do you use to evaluate the cost and benefits? That’s one of the challenges At a broader level, I would say that behavioral economics does very well in the lab It does less well in the field It works in some instances but not in all I think one of the challenges, in addition to just quantifying harm in an environment where preferences aren’t stable or they are reversing, or whatever, is the notion that

many behavioral theories aren’t falsifiable There is a paper by Hale and some co-authors in the AER that looks at quantal response equilibria, which is a behavioral model of decision errors, and shows that it imposes no falsifiable restrictions on the model That is not true of all behavioral models I’ve got a paper with John Morgan in the RAND Journal with the same quantal response equilibria, only with a logit specification, and it does impose falsifiable restrictions I’m not dissing behavioral models, generally, but falsifiability is an important element of science So I would agree that there is abundant evidence that a number of traditional economic theories are rejected in the data But let me remind you what rejection in the data means Let’s imagine we’ve got 100 consumers Let’s imagine that 85 of those 100 consumers—I won’t do percentages because people may not understand So you have 100 people and 85 of those people behave exactly as homo economicus says they should behave—rational Fifteen of those consumers don’t At the 5 percent level, at the 10 percent significance level, guess what you’re going to do? You’re going to reject traditional economic theory in favor of the alternative that consumers are not behaving rationally From a policy perspective, I think that whole framing of that information is absolutely wrong I think the way I would frame that information is, look, we’ve got 85 people who are behaving rationally, 15 people who are behaving irrationally, or by some other method We need to recognize that not all consumers are cut out of the same cookie cutter There is heterogeneity out there And from a policy perspective we want to make sure that if we’re protecting those 15 percent, we’re not harming the 85 percent in a way that, if we thought of a representative consumer, that harm more than offsets the gains to the other We also want to contemplate what the costs to the policy are We also want to contemplate what the impact on social welfare might be In Section 5 of the FTC Act, when an unfairness claim is made, the FTC is required to do that analysis I’m happy to chime in a bit I agree with Brigitte that certainly certain ways in which information and choices are presented or designed can be highly influential on consumer behavior, and particularly when consumers don’t have a clear sense of what they want to do, then giving them a recommendation or a default can be effective But I think a lot of these systematic anomalies that have been identified by behavioral economists, the focus has been too much on identifying deviations from rational models and not necessarily understanding why those deviations occur, and oftentimes it’s the rational model that’s taken as kind of objectively correct, even though the rational model itself invokes certain assumptions about psychology, about the nature of preferences, the nature of goals, and so forth And so we oftentimes identify deviation, we tend to generalize it without really understanding why it’s happening I gave the example earlier of the endowment effect and the attribution of that to loss aversion, which I believe is incorrect I think also with respect to present bias, for example, certainly many people are present biased, but also many people are future biased We see now, of course, around the world these very low interest rates for the long term and a lot of that is caused by, especially in countries like Japan, people being, maybe from the perspective of central bankers, too future biased So I think we have to really carefully look at these effects I think many of the documentations that have shown these systematic present bias, like hyperbolic discounting, some of those effects could be attributed to other causes, in particular also to inertia and to transaction costs So there is some bias and many people have present bias, but I think this idea that it is a universal bias or almost universal bias and systematic, I think is overstated And I think more attention needs to be paid to why people deviate from models and try to understand their behaviors as opposed to just focusing on, hey, there’s a deviation, let’s generalize that Okay So I, in my work, do not frame the work that I do in terms of some sort of deviation from some reactional model That’s not the frame of people in psychology So I take what things have stronger or weaker support to be kind of like asking a biologist what things in biology have stronger versus weaker support There are hundreds of things So it sounds like we focused on a few of them I think the evidence is actually quite strong that people exhibit this present bias

I agree with David, however, that it has multiple causes, and that the underlying mechanism for observing something that looks like present bias may be different in different circumstances I guess a couple of things that Michael said, on the angle, if you think that unfettered choice is a good policy in the face of present bias, just ask yourself the question, imagine that consumers, for 1 month only, could take money out of their Social Security accounts if they so wished How many people in the room would advocate that? The key thing with present bias is that people say they prefer one thing when they are far away from the decision, they do something different when they’re in the decision, and then after the decision, and they go back to what they thought here before So in those circumstances where the change in their preferences is predictable, I think that that’s a situation where it’s a relevant situation for policymakers to intervene I don’t know if we’re going to talk about this methodological stuff later We’re going to talk about it later? I’ll hang back, then, on the methodological things Great Thank you The next question relates to some of what was already brought up during the first question, but I’ll dig a little bit deeper Some of the deviations from the neoclassical model have been posited to stem from consumers’ use of heuristics, or mental shortcuts or rules of thumb In particular, what are the implications of consumers’ use of heuristics, and how do consumers’ use of heuristics relate to whether consumers have well-defined preferences related to financial products and services? As part of this you can obviously get into the question of rationality if you choose, as well David, do you want to kick us off? I mean, I’ll reiterate some of what I said earlier Heuristics, people use them to simplify decisions We could use them because we don’t have the motivation to exert a lot of effort, or because we don’t know how to optimize, so we might use heuristics in those cases They simplify decisions They’re not inherently wrong or right We can use, for example, one of the heuristics that’s frequently talked about in the consumer financial decision-making literature, particularly with respect to investment decision-making, is diversification heuristic So let’s say you give me a portfolio, or I have options in my 401(k) Let’s say I have two potential options, stocks and bonds Most people kind of will just evenly allocate their money across those options So maybe I’ll put 50 percent in stocks, 50 percent in bonds Now you might say, okay, well, you shouldn’t do that You shouldn’t just have this 1/N heuristic, or whatever But, on the other hand, you can’t necessarily tell me that that’s a wrong decision, because we don’t know what the optimal allocation between stocks and bonds is, certainly not for a particular individual And most individuals, they don’t know what the right allocation is for them, and there is no objectively right allocation So it’s a simplifying rule that’s used to make a decision, but it’s not necessarily right or wrong There is probably a wide range of different allocations that could be equally right, and so it is not clear that using a heuristic makes it any more right or wrong than any other type Of course, in some cases heuristics might be used to an extreme, but there is no inherent way we can say this is wrong We just must use our judgment and say, hey, this is too extreme an allocation, based on use of a heuristic But there is no automatic decision rule that you could say just because someone used a heuristic that they made a mistake I agree with what David said People use heuristics because heuristics are an efficient way to simplify a complex decision, and we use them because most of the time they work well If they didn’t work well we would probably stop using them The problem is that even if most of the time they work well, the small or even medium fraction of the time when they don’t work well could be potentially problematic So let me give you an example of a heuristic that works well some of the time but doesn’t work well some other times Individuals have a really hard time, as noted earlier, with intertemporal problems In the saving or the borrowing domain, where interest rates matter and compounding over time matters, individuals have a hard time with compounding How many of you remember how to deal with exponents, back from high school math?

So what’s the heuristic that individuals use? The heuristic is that they linearize, because it’s a lot easier to think in linear terms than in exponential terms Well, if you’re dealing with a short time horizon and, say, savings, over a short time horizon—2, 3, 4 years—this linear approximation is not going to be too far of a deviation from reality But if you’re talking about how much will my money grow over 30 years, linearization is going to give you a very, very poor approximation of what would actually happen over time, and you’re going to get similar effects when it comes to borrowing So heuristics matter, and I think one of the problems, if individuals can’t always apply them well, is that nefarious firms can try and exploit the fact that individuals have a difficult time with these heuristics So come to the diversification rule If people are using a 1/N heuristic, allocate my money 50/50 between the two options in the savings plan, you’re going to get dramatically different outcomes if those two options are a single stock and a single bond, or a stock equity fund versus a bond fund versus a fund that’s already diversified, you know, a 75/25 stock fund and a 100 percent stock fund You’re going to get different outcomes, and you could start having firms pay to be on the menu because they’re going to get half of the assets under management if individuals are using a 1/N rule, or giving bribes to the person who is setting the menu I mean, there are ways that firms can exploit the inappropriate application of a heuristic in a way that actually harms consumers, above and beyond just the fact that if the heuristic is misapplied there will be some inherent harm in the first place To me, the single idea that I would, again, try to put forward is this distinction between expected utility and experienced utility If it’s the case that what people expect, on average, doesn’t match what they experience, then I think that policymakers should be concerned about maximizing people’s experienced utility I’ll leave it at that Any other comments on this question, or should we move on? You’re looking at me, so, of course, I’m an academic I’ll comment on anything No, I mean, I actually kind of agree with everybody here I believe you can think of heuristics as just an efficient choice I’m an economist I believe in making efficient decisions in the face of scarcity If my time is scarce, I might use a rule of thumb instead of going through all the calculations You don’t have to go to some behavioral story to say that That said, I would argue that if people are systematically not understanding the terms of a mortgage, or the terms of an investment vehicle, then a disclosure that provides that in a way that helps an individual understand what the ramifications of his or her choice are to help them through that computation, help them economize in that computation, might be a reasonable public policy Thank you So let’s move on to the next question which deals a little bit more with the methodology, as John was talking about before Many behavioral science findings in the literature come from surveys or laboratory or field experiments Are there particular merits or drawback to studying consumer behavior in controlled settings, and what factors related to generalizability or effect size should policymakers consider when attempting to apply these findings to broader, real-world settings? I would disagree with something that Michael said about the idea that field studies are inherently more generalizable than lab studies The truth is that all studies have issues of generalizability, because human behavior is moderated so that any given intervention has differential effects, depending on certain side conditions I don’t believe that there is any rigorous evidence suggesting that there is more generality if you try to replicate from field settings than across laboratory settings It’s just that because it’s so expensive to do field studies they don’t get replicated,

so we don’t know I was on sabbatical at Columbia and I just came from a conference that was all about all the brave new world of online new media stuff in marketing, and all the papers were these very large-scale field experiments about the effects of online advertising, and they did not replicate each other So it is not the case that there is anything about the field versus lab setting that distinguishes in generality It just means that we need to look very carefully at subgroup level, how does the same treatment affect people differentially, in different subgroups, and we should be interested in replication and seeing, in some systematic way, how things do or don’t generalize And on that I would say that I would love it if the Bureau would get in the business of meta-analysis, that is, of systematic recording what has been found on a given topic, and not just cherry-picking studies but rather looking at all of them and trying to line them up and try to explain why some find different results than others Go ahead, Mike If I could just respond, I apologize because I think John and I might be talking across purposes I didn’t say I prefer field experiments to field data In economics, we have economic experiments, we use surveys sometimes, we use field experiments, and we use field data When an economist uses the term “field data,” he or she means like real-world data, what really goes on in the real world Steve Levitt and John List have a paper that kind of talks about some of the problems that you might have with field experiments, or experiments or surveys, and they include things like the subject pool—how does that match up with the population of people in the actual environment who are making decisions?—and the nature of the information Typically, in at least the surveys and the experiments that I’ve done, you have very stark, simplified environments to isolate the impact of one thing, like a disclosure, for example Can you see the small print or not? In reality, when someone makes a purchase decision it might be a journey You might start out with that one little ad that sucks you in to have a conversation with a person trying to sell you mutual funds, but then you might have a conversation that lasts an hour or more, where additional information is coming, and it’s difficult to include that in a laboratory setting And I’ve used all of them I’m not saying I’m against field experiments I just think that you are subject to potential framing when you do experiments or surveys, where you’re potentially impacting the behavior of the individuals that you’re studying And that’s why I prefer field data, real-world data, although to isolate, for example, the impact of competition on prices, I’ve used experimental data where I can zero in on how many sellers there are That’s something that’s difficult, if not impossible to do in every market environment Can I just chime in with one point that relates back to the previous question I think many of us, either as policymakers or as researchers, use a heuristic when we are evaluating evidence—and I’m going to put “evaluating” in air quotes—which is that you read the abstract and you look for the top-level finding This has this impact And then you want to say, okay, I’m going to go take that and use it to make policy, or generalize it, something like that, because we don’t want to do the hard work That’s our heuristic We read the abstract And I think the really important thing that we need to recognize is that every study has strengths and weaknesses, and if you want to know the extent to which you can generalize the results of a particular study to your application at hand, you’ve got to read the actual study and figure out what are the potential factors that might bias the results of the study in a different context, and that is hard work And we don’t like to do hard work We like to take the shortcut And if you read a laboratory study, yeah, there might be situations where it generalizes pretty well to the real world, and there might be situations where it doesn’t But if you read a field study, that’s going to be true as well I would say if I were a policymaker, I would put more weight on a finding that had replicated across a number of laboratory studies and across a number of field studies, so it’s been shown to generalize across a number of settings If it generalizes across a number of different types of populations and if it generalizes

across many different types of application, then I’d feel like that’s a pretty robust finding But I don’t think we’re at the stage in the literature where we have that type of robust evidence for many types of, quote/unquote, “behaviorally informed interventions.” I think in the majority of cases we are dealing with severe limitations, just because enough replications haven’t been done in laboratory settings where it’s cheap, but even more importantly, in field settings where it’s very expensive I’ll just quickly piggyback on what Brigitte said in terms of I once heard Daniel Congdon say that he’s never cited a paper that he hasn’t read, which I think is impressive because I’ve never read a paper I’ve cited But I think I agree with a lot of what has been said here, and I just would reiterate, again, the importance of understanding why an effect is happening Often when we run a study, the key is to understand why it’s happening If you understand why it’s happening, then you can generalize It doesn’t mean the effect will generalize Effects don’t generalize Psychological insights generalize Effects don’t generalize because of the reasons that John mentioned—the contexts are different, there’s lots of moderators that can moderate the effect So you have to make a judgment call, is the context that you’re trying to apply, the effect from one context to another, is similar in the important aspects that is going to lead to a similar effect? The effect doesn’t occur everywhere It occurs depending on having similar context and similar attributes relative to ones that are key to driving the effect So you have to really understand why an effect is happening And the other thing I’ll just mention, is oftentimes—I agree with John, also, that there is no difference between whether you’re going to replicate something just because it occurred in a lab or the field But the lab studies are often cheaper, and we tend to calibrate our stimuli in order to get an effect And that’s not necessarily a bad thing It just means we’re trying to understand—it could be used to try to understand the psychological process But it could mean that the effect is fragile, in the sense that it won’t translate to another context We’re doing a really good job of linking these questions together The next question relates to how policymakers use incoming information, additional studies, to update potentially our knowledge in this area Science progresses as researchers, like yourselves, continue to explore important issues in your field, often finding additional evidence that confirms, disconfirms, or adds an important nuance to existing evidence How should policymakers weigh incoming evidence that challenges our previously held beliefs about consumer behavior, and is there a standard that we, as policymakers, should apply to the weight of a single study or an additional two or three, in terms of our thinking on consumer behavior? I think that’s the big question when it comes to making policy is how do you weigh the evidence, and I think most of us would be well advised to exert some degree of caution on the basis of one particular study We’ve got a lot of evidence that’s been accumulating over the past few years on replicability in the social sciences, and a number of important studies have failed to replicate upon further examination So I think with one study you want to try and really understand why do we think that a particular study might be delivering different results from what the literature out there is telling us That said, there are also lots of good examples of where there was a prevailing belief and a single study challenged that belief, and it’s actually held up pretty well over time, once the evidence came to bear If it’s not on a really significant matter, then you might say let’s wait and see whether further evidence support this But in some points you have to make a decision on the basis of limited evidence, especially if we’re dealing with significant financial harm or we’re dealing with life or death in the medical sciences, for example But I think this is where government agencies can help both researchers and policymakers by trying to bake evaluation into things that are done, so we can get more rapid accumulation of evidence that helps inform everyone else down the road, as they are trying to make better decisions So I’m happy that the CFPB is trying to at least do retrospective analyses that gives us a better evidence base going forward

I want to just reiterate or expand on a point I was making earlier In my mind, the single most important methodologist in psychology is a guy named Lee Cronbach Many of the things that people do in psychology are attributable to this guy He was the one who introduced the idea of how it was you could actually have scientific statements about things that were not directly observable But one of his most important influences is on the study of the generality, or lack of generality, of findings One of his basic insights is that we, when we write these individual articles, grossly overgeneralize, and grossly overestimate the degree to which the finding is going to be robust to different variations So that’s why it’s really critical to have the—and I would say not just direct replications, or attempts at direct, but rather conceptual replication There, the thing that I think that the Bureau should do in relation to this is to rely heavily on this technique of meta-analysis Meta-analysis is this technique to summarize what has been done, not just to say, overall, did it work, but to understand where it works better or less, that will allow these kinds of cross-benefit analyses that others have been showing For instance, I’ve done some work on financial education and financial literacy that shows the relatively small effects of financial education on behavior However, the effects are bigger if the interventions are close in time to some behavior you’re trying to influence Well, that dictates like how you should try to operate on financial education, to try to get it at a point in time close to a decision So I think the Bureau should be very cautious, like Brigitte says, about any given study, but should really be in the evidence and trying to accumulate and systematically record and analyze what is the pattern of the data show Great points Just an observation, something that, again, is very different on the antitrust side and the consumer protection side of the Federal Trade Commission, in any event On the antitrust side, investigations are specific to the specific investigation One doesn’t try to come up with some generalized rule that a 4-3 merger is anticompetitive or not One looks at specific facts So you might have one 4-3 merger where firms are competing in prices, selling homogeneous products, something that an economist would say resembles homogeneous product competition, and there may not be any competitive concerns There might be another industry where those firms have a history of colluding in the past and/or they’re producing heterogeneous outputs or other factors that might make the price effects of a 4-3 merger more specific So keeping that in mind, I guess this whole notion of generalizability, it seems to me that certainly you want to be careful not to generalize—take some study in a lab and then based on that impose some onerous restrictions on businesses in the real world But if you’ve got data from the real world that shows a particular business practice is harming consumers, and you can demonstrate that using but-for analysis, then, by all means, protect consumers in that instance, even if it’s not generalizable In my view, the only place generalized rules come into play on the antitrust side is in the so-called Hart-Scott-Rodino premerger notification, where the agency uses basically Herfindahl indices, which are just glorified measures of market share, squared and summed, but basically just kind of heuristics to determine whether or not this is likely to be among— So the meta-studies could be helpful for the Bureau in coming up with some heuristics that kind of do what they used to call triage at the FTC, kind of separating cases that look problematic from ones that don’t But that triage is only to help you allocate resources to the cases where you really ought to be discovering the facts there That’s my view I’ll just quickly add that while I agree with what was said, I think you also have to look, when we’re trying to evaluate the totality of evidence for a particular phenomenon or a particular intervention, it’s important to look at all sorts of evidence and not just controlled experiments but also secondary data and also historical cases, I think, could be very useful For example, if I’m thinking about a particular intervention, let’s look at cigarette smoking What was done in that case? So there it’s more qualitative interpretation, but that could potentially inform the totality

of evidence for certain kinds of interventions So I think this integrative view is quite useful Great Thank you So moving on to the next question, many consumer financial decisions involve making tradeoffs over time, as we talked about earlier Some findings from behavioral economics suggest that many consumers may display time-inconsistent preferences and, therefore, are susceptible to preference reversals Are there findings from this literature that might help policymakers better understand consumers’ financial decisions? John, do you want to start? Mike and the mic Is that just curious that Mike never turns on the mic? All I want to say is, I mean, I do believe there is laboratory evidence that consumers engage in preference reversals One of the first papers I remember, as a graduate student, it’s a paper by Grether and Plott, where some economists doing experimental economics were out to prove that the psychologists were flat wrong, and the reason you get preference reversals is that when these silly psychologists—and I don’t really mean that, but this is the spirit of the Grether and Plott paper—these silly psychologists just ask people hypothetical questions And if you ask people hypothetical questions, you’re going to get hypothetical answers So what Grether and Plott did is they replicated the preference reversal studies using experimental economic tools, which requires that you pay subjects, you provide them with economic incentive to make decisions And lo and behold, when they incentivized subjects to respond, the preference reversals got worse instead of better So there is laboratory evidence that preference reversals are a real phenomenon That’s all I’ve got to say about that What I will say is that many phenomenon that your knee-jerk reaction is a preference reversal can easily be explained by the difference between an ex ante and an ex post decision So I don’t know about you but I bought house insurance last year I also had automobile insurance And I didn’t have a wreck Ex post, that was a mistake I made a bad decision, right? Ex ante, when I made that decision, it was a good decision So I would warn you, as an enforcement agency and someone trying to protect consumers, make sure that if you have a phenomenon that you believe is consistent with a preference reversal, that it is, in fact, that and not just an ex post outcomes that differs from an ex ante expectation by consumers So you’re not silly Heck no You’re smart So in a case that Mike just described, the fact that he paid for insurance and he didn’t use and now he regrets it, like that is not a mistake But again, I would distinguish a case like that from when, systematically, if people bought a product, and systematically, after the fact, they concluded they had made a mistake, and it was predictable in advance that that was going to be the case, then I think that’s a real phenomenon That’s where I would focus my efforts I think we’ve talked a bit about intertemporal decisions so far Maybe I’ll just consolidate, I think, some of what we know about the problems that come up in the domain of intertemporal decisions One is that intertemporal decisions almost always involve risk and uncertainty, that is to say we don’t know what will happen in the future Mike did not know that he was not going to get in an accident and a tornado was not going to rip the roof of his house And that uncertainty complicates decision-making Individuals do not do a good job of making decisions in probabilistic domains So intertemporal decisions almost always involve uncertainty, and the further the horizon is for the outcome of the decision, the greater the amount of uncertainty Individuals also don’t do good with things that grow over time, so exponential decision-making We are just not any good at that That is also a key feature of many intertemporal decisions And then individuals make different choices for today versus the future than they do comparing things at two different points in time in the future So when it comes to intertemporal—and another factor is we don’t have a lot of opportunity

to learn from feedback or from experience when you’re dealing with something that you do very infrequently So many people who purchase homes, that’s not something they’re doing every six months They’re doing it once a decade And the financial market changes and economic conditions change from when you bought your home 10 years ago and when you’re trying to repeat that transaction Something like life insurance or retirement, you don’t get a do-over at all You don’t learn from experience at all So the types of products that involve long-term intertemporal choices are the ones that I think are most problematic, from the consumer decision-making standpoint, and, therefore, the ones where consumers are probably most in need of a good regulator trying to facilitate better decision-making and trying to make sure that firms in the industry are not unfairly exploiting the types of biases that might arise from all of the things that I just mentioned I largely agree with the other panelists here I would add, though, again, it’s important to understand why people are having these timing-consistent preferences because they could be due to different reasons, and some examples that look like timing-consistent preferences are not, or examples of present bias So if you ask me, “Would you take $10 today or $20 a month from now?” I’ll take $10 today It’s not because I’m present biased I think that’s because of the mental transaction costs that keep in mind I have to wait a month I’m actually very future biased or future oriented I’m very good at saving, and so forth But if you give me that particular choice, I will take $10 today So we have to really thinking about what illustrates intertemporal preference and consistency and what doesn’t really try to understand why these effects are happening They can happen for various reasons, like some of the other panelists said It could be because I’m bad at forecasting the future It could be, in many cases, because I have low willpower or because I have different motivations that are active at different times But we have to understand why those are happening in order to try to remedy them But I generally agree that present bias is common among many consumers, not all, and it’s probably more harmful than future biases to the individual consumer So it is something that I think should be addressed, but we really have to understand why it’s happening and in which consumers it’s happening Great We have about 3 minutes, so likely not enough to get to our last question, which we touched on earlier, a little bit about mental counting and some framing issues I want to thank the panelists very much for your thoughts this morning We, I believe, are going to a coffee break now Thank you so much You will see another set of panelists after the coffee break, talking a little bit more about the policy applications to a variety of these types of topics So thank you so much Thank you So everybody is up here Thank you for that Jason Brown is going to take us through and moderate our next panel Jason, the floor is yours Thank you, Andrew I’m very happy to continue the conversation that we started this morning This session is intended to generate discussion on behavioral law and economics, a topic potentially relevant to many aspects of the Bureau’s work We were slated to have five accomplished experts to offer their perspectives on the subject Unfortunately, one of the Joshua Wrights on this panel had to excuse himself, because of a family emergency So, nonetheless, the remaining four, I’m sure, will provide a wonderfully diverse set of perspectives We have Jan Pappalardo, who is the Assistant Director of the Division of Consumer Protection at the Federal Trade Commission’s Bureau of Economics We also have Josh Wright, who is the Executive Director of ideas42; Greg Elliehausen, who is a Principal Economist at the Federal Reserve Board of Governors; and finally, up for another round, Brigitte Madrian, Dean and Marriott Distinguished Professor, Brigham Young University Marriott School of Business Thank you all for joining us Without further ado, let’s hear from our panelists Jan, would you like to start? First of all, it’s a wonderful pleasure to be here today with such distinguished panelists I learned a lot this morning I’m sure I’m going to learn a lot more as the morning progresses Today I want to reflect on how behavioral economics and its role in consumer protection policy has evolved during my three decades at the Federal Trade Commission

I came straight out of graduate school I think John talked about his background being a little bit unusual I think mine may be a little bit unusual too I went to Cornell University, got a PhD, with my major field being consumer economics, which is a field that’s not widely studied, with minor fields in statistics and industrial organization, which I thought was a great background for coming to the FTC At the outset I’d like to be clear on two points First of all, I am speaking for myself and not for anybody else at the Federal Trade Commission And secondly, I am not a behavioral economist Now have I seen our work on mortgage disclosures has been cited in the literature as an example of behavioral economics, but I know at least one friend who is a bona fide behavioral economist who would disagree with that assessment There’s a lot of ground to cover in only a few minutes, but in the time I will try to address four big-picture questions from my perspective, as somebody working in the trenches of consumer protection for my whole career First, what is behavioral economics and how does it differ from other fields of economics or marketing? Second, why is there debate over the role of economics in consumer protection policy? Third, how has behavioral economics evolved and contributed to consumer protection policy over the past few decades? And finally, how can behavioral economics improve consumer protection policy in the future? If I don’t get to the end, to the punchline, I always tell my guys in my group that I would like to see the bottom line on the first page, so here’s the bottom line on the first page Overall, I conclude that behavioral economics has evolved substantially over the past few decades; debate over the role of behavioral economics and public policy is real but narrowing, as scholars clarify and discuss the terms of the debate; and behavioral economists develop welfare analysis to assess consumer policy interventions What matters for improving consumer protection regulatory policy is not the field with which the research is identified, but the quality of the research and the extent to which the research gets us good estimates to answer two questions One, what are the likely costs and benefits of a business practice, and two, what are the costs and benefits of possible remedies? Moreover, policymakers and analysts need to clarify the objective of a consumer policy to assess the costs and benefits of any intervention Is the goal to improve consumer welfare or total welfare? Is to remove deception without privileging a particular consumer choice or change consumer behavior in a particular direction, or is it promote efficiency or equity? The policy best suited for one policy objective may not be best for another policy objective, and I think this is something that we have to be really clear about In the academic literature, there is discussion of various goals of behavioral interventions, but there is this question of how do these goals in the academic literature marry up with the mandates of regulatory agencies There has been discussion earlier about what is behavioral economics, and I think before you can discuss the role of behavioral economics you have to have a definition Camerer, Loewenstein, and Rabin define behavioral economics as “a subfield of economics that seeks to increase the explanatory power of traditional models by incorporating more realistic psychological foundations.” Now there is some debate about this definition A critic of some behavioral economics findings and recommendations is David Levine, and he writes, “Behavioral economics is hard to define, because it’s a terribly trendy term, some research that antedates the invention of the word, and has little to do with psychological theory or data, such as learning theory, is sometimes referred to as behavioral Sometimes it seems as if anything these days, besides a purist irrational model, sells itself as behavioral.” One might say, informally, that behavioral economics is concerned with systematic deviation from standard economic models The question is, which standard economic model? There are many different models of rational behavior Some incorporate more constraints than others So I was trained in a consumer economics department where the focus was on household decision-making, and in household decision-making models, the idea is the household seeks to maximize utility

They have some higher-level good that they want to achieve, maybe education, happiness, health, pleasure, be it what it is And then you have constraints that make it very difficult to reach the things that you would like to reach You might have time constraints—we all have 24 hours in the day You might have wealth constraints—very few of us can write an open check whenever we want to We also have household production constraints Some of us are more or less efficient with combining scarce time and wealth to produce these higher-level goods The bottom line of this is that constraints matter, and what a constrained consumer would do might be different from what an unconstrained consumer would do So it’s very important to think about what the counterfactual model of rational choice is, or the economic model that you’re using, to compare to various behavioral or other models I’ve wondered how much daylight there is when you look at some behavioral findings, when you look at very constrained maximization problems by consumers, because constraints matter, as I said, and time and information processing constraints matter So any time you make it easier for people to comprehend something or understanding something, you’re essentially loosening a constraint In addition to debate over the definition of behavioral economics among economists, I’ve often wondered what’s the difference between behavioral economics and marketing When I came to the FTC 30 years ago, there was already a long tradition of collaboration between economists and marketing researchers who either worked at the Federal Trade Commission, or maybe there was collaboration with people who were outside of the Commission, and we learned a lot from our marketing colleagues One thing that I would say, as a take-away, what I thought then is what I still think now, which is that economics is a powerful tool for framing up problems, and we think about consumer choice, we think about what things belong in a demand function, what motivates people to choose A versus B. When we estimate demand function, economics says price of that good belongs in there, the price of other goods belong in there, income belongs in there, information, taste and preference shifters And what I thought then, and I still continue to think now, is that people trained in psychology often have the comparative advantage, and giving us insight into how to measure these taste and preference shifters and information We also learned from our marketing research colleagues that these terms that are now popular mattered to them decades ago—things like framing, mattering, the whole field of advertising—but how do you frame up a product so that people want to buy the product? And there are many, many years of research that the marketing colleagues have done to try to understand these things better Regardless of the definition of behavioral economics, it’s important, it’s here to stay, and I would say that it would be useful for colleagues in all these areas to talk more with one another, to find out what we know from these different traditions and from the past One might wonder why consumer protection economists and policymakers have not universally accepted behavioral economics I can tell you a little story of my own When I was at the FTC, behavioral economics terms were new, and one thing that was put forth was that mortgage disclosures were an example of a great behavioral intervention, because, of course, a disclosure is going to be helpful to people And I can tell you from our own research at the FTC that we found that mortgage disclosures that were designed to be helpful to people could actually be confusing or downright misleading, suggesting that policymakers really need to be careful before they use an intervention, even when it seems to be simple, like a mortgage disclosure, because how you give the information to consumers, and whether you even have a metric that’s useful to impart information, like the APR, which can actually be misleading, is really important Time is running out Just a few final notes I think that as we go forward in discussion about the role of behavioral economics in public policy, it’s really important to think about how these terms—rational consumer, behavioral consumer—are going to be used in consumer protection policy Because much of consumer protection policy law is based on the concept of the reasonable

consumer, and do we need to rethink that or not? That’s a big question Thank you, Jan. Josh? Thank you Thanks for having me here I’m also a little bit odd to other people on the panel, or the previous panel, in that I’m not an economist I am trained as an MBA I spend lots of time talking to economists and psychologists, and my wife would say I have a problem reading too many papers about economics That’s not a problem I would agree So I’m really glad that the Bureau is having this conversation, and hopefully, from my perspective, this is not just one conversation but an ongoing effort by the Bureau to reach out and have conversations with experts in many fields To me, ultimately what we’re talking about today is just good public policy I’m not going to read my remarks that I wrote verbatim I’ll just touch on some highlights You know, behavioral economics, in the larger field of behavioral science—and that’s really what we think of at ideas42 We think of our work as using behavioral science to help solve social problems And that’s because it draws from behavioral economics, psychology I mean, traditional economics is also the study about how people are making decisions and how actors behave in the marketplace So, to me, it’s all behavioral science Behavioral economics, specifically, I think now undoubtedly has a rich set of evidence that it’s useful, and that evidence comes from both lab and field studies, as well as, to use Michael’s term, data, the use of data and analysis of real-world data It’s a powerful tool It’s just one tool It’s not a panacea Traditional economics, and the models that that brings to the table, is also a super powerful tool Psychology is a powerful tool Sociology is a powerful tool So, to me, it’s really about not being wedded to any one of these tools but saying what is the evidence that the tools produce, and how rigorous is that evidence? I think, to John’s point very much, you have to look at the preponderance of all the evidence and try and do meta-analysis And every one of us who wrote our opening statements cherry-picked We all had a point we wanted to make and so we cited three or four studies that happened to support that point We didn’t go and look at all of the evidence because that would be time-consuming, and it doesn’t make for a good study when we write something But the Bureau’s job, really, is about looking at the totality of the evidence and doing more meta-analysis And then I would say that all of these insights are very context specific The insights from psychology, from economics, the models, as was said in the first panel, are simply just a stylized or a way to think about the world, simplify the world, in many cases, to see if we can draw insight from it Choice overload was talked about in the first panel It’s very context specific And Michael brought up the issue of, well, you have pensions and you have decisions you make in a restaurant Why isn’t there a problem with decision-making when you go the restaurant? It’s the context The restaurant is a forced-choice model If you do forced-choice with pensions you get pretty close to Brigitte’s findings around defaults How many people have gone to a restaurant, had a reservation, looked at the menu, and said, “There are 40 choices Forget it I’m leaving.” You don’t do that You’re there There is a forced-choice structure where you’re going to order something Do you exactly order the perfect meal? Is your utility maximized? Who knows And as regulators we shouldn’t care about that But when it comes to pensions, if there is no forced choice situation created then people are going to do what people often do when they have a choice It’s not that they’re not making a choice They’re saying, “Eh, maybe I’ll make the choice later.” So that’s all to say that this context in which people are operating is very specific, and we have to be very cautious about generalizing any of what we’ve learned to any one context We have to look at the totality of the evidence, think about the specific products or practices we’re thinking about, and the context in which people are operating in that world And in think in behavioral science, and behavioral economics in particular, there is a lot of focus on the form that people look at, or the disclosure that happens That’s just part of the context That’s part of the thing that we should think about But context goes all the way up to poverty So scarcity and the idea of chronic scarcity—great work by two of our founders, Eldar Shafir and Sendhil Mullainathan—is a context It causes people to often be more present biased It causes people to tunnel on very short-term goals

Yes, they’re also very, very good at managing the day-to-day, most immediate needs associated with their finance Like if you go up to a lower-income person who has come out of a CVS and asked them how much the toothpaste costs, they know exactly If I ask you, you have no idea But it also means that they tunnel on solving this very immediate problem they have, and they may not factor in all the implications of taking on, for example, credit And this brings me to my last point I’m very much a fan that we should be thinking about cost benefit and consumer welfare In my document I say I think we should be a little bit more expansive about that There are lots of connections between financial health and physical health, so we might want to look at physical health There is a great new study around payday lending and suicide rates So we want to look at, I think, a broad expanse of those things But I also think that we don’t want to do that in a blanket way, just roll it up for all consumers I do think we have an obligation, as society and as regulators, to think about who are the most vulnerable among the Americans in our society You know, there’s a reason there’s an Office for Older Americans in the statute for the CFPB We have to think about older Americans We have to think about young Americans who are newly entering the financial market We have to think about Americans who might have disabilities that would make making financial decisions challenging And it also means we need to think about lower-income Americans or Americans that, because of their race or culture, might encounter systematic racism So we have to factor those things in as we do that analysis, and that’s going to make some people uncomfortable, because we’re going to say, “Well, some parties’ consumer benefit might not be as great because we’re going to do something to protect one set of consumers.” And that’s a tough decision Now I think if we do regulation very well and we look at the evidence, we can limit those situations So to go back to Michael’s situation, can we design a regulation so you prevent the harm to the 15 percent but still the 85 percent get the benefit? So I’ll just close on that and I look forward to the discussion Thank you, Josh Greg? Psychology has influenced economics beyond what we normally think of today as behavioral economics Around the mid 20th century, behavioral research was developing information processing models of decision-making The work of Herbert Simon contributed significantly to this effect Simon proposed that “cognitive and time limitations prevent individuals from obtaining full information and evaluating all possible alternatives to achieve optimal outcomes.” Instead, he argued, “Individuals simplify using heuristics, shortcuts that make decision processes easier Heuristics enable them to limit the decision process, ending the process as soon as a satisfactory alternative is achieved Decisions processes are rational if they lead consumers to achieve desired goals.” He called this process satisfying in the concept, bounded rationality Bonded rationality has stimulated research in several areas In one area, researchers use surveys to question consumers about the extent of their decisions processes when making economic choices Much of the survey research involved purchases of durables and the financing of durables by consumers The findings indicate the consumers simplify and take shortcuts in the decision process but tend to be purposive and deliberate when required Work by George Katona and his colleagues at the Survey Research Center at the University of Michigan are major contributors in this area Also notable is Day and Brandt’s study of consumer decision processes for the National Commission on Consumer Finance And I might add that when the board of governors had to deal with consumer protection rule-writing, we relied on surveys, often by the University of Michigan Survey Research Center, to inform our decision-making Another area, called the heuristics and biases program, which we talked about quite a bit this morning, is concerned with biases in behavior arising from the use of heuristics Researchers relied primarily on experiments to detect deviations from rationality, as defined by statistics or logical rules Frequent deviations are attributed to faulty application of heuristics to solve problems

Individuals are capable of overriding heuristic biases, but the heuristics and biases literature argues that due to limits in cognitive ability and motivation, consumers often fail to do so Much of the recent work in behavioral economics is heavily influenced by this research program A third area is also concerned with heuristics It views heuristics as specialized tools guiding decisions in specific environments This program is called the fast-and-frugal heuristics program Such heuristics allow fast decisions with limited information in uncertain environments I note that they emphasize uncertain environments rather than risky environments, which much of the heuristics and biases literature deals with The program argues that in the right environment heuristics provide for accurate decision-making It does not involve a trade-off between accuracy and cognitive effort Gerd Gigerenzer at the Max Planck Institute in Berlin is a frequent contributor to this area We talked earlier this morning about the 1/N portfolio allocation rule There have been studies that suggest that the rule performs about as well as mean variance portfolios It is interesting to note that Harry Markowitz, the developer of portfolio theory, admitted to using a 1/N rule for allocating his retirement savings As mentioned, behavioral research indicates consumers do not always make cognitive efforts required for an extensive decision process Individuals often take shortcuts, simplify, and use heuristics Cognitive effort tends to be reserved for situations where commitments in money and duration are great Past experience and information are insufficient or obsolete, and outcomes of previous decisions are regarded as unsatisfactory In situations where consumers have previous experience and were satisfied with past decisions, they often make choices with little further deliberation That cognitive biases in time-inconsistent discounting exists is well established in the behavioral literature Some research suggests these psychological considerations influence consumers’ credit behavior, however, the extent to which cognitive biases and time-inconsistent behavior affect actual credit decisions is unclear, and I’ll talk about that in a few minutes Experimental evidence supporting cognitive biases in time-inconsistent discounting is sensitive to format, context, and content of the problems presented to study participants When problems are framed differently, the results sometimes contradict previous findings Individuals may be predisposed to impulsive behavior but they also have capacity to exert self-control and implement forward-looking plans An individual facing an impulse might yield to the impulse if it does not perturb the plan too much To be effective, self-control requires that internal inhibitions become stronger as awareness of the cost of impulsive behavior increases Empirical evidence indicates that consumers generally use credit to finance purchases of relatively expensive durable goods, not to smooth consumption In doing so, behavioral concepts such as free commitment and mental accounts may be used to manage behavior Such concepts may not be optimal in the sense of global utility maximization but they may be sensible when future prospects, preferences, and resources are uncertain Katona described the concept of rationality emerging from behavioral studies as follows: “If careful deliberation were to find as comprising all the features of decision-making, the conclusion would emerge that almost all people proceed in a careless way in purchasing large household goods This conclusion is not justified Deliberation may be strongly focused on one aspect of the purchase to the exclusion of other assets Therefore, it may be considered careful deliberation if some, but by no means all of the features of problem-solving and thinking are present.” In reaching this conclusion, Katona focuses on the process rather than the outcome of assessing rationality For Katona, rational behavior involved choosing appropriate means for achieving improvements in one’s well-being Katona argued that the predominant alternative to rational behavior is habitual behavior,

not irrational behavior Habitual behavior occurs when consumers are satisfied with previous decisions and do not experience any stimulus for change Consumers’ use of credit cards is frequently seen as vulnerable to biases and impulsive behavior However, analysis of actual credit card behavior indicates that consumers are sensitive to price consistent with the predictions of economic theory When credit card companies increase interest rates on an account, consumers reduce new charges, reduce existing balances, and shift charges to credit card accounts that have lower interest rates Over the course of the year, they reduce total credit card balances from the level before the price increase Also, based on subsequent account use, evidence suggests consumers generally make cost-minimizing choices in trading off interest rates and annual fees when choosing new credit cards When they make mistakes, the mistakes are usually relatively small If mistakes are large, consumers generally correct the mistakes Although some consumers do not correct large mistakes, persistent large mistakes are not the rule, and also, it is the case that frequently people chose an account with an annual fee because it limited their maximum loss So that’s not an optimal decision, limiting maximum loss, but it seems perfectly reasonable Limited theoretical evidence indicates that a satisfying heuristic produces long-run optimal outcomes in some circumstances Empirical evidence from Experimental Economics supports this theoretical conclusion The studies consistently indicate that individual decisions based on limited information in experimental markets produce prices and allocations that converge quickly to the neighborhood of optimum equilibrium values The results occur even though participants do not engage in extensive weighing of alternatives The behavior of participants using various heuristics with limited information produces efficient market outcomes Experimental studies have also found that market environments reduce the incidence of preference reversals for risky prospects and losses from failure to recognize some costs and opportunity costs Vernon Smith argued that “the findings of these studies suggest that markets reinforce or even induce individual rationality.” Smith speculated that market prices provide the stimuli that cause individuals to take actions to better their solutions These actions move prices and allocations to competitive equilibrium Focusing on whether or not individual decisions are optimal misses the point To conclude, I would say that at this time neither existing behavioral evidence nor standard economic evidence supports the general conclusion that consumers’ financial decisions are not rational or that markets do not work reasonably well In examining decision processes, behavioral research complements the findings of standard economics and provides useful guidance for regulatory policy Thank you, Greg And Brigitte, we will give you a pass on making an opening statement It was very appreciated you signed up for two sessions I’d also like to echo Melissa’s statement earlier today, that the statements that panelists submitted are really excellent and they are very insightful, so I would encourage everyone to take a look at them And I would also like to reiterate Melissa’s earlier point, the disclaimer that I will be posing questions to the panelists that the Bureau developed in collaboration with them, and as a friendly reminder, the views of our panelists today are their views, and they are greatly appreciated and welcome Yet the questions and the panelist statements do not necessarily represent the views of the Bureau So let’s get started Generally speaking, behavioral economics focuses primarily on exploring the existence of biases, in contrast with behavioral law and economics, which is prescriptive in nature and aims to improve consumer outcomes and make consumers better off when mitigating or ameliorating these biases So the first question is, since many BLE prescriptions doubt the usefulness of revealed preference, how can we know if consumers are better off? And I will ask Jan to start that I think that’s a really tough question The whole field of consumer protection economics is really underdeveloped, and really understanding

even what the right question is to ask about whether or not consumers are injured by a particular practice is something that is not well defined So you can say, okay, consumers are injured Is it by opportunity cost? Is it by expectations? How do you define when consumers are harmed by a particular business practice? So I think that even at a theoretical level there is a lot of work that needs to be done to try to understand the terms of the debate better than we do now The whole field of consumer protection economics does not even have a handbook, like a handbook of consumer protection economics We don’t have guidelines for how should we even frame up the problems of how to think about consumer injury So I would say that it’s a field that needs a lot more work Greg, would you like to— I think it’s very difficult to assess situations So, for example, suppose a consumer has a car repair and he pays for it, and later in the month he can’t make his rent payment Is the cause of the problem the auto repair or is it rent? So suppose, then, he doesn’t pay off a credit card bill or has to take out a payday loan or incur a credit card balance that he hadn’t planned on Is that optimism bias or is it just uncertainty? And, furthermore, in the future, some other problem may occur An appliance may break down and so he finds himself having to continue to pay a balance or renew a payday loan It’s awfully difficult to say whether someone is better off or not Others? This isn’t an issue unique to consumer financial protection issues I think we could make the same arguments in a whole variety of domains that haven’t been a deterrent to policymaking I think we could ask the same questions in the health domain If we require children to be vaccinated, are we making them better off or worse off? And there is definitely a segment of parents out there who think that vaccination is not a good thing for their children, and there is a whole other segment of the population who thinks that most of the recommended childhood vaccines are probably a good thing, and there is no shortage of medical interventions for which we think we have pretty good evidence that there’s benefit But there’s also no shortage of examples of things that, 20 years ago, we thought were pretty good prescriptive advice and have been overturned by subsequent research, so that we now think something else is the better course of action, and 20 or 30 years from now we might discover that our current state of knowledge is also not the best course of action And I think this kind of relates back to some of the discussion in the previous panel How do you use the evidence? You know, we try to do the best that we can, and you give more weight to evidence that’s been replicated and corroborated and holds up across different domains, holds up over time, holds up across different populations and different contexts But sometimes you’re in the difficult position of having to make policy on the basis of inadequate and incomplete information But just because information is inadequate and incomplete doesn’t mean that not doing something is the right course of action Not doing something is, in fact, doing something It’s just a different manner of doing So there really is no neutral and no default when it comes to policymaking Whatever you do or don’t do will have an impact on outcomes, and, unfortunately, policymakers are in a difficult position of having to decide what is the outcome they are going to support, and their actions will either support one outcome or another I’d like to echo that Back in the old days when we were taught public policy there was a definition I think it was Thomas Dye, and I’m going to paraphrase it It’s something like public policy is everything that government chooses to do and what it chooses not to do

And I think that’s always important to keep in mind when we’re weighing the options that we have for public policy Status quo may sometimes be the best option Maybe it’s not I’d also like to go back to the notion of how to figure out whether or not consumers are harmed In the concept of deception, there is a framework that we have in mind that at least I use, and many of my colleagues They ask the question, number one, is there evidence that consumers were misled? So that often requires getting copies of test evidence to understand how consumers interpreted a marketing claim Then the second question is, if you compare what people did when they were misled versus when they had non-deceptive information, would they change by buying more of the product or pay a higher price for it? So the framework of basic Economics 101 or 300, it’s very helpful in at least framing up and setting up the problem I would make two points One, I would return to the comment I made earlier that I think this is very hard to do, to gauge the harm and the benefit But even when we’re doing it with maybe suboptimal tools we have, we have to think about the subgroups within the population in the U.S., and who is impacted in what way And then the second thing I would say is, there are opportunities for us to think about this not just in consumer harm devoid of some other option Greg made the point about, well, if someone takes a payday loan to repair their car, you don’t really know if they didn’t take the payday loan, did they lose their job because they couldn’t get to work? But you can figure out a way to facilitate credit, so that benefit happens, and then the question is how do you have the product structured in a way to reduce the chance of the harm on the other side, which we presume would be them defaulting or damaging their credit score, something like that And there are ways to think about how you structure that product so people are more likely to be able to repay Now some of that might have to do with the economic benefit that the business gets or doesn’t get, but I think we can look at situations where the business still gets a profit The measure is like how large is that profit, you know, this tradeoff, between the consumer benefit versus the business benefit So you can get a product that’s better off for the consumer, and it might not necessarily be truly better off for the business, and that’s the rules of the road And sometimes there are win-wins Like you can criticize the CARD Act, but there is a fair bit of evidence that shows that the CARD Act caused people to, in totality, pay less for credit, and that there’s more transparency up front about what is the ultimate rate they’re going to pay And it doesn’t seem to have massively restrained credit either So there can be win-wins, and I think it’s finding those win-wins and then doing the analysis to make sure that it’s playing out properly You’re going to use the evidence, make a decision, and then the market is going to react, and there’s going to be unintended consequences And then I think the Bureau often does this very well They have to go back and see, years later, how has the regulation played out, and then adjust from it I think also you have to remember that consumers are heterogeneous, and in one situation where the consumer really does need a short-term loan, a payday loan is cheaper than an installment loan In other situations where the consumer needs more money or needs to finance it over a longer period of time, then an installment loan makes more sense than a payday loan Simply saying that payday loans are bad because the APR is higher really doesn’t address the issue Great Thanks Okay, so the next question is, many BLE interventions are consistent with the nudge approach, which attempts to shift consumers towards a particular welfare enhancing outcome Nudges are often implemented through changes to the decision environment through choice architecture, which Brigitte talked a little bit about earlier Are there any findings from the choice architecture literature that might help policymakers better understand consumers’ financial decisions in the context in which many of these decisions are made? Jan, we’ll start with you We know from the literature that things that change people’s perceptions or change costs matter So if you decrease the cost of decision-making you’re going to probably get a different decision We talked about the defaults before We know that defaults matter Changing out of default takes times It takes effort

You have to think about it So I think that there is a whole range of policy tools that one can use, and the question is trying to marry the right tool to the right objective And I think the real question is, what is the objective? I think much of the discussion thus far has been about changing behavior, and then the question is how do you know which direction you want to change behavior in? I don’t think that’s always the objective of a regulatory agency You know, it might be to improve the information environment to make sure that it’s non-deceptive Where I have worked, at the Federal Trade Commission, when we are looking at deception issues, the notion that you want to change behavior in a particular way is really quite different Now if you want to change behavior, ban a product There’s this long list of information remedies There is an information remedies task force convened at the Federal Trade Commission They issued a report I think back in 1979, and the idea was to rank different remedies that you could use for different problems in the marketplace dealing with market failure problems, with a focus on the market failure of having asymmetric information available to consumers And the rank ordering would go from status quo to provide metrics to make labeling comparisons easier for firms to convey to consumers, have like a standard metric You could have mandatory labels Later on you might want to add to that, you can educate consumers, the notion that educating consumers requires more of a value judgment than trying to get people just the information And they can go to banning claims about particular product characteristics or banning product characteristics themselves So if the real objective is to change behavior, you can change behavior by banning the product But if the idea is you want to preserve choice, then you might want to do something like provide people more information or more education You have to be really clear on what the goal is and what the tradeoffs are Can I jump in with a couple of thoughts? First of all, I’m going to start off with something that might be a little bit controversial, or might get me in hot water down the road I have a tremendous amount of respect for Dick Thaler and Cass Sunstein, who have both been colleagues of mine over the years, for many years, and they are both, I would say, good professional friends But I find the term “nudge” to be largely unhelpful when it comes to thinking about public policy decisions And it goes back to the very first thing I said in my opening statement before the first panel, which is that the goal of all public policy is to change behavior So it’s not that we have public policy tools that are not changing behavior and then we have nudges, which are designed to change behavior All public policy, whether it’s behaviorally informed or not, has the goal of trying to change behavior And I think what we have to do is what Jan was just saying, which is you have to take a stand on what outcome you want And a lot of times I think what it boils down to is how much heterogeneity do you think there is in terms of what the best outcome is for the population Jan mentioned if you don’t want something to happen you can ban it, or if you want it to happen you can mandate it When are those appropriate public policy tools? Well, a mandate is probably appropriate if it’s bad outcome for everyone Did I say mandate? If it’s a good outcome for everyone then you want to mandate it I think I got things backwards, right? Yeah, I think you did If it’s a good outcome for everyone, then you mandate it You just say this is a good outcome for everyone, and if everyone knows it’s a good outcome no one is going to think the mandate is controversial If it’s a bad outcome for everyone, then you prohibit it And then there are these other things where you’ve got a range in the middle, where, yeah, the payday loan might be good for some people but it’s bad for others And then you’re in the difficult position of having to figure out how do you design policy so that you make the outcome an option for the people for whom it’s appropriate and you discourage its use for the people for whom it’s not a particularly good outcome And there are a range of tools that might help you in doing a better job of achieving that type of heterogeneous outcomes, and some of those tools might be what we would call

behaviorally informed, and some of those tools might not So price tools tend to be a pretty blunt instrument, and we know that disclosure works better for some individuals than others In general, I would say many disclosures don’t work well for anyone but the people for whom a traditional disclosure works well it would be people who are highly motivated to read a large amount of small print, and that’s probably a narrow subset of the population So then the question is, how do you design a set of tools that get you to the outcome that you want? When I talk about savings, which is where my expertise is, what types of tools would you use to generate policy outcomes, I tell my students to think about it as a continuum On the one hand you have, we mandate that everyone has to save You could think of the Social Security system as that type of a mandate On the other end, we prohibit We don’t really do that in the savings domain but we could if we thought it was bad And then there are different tools that are going to get you along this continuum Automatic enrollment gets you pretty close to the outcome that you get if you were to mandate that everyone has to do it Providing a financial incentive gets you pretty close to the outcome where you just build it and they will come, and then there are other tools that kind of get you in the middle Active choosing gets you not quite to an automatic enrollment but it gets you pretty close Simplifying the process by reducing options, creating simple forms, gets you kind of somewhere in the middle So I think you have to think about what the outcome you think is right, what’s the outcome you want—that may or may not be the outcome that you think is right; I’m not saying that should be the case but sometimes people make compromises—and then what’s the best tool to get you there? And any tool that does that is a behaviorally informed tool, whether it’s what would be categorized as a nudge or whether it’s a traditional tool like regulation or fines and subsidies or something like that Can I just comment? But I think it is also the case you may not always want to change behavior, right? So it depends on whether or not you think that you know better than the consumer about what they ought to do, and that might be more obvious in some cases than in others Because going back to public policy sometimes, the right decision is not intervening Right, but I think you have to recognize that if you’re deciding that the right outcome is the status quo, there is some set of policies that somebody else put in place that got you to the status quo Let me just give a concrete and specific example Some people would say, “Well, if I’m changing the default option, that’s using a nudge That’s a nudge to change behavior.” And I would push back, and I would say, “Well, somebody already made the choice for what the existing default is So the current policy that you have is a nudge towards a particular outcome, and the new policy that you have is a nudge towards a different outcome.” So it’s not the case that the status quo is devoid of any nudging to get us where we are The status quo is very much the result of a system in which policy decisions were made that moved outcomes to a direction which is the status quo And then we can quibble about do we think that’s the right outcome or not, but it’s not that you didn’t use behaviorally informed policy to get there You might not have realized you were using it, but the policies that got you there were impacting an outcome that we can then have a discussion about I anticipated the next question and I want to bring in Josh and Greg, if they’d like to chime in Are nudges, as a matter of policy, an appropriate tool for the Bureau to use? What should policymakers consider before implementing a policy decision with a nudge component? And do nudges require determination of the value of a particular ends-oriented goal and a comparison of what would happen in the alternative? I think, to just build on what Brigitte says, it depends for two reasons One, to Brigitte’s point about what’s your objective of the policy, but it also depends on what the context of the product and market that you’re talking about I also don’t love the term “nudge” because I think it boxes behavioral science and behavioral

economics into some small set of things that are about notices and forms and framing So, to me, it depends, and then, yes, as much as possible you should be looking at the totality of the evidence Here I think there is some judgment involved Sometimes you’ll say, oh, we think the evidence is pretty strong that would point us in this direction Other times you might say, well, the evidence isn’t there, and the CFPB has a research department, and part of their job is to develop questions that need to be answered, and the best possible answer to those questions, within the regulation or the nudges, can be more informed by that Yeah, that depends, and to me it’s about a process you pursue, and it’s a process that’s imperfect in terms of information, and there will be judgment involved All right Thank you We’ve had a lot of references to how BLE has been used in policymaking, and I want to kind of do a sort of deep drill down into some concrete examples If we take an example or two of one of these BLE interventions and start from like what was the evidence that was used to justify it? How was it implemented and what did we learn from that intervention? Josh, I will go back to you and see if you can give us some examples Sure I mean, Brigitte’s work in retirement savings I think is probably the most well-known example The research started 20 years ago You know, people talk about randomized controlled tests all the time That original research is in a randomized controlled test, right? It’s a before and after, and it’s turned on and off in a number of different companies But the effect size is so large that it’s pretty hard to argue against the fact And then we had to figure out, okay, how do we actually get that implemented, and the Pension Protection Act was—I can’t remember if it was the first iteration or being redone And then they thought about, well, how do we get companies to do this? They didn’t require them to do it, right? They created a set of incentives, again, some behavioral informed policy about safe harbors and what you got running a pension plan, if you implemented things like defaults and even then percentages of automatic contributions So I think that’s one example I think another example is in the financial aid space So there is a fair bit of research by academics that the difficulty and the hassle and the problem of filing out the financial aid form cause people who, in any kind of traditional economic analysis, would say there’s tens of thousands of dollars on the table in terms of aid, grants, and loans, as well as a much higher income if you complete college People aren’t filling out this form that could take 4 hours They actually prepopulated the form, and then not only did people fill out the form at a much higher rate, they actually matriculated to college at a much higher rate I think it’s 40 percentage points and 20 percentage points So that’s a second example I think a third example, I would argue even you could take the CARD Act, to me, as an example of behavioral informed policy There was concern—and I think here there’s a situation where the evidence was not as rigorous—there was a concern that some of these what we call back-end fees, like the idea that you could get a credit card, and then on that balance they could change the rate on you later on, not on new balances but on the existing balance It suggests everything in behavioral science to all the things that Brigitte said before about complex decisions, uncertainty, things that are in the future We’re going to have trouble with that decision So what did the CARD Act do? It disallowed that one particular practice, not all back-end fees, and then you see the result, and it’s a positive impact So I think, in each of these cases there is some set of research that’s happened already, and some of it can be very concrete They’ve tested the exact thing, like in the retirement case or the FAFSA case In other cases you’re trying to make a leap, and you should be careful when you make those leaps People, I think, have been reasonable to argue that maybe there should have been more research done on the CARD Act before they made that leap, to see if you could test that out It’s a little bit harder to test exactly So those are just some examples I have other ones but I don’t want to take up too much time I could talk all day about the examples

Can I add a little bit more color to the savings research that Josh described, just because I’ve been in the center of it, and I think it’s a really interesting story When I wrote the first paper on the impact of automatic enrollment in 401(k) savings plans, which was about 20 years ago, the initial reaction, at the University of Chicago, which interestingly is both the bastion of the traditional economic models but also Dick Thaler is there, it’s also kind of the ground zero for behavioral economics It was an interesting place to be doing that research I had a number of colleagues who were extremely skeptical that this finding would hold up They were convinced there was some other explanation that I wasn’t looking at that was generating this dramatic result And the policymaking in response to that research started out with a set of rulemakings in the U.S., in the Treasury Department So it was kind of undercover, stealth regulation And as that was being done, more evidence started accumulating that, you know what, these findings are actually pretty robust, and they were replicating at other companies And that then led to the Pension Protection Act of 2006, which, as Josh described, encouraged employers to use automatic enrollment but didn’t require it And the UK, a few years later, went one step further, and they decided, as part of a national pension reform, that they were going to require employers to use automatic enrollment, and that has been rolled out between 2012 and 2017, and they’ve seen nationally something like a 30 percentage point increase in the fraction of people who are saving for retirement And then in the U.S., this is now playing out at the state level, with a number of states now adopting UK-style legislation, requiring employers to use automatic enrollment An interesting difference between the UK and the state initiatives in the U.S., at least, is that in the UK they started out with a very low default contribution rate of 1 percent, because they were afraid that consumers would opt out, and then they are increasing that contribution rate over time, and that’s going to give us a piece of case-based evidence in the UK The three states in the U.S. that currently have something similar operating, which would be California, Illinois, and Oregon—and these are all pretty recent, meaning we barely have 2 years of data, in some cases, and others much less—have opted to go with a much higher default contribution rate of 5 percent So they’re getting more money into the plans quickly, but they are having a higher opt-out rate than in the UK So it’s an interesting space because we’ve seen different approaches to using the evidence and policymaking, in terms of the political jurisdiction, in terms of making it mandatory versus not, and in terms of the risks that policymakers are willing to take in implementing it I think another interesting piece of using behavioral research to think about policymaking in the savings domain has been on the asset allocation side So another piece of the Pension Protection Act was legislation that required regulators to come up with a set of rules around what would be a good default investment option And that was in response to a number of papers in Behavioral Finance suggesting that individuals really, the vast majority, don’t do a very good job in thinking about investment allocation They don’t even understand the options, let alone how those options would map into the outcomes that they want And so the regulations were put in place to set up a default option, or encourage employers to have a default option that was well diversified And what we’ve seen in the U.S. since that time is that almost all plans have adopted a default that’s consistent with these qualified default investment alternative rules And now the vast majority of money is flowing into these default funds, that is to say participants, even when they have a choice, stick with the default So one response by firms has been we adopt a default consistent with the regulations

Another response by firms, not necessarily to the QDIA rules but just to behavioral research in general, has been a dramatic shrinkage in the number of investment options on the fund menus in the U.S So when I started as a professor at Harvard in 2006, amongst the investment alternatives in the plans that Harvard sponsored there were about 350 different options to choose from And a few years ago Harvard dramatically pared back the number of options, and that’s been happening all over the country, on the basis of behavioral research If you look, in contrast, to what’s been going on in Sweden, Sweden, as part of their Social Security system, has a private account component, so 2 percent of everyone’s pay goes into this private account It’s a mandate; you can’t get out of it And the Swedish government has taken the view that as long as you satisfy some fairly minimal regulatory constraints you can be an option on the fund menu And they now have more than 1,000 options on the menu When they first started they had about 400 or 500, and initially about 80 percent of participants were at the default option and about 20 percent were making their own choice And as the number of options has proliferated, they are now down to about 1 percent of people making a choice out of these 1,000 different investment options And facing this difficult conversation around, well, does it make sense to have this whole regulatory infrastructure around making sure that the investment alternatives are good, when hardly anyone is actually choosing any of them—does this even make any sense? I’ve kind of tipped my hand on how I think about it Yeah, we can argue it’s nice to have consumer choice, but if 99 percent of people are choosing the same thing, you might think differently about the value of choice than if people are actually exercising those options I actually think there are a lot of fascinating things that we learn, both about the nature of human decision-making and about the process by which research gets turned into public policy, and about the cycle between research and public policy, and the research gets used to make policy, the policy changes, then inform a next generation of research, and then the next generation of research feeds into the next generation of public policy I would add, also, that the Bureau can take a role in saying like these are the questions that would be helpful to have answered They don’t even, I think, need to put money on the table to do the research, but there’s a set of researchers who are particularly interested in doing things that matter in the real world, and so I think being more explicit about the questions that you’re struggling with, as a Bureau, and getting researchers to work on those could be a powerful interplay Okay Well, speaking of the Bureau, disclosures are an important tool for us However, in many cases, mandated disclosures are often, by necessity, a one-size-fits-all approach to information provision And as has been discussed several times this morning, consumers may want and will make use of different pieces of information when trying to make the decision they think is right for their personal situation Consumers are heterogeneous So, Jan, what are some examples of disclosures, and what has the experience with them been? I have personal experience with two sets of disclosures One is mortgage disclosures and one is energy labels So, mortgage disclosures As a staff economist at the FTC, I was noticing, as well as my colleague, that consumers could get every document required under the law and still not understand the terms of their loans So in the back of my head I had this question, when I looked at the forms myself, saying, gee, are these forms really helpful to people? Do people really understand the terms in these forms? So we did a research project, a randomized controlled study Actually, we did two studies at the FTC The first study was in response to proposed changes by HUD, and they wanted to change their disclosures to how people focus on yield spread premiums This is a mortgage broken compensation disclosure And as staff economist I was assigned to look at this regulation and say, well, what do you think about that and what are the costs and benefits?

And I looked at the disclosure and I said, “Can you tell me again what the form looks like if I get the mortgage from a banker versus I get the mortgage from a mortgage broker?” And the forms would have been different So we posed the question, in a comment to HUD, that we were not sure that these forms were going to be helpful to people, because it might bias their understanding of which loan costs more or less, and it might lead them to worse loan choices So we went back to our management and said, gee, you know, we’d like to test this And borrowing the techniques that we learned from our marketing research colleagues—you know, randomized controlled testing of information—we were incredibly surprised to find how much the proposed disclosures misled people about the relative costs of loans from one source versus another So that was one study Then we had these back-of-our-mind questions about these mandated disclosures that were in the marketplace, the good faith estimate and the HUD one, and so we asked our management if we could do research on that, and we got some funding to do, once again, some research This is a two-part research study The first part was doing qualitative research, and we found consumers who had recently bought houses and had mortgages We identified, for our contractor, people who had loans that were in the sub-prime category and in the prime category, and the contractor was able to identify consumers to participate in the qualitative research And they were asked to bring their disclosure documents with them to the research meeting And then they were asked a series of questions about their experiences in procuring their homes, in procuring their mortgages What was really interesting was that people tended to think that they understood the terms of their mortgages They felt generally pretty confident, until we started asking—well, it wasn’t us It was actually our contractors who asked questions And the more people were asked questions, the more uncomfortable they became about whether or not they really knew what the deal was And even in this small qualitative research we could see that people were actually misled by required terms on the documents Is a discount fee a discount or a fee? So we did randomized controlled testing and we did a study where we looked at what we thought were good examples of mandated disclosures in the marketplace And we compared those to prototype disclosures that were developed by two economists, myself and my colleague, Jim Lacko, asking the question, what would you want in the form if you were telling your best friend or your mother how to shop for a mortgage? And I’m sure the forms could have been better if we had professional help in developing them, but nevertheless we tested our form, the prototype, against what was in the marketplace, and what did we find? Our form did much, much better, and it was because there was no testing that went into the development of these forms that the Federal Government had mandated for many, many years So it gets to this point that disclosures themselves, although you think that they could be benign, they’re not necessarily benign And it’s really important to do consumer research to make sure the consumers at least comprehend the disclosures correctly Now comprehension might change behavior, it might not change behavior, but the question, I think, for policymakers is actually an ethical one If you’re going to put out a disclosure, do you have a responsibility to make sure that you’re not going to be misleading people? So I put that out there as a question Now we also did research on appliance and energy labels That was sort of a fun project Congress had suggested that the FTC move from a continuous label, where kilowatt hours was featured, on those yellow labels—you know, those yellow and black labels that you see on the refrigerator? And the question was whether or not we should move from a continuous variable, like kilowatt hours, to a categorical label, something like a star label And an energy group had tested various categorical labels, so we decided to use their version as the one label to test for categorial We tested that against kilowatt hours being featured And then we said, while we’re at it, consumers understand dollars, so maybe we should test dollars as a featured metric as well Long story short, controlled quantitative testing, people did pretty well rank ordering which appliance cost more or less, no matter which form you used, but here’s the thing People were confused and potentially misled by stars, because when people saw a star it

seemed that they thought that it pertained more to a statement about the energy characteristic of the product and could say something about how reliable the product was So I think in all these efforts to try to simplify things for people, it’s really important to think, you know, are we sure that we’re bringing them closer to the truth when we’re trying to do our interventions One of the things that caused a great deal of difficulty and debate when the board was doing rulemaking in truth in lending was dealing with disclosures that required some assumption about future events For example, the mortgage disclosure, you basically assumed that the person stays in the house for 30 years, doesn’t refinance, and that’s not the case for, by far, most mortgages So the board sought a way to inform consumers about tradeoffs between fees and interest rates, and they worked with a market research firm, they conducted focus groups, and tried various disclosures involving APRs, to get people to understand what’s involved And most people did miserably One consumer, who answered virtually every other question about the mortgage disclosure, understood everything, but when he got to this question he also didn’t have a clue So we have to think about how we can make a disclosure that is meaningful to a consumer Now we were predisposed towards APR APR is an internal rate of return If you read every finance book it will tell you that you need to use an internal rate of return or net present value There is also a way to evaluate things called a payback period Every finance book tells you you shouldn’t use that, and we didn’t consider it But that’s a simple heuristic People can understand how long it takes to pay back with your savings and your monthly payments, an initial fee Did we do it? No Another example is we require a number of months to repay credit cards That assumes that there is no increase in the balances and that people make a minimum payment each period The board conducted surveys of consumers, asking them about their payment behavior on credit cards Virtually nobody did that We also obtained data from credit card companies We looked at the actual transactions Nobody did it So the question is, is that useful, and what’s more concerning is whether that might mislead people, because that’s not what they do So I think we need to understand consumers’ decision processes, their understanding of information available in the market, just what Jan said, and do considerable testing, and we have to be willing to consider rules that make sense to consumers, are not likely to mislead them, and enable them to, in many cases, substitute what they expect their circumstances will be and calculate values that are more meaningful to them Josh, I was going to ask you, are there new approaches to disclosure or information provision that can allow for the tailoring of disclosures to consumer heterogeneity? I had two comments on this

One is first around this idea of sophisticants versus non-sophisticants David Laibson and Antoinette Schoar—and I cite one of Antoinette’s papers in my comments—have started to look at this issue related to disclosure and credit cards and this idea of price shrouding So there is some sense that—and I think this is an area that needs more research before anyone would make a regulation around it—there is heterogeneity but are there big segments that you could actually think about acting the same, related to disclosure? And then, again, how do you care about those segments reacting? There is some research to show that unsophisticants, which is often measured by education level, have derived much less benefit from disclosure The second one is this idea of smart disclosure, which is not something I came up with but is out there in the policy world, that I still think needs more development But it’s this idea that humans make a bunch of decisions, they buy products, they interact with their credit card, their cell phone, basing anything that they’re buying And there’s data now, in most cases, around that, that consumers should be allowed to have access to that data in machine-readable format, and be able to give decision-making algorithms and companies access to that data and then the companies can help them actually make the decision that’s best for them, based on their historic performance It’s not perfect I think there are lots of questions about how do you regulate the people who get access to that data and the privacy issues that Mike was talking about before, but it seems like an area that is rich for opportunity and the technology will allow us to derive some benefit from over time But we should proceed cautiously Can I add something? I think individualized disclosures and decision recommender tools, like John has been working on, are great I think this also raises the question of what segment of the marketplace or of the whole universe should maybe focus on what tools Behavioral economics tells us a lot There are some things that I might want to use as an individual consumer, like I might want to sign up for a service that reminds me to do A, B, or C. You know, you might want a service that reminds you that you should take your medication You might want to have recommender tools that you sign up for by yourself, which is a very different question from saying at what point does the government provide those tools But I think the notion of individualized tools is really very exciting, and it’s very important, and I think it has a great future We’re almost out of time and I wanted to offer a final chance for some last bits of wisdom Last bits of wisdom My last bit of wisdom, I’ll reiterate what I said before, every policy tool is about changing behavior There is nothing unique about behaviorally informed tools They’re just another way to change behavior And why would you not want to understand all of the tools in the toolkit and use the ones that are going to best deliver the outcome at the lowest cost that you’re trying to achieve? We’ll leave it at that Thank you very much Thanks to the panelists for the excellent discussion Well, thank you, Jason, and thanks to our panelists Again, great discussion, and it’s been a great day, so thank you At this time it is my honor to introduce the Bureau’s Deputy Director, Brian Johnson Deputy Director Johnson first joined the Bureau in December of 2017 as senior advisor to the acting Director, and served as acting Deputy Director from July 2018 until May 2019, when he was announced as the Bureau’s Deputy Director Mr. Johnson joined the Bureau from the House Financial Services Committee where he spent over 5 years serving in various capacities, including senior counsel Mr. Johnson received his BA in economics as well as his JD from the University of Virginia It is my privilege to welcome him to the podium Deputy Director Johnson, you have the floor Thank you, Andrew This has been a fantastic morning, and now afternoon, and I recognize I’m coming in at the end of this, so I don’t intend to be here long Thank you all for your careful thoughts, for your insightful papers

Brigitte, thank you especially for pulling double duty We had a last-minute withdrawal, and based on your expertise we are very happy to have you twice We also thought we were going to have double Josh Wrights He also had a family emergency and pulled out, so we didn’t get to see one Josh debate the other Maybe in the future we will have that Thank you all for coming here in person Thank you to everybody who tuned in I would be remiss if I didn’t thank all of our staff who did an excellent job pulling this together These things don’t come together on their own, and for those of you who have done faculty panels like this I know you appreciate that as well So thank you for all the effort that our team put in Our symposium today is part of a broader effort on the part of the Bureau to engage experts in various fields on legal and policy issues An important motivation for this symposia series is to give these legal and policy issues a fresh look, and that’s precisely what we’re going to do The Bureau has relied on behavioral law and economics, in the past and part of the fresh look I just mentioned includes examining how behavioral law and economics should play a role in Bureau policymaking going forward As a matter of public policy, the director’s remarks this morning, including her observations about the value of focusing on market failure, captured the essence of what good government looks like When articulating and implementing public policy there is general agreement that the primary motivation for regulation is to address market failure, and it can’t be stressed enough that demonstrating a market failure requires more than just general notions of incomplete or asymmetric information Justifying intervention in such circumstances should require clear showing that the agency can improve on the status quo and utilize symmetrical treatment of both market and government action, that is, a recognition that markets have costs that may impede desirable outcomes but government action faces similar, if not greater, impediments In prior remarks, I have elaborated on the role I believe the Bureau should play when crafting consumer protection policy There, I emphasized that rather than attempting to replace market outcomes, the Bureau should focus on regulatory and policy initiatives that reinforce market institutions I also emphasized my view that the Bureau’s guiding principles should be a presumption in favor of consumer choice During the more than 200 years of American history, ordinary consumers making choices in the marketplace has resulted in them realizing direct and extraordinary benefits that have dramatically improved their lives Market-reinforcing activity includes promoting competition and prosecuting unlawful acts or practices that impede or undermine consumer choice Now some may think that agencies like the Bureau should engage in more prescriptive market-replacing regulation In academic settings, some have argued that financial goods and services are like toasters, requiring agencies like the Bureau to impose heavy-ended, prophylactic measures to try and protect consumers I believe this view is mistaken Today’s symposium, along with the written statements, is helping me evaluate how behavioral law and economics fits into the framework of articulated To add to today’s discussion, I want to offer a few observations that I hope can move the debate forward and prompt future research First, regulatory proposals should avoid presenting the choice as between a purportedly ideal government solution and an imperfect market solution, what economist Harold Demsetz referred to as the nirvana fallacy Indeed, humans, by our nature, are imperfect so it should come as no shock to anyone that markets are imperfect We should also not forget that governments are made up of humans, and—this might be shocking—we are all equally imperfect, and perhaps have a few of our biases So in an imperfect world, we need to critically examine both market and governmental solutions to identify which is best for consumers Second, though the debate we have had today often relates back to the concept of rationality, no serious thinker on this issue would suggest that humans act with perfect information or that transaction costs in the market are zero, nor do we expect humans to always choose the efficient solution The relevant policy issues relate to how consumers adapt to mistakes, whether they can learn from their errors within market settings, and if intervention would create a net beneficial outcome Third, when contemplating a particular intervention, the market failure and the potential problem that is being analyzed should be clearly defined and demarcated Doing so will enable the agency to tailor a solution to the actual problem For example, one focused on what consumers actually harmed without imposing an unnecessarily broad remedy that could undermine the effective functioning of the overall market and potentially undermine consumer welfare Finally, any analysis done regarding the behavioral law and economics must include a discussion

about the nature of the interventions being considered Much of this was discussed today Behavioral economics can potentially inform market-reinforcing regulation, but we should tread very carefully where proposed policies would restrict or change the nature of a private relationship or contract When government follows this course, it does not politely request the firms change their behavior or seek to convince firms of the propriety of the intervention It is a legal command, backed by force or threat of force While there are many examples in the literature that relate to private or non-government interventions in the marketplace, those examples importantly do not involve commands from an agency On this score, 200 years before much of the modern debate on behavioral law and economics, Adam Smith—and this wouldn’t be my remarks if I didn’t quote Adam Smith in some way—had many insights into essentially many of the issues that we are discussing today In his Theory of Moral Sentiments, he used social psychology to better understand the nature of human behavior Smith observed that we desire mutual sympathy, and because of this desire, Smith suggested that order can emerge through decentralized processes Smith was also careful to note the important difference between what we call today private and government paternalism Because of local knowledge and feedback that’s generated through private or voluntary iterative interactions, Smith saw generous benefits to private tinkering, what we might today call framing or choice architecture On the other hand, he was less enthusiastic about centralized control His thoughts here were best highlighted by what he called the “man of system.” Smith wrote that “the man of system seems to imagine that he can arrange the different members of a great society with as much ease as the hand arranges different pieces upon a chess-board He has not considered that the pieces have no other principle of motion besides that which the hand impresses upon them.” He further observed that “when the individual’s principle of motion diverges from the central authority’s preference, such instances have negative consequences on the individual, and society, more broadly.” Though Smith incorporated many of today’s modern behavioral methods into his analysis, he also noted that “the benefits of such methods were highly dependent on whether they were implemented by a centralized authority or through decentralized processes.” His insights, in my view, highlight the importance of Bureau action that is market-reinforcing and promoting of competition and consumer choice The issues highlighted by today’s symposium and all of the excellent debate and back-and-forth and insightful questions by our moderators, have far-reaching implications on the nature of good government and human agency Today’s symposium has helped move forward that conversation For that I want to thank, again, the panelists for all of your contributions today Thank you for coming And thank you all for attending

2020 USA BMX Mid America Nationals Day Two

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three times I could be yeah honey don’t leave me I am brave I am both beautiful 23 is the Moto number thirteen fourteen open got Shane

Alamance Palmer toll-free and novel e E two Riders moving onto a semi-main event got room for two looks like having novel yes squirt right out of st. Peters Missouri sitting on the top spot oh 10 bike a little trouble the Beast having trouble my little buddy a mirror toll-free coming by sliding into that tooth by we got room for two coming back at us 22 bike out of st Peters has knobbly toll-free coming out of Kansas City Missouri bring it to the lines going to go now and toll-free out of Moodle 23 2324 is the Moto number 15 staying open three Riders moving on to the straight to the main event God Bailey to gear Malpass

Bryant Devore Nielsen ehlers and and Nelson The Iceman bringing them back at us along with a 10 analysis going to go Nelson Mount passing a for by elders ten and under Grill cruises on the track Myers Calhoun Frazier Stevens and sarasa esquared colors out of Neenah Wisconsin Isabella Stevens on the point two Riders going straight to the main event out of the final turn they come on the national age group number eight bike Isabella Stevens bring it to line to qualify out along with the 967 by Kaylee sarasa out of Belvidere Illinois Adamo 25 system Auto number got Barry and appenzeller hirings and Stevens land and Barry and out of Bozeman Montana on the top spot in this one bring them back at us open Zeller sitting in the two slot Danica looking to qualify out with land and go bury and and appenzeller qualifying out of moto 26 is the Moto number Cheryl bokor Neyland Hinton and Wiles 9 by Tate a bokor sitting out fro up to turn a go the nine by Taytay a bokor going to qualify out along with a go cut one bike qualifying out cruising ekk Neyland out of moto 27 the Moto number gotten Mason Gould moles and love tank and ride so two Riders going to a main event 1112 girl Cruisers out of that final turn turn do the line on the national age group number six bike picking up that first spot the Presley the Piston gold and the five bike meerkat meerkat Mosin 29 is the Moto number thirteen fourteen girl Cruisers got Elder Dodge Haggerty Von Holstein and Kristen new low Lo s square is Chris to do low bring it to longing to pick up that first spot and she’ll be Elder picking up spot number two out of moto 2930 is the Moto number got Hinton hinting and Brian outrun I wanted to Blake and Kurt sinto coming in the final turn to Riders going straight to the main event yeah carving the corner bringing them back on the 97 bike out a Monument Colorado for SE raiko the evil oh I love him and the Gold Cup champion of the Black Widow Alyssa Bryant out of modal 30 31 the Moto number 15 sixteen girl Cruisers got Flynn Yonge Street responder up shoots gave their and Pettit three Riders moving on the main event looks like the 287 by grace young trip 9 Rider qualifying out a long with the one bike of Gaither and the national age group number eight is Streeter 32 the Moto number 17 to twenty women Cruiser Jeffers copper and Hurley good one coming out of the corner way up high slingshot and down try in that top spot 59 by the chakra Jasmine top or scoring up the one hip-hop Jeffers with the to kcj Hurley with the tree got minor nurse a Gandalf Le Mans Edwards and feels on the track two Riders to the main event got Mariah feels coma custom-built Wheels the George on the top spot got to the Desiree saggin dorf out of Phoenix AZ bringing them back for the two spots going to go the 14 of fields in the five sagging Dorf out of Model 33 got Gala Russ of wells and meringue meringue Mona 34 36 to 40 women Cruisers who’s got the Run Race of Champions Christina Gaylor Celestial Cycles out of Dale City Oklahoma bringing them back at us right now one Rider to qualify out make it Gaylor out of model 34 or 35 the Moto number 41 45 women Cruisers Arnold Latimer Carlson strange and Toppers Hang Time Heather sitting out front carry strange sitting in the two slot on the three slot charity car Carlson two Riders moving on to the main event got room for to bring it to the line Hang Time Heather out of Fort Worth Texas doing it for jobs Nation going to qualify out along with Carrie strange out of Model 35 36 the Moto number 36 to 40 women Cruisers oh Bryan Singer threat threat wander Johnson Turner and and Kay coming in that final turn looks like skidmark color sitting out front and this one on a three by Shannon Wonder wonder who’s got the national age group number three is singer on the two slot 3 to go it’s going to go one or singer and threat picking up those three spots spots 37 is the Moto number 7 and under Cruisers Hester gray storm door and Hardy and and Doomer 75 by Gaston hastur he Texas doing it for the ALDC got to go Cup champion sitting in the two slot Mason do more do more

coming on by we qualify into Rider straight to the main event it is du mer tumor and hastur out running one and two bringing them back to the line Maison du mer Black Widow out of Cortland Minnesota going to qualify out with Ashton Hester out of Model 37 38 the Moto number second rack 7-under Cruisers got young Schwarzkopf or in Kosta on the street by Jackson stoffer and the Moto Slayer Ezra Kosta sitting in that to to slot bring it on back to line on the three by Jackson Stauffer Faribault Minnesota Rider going to qualify out along with the Moto flare as R Acosta out a model 3839 as the Moto number got Christians and selling our Graber Meyer and Tyson Wi-Fi Christensen sitting out front and this one Jacob Tyson sitting in the two slot I get Wi-Fi right all weekend long trying to anyway starting today bringing him back to Alaska and go Tyson Tyson and out of model 39 40 is the model number God Hoffman Deacon Snell Ingham 31 by the lawnmower sitting out front that is eakins got the five bike The Iceman Alec sangamam we all got all kinds of nicknames in this one we got the lawn mower the Iceman to mad-dogging a noisy boy get them all together you don’t know what you got pretty good race coming align equals going to qualify out along with the Gold Cup to bike coming by for that to slot the Noisy Boy Michael Michael half-man nine-year-old cruisers on the track God’s to or Tyson back or Merlot and Van ginkel bring it on back to the line on the 39 by the bull Crosby backer going to transfer out along with the 23 bike Dylan Stewart out of moto 4142 the Moto number got Wilkie darlie Morgan and Taylor two Riders going straight to the main event coming in now that final turn model 42 coming back at us on the one bike Jake Morgan bombshell Factory Rider bring It On in the qualify along with the five bike coming by at the line Espen Wilkie trip now out Oconomowoc Wisconsin Wisconsin 43 is the Moto number ten year old Cruisers tribal Bundy McCain Olsen new by Anne Robinson two Riders moved on the main event got a good one come the zany acts on the hang on of that tosspot he’s going to go along with the six bikes Carter McCain coming out a modal 43 44 is the Moto number God stoical gun and Colin Fraser Dylan and and lying now that final turn onto one by Blake Dylan Black Widow BMX that Elizabeth Minnesota going to qualify out along with a 518 by of URLs tokelau out of Model 44 45 is the Moto number second rack 11 Cruisers got hazed Bailey Miller eating Palmer and Waters Mason Hayes Denver North Carolina Mongoose colors on the top slot coming back at us on this free bike sitting in the to slide Danny Waters it’s going to go Hayes and Waters well those guys have been elbow-to-elbow all weekend long going to be fun to watch that one later on got 46 is the Moto number 12 year old Cruisers will soon Johannes car Calhoun sequenza and and Anderson now the turn they come Nathan Anderson Black Widow BMX bring it to align Anderson going to qualify out along with Dillon Carr coming out of moto 4647 as the Moto number God Goodman Alexander Westerman does he’ll McCain and Stice dice que le McCain Clifton Colorado Rider clean all the way out of turn number three bringing them back to the line it’s going to go McCain and Westerman picking up those two spots out of modal 4748 the Moto number 13 on A 4-bike bring them around right now now got room for two Riders moving on looks like Maybin Maybin in a seven by Harley know are gnarly Harley bringing them back at us to to go is going to go dice and the for bike of of Maybin oh Neal Murray Zach Jaffe and Holton on the track two Riders moving on looks like the 14 by sitting out front in this one coming back in and out had final turn of 44 by to the line on a 44 in the 22 O’Neal and raise a kick out of moto 49 14 Cruisers two Riders moving on this is modal 50 got funk compsat Kingsland Larson Hernandez and Jung on the go cut one play Jung who often John going to transfer out along with the for bike Co cops at picking up that second slot on the for got Thompson Hoffman Davis men Source Michael and

hornbuckle two Riders going to a jam-packed main event Nashville age group number five bikes Michael and the one by coming on by picking up that second spot for background in the rig Davis fifteen-year-old cruisers on the track got race Mason along with more Gardener and and Ferguson coming back out of the on the 17 by Flex Ferguson going to qualify out along with the six bike a river Reese out of moto 52 53 is the Moto number total Point Race and cylinder Roberts and top or running one two and three coming down the three straight away another final turn 16 Cruisers are back at it the in still under out of Frederick Colorado doing for trip non-racing scoring up the one Jake the Snake Roberts going to score the the two Fred topper with the three 17 to twenty year old cruises around the track three Riders moving on the main event got rice from kneeling Bush Anderson cavallaro Rogers McCauley and haussler wire to wire my Rogers bringing them back to line 3 to go Rodgers going to go the 4:15 I know I’m gonna call the 4:15 was cavallaro and the third slot went to the night Marianne McCauley on the navigate by 55 the model number coming back at us looks like the national age group number one by Shane Harlow going to qualify out along with the six bike Mustachio crispy Petrie picking up that second so I could throw one back for old school we just call him Chris what we what are we calling Peta Terry or something like that we got that wrong for a long time to tarry that’s what I used to call him him two Riders moving out of that one Mojave Jordan died me qualifying out a long the national AIDS looks like Wade was that is that it okay okay for that one housing in Bivens qualifying out a modal 57 starting to worry about myself I’m seeing things 17 Grady’s time it’s out of Shreveport going to go Mall friend Brent Peewee league on a transfer out picking up that Sega slot looks like Kevin Nelson picking up that third slot three Riders moving on huh on a model number 46 50 Crews got her lie when is Cordova topper and Rogers Rogers National age group number 10 binds then J Hurley going to qualify out alone to go cup 3 bike to do curl Rogers out of Model 59 60 is the model number got K Miller grieve Hatfield in nafs’ Andaman carbon the corner come out turn zero nine colors all over it Stan the Man going to qualify out along with the One Race of Champions picking up that second slot at the lawn JJ grieve out of modal 6061 is the Moto number papaji got it going on right now Red Line bicycles out of Chesterfield Missouri two Riders going to the main event coming gal that final turn papaji I’ll find those you’re gonna take going to pick up that first spot along with the to buy Don Ho Miller Miller out of moto 61-62 is the Moto number 56 60 Cruisers Chambers feels Woodruff and Vaughn Moss would they hello Woody woody woody Woodruff doing it out front coming out of Mesa Arizona Arizona battle I want Rider moving on out of this one will you Woodruff going to pick up that spot out of Model 62 63 is the Moto number 61 and over Cruisers us the cowboy doing it out front while more time Pappy Patterson sitting in that to slot while Bill Sebastian sitting on us for Ian Alvin Davis sitting in that Force lot coming in out of the final turn to Young and got it going on the cowboy Brian strain one one Rider to transfer out strain going to qualify out of modal 63 here we go moving on to the five and under novice class sequenza Aldrich Aldrich Parks lack of weeks failing and Weatherly Lee Jae Suk when xia sitting out front Majesty Majesty racing

Springfield Nebraska they he comes to Riders are going to a semi main four five of done or novice sequenza are going to pick up a spot second slot here comes the 226 bike the the tank coover failing qualifying out of moto 6465 the Moto number more five and under novice coming at us rate or feaster joffe sucks I rivini two Riders Dylan Lewis semi-main event got the 91 bike Thomas I are sitting out front triple sevens roro feaster sitting in that to slot doing for Grandma and Grandpa I don’t Mahalo Nebraska coming out of that final turn yeah I’ll dig a nap peddling all the way around that turn coming in here comes a triple sevens roro trying to reel them in we’re taking two Riders Here Comes Thomas sire and the triple sevens a row row feaster out of modal 65 66 is the Moto number third rack of five and under novice novice Devon Moss Philip Steed and dry dried and got the to 12 bucks Oliver Welty sitting out front the I weejun coming out of Des Moines sitting on the top spot coming in now that final turn got the a bike Matthew dried and sitting in the two slot coming out of Mankato Minnesota to the line they go all over wealthy and the a bite of Dryden going to pick up those two spots out of moto 667 is the Moto number last rack 5 a nun or novice how about that man five racks five racks of five and under novice two Riders go into a semi-main event right now we got Fitzgerald can’t Armstrong de Matteo and rentals the anomaly said now for running this one a mirror strong How to Rock Island Illinois Illinois bringing them out to align Armstrong going to qualify out along with Jace Jason Reynolds out of modal 67 here comes a be dimatteo D Mateo six-year-old novice gate is down for a straightaway got mad or shall Jones van Fleet in ball yeah two Riders to Riders moving on to a six novice main event Bring Em Down the tree straight away Cooper Coop vanfleet Blue Springs Missouri sitting out front in this one van fleets got to eight bike may see Jones sitting in the two slot 64x south on the three slot ball on the force I here comes Johnny it’s everybody go Johnny hey Johnny Mather doing it out there got to dig that coming down that last straight away here comes a 408 by Coop van Fleet fan feet hang on John and the 64 by Auburn styles yeah come on Johnny everybody say who both feet on the pedal Johnny you got it buddy he said yeah I’m at home is my home track track yeah Johnny got the photo op going looking on over there second rack six-year-old novice on the track yeah job Johnny got Travis Sullivan for sale in Wellesley and they’d 44 Mike Knox Travis out Omaha Nebraska coming coming back at us too right as 4 out knocks Travis going to go along with the 514 Here Comes Lakeland Sullivan to cycle Michael’s out of Topeka qualifying out of moto 69 70 is the Moto number seven year old novice got nowhere McKellen Finley darling and Young 771 by Tristan the Piston Young and the 110 by battle and align both of those guys qualify and out Colton McKellen interest in Young 71 is about a number God Duncan story vaness in Collingwood Pierce Collingwood DIY region out of the Moines sitting out front while child Kenley story sitting in the two slot slot two Riders to Riders moving on to the main event seven-year-old novice Pierce Collingwood going to qualify out along with

Kenley the wild Child story story 971 by Pierce calling on you need a white number plate with black numbers please please eight-year-old novice model number 72 got cheffing pulse and kefir Lackey Phillips and Ying link on the 102 by Chef Lee gonna qualify out yeah well Jack Attack going along with the All-Star Emma pulsing out of modal 72 73 is the Moto number got not bearish Kramer along with golden Hobbs and sellner on the 311 by Decker the record not out of Nevada IA Iowa bringing them back to the line right now room for two Riders to the main event Decker the wrecker going to qualify at along with burn Bryn Kramer 74 is the Moto number got Beckman Finley done Vana suck and Griffin Jack Finley and the 7:15 by Caleb Vaness sitting out one and two right now bringing them back to the line two Riders going to the main event to the line they go Jack Finley out of Lincoln going to qualify out Kayla vaness out of Omaha out of moto 7475 is is some auto number ten-year-old novice got cook Novak Hannah Blackburn shy feed the scene in Rowlett three Riders moving on Mason Shafi Colorado Springs Colorado Rider bringing them back at us three to go chappies going to qualify out looks like the 475 by Justin Hannah going to qualify out along with the 856 bike picking up that third spot may see the Monster roulette God Martin Foreman Casey seedorf deardorff Melton and Vaughn Moss Moto 76 bring it on back to the line on the 820 by Ali and Foreman out of Lincoln going to go along with the 4:15 juicy seedorf and the 50 by coming by at the line Gavin Melton picking up that third spot out of moto 76 checking out of down Rider and turn number three three man that was a long haul without a break it was a scratch hey put your hands together for that guy in back up going to get him checked out out gate comes down 12 year old novice Moto o77 got Finley Hoots Dobbins Collingwood Pyrrha Laos and Novak Novak all the trading elbows out of turn number one lead Rider Kate Lyles out of Des Moines Iowa sitting out front to go Cup champion Hoots three you sitting on the deuce we got room for three Riders coming back out as Laos coming out that final turn and getting it done wire-to-wire at they’re bringing them back the 340 by Tate last going to qualify out the 109 by Keaton Finley going to go on the go Cup Cup champion Hoots out of modal 7778 is the Moto number God pulse and alwine deardorff ictal and no Novak out of Novak Omaha Nebraska sitting out front Henry fichte lot of Papillion sitting in that to slot coming back to the line and his Novak going to qualify out along with Henry fictel fictel

out of muddled 78 79 the Moto number 15 year old novice total Point racing got Collingwood mayor and and oisin 15 novice total Point Race since got cost in Collingwood out of Des Moines on the top spot bringing them back Collingwood going to score up the one Austin mayor with the to caged is seen with the three 26 to novice three Riders going to the main event this is model number 80 got done Bergstrom Eckert Aldridge McKellen Paulson Merrill and Laser on the 23 bike Michael McKellen going to qualify out the 890 bike Steven of laser going to qualify out and the 808 by Troy Aldridge 41 to 45 year old novice two Riders going to the main event model 81 Finley short short blind took her and and darling got the 993 bike sitting out front in this one Tony short got Justin darling cycle work sitting on on the deuce hey Riders memory you need black numbers on a white plate if you’re running a district Tony short going to qualify out along with the 68 coming by 68 bike Rob short I’m sorry boys coming on out Moto 81 now I make it fun and nobody that’s the real last name okay so chill out on No Holds Barred and all that other stuff stuff their names Tony and Rob short 51 and over a novice coming at us right now in the 60 by and the 37th otapoint racing in who won was it a tie we’ll both will give them a point of one and a half points apiece what do you think Carl Kirk’s going to pick up the one in that one Kevin Matthias scoring the to I think we all do that that’s giving me shh one point plus 2.2 3.0 3 divided into these good point point and a half yeah yeah my start something no videos allowed scores it’s all on the scores 500 intermediates are on the track coming at us right now Graham Burke 10 a trace and now to Grand Forks going to qualify out along with the 46 bike Pistol Pete Baker six-year-old intermediates oh Bentley having a good day carving the corner on that one try to find a way by got Weigel Marie Hines I Dean and there two Riders moving on to Riders going straight to the main event coming back at us on a 98 by Camden Camden Weigel all that’s the 90 bike of 190 bike near and the 667 like a Bentley qualifying out a moto 84 85 is the Moto number got Branson hars McKellen Morgan and black MRSA 151 by Hot Rod Morgan sitting out front Blake McAllen sitting in the two slot we’re checking on curly down out of turn number one bringing them back to Lima kelan and the 151 bike hot rod Morgan out of moto 85 you got a thumbs-up out there curly check it out out curly ours huh huh I don’t know what they’re doing all the get them untangled that’s what it is I think they were all tangled up I didn’t even know there was another one out there getting our down Riders picked up oh curly curly Harv’s Vance Branson or comes curly curly just turned intermediate join the intermediate ranks earlier this month month yeah curly going to finish strong get him all I got him all untangled is ready

to go nothing really wrong wrong good job little dudes seven intermediates are on the track two Riders to a semi-main event got eager Ryan’s Jones bucks sale and ladrón semis for seven intermediates two of them are gone looks like salad trying to put on coming in out of the corner off this island of 79 by running one and two right now Mason eager eager two Riders going no semi-main event they’re lined up come on around third place ride or dies it underneath trying to find a way in his crew Jones bringing them back to lines going to go 62 salla and a 79 bike Mason eager out of moto 86 87 the model number gate is down for straightaway actions got Bulger Macomber Scott Grist Yuengling and WETA oh Riders down in turn number one two Riders moving onto a semi-main event Dax Macomber out of Haven Colorado sitting out front got the bikes in the to slide bracing Yuengling 44 by Harlow Scott sitting on the tree two Riders moving onto a semi-main event bringing them back to the line 89 Dax Macomber Macomber going to qualify battle for the two slot here comes here comes the angling it’s going to go Scot at the line Harlow Scott picking up that second spot out of moto 87 Riders remember that last straight away Rule and the first the first 30-foot rule we got eyes eyes we know we looking look can ski Jimmy tell Clark Branson and Double D on the track right now looks like the onion Max Branson sitting out front in this one Remy dimatteo sitting in that to slot merabh are sitting on the tree coming out of the final turn to Riders are going to a semi-main event looks like the ebike remedy Mattel taken over that top spot he going to transfer out along with the 493 by Branson eight intermediates two Riders going to the main event Carlson naff gambling and Rosalind and Shelton the 160 bike Shelton sitting out front got the 57 by David now out of Erie Colorado sit in that two slots Shelton coming out of Rock Island Illinois doing it for the sprocket Kings coming back at us two Riders moving on to the main event on the 160 by the shredder Elijah’s Shelton and a 57 by of David Neff out of mono 89 90 the Moto number Jeff will how about Bryson Chef filoni look at this cat he’s eight intermediate today yesterday he was an eight-year-old novice and he’s leading them in the that Jeff along to get it on he said I ain’t scared no intermediate class move me on up we’re good to go Bat-Mite might that might be something back at us here comes company Jeff aloni and to go cup three the Wild Thing why it’s story out of moto 90 91 the Moto number nine intermedia Schwartz van ginkel Buck Frazier Bailey failing and Jones two Riders going straight to the main event looks like the 34 by Jacoby Jones out Eagle Nebraska qualifying out what the 21 by Keaton Swartz mom and Dad racing out of Elk Point South Dakota charity C’est Le daily Killinger Ferris Parks is Smith are on the track right now two Riders going to the main event looks like bike Austin Smith crank lab right out of Faribault Minnesota Minnesota bring it on back

at us they 89 by Austin Smith qualifying out along with the g-dog grant Ferris out of moto 92 God Wilson Olsen Myers Smith Smith seedorf Heartland and Griffin her on the track three Riders moving on to the main event now that final turn the animal Elliot Olsen Speed Cola lethal Rider out of Baxter Minnesota going to qualify out along with the 42 by Adam Hartley in the seven bike a shotgun Sheldon Smith picking up those three spots out of 93 got Burns Carol Gonzalez Hayward thicker and renowned Moto 94 11 intermediates Logan took her sitting out front got Carol in the two slot got company now new Rider sliding the tooth looks like guns Dallas going to go the 18 and the 565 bike make it to occur in fabian’s Dallas out of Model 94 95 the Moto number second rack 11 intermediates into turn number 1 comes cook winds are Paige Dahl Jacob and eaten through the Section on 18 bike now sixteen byte Yak Bap Jacob got the for bike Boogie page form Angela racing taking over that top slot Boogie page and yap yap running out one or two Boogie yap yap Destroyer 123 coming in and I’ll add final turn Boogie page out of Alton Illinois bringing them back to Riders moving on straight to the main event Boogie page going to go and the 16 bike yep yep Jacob animal 95 Godly lysing Mason WIlliams Palm Holland smart on the track Action Jackson sitting out front one Rider now look like the Mohawk warrior down in a corner bringing them back on the 504 Action Jackson Grand Forks Air Force Base Rider going to go along with the 24 bike the maniac Mason palm got semen to your voice raivo BB Kirk Whitmore and Johnson Johnson two Riders going to the main event got room for two bringing them back to the line looks like the 21 by Parker Whitmore to the line Whitmore going to transfer out along with a go Cup champion – Danny Johnson Johnny Johnson out of moto 97 98 the model number 13 intermediates got weather had Danielson Silva hilshire and and Olsen two Riders going straight to the main event 13 intermedia Style on a 32 by kiwane Silva out in front got Owen Weatherhead sitting on the dose two Riders to move on in the program coming out of that final turn coming out Overland Park Kansas yeah box components out of Johnson County comes Silva and the 51 by Owen Weatherhead out of moto 98 99 the Moto number second rack 13 intermedius got smashed harasser sitting out front Scott dominant Gonzalez on the deuce followed up by Hill House and Lackey two Riders are going to quantify out bringing them back to Alliance Master Asher Harwick out of Luther Oklahoma to qualify out along with Dominic Gonzalez out of modal 99 whoa whoa two Riders down two Riders down in turn number two got Purcell Krug bathroom best McMahon I’m and and Jones two riders coming back to align the go cut 1/8 and Bass from qualifying out along with 18 by Duncan Purcell Majesty racing out of motor 100 rack coming on around and it’s in the final turn second rack 14 intermedius got knobs and running one or two dollars and Keen Harwick and Hogue sitting on the three coming back gum snobs knives knives and a one Race of Champions of Dante Brown out out a model 101 hey true 558 selling popcorn over a concession stand that’s a good good little fundraiser for those guys true 50 55 58 selling popcorn over concession stand all right these cats are up one arm up to em up looks like the eye eye copy clear yeah yeah copy clear ready to go oh yeah yeah

and away we go fitting intermediates total point racin my Rogers and strain total Point racing down the two straight away it looks like Houston Mayu out of Blue Springs Missouri I don’t know if I’m saying that right right yeah no mo Mai OE am I right my my oh my we’re just going to call him Houston going real fast bring it on back at us Mayu going to score up the one Ethan strain with a to Eli the fly Rogers with the three God power a occur per sale and rice on the track Gavin for sale out of winning Iowa Majesty racing don’t from old pal Brian Jones and the over there Majesty one Rider to transfer out of Gavin Purcell out of moto 103 one of the good guys of all time Brian Jones in the house with his team Majesty racing got mine heart gone snipe and young Andrew Mine Heart Colfax Iowa Iowa Ryder whoa hang in there I weejun you got this bringing them back on the 250 to buy one Rider to move on out Mine Heart going to qualify not a model 104 man he took away up in that turn but he was looking to go up to South Dakota or or something got Hoots norburg and Olson go Cup champion Nicholas Hoots box components going to score up the one Devon Olsen trying to get some big air time right there got the deuce Norberg with the three who yeah look at that guy koree Swartz taking them up high he remembers how to get all that done ain’t been that long ago maybe 25 30 years who Nia some were running are 20 anyway go Cup champion three Riders going going Corey Swartz going transfer out along with the 17 might Nathan parks and to-go cup 3 bike of the squirrel Josh Nealon all picking up spots spots out of moto 106 107 the Moto number 41 to 45 intermediates got poured or Thompson Wilson to seen Peck Latimer and shop and Fields three Riders transferring out here comes chop shop shop going to qualify out a loan it to 65 bike it’s got the scene in the 120 by Peck Peck 46 to 50 year old intermediates got strange Joe Mason along with Bronto Brian and Macaulay one Rider moving on in the program and this one got two of them battling now just one the 63 by John O’Brien the Iowa agent out of Cedar Rapids qualifying on out out of moto 108 sometimes you just got to know when to tap out come back in for round number two that right yeah yeah Joe Knows 51 and over in her meetings got no land Von Moss Jennings and Kim 991 bye Kim going to qualify on out dr J you just coming in for today or tomorrow tomorrow all right you will see you at what was you here yesterday I didn’t see you my bad got gray Christensen dots and Seth’s and rats left two Riders going to the main event crazy cat guy I got it going on Wicked racing out of Ohio to writers moving on to the main event and ASL age group number five by crazy cat Kalani Gray and the national age group number four bikes Samantha wrasse live out of La Habra California for the alpha national team eight-year-old girls on the track I couch just Lovins Miriam couches Jameson Tolleson Calhoun and I will address three Fighters moving on out of this little JT Tolleson going way faster box components going to transfer out along with a national National 5-bike of too much Olivia Alva dress qualifying out alone the national age group number 10 bite the diva Kaylee Lovins nine-year-old girls are on the track three more riders coming out of this one bringing them back on the to bike Natalia flash Kovac they’ll screw the national age group number four bike Danika appenzell and a bike of Abigail Stevens picking up those three spots out of moto 112 113 as the Moto number got Ashley Gilman Lee ha burying and sarasa

Diamond Lil doing it out front Dallas Texas doing it for a little dudes it’s coming out back at us doing for Jerry Mathers in the gang bringing them back I did say it sorry about that Ashley going to go along the national AIDS group number eight by sarasa man I don’t know where that came out of of 11 year old girls some of you caught it some of you didn’t bi God three Riders moving on out of this was an ASL age group number one bike pick it up those spots dannenberg qualifying out along with Popovich in the for bike Tiger Lily that was hinting picking up that three slot Lola John’s a big sitting out front in this one care if Cheryl sitting on a news but it’s all LOL a bringing them back coming out of that final turn power light colors bringing them back to the stripe going super fast John’s Havoc going to qualify out along with the one bike here Cheryl International age group number 9 by T and T Tristan picking up Tori pink ah thirteen-year-old girls on the track coming back at us National age group number seven my Super V superbee Brooklyn Van Rensselaer qualifying out a long with the E by Josie Larson in the one bike below all of of Hinton National 3 by aggressive Chris to do low going to pick up a spot along with the 15 by Jordan Miranda going to a jam-packed main event for the 14 year old girls 118 now the Moto number out of turn number two God McCann and Douglas Haggerty bond holes and and curse the to bike Ashley McLennan Black Widow BMX with the one-bite the princess Jin of on holds in Midwest Pool sitting on the deuce bringing them back to lines going to go maclennan and Vaughn hosen out of moto 118 God help edits honor of Flynn all one and when or national age group number five by the blonde bomb Alexandra Hill Sauk Rapids Minnesota bringing them back to the line he’ll going to go alone a 33 bike monster be Brianna winner out of multiple 119 120 is the Moto number got toss it Street or along with palm young more ants toots coming in outer Corner s squared there’s on the 20 by JC more bringing them back out as JC going to qualify second spot going to go to the to bike Midwest West Coast Callie Streeter God topper Marine parks along with Jeffers Duchess Shades giggly and Zachary three Riders going to the main event 17 to 20 year old women 49 bike Stephanie Marin Full Tilt radio going to go along with the 73 73 73 bike was giggly yuto and and that the line the nine bike pays Zachary peddling all the way to the line picking up that third spot out of moto doe 121 man we were just talking about that this morning Caitlin Larson coming to the line going to pick up that spot out of moto 1 and 22 we talk about it all the time though don’t we pedal all the way to the finish line make your life a little easier make our job a little easier everybody good but no No 31 to 40 year old women actress got Gaylor are sir feels Rowlett one Rider moving on to the main event the 12 by Karen arched her escort National gonna qualify out of moto 123 124 the Moto number got knees Irving and Lattimer Hang Time Heather out in front one more time are leaner than in the two slot slot total Point racing Latimer Irvin and he’s out running one two and three coming out of the final turn out of Fort Worth Texas doing it for the chaos Nation the Gold Cup champion scoring up the ace ACE Arlene ervin’s going to score the deuce their knees with the three the little six-year-old experts are on the track got Hardy Noteboom Mitchell Kosta and Schwartz two Riders going to the main event coming out of turn number two national age group number to buy by the Moto Slayer got it going on right now Ezra Kosta out of Nolan Springs Arizona coming out that final turn to Riders going straight to the main event the

Moto Slayer bringing them back that as Kosta going to qualify our second slot going to go to the National age group number 18 by coming by to Lon Joshua Hardy for hyper out of Spring Texas falkowski tagger Thorn Grand Kovacs and calculus on the J bike Marshall falkowski st. Paul Minnesota doing it for a box components bombshell color sitting in that to slide looks like the bird man Liam Kovacs going to go to Jay bike of falkowski and the 14 bike of Kovacs seven-year-old experts on the track two Riders going to the main event got meringue do more Hester lacko Ixtapa for and Graves sitting out front and his son Jacob latch clicks Tackle box racing good Wood coming out uh slack Alex and now the world champion Ashton hastur coming out of moto 127 128 the Moto number eight year old – Bruce got snail Hoffman Arrington Ingham and Hammer on the tube bye Brady the Hammer Time coming out us out of Texas going to qualify Hamer and to go cup 3 by the Noisy Boy Michael Hoffman got buermeyer Tyson finkley note where an Ekans Ekans two Riders going to a semi-main event coming back at us looks like the 22 by bike 67 by Jacob Tyson say Cloud Minnesota has 225 by the lawnmower Josh Adkins got selling her gray Christensen Holland site sort of Wi-Fi why Christensen out of Kingston Washington bombshell colors bring it on back looks like the wild car chance Hall in the two slot going to go the three of Christensen and one bike of the wild chance Hall out of moto 130 131 is some Auto number got Mather Stewart’s Taylor Morgan Kindle and Tyson coming in out of the corner Nashville age group number one by coming back at us now excuse me tight on the one bike of Tyson picking up that first spot and the second slot to the end bike of of Jake Morgan got Merle oberon’s backer will Wilkie darling Moorhead and James National age group number three by Cohen James Full Tilt radio and a 95 bite the bull Crosby backer out of moto 132 133 of samoto number Velasco da Bundy Robinson Larson and tree rise coming in the final turn looks like the to bike Keaton fly Schoo sitting out front in this one the ten bike Benson trying to hang on the two slots going to go the 2 and the 10 Velasco Anne Robinson coming out of moto 133 134 is the Moto number King neubauer McCain Westover Durkin and Hardy hyper colors sitting out front in the final turn they’re lined up single now to Rider slide down underneath coming back at us tea and Hardy out of Spring Texas bring it to okay okay go cut 1 at E & Hardy and the 32 by the Little Bull William Westover picking up those two spots out of moto 134 good racing to the line bringing them back to the line on this one National age group 20 of rats laughing the one bike bike Rojas picking up that second spot out I’m going to 135 136 the Moto number eleven year old expert Scott Lang Palm or water Scranton Gaylor and Bailey National age group number three many Waters and a go cup to by picking up that second slide Jacob Lang second rack eleven-year-old – for Scott stoical Miller won’t show Hayes Dylan and tea Andrew won’t show Independence Missouri doing it for the bombshell Factory got Mason Mason haze hanging tighten the two slot the six bike trying to find a way in his take Branch Alliance going to go won’t land land Two Champions hanging on to that to slot Mason Hayes 138 the model number got Hardy Holton frasor Duffy and gunning to go Cup champion Big Ben Hardy hyper colors going to go along the national age group number 19 by Jay stuffy out of modal 138 139 a model number into turn number two come on ass has swai so McCain Coons

Westerman and goat men two Riders go into a semi-main event looks like the 13 bike Kayla McCain out of Clifton Colorado going to go along with a go cup 3 by of Ian Westerman out of 139 140 is the Moto number second rack twelve-year-old experts got able to seal could Rouse key Anderson and noon 17 bike sitting out front Anderson Anderson Nathan Anderson Black Widow BMX out of Albertville Minnesota follow-the-leader out of the final turn coming back at us 21 by just still trying to hang on the two slot NASA ladies Group 17 and the 16 by coming by at the line Carson noon going to pick up that second spot out of moto 14141 the Moto number got Orman Hill sty Santa Maria and Stewart Missouri mughelli bringing them back out us out of st. Louis Missouri the bombshell that’s Santa Maria and the seven by chasing gauge Hill out of motor 141 142 is the Moto number God Rogers Wilson Alexander owed Shirin and sequenza race Roger sitting out front bringing them back to the line on the 17 bike out of Madison Illinois on the 17 goes Rogers in the National age group number sixteen byte the v-dub Vance out Shirin out of Model 142 143 three the Moto number number got back Ernie’s Hops and raise that Keen in Westover two Riders going to a semi-main event bringing them back to line National age group number 19 saves Maury Zack picking up that first spot looks like Westover on the 22 bike was that 22 or 49 like yeah 49 Skipper Skippy backer GQ Delaney bringing them back on this one in the National age group number 12 bike Brady O’Neill Automotive 144 145 the model number got toll-free knively not enob Dice and Mark Lee coming in and out of turn number three bringing them back to the line on the eighth by Evan Markley Markley going to qualify out along with gnarly Harley dice out of moto 145 146 the Moto number 13 experts got hazed Carlson Holton Williams and mad Madden Tyler Hilton sitting out front and this one coming out of Rockford Michigan Michigan Riders to have semi-main event last rack 13 Experts Tyler Holton going to qualify out along with the three bike three bike at the line coming by Carson Blaze Hayes out of motor 146 147 the Moto number 14 experts got winds or Palmer Burford Isaac Le Mans and Hernandez National age group number eight Cole Isaacs and the to by Tyler Windsor picking up those two spots out of moto 147 148 is the Moto number Colburn Lee Hodge on Hillhouse Robinson and Dylan tracing Dylan Black Widow BMX out of Elizabeth Minnesota coming at us on the one by junk food Austin John trip 9 racing gonna pick up that second spot out of moto 148 149 a moto number got funk McGuire Thompson Kingsland Hoffman and Larson whoo bring it on back now slice group number 10 by and the five bike picking up those two spots Kingsland and the five Mike twice pipes Hoffman out of modal 149 150 as the Moto number fourteen year old experts gotten mr. copsey Keller’s Michael and Bowman two Riders going to a semi-main event bringing them back to line National age group number nine and a national age group 15 picking up those two spots make make it’s Michael and the 15 bike Eller fifteen-year-old a Supermoto 151 151 two Riders going to a semi-main event Full Tilt color sitting out front on this one got to be retries got the national age group number two by Qatar Williams sitting on the dues two Riders to a semi-main event

treat rice doing for Fritz in the gang over there at Full Tilt to buy hypercolor sitting on the deuce going to go tree rice and Williams second rack 15 experts to more Riders moving on out of this one got Bartley Jung more along with Bryant Mason and harvest Jase Bartley doing it for LDC Bradford in the gang bringing them back out that final turn Chase Bartley Bartley going to qualify out alone the National Education number eleven by the maniac markets more 153 the Moto number got Ferguson Gardener Bailey to gear and Hooper along with wreaths the to buy Flex Ferguson sitting out front in this one two Riders are going to a semi-main event laughs straight away Action Battle for the two slot Ferguson going to pick up the top spot in a 3-bike for daylight light cycles Dallas Dallas Gardner second round of models need to start thinking about stage and I’m up second round emoto’s were on motor 154 of 168 oh oh get on back down there super true what do you think ha ha ha that was Popovich an angler see he knows super true they’re camped out over there in that last turn he wanted to get up high so they can get a good picture of them and then come back down and still qualify thanks Drew bringing them back to lines going to go the 15 in the to buy Devore and the to buy a Casanova God Cardwell malp a seller cylinder and Gensler turn to actions got the national age group number two by Nolan Cardwell rival racing out of Belmont North Carolina out of the final turn they come Cardwell getting it done got 26 bike 28 bikes cylinder now the 26 Malpass coming on by for the news make it the Iceman picking up that second spot behind Cardwell out of moto 156 God or man boobs are allowed out rise from Wing leader on Maury or Joseph Lido Isle toe Rekha crew yes colors got come down here comes wingding Cameron Wing going to pick up that second second slot out of moto 157 57 you don’t have to get right now will you wait till you go back man oh man for for bill well getting old forget things like how to read read here we go second rack 17 to 20 year old experts to Riders going up semi-main event got Nielsen hot finger Kennedy Parks Campbell and Bates braiding the bullet sitting out front in this one that is Campbell coming in and out of the final turn to Riders moving onto a semi-main event the bullet Braden Campbell gonna Travel Battle for the to slide looks like it’s going to go the 26 by Wesley base for the pickle juice gang qualifying out of moto 158 159 as the Moto number Paul Haggerty Anderson Nelson Barton and Bromley do Paulk hyper colors out of Indiana bringing them back on a national age group number one by Satan in the two slot looks like Barton pole Barton going to pick up those two spots out of moto 159 160 the Moto number 21 25 five-year-old expert Scott toss it yes Zack got it going on it’s been a long time since I said that name Zack tossed it sitting on the top spot come out of corner escort national team bringing them back line two Riders going straight to the main event toss it in the 19 Mike Medeiros coming out of modal 160 161 the Moto number got stock Harlow haycock paradine and ID National age group number 2 saying Harlow Vendetta a lead out Marino Valley California on the spot right now coming in and out of the final turn back to line on the to buy Harlow going to qualify out along with half-cock doing it for The Mangler Factory out of motor 161 162 the model number 26 to 35 year old experts Le du da milivoj milivoj Barney and faith love always sitting out front Full Tilt radio colors on the spot coming out of st. Cloud Minnesota Brady lavoie going to qualify out along with the nine by Jordan Muhammad Ami out of moto 162 163 the Moto number got

Quorum and Harris right and Echoes on the 48 by Christopher right the realtor Cody Cody Cody Harris out Idaho sitting on the bubble bringing them back out of that final turn out of DeKalb Illinois Christopher right and Cody Harris out of Auto 163 164 is the Moto number got Hill snail Brown Narvaez Haugen Adam why and daily the Playboy sitting out front on this one National age group number one by Jacob Brown Stockton California the too old for bike of Clint daily for Majesty racing out of moto 164 one 1 65 is the Moto on the track Riders down in turn number one Zach Baron coming at us right now to st. Peters Missouri Missouri doing 4-0 Moto two Riders moving on straight to the main event Zachary Baron going to qualify second slots going to go to Nashville age group number 17 buying Nick post yes yes it’s going to let me know in an hour don’t answer yet not yet yet three Riders moving in out of this one 41 to 45 year old experts dimatteo McCarty League Silva young Anna and Nielsen and Alpha colors Walnut Creek California Brent Peewee lie on the two slot were qualifying three Here Comes Ana to quantify out Jason Young to transfer out Brantley picking up those three spots out of 166 166 167 the Moto number 46 to 50 year old experts got Arnold Miller Ka Irvin Hatfield and Tabor Shan the man getting it done right now coming out of that final turn Hatfield Roswell Georgia going to qualify out along with the national age group number 10 bite Donovan learn Miller 168 and some Auto number 51 and over experts got robbers you got to Haze new CEO job I’m out don’t know I’m trying man I got a green light I don’t know if it’s going to work all the time maybe just work some of the time do in the best I can can all right man we’ll try it again this is Moto number five second round six and under mixed open 2nd round emoto’s we are on go if you’re in the first few Moto’s you need to be in staging we got dots and dried and Steiner and sire sire two Riders going to the main event coming into that turn number two on a go cup 3 bike pea Dobson out of Topeka Kansas Dotson and the a bike Matthew dried and sitting in the two

slot Tommy sire sitting on the tree Lincoln Steiner on the for two Riders moving on to the main event bringing them back to the finish line down the last straight away Baya Dodson crossing the line finish line going to go Datsun and the a bike Matthew Dryden and Adam Auto 5 6 is the Moto number combining that with model number seven going to qualify for Riders to the main event looks like mayor bear sitting out front crossing the line finish yeah bring it them out of Topeka Kansas mirror bear Clark going to quantify out to go Cup champion superb is Miriam got to go along along with the 105 bike 105 bike was Grist Grist in the 300 bike at the line Levi LaChance key picking up that Force lat lat 38 by charity going to qualify out of this one and the 7:15 by Kayla Venus how to moto eight nine as some other number second rack 910 makes Toby got Brenly Barian and Schwartz Gold Cup champion Isabella lie the go cut one bang and the be bike brynlee Lee ha and Brenly Brenly 11 next open National age group number 9 by T and T Tristan pingatore going to qualify out along with a 17 by to destroy your Drexel eating out of moto 10 11 the Moto number thirteen fourteen mixed open along with modal 12 combining them up qualifying for Riders got Brent weather had to scene along with Jones and house the one by Ellie Brent going to go the 51 qualifying out with Ellie is on whether had to 148 bike with Jay Jay Jones and Eli Hill House total Point Race in 26 to 30 mixed open bringing them back to the line Looks like young and the score up another Ace with the lock on the Wind plays are with the deuce machine sitting out front and this one Matthew Norberg sitting on the dues Jason Kim taking a short no shortcuts yeah we go to seeing on the score up the wand norburg and screw up another Deuce Jason Kim with the three fitting as a model number six and under Open Scott Taggart Schwartz and note mom we got a good one brew and coming into turn number two right now looks like Noteboom taking over the top spot now Swartz Takes Over the Top spot now the 26 bike tagger oh tagger launches at the table top man had a good one going he went up those three guys were all mix it up now Swartz he slides in on the underneath side Takes Over the Top spot it is Schwartz and Noteboom both those guys qualifying out what a race the six and under opens check in on Taylor tagger had a good race going lost a little bit right there at the face of that junk got sellner Allah at meringue eakins and nowhere on the track right now for three Riders moving on The Iceman Iceman 25 25 bike that was eakins along with the six bike a sellner in the 22 by a note where got James along with Kendall and stipple on the track right now the 23 bike taking Seibel bringing them back rupee Team Green going to qualify along with the national age group number three for Full Tilt radio: Cohen James how to model 1718 the Moto number got Mark Lee along with grass laughs and darling the 20 by Noah Rascal of alpha colors out of the Habra California has got the 13 by Tryin Markley in the two slot for Pusher BMX out of Frank Town Colorado wrassle if and Mark Lee going to get those two spots out of moto 1819 to moto number eleven twelve open comes Goatman and Stewart on the track coming in and out the final turn got to eight bike the LJ land and Coons in the sixth bike tightrope Riley Stewart out of moto

19 20 is the Moto number got Teague along with Scranton in shy so the Gold Cup champion Rider Scranton riff tangent colors out of Norco California bringing them back at us right now Scranton going to pick up a spot along with the six bike Blake Teague out of moto 20 got mad and along with McGuire Hill House and Kane two Riders moving onto a semi-main event looks like the cowboy Caitlin Maguire for flow Vision coming at us right now along with the 19 bike Coal Hill House the cowboy doing a little showing off a little playtime down there got to go all the way to the Finish Line man you know you don’t want to impede the advancement of another Rider down there showing off and get disqualified that’s for sure and plus dad’s real big guy ain’t playing not the one byakko cops are going to qualify out along with the three bike rider Burford out of moto 22 the model number got sinkhole Le Mans and Palmer man Connor Palmer off the track down to three straight away two Riders making it clean back to the stripe looks like Le Mans the Beast going to go along with the six bike of the eight bike sink nasty Cooper Cooper Cinco God Devore Nielsen allow it to Gary and Bailey for Riders moving on to the main event event bad luck pant in the mix bringing it back to the line going to go to the National age group number 15 Devore 39 bike Nielsen 3 by Pat Bryant the 21 bike Caden Bailey ten and under girl cruises are on the track gotten Myers Calhoun along with Frasier hirings and Stevens 25 Moto combined got the one bike sitting out front Abigail Stevens esquared national team out of Neenah Wisconsin has got to e by little sparkles sitting in the two slot Myers Racing case and sitting on a tree for Riders transferring out of this one looks like Stevens is going to transfer hirings is going to transfer Myers is transfer into 17 bike mad at cat Calhoun out of to five to six to seven now the model 1112 girl Cruisers got Cheryl Hinton and wells out of the final turn they come looks like 288 by Kira Cheryl Moore Oklahoma Rider going to qualify along with the five bike the world five Tigerlily Hinton out of moto 27 the Moto number got Mason loved Tack and right so the to by sitting out front the tornado Marley Rachel Brooklyn Park Minnesota Rider bringing them back out as room for two got Rachel going to qualify along with the G bite mckinnell up Tak trip nine colors out of Auto 28 the model number thirteen fourteen girl Cruisers in there with modal 30 qualifying for got Dodge Hagrid Yvonne holes along with Kurtz and Blake National age group number seven the princess Jenna von Helsing going to qualify out along with Marley Kurt’s the for bike gonna qualify out the for by cab Lake and the 10 bikes hanging on to that for slot Hannah Haggerty 15:16 girl Cruz has got Flint along with Sondra of shoots and Pettit three Riders moving on to the main event coming in and out of turn number one looks like what you see is what you’re going to get three on a track 3 going to the main looks like me Mia Flynn going to qualify out out Brooklyn shoots going to qualify out and Lily Sondra total Point racing 17 to women 20 women cruises on the track got topper with one point Jeffers with two points early with three points right now is hip-hop Jenna sitting in the top spot looking to tie things up with the shy girl Jasmine topper now out with one point no excuses racing trying to find a way to the top slot coming out final turn it is Jefferson topper to the line they go Jeffers going to tie things up with top or going into their main event with CJ K CJ Hurley Hurley with the three got Le Mans along with Edwards in Myers on the track right now SharkBite Rachel Le Mans Tulsa Oklahoma time to shine colors on the oh oh bringing them at Gold Cup champion shark by going to

qualify out along with the 724 Katie Edwards & Myers chaos Nation forgot that was a turn there and just went straight up and over take a little left turn and right hand turn you got you got you kind of jumped a curb then as he’s alright though bringing them back go Cup champion bring it on back to the line Wendy Rusev going to qualify out along with Emily meringue picking up that second spot 41 to 45 they’re over there what happened why don’t you go away after my steering wheel got stuck went straight try to turn right wouldn’t go locked up up not a Arnold Carlson and topper on the track right now two Riders are going to the main event 929 my charity Carlson coming out Omaha yeah going to qualify out the go cup to by Randy Arnold out of League City Texas out of Model 35 got Brian Johnson Turner and K on the track right now the Phi by Tracy O’Brien O’Brien sitting out front Gail K sitting on the two slot bringing them back to the line Tracy O’Brien hi weejun out of Cedar Rapids is going to qualify out yeah okay yeah Let It Go Gail wait a way to go they go cup to buy Kristi Johnson picking up that third slot seven and under cruisers are on the track Moto 3738 combined God grace Thorn Grand Hardy young Schwartz Schwartz hypercolor sitting out front right now though wonder who that could be you know Josh Hardy those guys there must be like a thousand of them out there they’re everywhere Hardy going to go the go cup 3 by Thorn you’re going to transfer out 771 bike young gonna go and how fast all fast 66 bike coming out his Mighty Mouse Mighty Mouse going to transfer out for Maryland s squared good job Mighty Mouse motul 3940 combined eight-year-old curvatures qualifying for God’s Eleanor gray along with buermeyer Snelling Ingham 8 bike sitting out front Matt dogmatix now it’s now going to transfer out 263 bite gonna go 63 by qualifying out the black mama buermeyer and qualifying out with them is going to be the ten bike gray in the five bike picking up that Force lot with us Ingham go Cup champion coming at us right now Lucas Tyson going to qualify out along with the 27 by Duke’s Taylor the one-bite was Merlot when the 25 by picking up that last spot husband darling ten-year-old Cruisers bring them back to the line qualifying out sty below along with Bundy and new bar out of motive 43-44 the Moto number eleven Cruisers got gunning Holton Frazier along with laying two Riders moving on the main event the go Cup champion Jacob Lang friendship Wisconsin right at 9:00 racing along with the 346 bike Dylan Holton picking up those two spots out of 44 45 is the Moto number got Bailey Miller along with eating and palm or the go Cup champion Kate and Killer Miller sitting out front coming out of that final turn to go Cup champion Killer Miller out Austin Texas going to go and old Chuck nasty Charlie Bailey out of Independence Missouri going to pick up that second spot out of moto 45 46 46 the Moto number one Rider down on the first straight away it looked like Jimmer johanna’s having trouble on the first straight away the a by porkchop Calhoun coming at us yes toledano Jaden’s Quincy of going to pick up that second spot doing it for Majesty racing out of moto 46 47 the Moto number got Goodman Alexander along with the Zeal and Stice two Riders going to the main event out of turn number one one

Cooper does he’ll attend a trace in Grand Forks North Dakota coming out of turn number two on the seven bike is the Zeal the to buy the maniac there are the magic Nance written Alexander sitting on the two slot out of the final turn they come to Riders going straight to the main event Cooper du Ciel going to pick up that first place second slot to the to buy the Magic Man Trenton Alexander trip 9 racing now the modal 47 48 is is the Moto number combining up with modal 49 got the 505 by Tyler holding out of Michigan wild BMX out of Rockford Michigan bringing them back to his hole and going to pick up a spot along with the 14 by cash money Hopson to qualify along with a 34 Bike Jackrabbit joffe in the sixth by picking up that last spot Jaden Beckman out of Denton Nebraska 52 Moto number 14 Cruisers two Riders are qualified to the main event got funk along with canes Lon Larson and as too long ago Nashville age group number for by Burger King’s Landing going to pick up that first place second spot to the 14 by Camden Funk out of Model fit e51 the Moto number second rack 14 Cruisers got Thompson Hoffman along with men sir and hornbuckle Dayton man are on two wheels out of Topeka Kansas on the point right now second spot up for grabs their ballon out looks like men sir 52 is the Moto number got Mason more and Gardner two Riders going to the main event bringing them back this way the 27 by the maniac Marcus more and the national age group number eight bytes Dallas gardener they life cycles out of modal 52 16 Cruisers coming out of that final turn on a four by keying Schillinger going to score up the one for trip 9 Fred top we’re going to tie things up with Jake The Snake going into their main event tied up with Five Points apiece apiece four Riders go on to the main event out of this one oh we lose one in the corner bringing them back out of turn number two two well I’d rather doubt four of them coming away clean clean I got check out this dude’s number plate man I don’t like it it Yvonne Yvonne Heisler all right got our guy picked up out of turn one Radio 21 to 25 year old Cruisers are on the track out of turn number two comes keighley tag lie I just we talked about that this morning even though hang on little walk up on a wild side right there come on man Nolan Kegley this is you’ve been here you know how to do that NASA ladies group 8 in the 22 bike Barney and Larson I’ll pick it up spots out of modal 5556 s door number Thirty One thirty five Cruisers got Harris Echols and renowed here come the Sea by the real door Kody Harris going to transfer out along with a go cup won by Ronnie renowed out of Auto 56 57 is the Moto number 36 to 40 year old Cruisers got snail along with o’gara and ball coming out of that final term bringing them back on a four bike Alex now now going to qualify out along with the 733 by quiet ball Wyatt ball coming by at the line at immortal 5758 the Moto number forty one forty five Cruisers got young Bears feels suck-up up

Jason Young trip non-racing gonna qualify out along with the 755 bike Rubik’s suck up and the 40 by Corey Corey fields 46 to 50 year old Cruisers two Riders of the minivan got one is Cordova and top topper out of the final turn comes the five by Fred Chopper out of Ventura California and the 10 by then Dan why – out a model 59 60 is the Moto number got K Miller and Neff Neff now the final turn they come looks like Donovan Miller profile Proline or cycling gonna qualify out along with the to bike yeah Tio Todd Kay out of moto 60 bokor got it going on in this one out of Ham Lake Minnesota Prodigy Racing 3 Riders going to the main event coming out of that final turn bokor going to pick up a spot along with 11 Bikes Swanee Swanson going to transfer out along with the 903 bite Jeff’s wingler 56 to 60 Cruisers got Chambers fields and Vaughn Moss two Riders go into the main event got room for two Vinny 3-byte the flying on me chambers that yeah old school there and Robert Vaughn Moss out of moto 62 were checking on her down Riders over there man Wild Bill made it through clean Pappy Patterson but they’re checking on Alvin Davis man he went OT be in the turn number one one I want to check him out out yeah yeah Alvin’s up up yeah Pappy Patterson are going to qualify out while Bill gonna go that’s scary stuff right there man they were they were all three close together they’re all three man 64 year old dude right there y’all right Albert Alvin you got it going on Alvin’s it if you ever get bent never been a DeSoto Alvin that do can cook cook that guy right there I eat that cooking all day long long yeah him and a Munson’s get together they cook for everybody have you said I ripped my pants or I peed my pants I think he said I ripped my pants you know uh so guys we got to wear them things sometimes sometimes yeah you yeah you know you got you got a pack in the closet for that special times you know five and under novice or out on the track right now slow me slow mode Amy joe– got it going on right now in Muskogee Oklahoma two Riders are going to us semi parks and Aldrich moving on out of Model 64 65 is the Moto number got Schrader joffe Zuck and of eenie Eenie Vega joffe sitting out front in this one the the ace Adam Schrader sitting in that to slot slot Vega joffe Council Bluffs Iowa T1 BMX coming at us two Riders going to semi-main event Vegas going to qualify out job Vega and the 519 bike the ace Adams Schrader what’s this one here the three

hey back in Moto 51 Chevy Hoffman was disqualified for actions down the last straight away your qualifiers going to be Miles hornbuckle and modal 51 once again motive 51 the 3-bike Chevy Hoffman was disqualified for actions down the last straight away away got Von Moss Phillips and steed two Riders going to a semi-main event got room for two two third rack 5 and under novice got four groups of these guys are two of them are going to a semi-main event the 118 by Cameron steed Steve sitting out front Hot Wheels Von mom sitting in the two slot oh now Hot Wheels coming on by taking over the top slot out of on New Mexico the 118 by Cameron stated in the two slot Here Comes Cool Hand Luke Phillips out of Topeka in the three slot the five and on our novice look at the moose being made in the last turn now and on the underneath side coming back at us nice move right there camera Steed trying to take over the top side were taken to Steed gonna qualify out a long hot wheel Von mises I’m care man every race is the main race you don’t finish first to finish last that’s what I say right that’s what they say sometimes sometimes I even can’t sitting out front out of Warrensburg Missouri the mules coming in and out of turn number three Ivan Kent two Riders moving onto a semi-main event last rack 5 and under it novice Ivan can’t gonna qualify out along with Fitz Caitlin Fitzgerald out of Palmira Nebraska Nebraska Job Abby come on yeah kind of dig that may see Jones out in front on this one six-year-old novice combining for qualifying for 68 69 as the Moto numbers bringing them back out of that final turn may see Jones looking to qualify out along with the 732 bike a Wyatt James ball wives going to qualify out the 99 by Lucas wells in going to qualify out in the to buy Kendall Purcell for Brian and the Gang over at Majesty an atom model 69 69 Here Comes Johnny Go yeah look Johnny doing some condusive trick riding out there come on everybody say go Johnny Johnny go Johnny Johnny Go Go yeah you know yeah yeah man he’s a ham right that guy that guy’s a ham he likes the attention that’s for sure I got me some $7.99 799 bike nice take qualified for out of that would look like nowhere along with Finley darling darling that Duncan 8 novice mother number 7070 to got key for Lackey Phillips and Yuengling Gold Cup to bite Mad Max Kieffer bring them out to the line Mad Max going to go along with the 38 bike 39 bike brecon Yuengling qualifying out of model 72 73 is the model number 73 bike out front DJ golden Hans at Omaha get sitting out front got sellner Amber ass sitting in the two and three coming in and out of that final turn DJ DJ bringing them back to align two Riders straight to the main event golden Hobbs is going to qualify out along with the go cup three Delaney sellner 74 is the Moto number three Riders moon on the main event nine-year-old novice God Beckman along with Don Zuck and Griffin the 174 by Nathan’s uck the I weeded out as epic Jessup sitting out front got Lydia Beckman in the two slot to the line they come Nathan’s uchma qualify out Lydia Beckman of codifying oh 59 by

attitude Addison done got cook long Novak Blackburn and to shame nine 64-byte Leland Blackburn out of Prairie City Iowa sitting out front in this one bring them back as Blackburn and the 126 by Cameron to Sheen qualifying out in the 648 bike Maya Novak 76 the Moto number eleven year old novice got Martin along with case deardorff and Vaughn Moss three Riders qualifying out looks like what you sees what you’re going to get six 6161 by breeanna dear door to transfer out Kate and case to qualify at along with the 224 bike of the Unicorn Hannah van Moss 77 the Moto number three Riders moving on 12 novice looks like Natalie pyro going to qualify out out along with Collingwood going to transfer out and go cut three Mike Brady Dobbins Dobbins checking on bubbles looks like bubbles is okay gauges up up yeah thirteen-year-old novice Moto number 78 two Riders going to the main event got Poulsen all one and deardorff follow-the-leader out of turn number one down the to straightaway looks like beard or sitting out front on this one now as Paulson Paulson and alwine out is running one and two Gavin pulse and out of Palmyra Nebraska Cameron all wine sitting in that to slot coming out of Springfield Missouri bringing them back to the line Paulson to the line hey gopal Singh going to transfer out along with Cameron she going to qualify out out of modal 78 79 the Moto number Collingwood mayor and a sweetie he’s cashed it in round one number one getting it out front right now cost and Collingwood out of Des Moines Iowa Iowa back to the line comes Collingwood scoring up the ace Austin mayor with the to case the scene with the three four Riders going to them oh fourth place Rider down in turn number two two got Don Bergstrom accurate along a Poulsen and and Merrill Hayden Bergstrom back to the Finish Line please Aidan Bergstrom back to the finish line 41 45 year-old novice three Riders going to the main event got Finley Bly along with took her and darling three Riders going to the main event bringing them back got 262 bike Mike by 84 bike bike 84 bike was Sean took her n’gou cup to Justin darling Aidan Bergstrom Aidan Bergstrom back to the finish line 37 by doing it out front in this one Carl Kirk out Omaha coming back at us total Point Race and got Mathias and elements I want to try it Kurt going to screw up the one Matthias with the to Dylan meguri with the three he said oh man five and under intermediate coming back at us

right now 307 book out the 55 bike Roseland qualifying out of moto 83 yeah 84 84 is the Moto number Cannon Weigel 10 a tracing gonna qualify along with the 45 by tracing casein Marie at 84 85 is the Moto number Blackburn and curly running out one and two right now Luke Vance Branson sitting in that three slide coming into that final turn Luke Blackburn on the the point Creighton he hires out of God’s country sitting in that to slot bringing them back as Blackburn and Harv’s out of moto 85 as the Moto number we got rhys-jones along with buck and ladrón the wee man sitting out front right now Elias Buck Reno Nevada jet racing racing coming back at us got a good one coming Buck going to pick up that first last second spot to the 59 bike at the line Riley Cru Jones you know I’m a little buddy Riley coming by right there at the line wow Wow 87 the Moto number got to 69 by Bryson Bolger going to quantify out along with the 30 bike bracelet and ring Yuengling Yuengling third rack 7 intermediates two Riders going to a semi-main event got LaChance key along with Clark and Double D mayor bear coming out of that final turn coming out at the Beacon Kansas crossing the line racing mayor mayor Berry Clark and the 24 bike case Double D out of moto 88-89 as the Moto number eight intermediates combining it with Moto 90 we’re going to qualify for Riders riders got Carlson Rosalyn along with Jameson and late Lahey Alexander Carlson going to transfer out out Jack Rosalind going to transfer out out Colin Jameson going to qualify along with Wyatt gambling 9 intermediate model number 91 got van ginkel Buck Frazier along with Bailey and Falen T-Bone Talent van ginkel brand new intermediate in this one trying to find a way in bringing them back now the top spot goes to the 12 by twelve bite the Phenom failing and a 4 byte Misbehavin Savin Savin Frazier good job after Talan yeah first race is an intermediate turn won the race yesterday as a novice turning up welcome to that intermediate class class got charity along with solid daily and Parks on a 38 bike Showtime charity now the 109 by Kane daily sitting in that to slide a chicken wing sit up oh two Riders down on the straightaway get up we got room for one more more Oh Jason Killinger saying man I got no transmission or I could get in there what happened the 16 by go chicken wing going to pick up a spot I got no transmission he says the 38 by Showtime Elvis charity the only qualified to to so good good yeah yeah it’s an all skate skate yeah nah let’s see let’s go on up to ten intermedius for Riders moving on to the main event muddle 93 on the track got Wilson along with Myers Smith seedorf and Griffin oh no the 27 by Carter Wilson man he was in that he was in a qualifying spot put it on the dirt for right racing case admirers to transfer out beanpole seedorf going to go the six bike of Gabby Griffin and the Gold Cup 3 bye Cali girl Kelly Smith

Smith 94 the Moto number two Riders to the main event 11 intermediate has got Berg care along with Hayward and renowed on the 23 by Brandon Carol going to transfer out along with Jeff renowed picking up those two spots out of 94 95 the Moto number lead writer trying to find that pedal he got back on I lost it for a minute be he’s back on a Drexel eating crossing the line out of Topeka Kansas still sitting in that top spot one Rider trying to come on by takes it up high which is it on around bring it around looks like doll taken over the top spot Chase doll is going to qualify out along with the Gold Cup one bike Brody cook twelve intermediates two Riders to The many men got lie lives in Mason De La Williams is smart back to the line on the 18 by 10 By Gentry Mason Gentry going to qualify out along with the 38 bike the Mohawk warrior Tyler Lee yeah Tyler back on it after that mishap in the first round of Moto’s qualifying out second track 12 intermediates Godsey meant to Yo raible BB and Kirk bringing them out to line under 130 by Jack raible out of Minnesota and the 40 by picking up that second spot latency and xeomin out of moto 97 98 is the Moto number combined up with 99 for Riders moving on Eli Hillhouse out of Haysville Kansas doing it for the to cycle Michael bringing them back to the line he’ll I got it going on spread it out Eli going to transfer out look like the 11 bike of Olsen to-go cup 3 bike of Danielson going to transfer out along the 765 65 64 bike of Lackey Lackey 14 intermediates two Riders going the main event model 100 got Krug along with best Mick Magnum and and 60 by qualifying out was best and Jay Jay Jones 101 the model number God Dallas and Kane along with Hardwick and Hogue Hogue on a 53 by Austin Austin Austin ho going to transfer out along with the 80 by Cleveland Allison Allison fitting intermedius total Point racence cottonmouth with one point strain with two points Eli the fly with 300 you look at around the wrong way Houston what’s going on the 55 bike Rogers taking the Juanita’s train with the to my Allah with the three those guys are all tied up with four points of Peace coming into their main event I don’t know if that was the plan or not but that’s the way it’s working out 16 by Jake para and to go cut one Sean Ryan picking up those two spots out of moto 103 21 to 25 intermedius two Riders going to the main event guys snap Gomes and young lead Rider cranking it out of turn number one right now looks like Austin Gomes Gomes 1:51 by that’s Gomes in the two spot must be Cameron Cameron Young he’s got to go cut one plate but he wants to run that 138 parcel to that 138 plate yeah Cameron young gonna qualify out alone to 151 I’ll Stand Gomes Gold Cup champion Nicholas Hoult sitting out front in this one Olsen in the two slot Norberg sitting in the three slot total Point racing boots got a sitting out front with for box components with one point old someone to us whether going to finish them up one more time three Riders going to the main event we lose one rider in the corner 28 by Michael Gregory out of Higginsville Missouri going to qualify out along with Jody Watson and Nick Novotny oh I know footer no one in the house you didn’t Latin he didn’t stick it though did he know it might have got injured on that as as a matter of fact I don’t know he might have hurt himself himself really bad 41 to 45 year

old intermediates for Riders going to the main event got Porter Thompson Wilson a lot Latimer and Fields Cory field sitting out front and that’s when got Travis Wilson Landstar Cutler sitting in a to slide four Riders moving on or banging in the corner bringing them back to the line Fields going to transfer out Wilson’s going to transfer out along with a 10 bike a Thompson and it’s 363 by Mike Porter the be sitting out front in this one Rob macaulay’s got Joe Mason said in the two slot Tim Strange sitting on the tree back to the line the Beast Rama college Mason Joe coming on by right there and Macaulay qualifying out out what up Tim 51 51 and over intermediates two Riders going the main event Brad Jennings out of Fort Collins going to go along with Robert Vaughn moss Out of New Mexico six-year-old girls are on the track God says Dodson and Christiansen two Riders transferring out of this one Eleanor Christensen sitting on a point Remy the Rockstar sassa on the two slot pea Dodson sitting entry three two Riders going to the main event these gals going fast got a five-year-old stuck in there with them The rock star out of Richland Hills Texas sitting on the deuce right now it’s going to go qualify and out along with Remy suss out of model 110 110 four Riders for Riders going to qualify all man the fourth place Rider goes down getting back on it let’s see if she can get back in the game bringing them back out of that final turn so six bike Eliana culture has to qualify out the 3×5 couch was to qualify the five bike of Calhoun the qualifying a go Cup champion of Miriam give it up right there for Hannah Jameson tough break for Hannah I was in a nice spot nine-year-old girls are on the track got coal along with Brenly Gaylor and high rents on the one bike little sparkles River hairand coming back on a qualify Al along with Brenly in the seven bike crazy girl Cameron Cole qualifying out a moto well and 12 113 the Moto number got Lehigh Gilman Amber in NASA ladies group or the go cut one bite Wicked Tuna Isabella Lehigh the national age group number one bite land in Burien coming out of moto 113 114 is the model number got gold kneeling a loud voice malls in and Wells Emily Welsh bicycle Exchange out in front of this one running on the One Race of Champions four Riders moving on the Gold Cup champion Neil and it’s going to go Wells going to qualify Nina’s going to qualify along with the see bike Presley the Piston gold and the national age group number 7 by Cal avoid picking up that for slot for Full Tilt radio 12 year old girls are on the track God ride so gifts left tack and poker final turn actions got the D bike Hannah have it gift speed freaks BMX out of Valparaiso in the end I’m going to qualify out along with the for bike in the 12 the for of liptak in the 12 bokor Taytay a qualifying Animoto 115 116 116a Moto number coming in and out of that final turn National age group number six by The Mad Dog Madison Voight going to qualify out along with the go cut one danger Danica can’t the to bike picking up a spot Brooks Stevens in the eighth by Ralph Ralph fourteen-year-old girls are on the track two Riders going to the main event looks like she’ll be Elder going to pick up that first spot spot 94 Kylie Shay qualifying out a modal 117 118 the Moto number God Douglas Haggerty and Kurtz bringing them back to line on the a spike morgy Douglas going to qualify out along with the three bike Marley courage qualify now to 180 what do you say Pat fit a 16 girls are on the track got pet its honor of Flynn and

alwine two Riders going to the main event coming in now that final turn we got room for two bringing them back on the 10 by picking up that first spot me of Flynn and the nine bike Lily Sondra picking up those two spots out of moto 119 God toss it along with palm young and she’s Megan toss it sitting out front grace young sitting on the bubble two Riders moving straight to the main event bringing them back to the line S squared colors Megan toss at the qualify out along with grace young trip 9 racing out of moto 120 121 the Moto number got topper Parks Jeffers judge and shapes for Riders moving on to the main event looks like CJ parks impact BMX going to qualify out along with the one bike to Jay Jay I don’t know Parks qualified out Skyler safe qualify it out the J bike of topper and that Force lat lat eight hate my coming at us right now looks like hand and the five biker Fuller Larson she’ll be going to move on on 3140 women experts to National age group number three Gaylor and a31 bike Mariah fields fields Hang Time Heather sitting out front end that’s when total Point racing out of Fort Worth Texas for the chaos Nation as Latimer bringing them back to the line looking to score up another Ace Lattimore going to score the one Arlene Urban with the to ceremonies with the three the six year olds are on the track the experts got Noteboom along with Mitchell and Schwartz Schwartz One race of Champions sitting out front on this one Solomon Mitchell and Samuel Schwartz running one and two coming in and out of the corner Mitchell 0 model out of Blue Springs Missouri got it going on Mitchell going to Trail battle for the to slide Here comes for us here comes Noteboom the seven bike bass note boom coming on by picking up that second spot Adamo to 125 126 is a moto number got tagged Earth or anger and and Kyle turris two Riders going to the main event bringing them back looks like to go Cup champion the many Hulk Kester and Thorin gern gonna qualify how second spot too man they’re making the tough on us I tell you what the thorn during qualifying out and at the line the national age group number six bike Xander couch Iris to pick up that second spot out of moto 126 127 is the Moto number stoffer going to qualify out Stauffer and do more qualifying out along with Mighty Mouse Graves out of moto 127 128 the Moto number got snail Arrington in Ingham we got Hammer Time Iceman noise Ebola in a mad dog man I don’t know what to think the Mad Dog going to qualify out along the seven bike of Ingham man I dig the I dig these nicknames in a tax class let’s say we got mad dog noisy Boy Iceman hammertime black mama salty lawnmower lawn mower the Mad Dog was barking but the noisy boys he couldn’t hear him because the Iceman was delivering the Hammer Time and the black mama was at the door but nobody heard nothing because the lawn mower was running I don’t know hey and get a load of this and the Wi-Fi wasn’t working because that’s a nickname because the hurricane trumped everything man what a bunch of those are great nicknames I don’t know what happened to crank and Hank he must’ve been in the bathroom we still got a coming who we got to go we got the Black Mamba oh salty salty and the lawn mower now the lot more are qualified oh my gosh got buermeyer finkley and nowhere where we’ll call them by the real names for a little bit hey your old experts coming

in and out of turn number one down the first straight Hornets for bite the Black Mamba Levi buermeyer Reno racing out of Burleson Texas got it going on right now and on the underneath side comes nowhere Tegan nowhere where God salty finkley sitting in that three slot he’s got the inside line coming in the final turn your old experts two Riders to a semi good one coming at us before bite the Black Mamba in control this when he’s going to go say up for grabs looks like the go cup champion Tyler salty finkley out of moto 129 sellner gray and seltzer aside sites are on the track right now National age group number nine crankin Hank sight sir are coming out of that final turn got to hurricane Chi gray sitting in the two slot sites are going to qualify out along with the hurricane Chi Gray out of moto 1:30 1:31 the model number nine experts two Riders to the main event got more Taylor Stewart and met there and Kendall Kendall two riders on straight to the main event looks like the 4-byte dupes Taylor Dukes coming out of Columbia Missouri and the to buy Dylan Stewart picking up that second spot out of moto 131 132 is the Moto number of got merlot/burgundy Wilkie darling and Moorhead final churros lead writer sneaking a peek they’re coming Espen don’t worry about them guys they’re coming after you bring it to the line Wilkie going to transfer out along with the three bike of read Birds man what are you doing the five bikes Samuel tree rise sir what organ right a Northwest BMX sitting out front on this one hypercolor sitting in the two slot Eli Bundy two Riders moving on a 10x semi-main event going to go the five of tree rise rise and the by Eli Bundy out of mother 133 134 is the Moto number more 10x first got King along with new buyer McCain and Dirk into the lines going to go Brady the king to qualify out and the national age group number for by Caleb Dirk and coming by at the line 135 is the Moto number God gives dible along with Mark Lee and Pollock two Riders movement on the go Cup champion tayden Pollock Black Widow BMX and the 23 by Tegan’s tribal out of moto 135 136 is the Moto number eleven year old experts to go Cup champion Rider Scranton ruin it for riff tangent out of Norco California oh nice move right there this guy just practicing in the corner he’s in a qualifying spot then bring it to the light looks like a pair of ones that go cut one the one by gocubs granting the one bike the tombstone JC Gaylor Gaylor Stockholm Miller Dylan and Teague on the track right now Moto one 37:11 experts to Riders going to a semi-main event out of the final turn on the to by bringing them back Earl stock alright racing to qualify along with the six bike Blake tea out of moto 137 138 is the Moto number God Holton Frazier and gunning two Riders going to a semi-main event find that final turn looks like this 13 by Dylan Holton oh hang on on 13 of holding on to go cut three bike maximun is gunning man that was close guy lost a little bit of a control and hang on on twelve-year-old experts two Riders to a semi hon – sighs so Coons and Gutman on the for by Cooper hon eyes I am BMX innate bike picking up that second spot the LJ Landon Coons more 12 experts out of turn number two God dizzy labels and could Rouse key Cooper does heal grant Forks North Dakota doing it for ten day tracing bringing them back to the line does he’ll going to qualify out it looks like Mini Cooper could Rouse key going to qualify out of moto 140 141 the model number got or minced ice and Stewart got to six bike sitting out front the tightrope Riley Stewart the 25 bike Patrick or remand coming out of that final turn two Riders moving onto a semi-main event looks like it’s going to go to Stuart and Patrick Orman out of moto 141 twelve-year-old experts two Riders to a semi-main event what you see is what you’re going to get Jaden sequenza 7 bike of the Magic Man Trenton Alexander

thirteen experts to Riders going to a semi-main event down the to straightaway comes knees Hobson raise a candy cane why at Westover SC Radko how to our a de Colorado on the point got the six by cash money Hopson sitting on a news coming out of North Las Vegas bringing them back to Alliance going to go west over on the 22 and the six bike bike of Hopsin Hopsin God hires Maybin and sinkhole sitting on the track right now two Riders to of semi-main event looks like the st. nasty Cooper single on that 9 and the eight bike that was Maybin and single out of 144 got an awfully toll-free and knob on the track right now to have a novel St Peters Missouri’s got to Speed Racer here toll-free sitting on the bubble to to go novel e and toll-free going to qualify out of moto 145 146 the Moto number God Carlson Williams and mad and on the sixth bike the Mad Dog Sean Madden Edge racing out of Independence Missouri two Riders going to a semi-main event coming out at final turn whoo am trying to hang on to that to slot he’s got Carlson coming after I was going to go to Six of Madden and and 21 bike hanging on bubbles no Williams out of moto 146 147 the Moto number fourteen year old experts got Palm Harbor for Le Mans and Hernandez two Riders going to a semi-main event looks like the three bike rider Burford in the fort by KJ Hernandez God Colburn and Lehi along with Hill House and Robinson Nolan Colborne Throwdown colors out of Janesville Wisconsin coming at us he’s going to qualify along with Gabriel Lehigh jet racing at a moto 148 149 the Moto number got funk McGuire Thompson and Larson got phone can McGuire out running one and two coming in the final turn to Riders going to A14 expert semi-main event back down that last last straightaway Camden it’s City Missouri going to transfer along with the one-bite a cowboy Caden McGuire out of Owasso Oklahoma got mansoureh cops again Bowman battle it for two spots looks like dating men sir out on the top spot on two wheels bring it back mentors going to go along with the one bike cold cops account model 150 151 is the Moto number got grabbed in ski Kisner Morgan and Sullivan key and grab in ski esquared Rider out of st Joseph Minnesota bringing them down down the last right away got grabbed in ski going to qualify along with Dylan Morgan Canyon Lake California out of moto 151 Pat hey Pat I think he told you shut up yeah but you know what I know so I just got a feeling that you’ve heard that a time or two yeah just shut up man he been told that I know more than twice just that’s in the last 30 seconds now there’s for everybody St Peters Missouri next workout next week everybody but be wearing t-shirts see shut up at at ha ha oh man that ain’t nice yeah was that Riley Riley come on you got to have a little respect for your elders elders yeah says he likes to Heckle a lot but he forgets sometimes who has the mic and who don’t because listen this on the count of three everybody say shut up Pat one two three shut up at ha ha yeah Pat Brian the mouth of st Peter’s BMX he’s an ordained minister he’ll marry you at the track he’s done it before y’all want to get married Pat will marry up it won’t be pretty but there will be a photo opportunity I’ll guarantee guarantee it

USA BMX race worse got a lot of cool stuff over there go check them out Full Tilt all set up up along with Tangent and faith over in vendors row Fritz and the Gang over there mark post is building rims and building wheels and fixing bikes all weekend long no rest for the weary yeah how many sets of Wheels have you built this weekend weekend mark a hundred and forty-two he says says yeah yeah well you know what we haven’t had a chance to talk about yet this week as football you know you know we like to talk about football used to like talk about the Kansas City Chiefs all the time and now that they’re on top of can’t really talk about it no more everybody going to start not liking them who here loves the Kansas City Chiefs Chiefs who here despises the Kansas City Chiefs Chiefs Riley is that you you I used to like you Riley wow my my little friend just here let me pull that out of my back yeah yeah who do we play tomorrow hey we got any Raider fans in the house okay Las Vegas Raider fans in the house I didn’t didn’t oh I’m all right yeah that’s right I forgot BMX was a nice peaceful Family Sport you know Raider fans now that ain’t right they got some good fans feel like getting hit in the head with a fifteen-year-old a I didn’t say it out loud I’ll just thinking it just came over to Mike God Jung along with Brian Mason and Horrors Pat Brian sitting out front this the other Pat Brian this is a good path Bryant 26 bike sitting in the to slide Jason Mason coming in and out of turn number one God Horrors and Jung trying to find a way in bringing them back to the line bad luck Pat Bryant going to go Jason Mason hanging on for that to spot out of motor 152 153 is the Moto number God Bailey Reeves to gear and Hyper 7 by River Race on 2.21 by Kate and Bailey in the two slot race is going to transfer out along with Kate and Bailey out of moto 153 154 the Moto number 15 year old experts got got righty want right or one or and Elliot oh the second third place Riders are both they’re both down who can get up who can go put it together for these guys all there still I’ll man half a step away right there the 46 bike Sean Wonder skidmark rider in the nineteen bikes got Elliot Elliot wow Wow 16 experts on attract top or Blake Rogers along with McClane out of the corner on the to buy our the eight eight by Insane clay MacLean and the 29 by Sonny Fred topper out of moto 155 156 the Moto number God l or cylinder and Gensler got the 28th bike sitting out front Ian Schillinger got Jackson ehlers in the two slot Gensler sitting on the tree bringing them back to the line the ice Ian Schillinger going to go along with the for by Jackson ehlers got Orem and Boots real out one Rider down through the Section along with rice room and Moyer the 11 by muy muy Jordan Moyer going to qualify a second slot goes to the 32 bike Jordan Beaudry out of moto 157 got Nielsen hopping or Kennedy and parks are on the track right now two Riders going to a semi-main event yeah carving it out right there often Austin hot finger not Aberdeen South Dakota and the three by Crandall parks out of moto 158 159 as the Moto number got Bromley Nelson Anderson and Haggerty Cooper Bromley out of

st. Charles Missouri bring it on back to the line Looks like Bromley going to qualify out along with the 10 bike Diamond Evan Nelson out of moto 159 160 is the Moto number 21 to 25 year old experts got Petrie Moran and and elders the 11 bike Mustachio bringing them back at us Christopher pottery you know that’s Peach Tree let’s 279 by Moran 161 the Moto number then Paradigm sitting out front in this one got ID in stock in tow coming in and out of that final turn paradeen and I Dean out running one and two here comes comes parroting a out and the 327 buying race Shawn I Dean out of moto 161 162 the Moto number combined up with Moto 163 for Riders moving on got Ledoux Barney Fahey along with Corman and ankles you better come on man Fahey going to go along the national 1817 and at 10:00 Fay he went out along with corpsman Eccles and LeDoux 36 to 40 year old experts to more Riders moving on in the program looks like Adam we and a 15 bike Adam why and the 15 by Jesse Jesse hi Logan two more Riders going out of this one thirty six to forty year old experts got o’gara Welter along with funk and alwine Alwine well the one Race of Champions the ninja Adam Welter to go along with the 70 by Kyle Kyle funk 166 is the Moto number forty one forty five-year-old experts three Riders going to the main event looks like Joe McCarty out of Tulsa OK bring them back at us taking three Riders going McCarty’s going to transfer out the 14 bike Paulo di Matteo going to go along with the 36 bike hanging on on huh yeah barely hanging on 46 to 50 year old experts three Riders moving on to the main event the One race of Champions Clint Arnold going to qualify out Arnold goes a long with Ervin and the 24 by brian tabor oh watch out whoa whoa you okay Tim man new CEO and Jones are going to qualify out Allah of my old friend Mike Roberts man man Minnesota Mike he forgot I got one more shot to take you out my old friend Tim left Thorpe let’s see what yeah yeah yeah Minnesota Mike says I want to I want to redo that race photographer got my way yeah yeah hey that’s it for all the qualifying Moto’s semis you guys are up next going to take a short break do our semi mains yeah yeah radio Radio watch the gate

hey three times lack of the yeah honey don’t leave me I am brave I am both beautiful beautiful radio Radio watch the gate

hey Hey three-time black is the yeah blonde hair blonde hair blue eyes Gracie’s on a purple Strider bike everybody look out for Gracie everybody stop stop what you’re doing look around for a purple Strider bike three-year-old girl on it with blonde hair blue eyes named Gracie Gracie JJ you let me know if you find her once again we’re looking for a little three-year-old girl blonde hair answers to the name of Gracie on a little purple Strider bike yeah we’re trying to find a three-year-old come on back see my main number one for Riders go to the main event got winds are Westover toll-free McGuire Burford and schinkel coming out of the final turn looks like the to by picking up Windsor the three bike up Burford the be bike a toll-free whoo we know toll-free got that third spot we’re going to check it it we’re going to check it we know it’s between those two guys SEC Iraq 1314 open bringing them back looks like Colburn sitting on a spot right now Colburn and cops are going to transfer out along with the eight bike of Mark Lee in the 19 of Hill House Hayden that first semi the 22 by the 22 by Kawhi at Westover was your qualifier moving on in the five and under novice class flow for going to the main event it’s a Quincy ah Welty along with Armstrong Aldrin Schrader Von moss and Fitzgerald the anomaly doing it out front and this one one Amir Armstrong bringing them back at us us Caitlin Fitzgerald China hang on on Armstrong going to go Fitzgerald’s going to go the to 12 of well T in the 66 bike of on Moss Moss second rack $500 Phelan sire dried rentals Parts Jaffe Steed and and can’t 194 bye Jace Reynolds Chase rentals for bombshell got the 118 by Steed sitting in the two slot to 158 bike in the three slot right now is

is Kent Chase Reynolds coming in and out of that final turn I got the old GoPro on bringing them back to the line Reynolds going to qualify out looks like cameras T going to qualify the 158 of can’t and the a a bike Matthew Dryden out of semi-main number four seven intermediate semi-main number five got eager Macomber dimatteo Jones Bulger and Clark Clark 89 by Dax Macomber at Avon Co Colorado got the 69 bike sitting in the two slot got to be Bulger out of Blue Springs Missouri coming into the final turn back at us his Macomber Macomber and bowls are running one or two has got Mike but Di Matteo and it’s Ray’s gonna go McCall more bowls or dimatteo on the 59 by Riley Jones sailor Skype Branson Buck England Double D’s on the track second track seven intermediates turn to actions got the 62 by Austin sale or sitting on the top spot 30 by Brazen Yingling sitting on the to The onion Max Branson sitting in the three slot coming out of that final turn Sail Out of Freeport Illinois doing it for the Freeport BMX team sales going to qualify out Branson’s going to qualify younglings going to qualify in the 44 bike of Harlow Scott Scott hey your old expert semi-main number seven Scott Hoffman Tyson Christensen snail bird migrated here we go the Noisy Boy Wi-Fi Mad Dog black mamba and a hurricane hurricane the three bikes got a hey the Wi-Fi’s on everybody can log on we got Wi-Fi Christensen sitting out front right now sitting in that to slot as Tyson Christensen and Tyson bringing them back this way Christians going to go 67 by Tyson the Gold Cup 3-bike the Noisy Boy and the four boys four bike of the Black Mamba Mamba second rack eight-year-old Astros got Hamer Maury kinzhal income finkley in sight sir it’s hammer Time right now the Hammer Time but the wild-card trying to find a way by into that top spot as well here comes a lawnmower and cranking hate coming out that final turn Hammer Time Brady Brady hammer Proline cycling it’s going to go the to of Hamer the national age group number nine bikes sites are the one bike Hall and Nash large group number 7 by The Iceman Iceman ten-year-old experts they found her all right now we found Gracie thanks everybody thanks thanks Bubba got the ten bike sitting out front on this one the zany acts Satan Robinson coming in and out of that final turn four Riders low for moving on the 10x of Robinson going to quantify out tree rise going to go along with the 32 bike Westover and a 1 by Rojas got philosophy go hard ear a slap Bundy Durkin and Pollock on the tracks in my main number 10 down to two straight away T and Hardy hyper Rider out of Spring Texas got it rolling into turn number two got the 2×4 lascaux sitting in the two slot slot Hardy and falafels go out running one or two coming in and the final turn looks like Eli Bundy sitting on a bubble trying to find a way bringing them back to the line going to go Hardy going to transfer out philosophers going to go along the seven bike of Eli Bundy and tayden Pollock rounding out that fourth spot semi-main number 11 on the track 11 eleven-year-old experts Scott Lang won’t show Hardy Scranton stoical in Halton yeah Andrew won’t show sitting out front I picking up right where he left off yesterday making a little bit farther in the semi man I’ll tell you what

is kid he landed hard yesterday but he is back on it today going way fast like he do wounds show going to qualify at along the the sea bike let’s see if I can Scranton the to buy Lang let’s see if I can stalk on the Gold Cup champion of of Big Ben Hardy got Waters hey stuffy Gaylor Teague and gunning sitting out front of this one Mason Hayes lightening up for Mongoose out of Denver North Carolina got to by Jay stuffy sitting in the two slot Danny water sitting on the tree for answer Factory coming out of the corner but it’s all Mason Hayes in this one spreading it out bringing them back to align going to go Hayes to qualify out the 19 bike I’m Duffy the three block of waters in the six by Blake Teague twelve-year-old experts Mi my number thirteen got McCain Anderson he’ll Rogers Jiménez de zi lorman and Alexander turn to actions got McCain sitting out front and this one Anderson sitting on the deuce McCain and Anderson out running one and two coming in and out of that final turn back to align McCain going to qualify out 17 by gov Rogers 17 and McCain have Anderson for bike 4X on eyes picking up that for spot Westerman noon Santa Maria all sure and Cones Krakowski Steward and sequenza Missouri makayley sitting out front and this one that is Santa Maria got known sitting in the two slot Missouri mic Santa Maria bringing them back to the line going to go Santa Maria to qualify out Nunes going to qualify out to-go cup 3-bike a Westerman and the 16x v-dub an sold Shirin thirteen-year-old expert semi-main number fitting got back or Delaney dies Hayes Hopson sinkhole toll-free and Williams GQ sitting out front brain Delaney power light out of Colorado Springs got the 49 bike sitting in that to slot Skippy backer backer on the to looks like cast money sitting on that three slot one Rider down through the and bringing them back looks like Delaney’s going to go 49 49 bike 49 bike was backer than Hopson than the 14 by gnarly gnarly Harley fourteen-year-old experts experts how about the second track of thirteen-year-old experts gamma rays that go Neal Mark Lee Holt in Westover Maybin knively and Madden bringing them back to align on the 12 bike picking up that first spot looks like Brady O’Neill going to qualify out Evan Markley going to transfer right Zach and the 19 and the 49 box of of Holton checking out our down Rider down to three straight away away through our semis date number two at the Mid-America Nationals all right looks like we got her down Rider pick backed up there going to ride it on out out so bubbles fourteen-year-old experts got Windsor John Kingsland Aller Burford Colburn Funk and man sir turn to actions got the national age group number 15 bike sitting out front on this one Ethan Aller ehlers got Burford sitting in a to slot 13x golborne sitting on the third coming back at us looks looks like Ehlers going to outrider Burford gonna go Nolan Colburn’s going to transfer out there and that’s what age group number 10 bike hanging on oh Burger King’s Landing fifteen-year-old experts in my main number 19 19 semi-main number 18 more 14 extras Isaac still in Hoffman’s Michael Hernandez Lehigh McGuire and kochak

the line up single file out that final turn Nashville age group number nine bikes Michael got it going on brings Alliance Michael’s going to transfer out going along with him as coal Isaac’s tracing Dylan going to qualify in that last spot goes to cold cops chick fitting year old experts are on the track got tree rise Bartley Ferguson Engler Groban Skiba am Baily in wonder right now is tree rise coming out of the final turn down the last straight away tree rise going to qualify out along with the 63 bike Bartley this National age group number 16 super Drew that is ingre qualifying that along with the 46 bike Sean wonder more fitting your old expert Scott Williams more Garden or Popovich Morgan masonry season Elliott got the inside line Looks like Williams now the seven by Ethan Popovich pop of its out in front got Cutter William sitting in that to to slot and then the final turn they come carving it on out bring him out to us Popovich going to transfer out Cutter Williams going to go National age group number eleven by looks like the maniac Marcus more more the fourth slot goes to seven bike a river Reese 17 to twenty year old experts got Wayne Campbell poke boots re hopping her and Nelson bringing them back at us looks like the national age group number six bike that was Temple temple qualifying out along with pulp Wing clapping oh we got Riders down the last semi one guy looks like Lido coming away clean more moisture coming away away Noah Barton’s out there he’s back on it Randall parks man that’s you your for your in radio Radio Riders ready

hey Hey three times I can see ya honey don’t leave me I am brave I am both I am beautiful radio Radio hey it’s Lauren Reynolds

free time so I could be yeah honey don’t leave me I am brave I am both beautiful beautiful radio Radio Riders ready watch the gate hey Hey

three times lack of the yeah honey need only me I am brave I am both beautiful ready Radio Riders ready ready watch the gate learn metal three times I can see ya are we go many of it time date number two Mid-America Nationals

Omaha Nebraska six and under mixed opens into turn number one comes rats live Bert gray Bentley Weigel Blackburn Dodson and dried and on the 6067 by James Bentley out of Riverside California getting it on coming out of turn number two it is Bentley Bentley he’s got the five by crazy cat Kalani Kalani gray sitting to slot the for bikes Samantha rats left sitting on a tree now she slides within on a two spot coming in and out of that final turn James Bentley out of Riverside California going to get to win national age group number for by grass left with the to Nashville age group number five by gray and then the B by Graham Burke rounding out the top 478 makes to open main Moto God dimatteo Chris Jameson Latina ski Miriam Alvin’s are has Clark and and Macomber too much Olivia of address BMX sharks out of Marino Valley California on a five bike got 289 bike sitting in the two slot got to be Dax Macomber out of Avon Colorado now the ebike put the inside line Looks like Remy dimatteo now he backs it all stay in tight enough three slot coming out of the final turn back to the line Alva dress is going to get to Win Second spot going to go to Dax vekoma Remy demon with the third and the 105 by flying Cecil Grist ran out that for for main model number six on the track got a good one three abreast down through this three feet to straightaway now into turn number two on the for bike Diamond Lil got it going yeah coming in to the final turn Diamond Lily Ashley Dallas Texas doing it for Jerry Bradford and the game bring it up back Ashley going to get to win looks like the national age group number one bike gonna hang gonna come on by for the two slot that was Landing very and the sleet three slots of Isabella Lehigh and rounding out the top four was Bobby Gilman 11:12 next open main model number seven pingatore dannenberg John’s Vic and eaten got to be Lola Lola out in front one more time out of Kansas City Missouri LOL a coming into that final turn power light color spreading it out John’s a Vic bringing it to the line for another win Lola John’s Havoc for the one looks like the national age group number one so but dannenberg with the tree got the national age group number nine pingatore with the she gets a 3 dannenberg with the to and eaten with the for 1314 mixed open main model number eight shave Brent bathroom whether had Jones Van Rensselaer Hill House along with Douglas super bgt colors out of West Jordan Utah spreading it out right now coming into that final turn out they come Van Rensselaer bringing them back to the lines Van Rensselaer going to get to one more ghee Douglas trying to hang on to the two slot but to go Cup champion of bathroom comes on by for for the second Douglas is going to get to third Ellie Brandt rounding out the top four four 26 and 30 year-old next open main model number nine total Point racing Young’s got two points lazarre’s got four points lock on first as Cameron Young yeah young coming out of that final turn pair Aces out of Iowa Stephen Lazar coming out of Edmond Oklahoma running in that 26 to 30 mixed open main event 31 and overmixed open Kylie Pettit Kylie Pettit if you are here can you go to sign ups please Kylie Pettit to sign ups look at here Jason Kim doing it out front he’s got six points in his total Point pocket norburg’s got four points to scenes got two points what’s going on bringing them back to scene coming at us going

to score up the overall win the overall second is going to switch switch at the Finish Line the overall second it’s going to go to the 47 by Matthew norburg and Jason Kim will get the overall third third six and under expert opens gotten Mitchell Schwartz along with falkowski and Noteboom the go Cup champion on the J by Marshall falkowski box components Rider sitting out front coming in and out of the corner bringing them back falkowski got it going on Schwartz sitting in the two slot Here Comes Schwartz with the Charges going to go the J bike falkowski going to get to win Schwartz is going to get to second photo by Mitchell and Noteboom seven eight expert open got selling her hammer Paul eakins I ain’t gum and nowhere on the to buy Hammer Time Brady hammer got the lawn mower Josh he can sitting in that to slot the hammer time in the lawn mower out running one and two bringing them back at us down to the finish line going to go hammer with the Wind Ekans is going to get to second followed up by the one by wild chance Hall and a national age group 7 of The Iceman Iceman Alex Ingham 910 expert open got Taylor James along with Velasco one Rider over over the berm getting them checked out looks like sty Belmar clear a slurve Rojas on the track with Westover but it’s the to by CAF alas co-holder drug out of Weatherford Oklahoma leading them around right now company beating on the door bringing them back you out us Velasco trying to hang on to the top spot here comes the 32 by Velasco for the wind Westover with the second followed by Cohen James and no arrests lift ran an outlet out for for ha ha ha yeah there you go we got us a checking on a down Rider over on the backside of turn number one when mountain climbing came down the wrong side side going to get him checked out out USA BMX race where I got it going on over there check him out got a lot of neat stuff over there race where check out all the latest USA BMX gear Full Tilt in the house along with Tangent and faith faith race where set up over inventors row are we all good back there fellas Ryan we all good back there I see the medic walking out that’s a good sign I I think okay okay good 11:12 open in the turn number one coming out on around look at him go bombshell colors out running one or two Missouri mughelli sitting out front end this one’s got to e by Andrew won’t show sitting in that to slot it is Santa Maria won’t show show Garson known sitting in that to slot got the 12 year old in the eleven-year-old out running one and two the team mates for Bombshell McGee Missouri mughelli Santa Maria with the Wind won’t shows going to get the second followed up by the Sea Micah Scranton or the 16 of noon in the sea by Scranton nice 1314 open got winds or Westover toll-free Burford Markley Colburn Colburn Hill House and cop chick on the to bike is Tyler Windsor Windsor’s got Burford sitting in the two slot Colburn sitting in the three slot along with Mark Lee on the for they’re lined up single file coming out of that final turn carbon it back at us on the three by Michael winds are going to get to win three bike Burford gets a second 13 of Colburn in the eighth by Mark Lee rounding out the top for 1516 open main Moto number 16 God Bailey Malpass Bryant Devore Nielsen ehlers and Nelson

on the tops like the 10 by Diamond Evan Nelson black widow BMX Malpass sitting in that to slot got Bailey sitting on the three bad luck that Brian sitting on the 4th slide in and out of the final turn these guys are lined up single file coming out of the corner Diamond Evans Nelson Isanti Minnesota going to get to win Iceman Malpass is going to get the second followed by the 21 of Bailey in a 3-bike Bryant top four ten and under girl Cruiser main model number 17 got Myers Calhoun Stephen sarasa Barry and appenzeller Hye rims and and Stevens out of turn number one down the backside looks like Kaylee sarasa sitting in the top spot coming out us Belvidere Illinois it is Kaylee Liam around got Steve and sitting in that to slot Isabella Stevens with the 10 Baikal and Barry and sitting on the three coming out of the corner beer and takes it up I tried to get some action coming down bring it back it looks like sarasa Sera so looking to hang on it’s going to go sarasu for the wind Stevens with the barians going to hang on that three eleven twelve girl Cruisers got Cheryl bokor Neyland Hinton gold molds and Love Tack and and reisel coming into turn number two we got a good one coming handlebar action got bokor Taytay and Kira Cheryl I bet on one and two right now now bringing them into the final turn out of sex and clean they go taking it up high take him down now Cheryl slingshots are on now try to get some momentum coming bringing them back on the nine bite bokor 88 Cheryl go cut one by kneeling in the world five tiger Lily Hinton 13 girl Cruisers Elder Haggerty Von holes and Krista do low Kurt’s Blake Hanson and and Bryant coming in and out of turn number two on the national age group number five by S squared kotler’s Gracia Gracia Krista do low on the point ah super fast all weekend long coming back out as Chris to do though going to take home the win looks like the princess Jenna von holds in with the second followed up by evil oh I love Hinton and rounding out the top for shall be elder 15:16 girl Cruisers gate is down now coming right out of the middle of pack looks like grace young got Flynn Street or sauntering up shoots and gay either down the to straightaway grace young trip non-racing out of Winfield Missouri making it look easy right now on the 287 bite National age group number 8 byte West Coast Callie Streeter Venom BMA out of Blaine Minnesota sitting in that to slot slot coming final turn is Grace young the 15 bringing them back to line young for the win Street or going to get the second followed up by the one bike of gay there in the nine by kamiya Flynn 17 to 20 women Cruisers into turn number one got Jeffers and top or all tied up with three points apiece hurl he’s got six points into turn number two is hip-hop jennigeoff First Legacy racing out of Zimmerman Minnesota got to 59 – I girl Jasmine top or she’s already out those power on the outside trying to come in on that final turn taking it up high goes Jeffers Toppers got to go with her bringing them back to the line Sprint to the Finish Line is going to go Jeffers for the wind topper with a to and Hurley with the three wow that’s how you do that that 31 to 35 women Cruiser sagging tort law man said words and fields Mariah Fields coma custom-built Wills out of George has got to 5 by Desiree sag and or sitting in the two slot SharkBite Le Mans sitting on the 3kt Edwards on the forth coming out of the final turn 31 to 35 women Crews main model number 20 could 22 going to go down with Mariah feels for the winds Desiree sag and off with the second shark Rachel Le Mans with the three and Katie had was with the for 36 to 40 women Cruisers Gala Rusev and meringue the One Race of Champions got Christina Gaylor for Celestial Cycles out in front coming out of Del City Oklahoma when the rough stuff out of Poplar Grove Illinois doing it for the no excuses in the chaos Nation sitting on a 3ml a meringue this going to go the

one of Gaylor the one go cup of Russa and the Gold Cup 3 meringue meringue 41 to 45 women Cruz has got Arnold Latimer Carlson and strange Hang Time Heather doing it out front right now one more time for the chaos Nation God Carrie strange sitting in the two slot charity Carlson sitting on the tree out of the final turn clean air for this gal all weekend long Heather Latimer color Hang Time out of Fort Worth going to get to win Second slot goes to carry strange the third spot looks like the 929 of Charity and Brandi will get a 4 46 to 50 women Cruisers oh Bryan Singer threat Wonder Johnson and Kay looks like the three by Tracy old bro Rebecca threat smooth in the sex and taken over the top spot right there there 3 Mike shanin one or back to the two slot coming in that final turn Rebecca threat put on the move out of San Martin California bringing them back at us going to go to the eighth of Rebecca threat for the win Shannon wonder what the second Michelle singer with the third and the five bike Tracy O’Brien rounding out the top four seven and under Cruisers coming into turn number one God has to her graced our anger and Hardy do more more Youngstown for an Coste 75 by Ashton Ashton Hastur sitting out front in this one for the little dude components got the three bike the many the three my Jackson’s to offer sitting in that to slot Black Widow colors on the on the news coming in and out of that final turn but it’s faster getting it done wire to wire to hang on Sprint to the finish line faster for the wind stopped for with the second to go Cup Cup champion go Cup champion Mason do more with the three eight-year-old Cruisers are on the track coming in out of turn number one God Christensen Graber Meyer Tyson Hoffman he can snail and adding up the Gold Cup champion sitting out front Jacob Tyson got it going on right now got the eight byte the Wi-Fi sitting in the two slot it is Tyson and Christiansen out running one and two coming into the final turn and got a good one coming the eight-year-old cruises these guys got the nicknames bringing them back looks like Tyson no Nick frame for this he just wins Tyson going to get to one christensen’s going to get the second followed up by the 31 by the lawnmower Josh Josh eakins got the three and rounding out the top four four yeah nine-year-old cruisers on the track into turn number 1 comes to or Tyson back or Merlot Wilkie darling Morgan and Taylor around they go on the 39 bike the bull sitting out front Crosby backer backer looks like dupes sitting in that to spot coming back out of that final turn it is backer backer bringing them back looks like Tyson trying to find a way in the seven bike that was Morgan the 27 of Taylor 10 Crews remain Model 29 guys dibl Bundy McCain neubauer and Robinson Tegan State Seibel sitting out front Scooby Team Green coming on around got the 44 bike sitting in that to to slot there’s a niak Satan Robinson with Eli Bundy sitting on the tree hyper colors trying to reel them in bringing them back out of that final turn good what coming here comes tribal Here Comes Robinson Sprint to the finish line Robinson coming on by cybo with the to Eli Bundy’s going to get the tree oh my my yeah its main event time in Omaha boys got eleven year old Cruisers got Stokoe whole and Dylan lying Hayes Bailey Miller and Waters oh here we go again Mason hey slide them up right now God Danny water sitting in the two slot 346 Mike Dillon Holton sitting on a tree final turn action Mason Hayes coming out of Denver North Carolina trying to get it done wire to our god Danny water’s coming after him to the line of go one more time waters by for the win Mason hey just gonna get the second oh my my man you kidding me to enroll hey let’s keep that going going I can handle it 12 Cruisers coming down to two straight away got car Calhoun sequenza Anderson Alexander Westerman along with the Zeal and McCain National age group number 10 bike Kayla McCain

Cooper does the ill sitting in that to slide coming out of the final turn like I guess I could probably use a little bit of break from all that stuff here we go McCain going to get the win and that one does eel going to get the in West Des Moines going to get to three man you guys keep racing like that my voice gon be shot we might have to get shut up pant on the line I don’t know that whoo it’ll be all right but pop in another cough drop we good fourteen-year-old Cruisers maybe 13 year old Cruisers coming out of turn number two two chase prey Zach rays that come out of Bishop Texas on the spot coming out of that final turn raise that getting it done wire-to-wire 14 by rays are going to go for the one second slide went to the nag 7 gnarly Harley dice picking up that second fourteen year old Cruiser main Moto number 33 got funk cops at Kingsland Jang Davis man Source Michael and hornbuckle coming into turn number two looks likes Michael got it going on the nag five ride the one bike sitting in the two slot the rig Ian Davis sitting on a deuce coming in and out of that final turn schmeichel and Davis running one and two looks likes Michael’s going to take them to win Davis trying to hang on in the two slot and makes that stick to go Cup champion three junk food Walston John John and the burger picking up that Force lat Aaron Kingsley and checking on her down Rider down on the were on the to straightaway getting him looked at who who y’all having fun man these are some great Main Events yeah I love it love the way you guys are all hanging in tight there on the deal we’re in Nebraska baby we don’t even know how to spell social distancing we don’t care where you going to spell it we ain’t going to do it we’re going to have a mask on every once in a while every every Hunter’s person going to put on a mask we’re good hey just remember this one thing the comments and the opinions of the announcer here and Omaha this weekend are strictly his own they do not reflect the opinions and the comments of USA BMX I am a private oh you can’t hear all right let me yeah see us what I’m talking about about comments in the opinions expressed by the master did not necessarily reflect those the USA BMX I’m a private contractor soap soap there can’t fire me ha ha they come out to me ah quit yeah look at her see Sam hi you can be fired huh she loves me she needs me only once in a while though you know know what nobody else can come when nobody else can get to a race he calls Jim 27 by doing out front to Maniac Marcus more black widow BMX and over Minnesota I don’t you know coming out of that final turn turn more got it away clean now here comes a 70 oh I don’t know 617 what 17 hanging on Ferguson old Flex hanging on to the second river reefs with the three Cruiser cylinder topper and Roberts the for by Ian Schillinger trip nine total Point Race and got a pair of aces and its total Point pocket got the 59 bike Sunny Fred topper with five points and take the snake with five those guys are all tied up with Five Points apiece the overall wins going to go to cylinder oh look at Jake The Snake he made a race out of it and goes to the students lat oh my Roberts going to get the overall Sega topper with the three Seventeen to twenty or cruises look at this watch this watch this watch The Box watch The Box we yeah on the one bike you have on Heisler stats flies on Rider sitting out front 17 to 20 Cruisers bringing them back at us you want – we’re going to get

to win Colton Bush disqualified for leaving the track coming back on in the wrong spot you got to dig that good job: we’ll see calling out there about five doing some more stuff on the box 21 25 year old Cruisers Larson Barney Kegley Harlow and Peachtree Petry trying to run in the national champion of Shane Harlow sitting out front right now huh coming out of Marino Valley California Petrie coming out of Wichita Kansas Petry trying to make a run Harlow says Nah not that not this time Harlow going to get the wind Petrie going to get the second Kegley going to get the three 31 to 35 Cruiser main model number 38 Harris Wade renowned and Dommy coming down the to straightaway as Cody Harris sitting out front Harris Got the sticks bike Sean wage sitting in that to slot Alpha colors on the deuce Harrison Harrison Wade Tommy and renowned running three and four coming out of the final turn Cody Harris trying to hang on here comes Wade Here Comes Harris Harris will the wind Wade with the to Da me with the tree run out with the four thirty six to forty Cruiser main Moto number 39 got Haugen Bivens ball and and snail on the three by coming on down to the looks like Bivens now Haugen in on the underneath side how can in Bivens out running one and two ball and stale running three and four down through the Rhythm Section in the final turn Jesse Haugen Venom BMA out of Cedar Minnesota trying to bring it onto the line bringing it back it’s going to go how good for the wind looks like Bivens going to get this second ball and Snell running three and four 41 to 45 year old Cruiser main model number 40 got young Steinmetz feels Nielsen lie and stock up Brent Peewee Lee takes it to the front on the 17 by Grady Steinmetz sitting in that to slot Brantly got about 43 million seven hundred eighty seven thousand six hundred fourteen points somewhere around there give or take a few million million yeah Brantly with the Wind steinman’s going to get to Second Jason Young gonna get the three Jared suck up with four four been racing for 145 years years Brantley Brantley 46 to 50 year old Cruiser look at this cat getting a jump one more time Shanna man 0-9 coming out of turn number one Hatfield grieve Miller K Rogers top or wine – and Hurley JJ sitting in that to slot Now new Rider taken over that to slot but they’re all chasing show Stan the Man may be a little interesting right there got a little sideways he said nah I’m alright JimBob good eye good Santa man going to get the win Donovan Miller going to get the second JJ going to get to Third Dan Hurley gonna round out the top four 51:55 Cruisers got Miller Swanson bow course wingler and sugar aunty papaji yeah papaji red line color sitting out front right now it’s got the inside line into turn number two poker slides it in on you whoo she got to you poker battle now Booker papaji took a little walk on the white line coming on around bokor had to back off a little bit he thought he was going to the pit bringing them back this going to goes you got the the way and followed up by the 11 to Swanson Miller and Booker good race guys yeah wow Wow I’ll say line them cats up and do that again ha ha that’s good race at 5660 Cruiser Woody wood roof sitting out front on this one out of the AZ bringing them on around woodruff’s got the 453 the flying home Anthony Chambers yeah Chambers back on the circuit coming on around Woody Woodruff going to get the win hello Woody yeah Anthony going to get the deuce Robert Vaughn mice with the tree 61 and over Cruz everybody hold their breath whoo whoo everything will bi we got the cowboy sitting out front on this one Brian strain got Pappy Patterson and Wild Bill sitting in that three slime an the look of determination

Wild Bill on the three slot this cat is a competitor bringing them on around just trying to catch the young and that’s all Brian strain the cowboy the 61 year old Pappy Patterson coming in on the 67 year old ride while Bill some pasta race a new pair of hips with the three all right got to dig that oh the five and under novice main event we got three if I’m down on the first straight away the lead Rider coming on out Jace Reynolds Reynolds GoPro GoPro locked in there Jay sitting out front got to 850 bike sitting in that second slot of the anomaly a mirror Armstrong Armstrong it’s Jake’s Reynolds in a mirror Armstrong outrunning wanted to is got Matthew dried and sitting in the three slot bringing them back at us Reynolds looking to hang on the way in here comes Armstrong at the line I rentals for the win Armstrong with the second followed up by dried and and the o66 by a Hot Wheels Daniel Vaughn Mas got a big that five year olds racing hard charging at the line here comes Oliver Oliver wealthy that the young man had a pretty good day tough luck in the main event for sure sure yeah six-year-old novice main model number 46 got shouts Jones vanfleet ball Purcell Sullivan Travis and wells in Auburn Auburn shafts trying to find a way in here comes the 804 bike 408 coming on around knocks Travis sitting out front Travis and Jones may see Jones sitting in that to slot Auburn shall sitting in a three slot it is knocks Travis come local kid out all Mahal yeah going to take home the big trophy show and tell on Monday bringing them back Travis is going to get to win Jones is gonna get to second Auburn Sal’s is going to get to Third and Coop vanfleet rounding out the top four four seven novice main model number 47 got nowhere McHale and Finley darling Young Duncan story in Collingwood coming down a to straightaway on the the seven 971 bike Tristan the Piston Young Omaha Nebraska it is Young’s got to 110 bike McHale and sitting in that to two slot on the three slot looks like Collingwood the Piston doing it out front right now Tristan the piston out Omaha going to get going to try to hang on to the wind here comes McAllen it’s going to go 771 at the line yeah Tristan the Piston hanging on for the win McKellen got the two yeah nice racing though 8 novice Chef Alain pulsing pulsing kefir Yuengling not golden hi I’m Seldon and Kramer on the Gold Cup to bike Mad Max Kieffer Bell Arkansas Rider sitting out front got Jack Attack Chef Lee sitting in that to slot keep learning sapling outrunning 1 or 2 brick and Yuengling sitting in that three slot bringing them back to the line going to go Kieffer SethBling Yuengling and the 45 bike a Brian Kramer nine novice main model number 49 got Beckman Finley done Vana Sansa and Zuk 62 by Jack Finley Lincoln Nebraska Rider out in front God Kayla Vana sitting in the two slot is Finley and vaness running to his got Beckman Beckman and Zuck running three and four attitude Addison trying to find a way back into that Force lot coming in and out of the final turn it is still Finley and Vaness back to the line they come Findlay out of Lincoln bringing them back it’s going to go Finley for the one vaness with the to followed up by Backman and Nathan’s duck ten novice main model number 50 got Novak Hannah Blackburn Shafi to seen in Rowlett

Mason chafee Colorado Springs Colorado on the point out of turn number two who’s got the 475 by Justin Hannah sitting in the two slot 856 bike the monster may see Rowlett sitting on a tree on the double oo 8 by chafee going to get the win Justin Hannah with the second roulette with the third in the 964 by Leland back learn Levin novice main model number 51 got form and K seedorf deardorff Melton and Vaughn Moss juice to sitting out front right now just sell Seedorf got the 820 by Liam form and sitting in that to slot seedorf coming out of Kansas City Missouri go to to space coming out of that final turn seedorf and form and out wanted to just sell juice juice going to get two wins Foreman’s going to get to second thought up by the 681 and a 50 deardorff and Mountain twelve-year-old novice main model number 52 Finley Hoots Dobbins Collingwood Pyrrha and loss take live shot of the Moines Iowa sitting out front go cup champion Arturo Hoots twelve-year-old novice coming into that final turn the main Moto is 52 coming out that final turn on the 340 by Tate lost the I weejun out of Des Moines going to get the wind Keaton Finley going to get the second to go Cup champion of Hoots is going to get the third and Pyrrha is going to round out the top 413 novice main model 53 Paulson died one alwine fictel and Novak I don’t know about Chase colors out of Omaha Nebraska out in front got fictel sitting in the two slot Polson sitting on the three all wine sitting in the for last straightaway coming at us Autumn Novak Omaha a ride are going to get to win victims going to get the second Paulson with the three all wine with the for 15 year old novice main model number 54 total Point re sins God Collingwood with two points mayor with four points to scene was six points so these cast been doing it all day long total Point racing out of turn number two’s got causton cost in Holland Collingwood out of Des Moines Iowa sitting on for the top spot spot out of turn three spread it out there single file coming back at us calling one go to get the overall win mayors going to get the overall second the senior overall third 26 to 30 novice main model number 55 got done Bergstrom Eckert along with all dress McKellen Paulson and Lazar Mikell and sitting out front in this one one 890 by Stephen Lazar sitting the two slot one Rider down two Riders down on the two straight away bringing them back at us is still McKellen sitting out front Macallan going to get to win eight ninety lows are going to get the second photo by the 791 Bergstrom Bergstrom when that in the 791 yeah yeah Hayden good job on the number plate huh huh now he’s older guy he was older man turn on your mic there you go

oh they’re taking up high in the turn little bumping in a run and man when you bump like that you got to run to the front not the third come on man you got it you got it got short short by took her and darling 41 to 45 year old novice that’s the fun class to watch right here yeah you never know what you’re going to see when you bring them on back to the line they come looks like the 993 yeah so you’re going to get a little of that well those guys Brothers was that a night was that a 993 and a 68 yeah Rob short and Tony Stewart bad they were battling out the line well they fist fighting back there nah just kidding kidding get everybody all excited 51 and over novice Courier but got the phones out Kirk Mathias Della meguri bring it on back at us right now Karl Kirk going to make it a clean sweep for the overall win Kevin Matthias the overall second David you’re going to get the overall third five and under intermediates here we go got Burke book out Baker and Roseland on the be by Graham Burke Grand Forks North Dakota sitting out front got Luke Roseland sitting in the two slot slot coming out of the corner it is Burke and book out 1 & 2 Pistol Pete sitting on the three slot blazing Jackson sitting on the for coming into the final turn it’s Graham Burke tend racing and getting it down wire-to-wire trying to hang on for the win we got a battle for the two slot right now between Pistol Pete bringing them back it’s going to go the be bike Burt got the wind looks like the 55 by Clues Roseland got to second Pete what the third and blazing Jackson book out with the fourth main model 59 on the gate right now six intermediates God why gomory Bentley knee her haris McKellen Morgan and Blackburn in and out of turns over oh I think early goes down in the corner oh my my man he’s having a tough break in that turn number 1 today for sure got the 90 bike Harvey near sitting out front got the 109 bike late McKellen sitting in the two slot Harvey and Blake out running one or two bringing them back on the 90 bite Here Comes Harvey near here comes the 109 a McKellen’s could go near for the one McAllen for the to I don’t know is either Morgan or Bentley for the third and the fourth we’re going to look at that one third and the fourth man I know one thing that James Bentley has been going fast fast hey give it up for curly out there Creighton Horace he’s back on on it oh curly he said that turn number one at been doing me right today Dad seven intermediate main model number 60 got Macomber timoteo Jones Bulger C’est Le Scott Branson and yang Ling Ling Austin sailor Freeport BMX team having a pretty good day man he’s winning races all over the place here comes sailor the 89 bike sitting in the two slot that is tax Macomber sale and Macomber out running one or two seven intermedius bringing it into the final turn back at us comes often sailor for the win the 89 bike – Macomber for the second third slot is going to go to ebike at the line Remy dimatteo and the 30 bike rounding out the top four was bracing Yuengling 8 intermediate main Moto number 61 I’ve been waiting for this 161 Carlson got half gambling Rosalind Shelton story Jameson and Jeff filoni because that cat

trying to find a way into that top spot Hey Bryson Jeff aloni eight-year-old novice yesterday made his eighth intermediate man today you got to dig that bring it into that final term but it’s a 160 bike coming on around bringing them back looks like the shredder Elijah’s Shelton on another 168 160 – Shredder got the F bike picking up that second slot was Carlson but it was shelled and take it home to win yeah nine intermedius got sores Fraser failing Jones charity fairest parks and Smith 34 by Jacoby Jones out of Eagle Nebraska Now new Rider in on the underneath side that are Smith taking it over over sixteen by chicken wing sitting in that three slot Now New Rider slides in a three chicken wing back to four coming out of the final turn bringing them back to the line on the 89 by causton spins Smith going to get to win 34 by Jones going to get the second followed by the 38 bike Showtime Elvis charity with the third and rounding out the top four chicken wing parks ten intermediate main model number 63 got Olsen Myers Smith Smith seed or Hartley and Griffin turn number two is got the 40 42 by bye Adam Hartley sitting out front looks like Gabby Griffin in the two slot the animal Elliot Olsen sitting on a tree coming back at us no that’s Olson on the two slot bring it to the line Hartley going to get to win the G bike of Olsen going to get to second Gabby Griffin with the third now the Gold Cup 3 bye Cali girl Kelly Smith Smith eleven intermediate main model 64 got Carol has Alice took her an out cook Paige Dahl and Jacob okay yeah someone’s excited over there I never heard nobody screamed out loud that high for by Boogie page sitting out front right now Boogie got it going on Logan took her sitting in that to slot to 18 by Chase doll sitting in a tree slide coming in now that final turn on the for by Boogie page out of Alton Illinois bringing them back to line took her sit in the two slot is that a brand new expert yeah brand-new expert in the house right there Boogie page doing a firm angler racing The Mangler got him another expert Rider Boogie page congratulations 12 intermediates are on the gate coming down the first straightaway got Mason Palm Hall Zeman Reba Whitmore and Johnson everybody in the corner oh not everybody coming out of the corner we lost one two Riders three riders in the corner new Rider coming on out 130 by Jack reball sitting out front got the 21 by Parker Whitmore sitting in the two slot latency man sitting on the three Gentry Mason sitting on that Force lot coming into the final turn the 130 by three ball coming out of Monticello Minnesota black widow colors to the line they country balls going to get to win whitmore’s going to get to second seam is going to get the three and rounding out the top for the ten bike of gentry Mason thirteen intermediate main model number 60s got Weatherhead Danielson silver Olsen her with Gonzalez Hill House and Lackey certain number one action looks like to go come shh I’ll smash her Asher’s got company beating on the door and on the underneath side looks like the 32 by kuon Silva Silva take it over smash harasser back to the two slot 251 bike oh and whether hood in its reach lat final turn Axton good one coming around the other line up single file now Sprint to the line they’re moving in on over Smasher after Harwick going to take home the win the 32 by Silva still of I guess the the weather had with the Third rounding out the top for 764 by Carson Lackey Lackey all right we got our down Rider picked up in turn number one one 14 intermediates main

Moto number 67 and a turn number one one I am a big guy coming on out of there that dudes a huge signal to go cut number 2 by right Romeo Caden knives sitting on the top spot looks like on the Gold Cup champion in Aden Brash mmm running the stars and bars as Bass from sitting in that that two slot it is knobs coming in and out of that final turn bass from sitting in the two slot knobs and Bass from here Comes Basco knob so the wind basham’s going to get to second followed up by the 80 bike of Dallas in in the 18 by Purcell fitting your old intermediates got Roger strain and Moe total Point racing these guys are all tied up with four points apiece apiece who’s it going to be coming out of the turn Moa Houston my rule out of Blue Springs Missouri sitting out front got to 14 by Ethan strange sitting in the two slot Eli the fly rods are sitting on a tree coming into the final turn Houston my own bringing them back trying to take home the win all tied up with four points of PCS guys the 751 ma who was going to get to win strange going to get the second Rogers with the three three 16 intermediate main model number 69 got power up for sale and rice rice 22 by Gavin Purcell out of Whiting Iowa Majesty racing it’s just the one they call the Flying Tomato tomato yeah I think somebody told me that that I don’t know coming in and out of the corner Shawn percel bringing them back Purcell going to get to win Jake power or with the second yeah I think so 21:25 intermedius got gums Mine Heart Young young down to two straight away looks like Andrew meinhard Colfax Iowa Rider sitting out front got the 138 bike sitting in the two slot that is Cameron young Austin gone sitting on the deuce coming into the final turn turn mine mine art back to the line they come Cameron young out I’ll tune has going to get not only hang on on yep young got the second Gomes with the three 26 to 35 intermediate main Model 71 got Hoots Olson and Norberg Devon Olsen sitting out front Nicholas hoots in the two slot Norberg sitting in the three slot this will total Point Race Hoots with A Pair of Aces a sitting back in the two slot right now he just got to stay right there for the overall win Here Comes Devon Alston the second in this one but the the first in this one but the overall second that’s which is go cut one will get the overall first Nicholas Hoots 3640 intermediate main model 72 got Watson Gregory Parks Neil and Schwartz and Novotny on a 17 bike sitting out front right now Nathan Parks just got to squirrel Josh will kneel and sitting in the two slot Corey Schwarz sitting on the three re coming out of that final turn it is Parks and Neil and here comes Schwartz with it hard part’s going to get the win neela gonna hang onto that second swartz’s going to get two three 41 intermediate main model 73 got Porter Thompson Wilson to shan-pak shop and Fields Chop Shop sitting out front on this one out of Roswell Georgia whoa in on the underneath side comes to Shane to say look the and says you better move over if you don’t you’re coming over coming on our out dish a Chop Shop back to the three slot now bringing them back to launch the 65 bike of Dechaine go 65 to saying that go cup 3 bike picking up that second slot was Cory feels in the triple Deuce The Chop Shop and then 128 byte Brian Peck 46 to 50 intermediate main model number 74 gotten Mason O’Brien and Macaulay John O’Brien said now front and this one to be strong McCauley sitting in the to slideshow Mason’s sitting on a tree down through the three straight away John O’Brien Cedar Rapids Iowa Iowa O’Brien and Macaulay running out 1 & 2 bringing them back to the line

here comes Brian here Comes McCauley old Brian for the wind McCauley with the to Joe Mason with the three and over intermediates got Von Moss Jennings and Kim Jason Kim coming out of Georgia for little buckle Henry Henry Nelson yeah Kim got it going on 255 by Brad Jennings in the two slot Robert Vaughn ma sitting on the three coming out of the final turn the 991 by bringing them back at us wire to wire for the win Chasin Kim second slot goes to Brad Jennings third place to Robert Vaughn Moss moving on to the expert girls here we go six year olds the rats laughs got Sessa gray and Christiansen out of turn number one down the backside looks like cat crazy the crazy cat sitting out front and this one Kalani gray got the for by crass laughs sitting in the two slot here we go again Samantha trying to find a way in on the underneath side can’t make it this stick this go-round had a good run going here comes great here comes wrasse laughs running one and two right now crazy cat now here comes Samantha with the charge gray going to get the win wrath laughs gonna get this Samantha wrath on by for the win Kalani crazy cat going to get the second wow they’ve been battling eight-year-old girls on the track God caught Soros love and Sumerian culture is Tolleson Calhoun and Alva dress One race the champion is little JT got it going on right now Jim and Tolleson Woodbury Minnesota for box components sitting out on the point got too much Olivia of address bringing them back asking to go the one by Tolleson Alva dress is going to get to second ten bike the diva Kaylee Lovins with a third and rounding out the top for on the five by the Maddie can’t Madison Calhoun Solomon Mitchell you need to meet your mom and staging Solomon Mitchell meet your mom and and staging the nine-year-old girls are on the track bombshell Rider flash Kovacs sitting out front got the national age group number for by Danika appenzeller sitting in the two slot bombshell where are you at you got one coming at you for the win bring them on around Natalia Flash Kovacs for the one appenzeller is going to get the second followed up by the for bike Abigail Stevens and then the B bye Brenly ten expert girls on the track Mo domain model 79 got Ashley Lee ha burying in sarasa on the for by Diamond Lil got it going on Wicked Tuna is about Lehigh sitting in that second slot we lost Barry and down on the straightaway with psoriasis sitting on a tree coming back out us got a good one Brewing now down the backside looks like Li Hao scooting it on over but it’s a 4 bike hanging on Ashley for the wind Lehigh’s going to get to second 11 year old girls on the track out hand gold Neyland Popovich dannenberg voice and Wells National age group number one bye Zoe dannenberg bringing them in the corner rival racing sitting out front National age group number six bikes sitting in that to slot as Violet Popovich it is dannenberg and Popovich out running one and two with the piston Presley gold sitting on a tree got a good one to the line they come it’s going to go dannenberg for the win Popovich for the second one race of Champions gold gold wow 12 year old girls pingatore John’s of it guests left tax Cheryl and poker one Rider down us he’s okay hands are up yeah got to dig that that’s great she’s all good dog gonnit she says but I’m good LOL a sitting out front Lola got it going on Hannah have it Gish Lola bringing them back out of that final turn out of Kansas City Missouri John’s of acquired a wire for the win one more time nobody in front of her all weekend long guess is going to get to second followed up by Taytay with the three that was broker broker yeah yeah Carol Kaye get it up for Tristan right here

TNT tough break in the main event we still got tomorrow tomorrow thirteen-year-old girls got hit and Van Rensselaer Larson Stevens can’t Ralph and void coming out of West Jordan Utah a GT color super be takes it to the front got the one bike sitting in that to slot the evil OCH sitting on the deuce it is Van Rensselaer and hint and out running one or two the six bike the Mad Dog Madison void sitting on the three spot coming out that final turn it’s Van Rensselaer we color super be for a reason she’s going to get Second slot looks looks like soon ago the six at the line the one bike of olive Hinton for the second then the Mad Dog with the three then can’t with the four Crystal do the out in front one more time Miranda sitting in the two slot for Full Tilt coming back at us to Krista Doula and Miranda outrun and wanted to Chris to do the fur wind Miranda with the second thought up by the to bike McClintock McKinnon MacLennan and the 94 Carly Shay 15 16 year-olds got heels on Errol Flynn winter Thompson Street are young and more coming out of corner got a good one Brewing down the straightaway looks like the 20 by JC more more battling it out right now with the five bike sitting in that to slot that’s the blond bomb Alexandra hill coming into the final tarou here we go down oh my gosh coming back at us now we got another battle raging 233 bike coming on by for the win winner gets the win he’ll and JC more were battling in that last turn JC went down in a corner and then coming on around for the win was winter while he was battling out in a corner and the third slot went to West Coast Callie Street or hey give it up for this guy right there man they know how to race they get it done they are super fast and Nene scared they ain’t scared scared 17 to twenty women Cruisers got top or Moran Parks judge and Shay’s Giglio toe and Zachary coming out of the corner Full Tilt color Stephanie Moran one more time taking it to the front got Mariana Giglio Udo sitting in that to slot in the three slot on the Magnum bike that is Page Zachary sitting on the tree coming into the final turn it is Marin Marin Marin and giggling Udo clean air to the Finish Line comes Tiffany Moran for the wind Giglio Toe with the to the nine bike of Zachary for the three and then the a two bike Megan dudgeon rounding out the top for 21 to 30 year old women on the track got Fuller large sent Catelyn Larson and Heather hand looks like Caitlin Larson takes it to the front all coming out of corner she’ll be Fuller large that sitting in that to slot right now Kaitlynn Larson on the point coming into turn number two black widow colors on the National age group were won by Caitlin Larson’s got she’ll be Fuller Larson sit in the two slot the Silent Assassin Heather hands sitting on the tree back down the last straight away it’s going to go the one by Kyle Larson second spot is going to go to hand coming by at the line she’ll be Fuller Larson with the three of 40 year old women experts experts coming on and out of turn number two is got Gaylor are stir and Fields Aaron are stir esquared national team out on the point coming in and out of turn number three three coming out of Mission Kansas Aaron Hotchner going to take home the win national age group number three Christina Gaylor for the to Mariah feels with the three three 41 and over women got Latimer Irvin and nice Hang Time got it going on right now Heather Latimer out of Fort Worth Texas doing it for the chaos nation yeah hang time rolling it on around Arlene Urban sit in the two slots Aaron he’s sitting on a tree it’s a what the mama shark yeah yeah that’s right coming back at us to go cut one Hang Time Heather Latimer for the win Arlene Irvin going to get

the second and the mama shark yeah the mama shark going to get two three six year old egg oh ooohh hang on hang on the Moto Slayer little Bobble trying to hang on as as rho cos Theta yeah man that’s the way to do it here come Solomon Mitchell Mitchell’s got the inside line the x 6 year olds are putting on a show the Moto Slayer Ezra Kosta getting it done right now out of no one Springs bringing them back to the line it’s gonna go Kosta for the one oh my yeah the Moto Slayer that gave us a heart attack man he bobbled it on out there he take home the win Solomon Mitchell got a second Kovacs the bird man with the three seven-year-old experts are on the track God do more has to her lack of Ixtapa and graves down the to straightaway National AIDS group coming out at us on the seven bike Jackson stoffer staffers got Mighty Mouse grave sitting in the two slot coming into the final turn seven experts lead Rider sneaking a peek don’t do that they’re coming here come stoffer here comes to more stop for going to get the wind tumor going to get to second followed up by the 15 bike a graze and the to bike of lack of Ethics man I’ll tell you what there’s a lot of talent in that one here can I come the eight-year-old experts the nickname Main Event Noisy Boy Wi-Fi Mamba Mamba hammer time wildcard Iceman cranking Hank just the only guy that don’t have a nickname is Tyson he’s sitting hanging the two slot but it’s the Hammer Time doing it out front right now Brady I’m ER out of Texas Proline cycling bring it on back got Tyson sitting in the two slot going to go hammer for the Wii and Tyson for the second Wi-Fi Christensen for the Third and the national age group number 9 by cranking Hanks sight sir sir ran outlets out man I’m digging that one nine-year-old experts here we go yeah Tyson take it up hide showing a little so time out there right now we got Morgan Taylor Stewart Tyson bird back or we’ll go Wilkie and James the one by Lucas Tyson oh now the End by sweet move right there Morgan Morgan pulls off a clinic move and turn number two coming in out of the final turn it is Tyson st. Cloud Minnesota looking for the win Tyson going to get to win Here Comes Morgan for the second followed up by the for by dudes Taylor in a 95 bike backer ha ha man man this is some good racing going on right now we’re checking out our down Rider over there on the first straight away man is getting crazy crazy yeah man y’all don’t forget these are kids they give us so much fun out here this weekend so moms dads Grandma’s Grandpa’s man when y’all put them down the bed tonight make sure you give them a great big old hug around their neck tell him how much you love them because they’re the reason we’re here they’re the reason we’re having all this fun and it’s such a good time in such great it’s great to be out here get away from all the craziness of the world and come out here in our young’uns are are working hard for even the old guys out there racing you can hug them too it’s all good yeah yeah I’m you know me I’m a hugger I’m an IV I’ll take hugs lie I’ll hug all day long I dropped this might just walk around hugging Folk come on out here and Mike I know you’re a fireman fireman need a hug too now this cat right here fireman all right love you brother all right that’s what I’m talking about y’all do that when you get them young’uns home you don’t even have to wait till you get them home hug them up around the neck tell him how much you love them if they were bad all day spanking tomorrow radio Radio

yeah yeah yeah we’re getting back on track going to see some more good racing ten-year-old experts Roberts and West over Rojas tree rice Velasco Hardy Bundy and Pollock who out of the corner they go got a good one coming at us hypercolor sitting out front got to be T and Hardy hard he’s got full ask all sitting in the two slot Hardy Velasco I run a one or two on the go covered on by got to be tayden Pollock sitting in a three slot coming out of corner one of The Hardy Boys bringing them back at us it’s T in bringing them back to align TN Hardy for the way and Keith Velasco for the to the go cut one by taking Paula going to get the third and the zany ax8 Robinson rounding out the top four eleven year old expert main mode been waiting for this one these guys been going hard oh whoa no I believe won’t show going down again man this guys having some bad luck one of the fastest cast in the country and having a rough time but right now yes Danny Waters out in front in this one God makes in hey sitting in the two slot coming out of the final turn Waters having a pretty good day Mason hey sitting in that to slot it is Waters and Maize going to go one and two right now with Duffy taking the three yeah hey man give it up for this guy Andrew won’t so he is so fast got caught up in the middle of all that went down hard yesterday going down again today today man he getting to be he need a little Gumby in them he need a little gum be in right now so it don’t hurt so much he just bend a little bit been this way been that way he tough though man he’s gone old them down twelve-year-old experts are on the track got McCain Anderson Rogers and as Westerman noon Santa Maria and old shorn turn to actions got the national age group number 13 by Kayla McCain sitting out front Missouri my coming after I’m coming in the final turn cranking power although lead Rider goes down Missouri Mike trying to hang on but he’s got the world coming by bringing them back gonna go go oh my my look like v-dub coming on by for the win Missouri Mike got to second Rogers and then the 16 bike of noon yeah I got it right yeah yeah Caleb good racing out there man tough break in the last term for that guy the fun part about this we got tomorrow we get tomorrow to do it all over again 13 experts we might just we might just shut down the country Monday and just do it again on Monday too now what the heck God Delaney doing now front power light colors got it rolling coming in and out of the final turn GQ brain Delaney Colorado Springs back to line they come here comes Delaney here Comes O’Neill Delaney going to take to win O’Neill’s going to get the second thought up by the eight bike of Mark Lee and the six bike of Cash Money Cass Hopson fourteen-year-old expert main model number 97 got kiessling Allard Burford Colburn Isaac still inch Michael and Coptic schmeichel sitting out front on this one got to 15 by Ethan Eller sitting in that to slot slot Douglas Michael got a Kuna Idaho bringing them back to the line line the 15 bike coming on by at the line was Ethan deleseur Michael back to the tooth then the eight bike of Isaac’s with the oh 15 experts we lose two down the first straightaway coming out of the corner National age group number eleven might the maniac Marcus more Morris got the 63 bike sitting in that to slot that is Bartley got cutter William sitting on the Dukes now

cut or to the to coming back at us going to go down this way way our for the wind Cutter Williams for the second followed up by the 63 bike a Bartley and rounding out the top four drops tree rise man that’s a fun class right there at 15 x classes no joke joke we lost Dallas on the first straight away man man yeah he’s missing some spokes one of the way fast guys eat the pop of this lost him on the first straight away moving on to the 16 expert main Moto number 99 yeah nice nice top or Casanova MacLean Devore Cardwell mouth pass that lers and Schillinger Supercross colors coming out of turn number two Michael DeVore sitting out front rider in the two slot trying to find a way by see what happens try to high-low it coming on back Cardwell trying to find a way by its devoran card was going to go Cardwell for the way and followed up by the 15 by but I call that right no more with the second cylinder with the three to buy Casanova rounding out the toilet for nice nice six Seventeen to twenty year old experts got Wayne Campbell pulp Beaudry Lido Barton Moyer and Parks Joseph Lido Leto coming out of turn or one one bike Drew poke sitting in the two slot coming in and out of that final turn Leto coming out of Florida auto wrecking crew bringing them back at us going to go let go for the wind poke with a to followed up by the 32 bike Beaudry Beaudry Barton round out the top four 21 to 25 year old actress got tossed said Petrie Moran Medeiros Harlow Hathcock paradeen and I deemed National age group number two by Shane Harlow sitting out front got the 11 bike sitting in the two slot mustachio on the three spot as my Darius now now Zach coming in toss it trying to find a way and he goes to the three slot going to go to the to buy Harlow Petrie toss it it top three 26 to 35 year old expert main motor 102 got Le du da milivoj Fahey corpsman Harris right and ankles a nice down the nice smoothness right there Brady lavoie takes it out of turn number two out in front got the nine by da me sitting in the two slot Got Rice sitting on the three slide but it’s Brady lavoie Full Tilt Tilt radio out of sync Minnesota bring it on back to the line lavoie for the win Tommy’s going to get the second followed up by right and the third slot goes to 18 by Billy Corman 36 to 40 year old expert main model 103 got brown Haugen out of mwah a daily well tear post Baird and funk who we got this time coming into turn number one coming on over 54 bike slide it on in there Zach Baron out of st Peters Missouri coming into that final turn bear and trying to make it stick coming back to the line hang on Zach 54 Bike Baron 2004 by only one Race of Champions the ninja with the Third 41 45 year-old experts got dimatteo McCarty Lee Jung Anna and Nelson and of bringing them back down to two straight away Jeff Anna Alpha colors out of Walnut Creek California on the national age group number seven got the 21 by Jason Young sitting in the two slot Joel McCarty sitting on a tree coming back out of the final turn to the line ago Jeff Anna’s going to get to win Jason Young’s going to get to second

Joel McCarthy with the three and the 36 bike running out the top for Kevin Nielsen 46 to 50 year old expert main model number 105 Santa man Hatfield takes it to the front one more time zero nine colors out of Roswell Georgia Shan the man got it going on Rider sitting in that to slot got to be Donovan Miller it is Hatfield and Miller one and two got the One race of Champions Clin Arnold sitting on a tree final turn action – and the man got it going on bringing them back to life going to go Hatfield for the win Donovan Miller’s going to get the second here come the one bike clean Arnold and then Brian Tabor 51 and over extras got robbers Gigante Hayes new CEO and Jones ‘bub-ees rocking and a-rolling into turn number two Bubba he’s got it going on got papaji sitting in the two slot new she’s sitting on a tree that’s drink new CEO Mike robbers sitting on the Forum Brian Jones bunch of good cats right here coming back at us 51 and over experts making it great Bubba Hayes for the wind Frank nuccio with the to papaji Papaji with the three Mike were the four and Brian Jones has the privilege of being the last guy to cross the finish line for the whole days where the racing my friend from Majesty racing hey want to thank you for coming out had a blast with you all today don’t forget to give our kiddos a hug when you get them home tonight be safe be good we’ll see you tomorrow Riders ready watch the gate hey Hey three times lack of the yeah honey don’t leave me I am brave I am both beautiful beautiful radio

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R246 05 영적 에너지에 지배받는 생체 전자파

Ah at this time you do 4 2 the environment in the bargaining cancer In other words, if it is an inner environment, what kind of thoughts are in our minds, what kind of feelings are open, what kind of feelings will come It’s the environment. If it flows away from the inside, it’s ah In simple terms, the state of my heart Yes, what meaning is in my heart So if there is a good meaning in my heart, then the inner environment If there’s a bad meaning in my heart, I’ve been using it The inner environment has deteriorated Oh, the reaction is like this Yes, how does my heart affect my 1,000 society? How is my environment like that, the external environment Will it affect genes? So in the newsletter Because the genetic field goes absolutely at night to the inner environment of the child, the new cd 2 ah 1 electron reacts to the diss of the time They say la, ah. Genes mean Well How does that one thousand car react to the meaning in my heart? At that time, I did 3 class I wondered what the process would be. Oh, so I have to explain it a little Oh, if it reacts to chart 3, it reacts to the environment in my circle. There is a good meaning and a bad meaning. So we What’s the energy that brightens up your cell phone over a hundred inches that makes us live Please give me electricity, uh, what is energy if our genes make each cell alive It’s so long that it’s lively electricity. Oh, so I can live as all mechanical drum electricity Uh, human beings, human beings, not only humans, but also animal hands and even insects I’m living. Yes, it’s like that. Then, how does that vitality make me work? How can you definitely explore it in your mind Um sure it is ah So, the more you know it, the more strength you receive Ah before going into detail What does a good mean when you say good mean bad mean? 5 is important. Yes, it means bad and pure. If you know the good meaning, the other side is It must be a bad meaning, so what does a good mean for now? Oh, that we have to organize Chapter 1, so they already know everything What does a good mean mean a positive mean

The true meaning, the good meaning, the beautiful one Yes, it says to turn on with our 1 electron just by listening to it The meaning of the 7 line is that our drivers are very welcome It is full of life, so what will be fatal to all the world of Lee Jin-cho, it was love Uh, but love is not a child-oriented conditional vehicle that we humans often give and receive It’s an unconditional person. Unconditionally, so unconditional love Oh, what we are receiving can be touched can be touched The saying that we can be touched means that the power of true sun beauty in that unconditional love can move us So even if our genes are turned off, Let’s love again So the bad meaning means that it is the night that eventually prevents something It exists as what blocks genes and then Vigor Breaking your new term of office So our la When the window wall is used a lot, then what are we clogged up a lot? The height has changed a lot So in the end, we ourselves keep making this Changdae billion thicker * I was making the wrong choice to make it big It’s I’m so hateful, fear, worry, worry, anger 5 Uh, what’s the opposite side of Jin Seon-mi, that is, what’s the other side of people and the other side of love? Yes it is a symptom ah That’s why we hate what do you say I hate that little boy Manor Rigami and Mother-in-law Miwa Chuket Tan If I hate you, what is it? Will you die? Why will you die? Roadside 4 blocking the way so it’s amazing I’ll keep going. Pretend to speak Korean. Yes, but our Korean language is very new Gun on 5 We did a lot of lectures with water, so The beginner’s c5 In many ways, the key is difficult for the true member, and it is difficult to be blocked Uh, this is just an accurate drug Now so now so this Eventually, because of this barrier, there was no life

Now it’s called’packing’ and it’s called uh uh uh uh, 2 times, what, what, what, what? Living Plan 4 Sitting Device Fluffy or It’s a scam and it costs too much Scam No. 2 Mrs. Saha Park is the new year These days, I have too much to buy Ah, half of the people died, and I’m waiting for two of them So how to buy this scam with this life You have to push it out, it’s like, can you get rid of the darkness? I lighted up the dark and how did it come on? In the spring of the light, what happens to a place where there is no light in Montene, so it gets dark Yes, so ah, this life is called the light in the foreground. That’s why God Jesus is the light of this world Light 5 So in this world, so this relationship is dark Moto 2 So the light goes to the dark, so the dark doesn’t know the light It’s not like this, but now your heart is full of darkness, but now the light is shining 10 Right Fortunately, the light is going to the darkness, so the darkness is going to the water Assa Guard 12 Write like that [Applause] My ah, then hey, so now it’s been organized all the time right uh then Yes it is called animation Our good means, good heart, oh, the foliage is so beautiful All of the news is money Kaah, I don’t think the food is good, but where you are Uh, so today I saw a molecule eating two. Color ah um I don’t think I’m eating much rice Yeah uh um so um So haha ​​it tastes good? ah ah ah uh well, I’m doing exercise here again Ah, after exercising and doing 14, it tastes good Then, I suffered this annihilation Let me show you something amazing Now, here’s how to care for this mother’s acquaintance Oh, I’m putting my cub to the bottom Incubate and lick 2b mother Jin-eun again, but The margin that follows is dehydration sor that does not become pores by the medium of the low point The greater the mother does not know that the love for the young But mom will love me Then it’s the same line Eating is also in front and the living environment is the same yeah It’s the same, but the health of the babies is different? Science cars, especially dogs, were dispatched, and in the past, when you weren’t good at writing about genes, we used to eat the same health as well

I thought, um, mom licks, licks the branch, and what’s the difference between health status Is there Lee? So, as it is. In this way of mind, I completely ignored it In modern times, it’s like paying people So, when I pay it, I just steam it with no feelings So, many scientists think that Yammer, who misunderstood this woe, is indeed the health of these babies It’s the same, when you ask why you did this wrestling. By chance, a scientist went to Africa While observing the monkeys like this, Exploration appeared, spread 4 A tree leopard is on the ground What is a tree? How can shampoo an extended table A monkey that was a little low in the tree Oh how to bring a car, the streets are as scary as monkeys, and the neighborhood is 5 more I lost my separation After the leopard goes, this monkey, all of a sudden, all of the monkeys get on Tune the big one, hold the back and the cucumber So I’ve been doing that study in Greece for a while now to see why it flows So, the monkeys book a bunch of dong and 0 won together. Then, now, hit the circle gun and put the blood on it How the stress hormone increases and there is a gene that produces that stress hormone Yes, 1st rumors increase because it activates something Oh, so, inje, they just put on and hold this together Later, I made a gusset and grabbed the monkey and pulled blood Among those monkeys, there are monkeys who have been bullied and experimented with each other No matter who you take, no monkeys to give it to you Uh, he’ll earn himself again. There’s no monkey that filters out the other so-called “I hate it when I put it all in” Why is it always? Strong protozoa Their popular noodles But now, ah, when you get along with these friends and have a lot of warmth When I was stressed, I used rumored bricks of fur Rumors do not fall So when the cells get sick more quickly After seeing all that experiment, there are houses like this in the practical room. So Kim Jungah the haebwatseupnida to draw blood if their cubs So how to take the t cell out and take the t cell gene is perfect Oh, the unknown is not just fortune-telling, but for the pursuit of assignment, and seeing the love that a mother gets a lot from her mother I feel good, very good, yes ah good, this is a good ostrich 9 Uh cub that jideuleun Maheon Station Cells are the ones who will become Herbal School Cha

I’m not sure I’m loved All days ago, they are turned off and their spiritual power is weak every year. So no matter what virus penetrates, they die quickly Oh, I’m trying to get a bottle too Among the meanings that love means love of genes, the best means is the whole meaning. Love 7 That’s right, that love affects the health status of genes. So, I learned about Mitsu I have a new curiosity What should I do to change mom weekly? So, to those who didn’t see love, the love sent the mother’s heart to bring everything You have to mediate your enemies, let them embrace them, and kill everything you do. What is G-Dragon, who has seen a lot of love over here? There is only one way to change the health partner by sending this love loosely unknown attention Change, and all of you of 3 society, so this invisible It means that it has power. Yes, that love has something in itself. It has energy. Yes Oh yeah It’s in your heart, this loving heart Yes, it’s all collected in a vessel called your heart Oh, let your genes that were turned off 8 and the gypsy is small r Then how can that be? It’s okay, yes, it’s scientifically explained. Well, this experimentally is now concluded phenomenally Then this phenomenon can appear through some scientific route That’s the explanation. Well, everyone How do you make a call when you make a phone call on this arrow? Your tile height and At least some of the difference between mobile phones and 1 bottle, 1 loss, while only the ones What about the 15cm schedule Why not It’s because of the overall grasping that occurs when you come out of the phone All electrical appliances are now in front of me, my sister’s computer, maybe all electronic products I think electromagnetic Rafael I’m my eighth, but what’s the wave-a-pa? What is energy gold? Yes, all energy exists as what I’m going to do it in August So you can just deal with paragos or figure out what wave Now everyone handles more nl. It’s not. It’s not the introduction. The sound is too loud Fluently, If it sounds like that, what do you mean by digging? Yes yes all grasp there is no tom warship power energy Waves can’t be strength. Yeah, then it’s just that wave, wave, wave 4 so we love uh too

Got love addicted love dug and loose can on I started to recognize that. That’s why our ancestors 2 At that time, the word wave was a word that occurred after science was developed. Yes, but before science was developed, the existence of this energy Quite keenly, yes it will be the sea 2 uh So when it comes to life, it’s called life force on our side Uh, nowadays, what kind of wave can it be? I think I’m selling life. So anything like this doesn’t just exist in words, what is the actual flow of life that exists as a wave Talking and the energy that actually exists we go dr With vitality, uh, well, this heavenly horn was necked, but uh, this animation is much more than this electric vehicle Well, it’s high energy. So if you do what I taught this morning, Such banner acquaintances are our minds, the main thing we have as if we are floating in the The reason that the will in our minds that create the environment affects genes is because the will itself has something It’s because we have a banner jig. That’s why What is the meaning, what is the breakdown, what is the power, rises the spirit, new look, that mental & stops Yes, so oh and this morning is strongly very important Wireless suitability New store selected by the government Eh 5 Oh, I have to pretend to be God Now this god’s spirit is, there is a burden, there is a black god without g That is why this god is a little religious, and how does it become? Heal it It’s like the four colors of a masterpiece of mental energy, so what is the spirit of the horse scout lc? Gentle, no sincerity, so bad Going out to the gun is great What’s the best god Then there are the best gods, and no gods have tooth acupuncture. I don’t know what to do with those hot body gods Why dish mirang yes Even the best spirit is called the Holy Spirit in scary English 4 Yes ah, I’m going to transfer Lee, I call it an evil spirit Then what is the core of this Spirit and Spirit? Unconditional love That it has a stand or a book Yes so Now ah now then 0 ah Oh so ah Then our thoughts now affect the Black Sea genes

It is necessary to understand scientifically how it will change the genetic onomatopoeia Now everyone, the electricity of our body and wife is flowing as long as the electricity flows Electricity doesn’t flow, what’s going to happen to us And electricity is our Sammy’s 4 It looks like something like that Then, what kind of energy is generated, the language giving of the dogs plays a role in our body Well, uh, energy exists as a shape. It exists as a wave. But when it exists as a wave, the The nature of the wave is also determined according to the shape of the wave, especially the shape of the other rayo waves Well, the wave drawn like this right now Very soft, good-looking, soft Lee spirit ml wave, you know Oh, but the bad wave is also the moss industry Oh, for example The waves are also the father of the lake Ah, according to the wind as well, mlg makes my law pass alright Yes Uh, it just means October But yes, so wind is also energy, but at first we call wind what kind of wind we call 3 Because of the breeze, people and ah, the wind of life How good it is written, so those people wave in the wind 1 Oh hold the home wave, the mountain breeze passes through the surface of the lake 4 Sochi In addition to the imaginary surface, a radio wave is formed, and the intestine is soft in the wave Well, so you can’t see the room cancer, but how do you see the silver wave? Ah, we can see that there is a gentle wind blowing outside 2 High energy generated We have to run an invisible app, but we can say that our genes are like Lake Myeong So which is good for our genes too ah now When the months come, a cold cup of wind is blowing outside Now, Storm Pong 1 It’s a tragic wind Then, what kind of rejection is the wave, it is the Seongnam wave Yes ah yes so everything is gear racks so we humans human body Electromagnetic wave current is flowing. While it is flowing, electromagnetic waves pass through our body every day What kind of braille or very soft electromagnetic wave or something special? Yes Mal Carok 5 Depending on whether there is such an electromagnetic wave, the state of your pitch is different Is it the same, not change 1 So now then, um everyone’s ah ah ah It’s really beautiful in autumn colors. I’m taking that beauty in tea Yes, it’s a very good beauty mentally or ah, thank you so much

Oh, this is what makes our politicians healthy Getting a feeling on and selling our n 4 of our bodies have my wave Implosion is flowing, you know, so you know I’m listening to a good song this morning and what’s my wave A good bar is so beautiful, beautiful mom, beautiful size, m, beautiful radish, these things have power in the blanket Why are you listening to such a song for the first time when the genes covered in thunder are turned off Wow, the applause makes No-oh a flower garden. That is, how do you give it a covered gene? That’s why it’s important to be art? Yes, what’s the song Urban Mac 10 It’s important I only think of delicious rice What’s more important than rice 2 I’m going to end up becoming a monster What did Jesus say? People don’t just take off their meals, they live with what. Words from God’s mouth What are those words? I understand of unconditional love, those poems must come to the real Youngdo Living by eating just isn’t a big life ah yeah Yes, so you learn the news start and you come to realize the Bible by yourself So if I really listen, if I listen to the bell lecture, I get angry and boil it at 10:00 Oh, you will be relaxed, but how do you deploy the equipment here? Start Book Hum Hall That is why it is the word of unconditional love that the word of the Bible is the word of our Bible If you listen conditionally while listening to the words of the Bible, it doesn’t help at all Jo Kwon is good, how does everyone go, why ah but i am scared 4 Rather, how does the gene work? So these guys are studying the foreground It’s very wide to study that the genes are turned off and not do it Oh so I enjoy breaking down the barrier 9 The more we can do, the closer we get There are things that need to be close and really close. Should they be close to the team ruler? It’s a stupid thing to be really close People in Gyeongsang-do are ah ringjangs Go before the God of flow and solemnly ah Solitary shark Yes, please turn off the gene like that Putting eggplant in your life of faith Maya foolishness 2 How can God see me alive Yes, so now, when we become this part 2 seminar, we will study these things right away Yes, he also gives us stupid things. So, uh, the electricity flowing through our body

It’s flowing ah but Why is the electricity flowing Well, you can plug it in whenever you have time while charging it with the power cord Nowadays, if you come out with an electric car and charge 2 electricity, it’s big So, if you don’t charge an electric car, you can’t go there We also die without electricity, but when can you charge it? Well, I’m in ancient times, I don’t have to leave, how do I charge it In the food we eat If you eat the electric brown rice in the food, earn it on brown rice, chew it and collect it, and the brown rice is digested The electricity in the brown rice is mixed, so what happens if you don’t eat rice Oh, there is no electricity Then, it was like electricity in the brown rice and potatoes Where did the electricity come from Yes, I learned everything I learned but I don’t know I taught him what to become a teacher. Why is this electricity introduced in such foods such as rice, potatoes, fruit, etc Does the electricity come from? Where does the electricity come from? The sun is where the electricity comes from. The sunlight sells electrons So, it’s not only electromagnetic waves that come out from long distances. Oh, the sun is a power plant Electromagnetic waves are trapped Ah, what is sunlight Babbits That’s an electromagnetic wave You know So, the kind of electromagnetic waves coming from overseas circuits is very thin. So, the best electromagnetic waves for us have a different frequency You know, the frequency that lets us detect the red, the second, the second, the south Oh so then So, from the sun, the microwave spins. On it, it is a kind of electromagnetic wave In the sunlight That’s why UV rays women get caught because they don’t like UV the most 9 This is the key Um yeah Well first gypsum Taeyoung So oh So now there was only a child who said it was inside this sunlight That’s not all electromagnetic waves that young people can encounter Why, why call it ultraviolet, why call it visible light, why infrared It’s all about that frequency? Because the frequency is different, that is, the name of the braille pack is different for each eighth I put it on the same ceiling 8 You know So, electromagnetic waves like Ax light star are too mng What’s wrong with us, what we know, the visible light we know can’t do it with the human body Give me what would happen to people if only x Guangxi from the sun came down Is there a shadow? Cloud plate 5 Then Seoul can’t buy you in a few days Wellbeer than the main one, because that electromagnetic wave, the villain Khan’s electromagnetic wave, when that electromagnetic wave comes in, uh, how do we break down our genes That’s why I use liquid cla for chemotherapy, why don’t I get an applause of 111 x mineral spring and how young it is

From trying to destroy the cancer cells that used to be, only the cancer cell genes are destroyed It’s not a problem because it means the explorer before normal cells, so we should go inside 112 That’s right, so ah so now we’re going to change the health status of our human body To find out exactly, let’s take some pictures of doctors at the hospital. Then, take an electrocardiogram and see what the electric wave that flows through the auxiliary heart looks like It’s very far, is it a soft shape or something What is this? Let’s find out what this is so don’t do anything bad What’s wrong with that bad electromagnetic wave That’s the heart propagation The heart propagation doesn’t flow through the torpedo dung, and eventually the genes in the heart cells know how It’s hard, it’s hard, and the cells’ poop isn’t smooth, so there’s no other heart health partner Yes Mac mom Let’s take some pictures Let’s take a picture of my arm So I’m going to show you my arm Good dig and envy my dig la This is now beta 8 beta alpha ah, most people usually sell my feet now beta Uh But which one of the body under the Alpha wave re apaak job When I compared alpha wave and beta wave How is it different? How should the alpha wave be softer than the beta wave? It’s a little slow. Only the beta wave is very fast, so it’s different because you dig and pull it out Well, the enemy is soft, this is soft Listen to the dark part here, put your genes, are the happiest when this alpha wave flows So, when you are fighting against this disease, what kind of wrapper is Nepa, which you must keep strong, Well So, how can you make a sound alpha wave? It becomes an alpha wave with your own power Oh how do you become a village Baba Oh you need to learn Chin 7 days You have to cut your heart, beauty I spit by myself and Alpha was uncomfortable in the wave It looks like a bow. So, in simple terms, the beta version is a very soft wave So, if you put it to become a soft fur, who will come in your mind I’m just seeing a ram hit, so I love unconditionally Yes, but this beta farm came and took it like this and became a father The people caught in are coming in and putting the material property thoughts into your mind Glutinous rice fake Oh, you have to sing loudly, because there can be an exclamation mark And even if I think about something else, it’s also annoying Where do people become when I’m annoyed? So, I sell the exclusive pop on the side of the whale

I don’t even look like a magpie, as a maca, okay yes yes well But I got a worse grasp than the lost peta wave Min What kind of August sell gamma, yeah roll it up, sell gamma When a gamma wave occurs When a gamma wave occurs, a person I lose my temper The media is paralyzed here So, it’s like selling beta in the middle, but what’s going on sometimes? It disappears, and when this happens, what we say is the lid Even if it was opened So whats braid 1 so just what I don’t have judgment, it’s my heart, what is it? TV again I kick it and crush it A night of only money Paralyzed So how do we take a mental interview with the energy of changing my pop that g20 less So, if the Holy Spirit comes in and really gives the word of life, we will have to know That is why we call it the word of the water, the word of the Bible that speaks of unconditional love Fit Oh, so, oh, so, not just bread and rice, but the forest of life and life Received alive I know unconditional love, among them the teaching is still That is how you can heal the disease itself, so-called natural healing power That’s right, it’s power So what is the case with this cell? I’m a little embarrassed to do something like this, but I’ve smashed a little connection with a computer Who is it for? It’s a secret. Oh Oh, because my family isn’t enough Yes ah ah it’s a lid, listen ah yes So, I had to break at least one computer like that Well, let’s do this again if you’re burning plum So let’s get nailed. I don’t know how much I did after me Gamma pop’s breakup Aah 8 Okay, then here’s a look like this This punishment is a sitter pharaoh I’m not sane Hypnotic calligraphy So how do i sell alpha i work best

What is that energy? It’s too weak You know, then what did you see like this now Everyone, you can answer me, This wave of yours is spreading and flowing and you cannot wake up I’ll hope for a long life, so because of the waves everyone Ah, everyone can’t control it at will. So, think about it I want to be an alpha wave, but I have to put my food up and stop smoking Jin Seon-mi The power in that love must be turned on and the spiritual energy comes in What energy is the fear of selling each hawk Our body’s heat is the house’s electromagnetic waves Unfolding is not a mental energy, but what kind of energy do we call it? It’s one thing. Yes, nuclear power was all physical Unfolding or the gravity that you know well Oh, really, this is a book. Machines that have less than 2 physical substances in the true beauty can feel the true beauty I don’t have anything to eat, but we hear the organisms that have genes You will feel the beauty of the truth Oh, I felt love So when I feel it In other words, what energy flows through our body with spiritual energy in other words You know if you need to unfold or you can affect the physical energy and change it So what you must remember 5 energy Wi-Fi at home What do you do with your energy? It’s home, I need to know the rules Physical energy attracts spiritual sheep, kills physical digs So your thoughts are positive and comfortable Cultivate with a loving heart Ah Young Seo Get off What language I am, how do I get rid of the c-class? That ah ah ah 2 get off ah How bad would you have flossed moisture like that? With the thoughts of understanding and speaking out, your Nepa How can you do this to me one by one? That’s why it’s difficult. There are many channels of suicide in Korea That’s right, how do you know a trillion most of suicides When my judgment is paralyzed, how do you keep saying that who is behind me? Remember to jump down That’s the week things 2 3 3 30 minutes yes It’s a spurt and it ends It’s judged girly, but what’s that?

Awake Run, and then the story is interesting. You know 4 alas So, if you don’t know what will happen the next moment, People who commit suicide are localized like this God’s giving me the feelings of the suicidal person. So, amazing things can happen You know, I want to know Yes Yes In the end, the two colors of our body are flowing implosion heart radio waves 10 muscle radio waves are flowing to the muscles, and our disorders are also flowing Uh, so it’s cheap if the intestines are just twisted? Uh, everyone suddenly goes through bad electricity When I left the game, I got 0 and it got very bad Oh, what will happen to the flow of such an electromagnetic wave disorder? It’s a stomach cramp That’s why you’ve got a lot of pain, oh yeah, such ah, too toolless, too angry, angry, so cold When a lot of hateful hearts accumulate, then the electromagnetic waves of the life, if our bodies are broken, the electromagnetic waves are also known as the virgin wave of the living body, that is, the bad When we have to look at it, we have a lot of bad situations in our body, pain, headache, something, lungs, all hurt, something like this Uh, so the mind may be tied together to loosen the Alpha right away, and the barrel may disappear as if there were no doors You know Oh, it’s because everyone’s watching a pair, what’s the most important thing But what controls this mind is implosion, but what controls my arms eat me Put it on the risk side d If you do that, you are half born Oh, you don’t know Korean. If you don’t know this, the o’s mischievous things don’t go wrong Sediment Drinking until the morning and just yeah until yeah 9 don’t eat the governor What’s the distance from the vitality What’s the interest in power Break down the barriers to restore one’s state of mind What’s all gone so I need to sprinkle it Personally, I can teach you so hard and how hard I can save 10 trillion won There are people who have learned like this and hit po Hak-su all the time and shout and do other things yet ah ah ah ah car yeah ah Those cheetahs can’t get rid of the people they were given, why why why why why not get better or worse Take care of this spiritual energy Try so what do uh Do you have anything close to you So, the core of this energy is the love of structure or money

I have to write a big part on this. So now then, we talked about our cell phone, but let’s use it now Oh, so close together Uh, when I use my cell phone a lot, the frequency of the cell phone answering handball was quite difficult Well, yes, this goes into me. Bringing in 12 flowers, uh, destroying the genes in my arrest. So When it causes brain tumors, uh, so inje this is 4, listen to the phone a lot often Well, you have to be very careful uh So now that’s why Heaven is healthy to send and receive with this text So that’s why, so eventually, ultimately, at the end, the genes and What’s the energy when it comes in contact? At the end, the thing that affects the gene sells electrons. Yes, but the thing that controls the electromagnetic waves is a dial to see where it’s not spiritual Therefore, Joheon’s spiritual delay is concluded with a spiritual conclusion of the truth and beauty of unconditional love When you receive, your body will implode electromagnetic waves that flow through your body, and if you integrate all the positive wave benefits When it comes to radio puncture waves, such electromagnetic waves are called body language magnetic waves Oh so I didn’t have any second-rate startec Oh, it’s our grace, and uh, what’s going to sell me and me m Oh, then the kind of green onions is different for some reason What arm do we want alpha wave 2 so 2 But when the alpha wave comes out, what does it mean? 2 Unconditional love It was love, so the meaning had to fall If a bad meaning goes into what kind of wave, cover up, break wave 4 I know this here And big the rock Pursuit of anger and put in a towel, my bar is sticky Listen from this side. Then here is the forgotten Sunmin What is this side ah The heart of the Holy Spirit is unconditional love The core of the evil spirit is not losing control So if it comes in Nepa was different Oh, when a good meaning comes back, it’s a good implosion Walter So this spreads out to our body through the nerves left Oh, my feet are living in the living body The whole work of this ecological electromagnetic wave ultimately affects where this gene Yes this is the news dart on cracked like this So here uh, what does this heal genes In the end, what is left-handed statement 2 What the Holy Spirit does in the end is what God does

What did the Word say in the Bible? It’s always beginning to scientifically explain the streets that aren’t in the Bible to fix 90p ou ah again God’s Word Then what’s God’s? If you have to win here, don’t feel bad for those who still don’t go out You are asking to believe in Jesus What is that, but a new art If you believing in a stiff way, most of them all believe in a stiff way Conditionally, what if I don’t even go out to the suburbs What is the filling tithing guide? You may get cancer. Ah, I hope you can sit down and fall asleep Girl If I believed in this way, I know that it is a correct new type. Yes, it is because I was conditionally misunderstanding that it was not All the time, the green onions are what you look like I told you to make an alpha wave, but the words that I go to church are just blessed The Bible Is Dark With Who Says What 5 There is no Hwangseong sermon, and where is left l What is on my shoulder 7 From the far end When I went to church, I went lightly, but when I put it in, what came and what did I do? And in many cases the Bible clearly heals the sick with the Word Healing the sick with the word means that it is the word. Yes, that means that God’s will is man What does the mind to heal do? Yes, so there is a saying that he heals the sick with the Word, but it is like saying that your genes are restored with the spiritual energy of unconditional love 5 different words to say that’s the same word I think it’s harvesting Yes, should I go to church too? Is it low and easy, but what is it? Why do people like to do the wrong thing. This is to heal the sick man of the Word If you don’t understand it because it is easy to explain in detail like me What people understand Even those who teach the Word couldn’t have been able to get an explanation for it. Because they couldn’t, the Word of God itself became that spiritual and paid you How do you know that it restores one electron Because I don’t know, how do I keep getting healed once and how do I talk about it? Because I thought it had nothing to do with surpassing the illness Here, a gap of faith arises Oh, just go through the horseshoe somewhere with the word So, if you do part 2 semi, come and really fix the sergeant without any conditions

Line drawing and uh, no matter how much you go out, is there a worse guy among you than Kim Byung-hun? Hyuna, who is such a class, does not need much In February, why why why is God like that, why God give me so unconditional love Only then is it comfortable It’s not comfortable to change by hitting a club If you love me like this, touched by love, I will blow It’s not because you live the way you’ve been until now. That’s why the guy who truly made peace Such power is the power to restore genes [Applause] Oh, aren’t you really tempted? Yes, let’s go now, yes All I have to do is understand and accept what I need to do With that unconditional 4, you declare that it is so uh true It’s beautiful Hyo-geun So that’s why you need to have this one with a socket tang Well so sleep A little active joke and a little close-up I’ll say if you finally come in our patience, my eight angles will change So Imagine everyone So, if I am not good at church like this, I lose it and become completely conditional. So I cannot easily say to go to church Wouldn’t it be nice to teach all churches in Korea with unconditional love? Yes, then, will the people who join the church be healthy? Oh equipped 5 so that uh Jeong Moleo 1 The words of the Bible are the words of life or the words of life are correct I realize that I can’t do it right now It’s in crisis at the end of the market. Oh in crisis. Oh, these three churches are in Dow crisis In crisis, this church really hurts above, that is, the problem is the condition, that is, teaching love. Even if I lived unconditionally, here everything was different You know, so wolf ping Now uh so Even if you watch TV in your room, the dirt looks a little black Yes, yes, what, what, what, what, what, what, what, what, what, what, what? You need to know the mirror Don’t do anything about it once you hear it Yes, it’s going to be beta, and it’s all turned off in kindergarten, why is it a wasteful time to receive life? It’s big and it’s in the winter, so this struggle life thoroughly maintained Alpha wave Oh so good nature walk pro [music] It’s politics, I know all the politicians live. Even if we feel bad, I’ll come to Gwanghwamun Can 4 First of all, what should I do after my illness? Yes, so don’t be upset with that reward

Oh, whether I’m upset either And I write why I can’t belong to me It’s hard for me to work hard in January when you’re able to cad your genes er So, everyone must lick clear and wear this evening Energy is physical energy I do not go home ah Oh that’s why we can be healed [Applause] Ugh [music] [music]

Friday, February 28

Live from New York City, it’s the Wendy Williams Show! ♪ Oh yeah ♪ (upbeat music) ♪ Feel it feel it feel it ♪ ♪ Let’s go when you need it ♪ ♪ How you doin ♪ Now here’s Wendy! (audience cheers and applauds) (audience chanting) Hey! (audience cheers and applauds) Thank you for watching us (audience cheers and applauds) What the swami’s going on? (audience cheers and applauds) Say hello to my co-host, the studio audience (audience cheers and applauds) How you doin? How you doin? How you doin? How you doin? I love that (audience laughs) Let’s get started, it’s time for Hot Topic! Yes! (audience cheers and applauds) (upbeat music) (audience cheers and applauds) Have a seat, have a seat Rambo, get out of my face I see you, I don’t even have to look, okay? Get out of my face (laughs) Hey, I’m a swami (audience laughs) Look, here’s the thing Jennifer Garner’s boyfriend isn’t happy with Ben Affleck because Ben has been talking, he’s doing interviews, promoting a new movie, and one of the things that we talked about earlier this week is that Ben said that one of his biggest regrets in life is that he divorced Jen! Oh! Well, Ben is totally single so it’s okay for him to say that, but Jen Garner, she’s got the main custody of the kids and also a boyfriend, and the boyfriend’s name is John, and John is now talking Oh! Well, you know what? There’s John at the bottom, equally as cute (audience murmurs) John feels that Jen has become Ben’s main focus Mmm Like the killer Oh! You know when you break up with someone, but they become obsessed with the brokenation of the situation? (audience laughs) And they’re not real paying attention to their new baby’s mother? Or girlfriend or whatever? Mhm So John is lookin and sayin, “What the heck?” He thinks that Ben should consider John’s feelings and her feelings in this whole thing, like come on Ben thinks that, oh God John and Jen are they engaged? No, not yet Not yet Mm, she’s taking it slow with him Oh This is what it’s like to date a celebrity though I think Like John is not a celebrity, I don’t know who this man is, but he’s talkin because I guess after midnight you get caught in your feelings, if you happen to wake up, you get caught in your feelings and then you all of a sudden start Googling and shmoogling and doing stuff Yup I don’t know about you but after midnight, probably around three o’clock in the morning, I wake up to the cutest couple ever who does the news It’s Ken Oh on Channel Seven? Oh yes! Shirley and Allen Cat No! Nope? Nope, it’s Ken, Kenneth, and Oh no no no Janai! Janai Norman! Oh my gosh (audience laughs) They are so cute and they do the news together and I hate when one takes off and they have to have a surprise co-host We’re up that early, right No but my bladder ’cause I could go back to sleep I go back to sleep for another three hours, but I hit the TV just to see what can, a difference in my head Right! I love them They’re such a young couple She’s married, he’s not, but he just had a baby or something like that, I don’t know All I know is that, look he got caught in his feelings after midnight,

and John, stop talking, okay? Leave Ben alone, Jen’s not getting back together with Ben Ben is the father of the children, they will always be together in some particular way, John be the stronger man and show some strength Go, go, John (audience applauds) Norman, I was telling you one day I woke up to go to the bathroom and they said, “How you doin?” And they shouted out to me Yes! And I’m in the bed watching, the cats are laying there, comatosed as usual and I’m like, “Huh? “Kenneth, Janai? “Thank you.” Anyhoo Future, everyone Oh He’s so toxic She called you Mr. Toxic, Future, that wasn’t me (audience laughs) So look, Future is going at it with his baby’s mother number seven in court Oh Now you know he’s got a bunch of them Yes 10 Eight Eight Oh! Eight, last count, two of them don’t even wanna be seen, the other ones don’t care He claims that Eliza, baby’s mother number seven, all right, there she is Only got pregnant to him for the money, or him for the money Well gee, Future, you think? (audience laughs) You know the way you swing your dang-a-lang (audience laughs and applauds) I’m not that kind of girl, you’re not that kind of girl, but we understand you don’t have to be that kid of girl to understand the mentality, okay? He says that she calls her daughter, “Check Baby.” Oh! Aw, that’s messed up It might be messed up but you know what, that’s his fault, that’s his fault Girl You clutched your pearls like this, you’re the lighting in this story At the end, yes you At the end in the booth section, front row, yes you clutched like, “Oh my gosh.” Yeah, “Check Baby.” Well that’s what happens when you meet a guy who you know who has money and then you get pregnant by him, and then somehow you think your life is supposed to be great after that Hm, Eliza, the baby’s mom, is denying that (audience laughs) He wants to pay $450 a month for child support Oh! Girl $450 doesn’t even cover my tea bags (audience laughs and applauds) Really? Really? (audience applauds) I don’t know what Future’s gonna do Future creates all this for himself One thing that is good though is at least one baby’s mom isn’t asking for anything, and that’s Ciara Yeah! (audience applauds) Good for her So let’s move on Mark Wahlberg, everybody, is after a DJ at his daughter’s dance Now hold on Now you have to remember, Mark Wahlberg is the contemporary kind of guy He was Mr. Calvin Klein, Mr. Funky Bunch, Mr. Got Arrested, Mr. Bad Boy, involved with all kinds of stuff in Boston, he was the porn star in “Boogie Nights.” Oh! Yes he was But we’re all allowed to grow up Hi! Second row glitter jacket, no, guy Mhm, mhm Yup, yup, hi How are you? Great how are you? Are you having a good time? Yes Your eyebrows are piercing (audience laughs) Yes Gorgeous (audience applauds) How old are you? I’m 28 Do you even know who Dapper Dan is? Yeah ♪ Mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm ♪ (audience cheers and applauds) So here’s the deal, right?

In the turban Look, no, Dap is from the 80s and the late 70s Dap did all kinds of stuff for killers and hundred dollar billers, but Dap has grown up and grown his business, and he collaborated with Gucci, which means he gets all the material and makes things the way he wants You can’t just walk in a store and get a Dap Gucci, you have to get with Dap and either he says, “Yes or no,” I had no idea what Willie was measuring for for the past like two months He’s like, “Measure her finger, measure her wrist,” I’m just like, “Leave me the hell alone, I’m going home.” And he’s like, “No, Dap is doing this thing for you,” and I’m like, “Okay Willie, but you have my measurements “and they haven’t changed,” well, they fluctuate (audience laughs) Depending on when I eat, anyhoo, but Dap made me this Do you like it? I love it! (audience cheers and applauds) The unfortunate thing is is that I will wear this again ’cause I’m that kind of girl, you know, for the amount of money wardrobe paid for this, okay? Later on, maybe in June, I’ll wear it with white tank top or something like that, and then I’ll take this wrap blouse, which is tucked in, and I’ll wear it maybe with a brown skirt in the fall, but when you see me wear it again, shut your mouth! (audience cheers and applauds) Shut up, right? (audience applauds) What am I supposed to do with this? Look, he lines it, look at the lining, it’s all lindacious, no don’t pull up too close now (audience laughs) But look, it’s all lindacious with the silk on the inside, oh he did this, okay? This is fully done Sorry bad one (clicks tongue) (audience cheers and applauds) No, ’cause he tried and Dap was like, “Nope.” Oh! Uh-huh, oh oh Somebody caught what I was throwin So anyway, so Marky Mark, right? So he’s at his daughter’s daughter dance, and she’s 10 years old, and then he heard the F bomb being dropped in a song, and I’m like, “Okay, what were they playin, “Too Short or something?” You know, some of that back that Come on now At 10 years old in 2020, these kids have heard worse in their house Absolutely You know, so he walked over to the DJ and asked him to change the music, which is like, “Dad, you’re making it “cornier than ever, really? “We like Too Short.” (audience laughs) You know? (audience applauds) We like it all, I just think that if you walk over to a DJ at a party, I’ll never forget when our son, he went to his first party, without us and he was 12, and it was a bat mitzvah And all the girls were wearing six inch Louis Vuittons and really thigh high like stripper outfits and stuff, this is in our town in Livingston, okay, okay? And it was over at the school I mean over at the temple Oh, right It was over at the temple, right? So I go to pick him up, I dropped him off, but it was all good, it was all early, right? When I go to pick him up, I’m seeing girls come out, some have one heel in one finger and the other one on the other, you know, Marco, so they do the up down up down, you know what I’m saying? Look, look, look, and, and, and I was hearing the music coming from out the place, and it was all, everything that we get ripped to right here at the show, and I wasn’t mad at it because he grew up in a particular kind of knowledge from his parents like just because they say it, doesn’t mean you have to do it, or know it or acknowledge it, or that’s not really how the world is, this is just some rapper, rapping about stuff that has nothing to do with your wheel house ’cause we will (audience laughs) Okay? (audience applauds)

Wasn’t a big deal, you know Mark should’ve just had the talk with his daughter once they got home, not walk over to the DJ I feel as though in 2020, like you don’t wanna corn your kids all the way out If you corn them all the way out, that leads to a certain amount of bullying the next day, and bullying is so rampant that we as parents, we try to do as much as we can without it With that in mind, Boof, when we go to commercial, can you please play Too Short? (audience laughs and applauds) And you know what I’m talkin about Okay So Paris Hilton says breaking up with her fiancee, Chris Zylka, was the best decision she ever made Now, if you recall, last time Paris was here, she sat on the couch, we had lovely conversation, I love Paris Hilton, I loved her since radio, before TV was invented here, and then Chris was in the audience sitting right there, rooting on his girl, but he’s really young, like Chris at that time was only 20? No, Chris River, that was River she was with Chris is like more age appropriate, he’s like 34 And Paris just turned? She is 37 39? 37? Uh-huh She just had a birthday, 37 Okay, well Paris was talking to Cosmo, and she said, “I feel like I’m an incredible woman “and I deserve someone amazing “I worked too hard just to give my life to someone “they have to be perfect.” The P word bothers me a little bit Yeah ‘Cause perfect is relative To me, and this is a broad stroke in my life, a broad stroke, broad stroke, if a situation, a person, a circumstance could be 80% great, then that’s what’s considered perfect You’ve got to allow, sir in the second row with the denim jacket, we’re relating right now Yes, you seem sensible, yes You know what I mean? There is no perfect Is that your wife, your mother? Perfect, I mean not perfect 80% of the time she’s perfect for you For me, yes That’s what matters 20% of the time, you fight, you don’t get along Fine! Then you’re perfect for each other, perfect! (audience applauds) (audience laughs) Marco? 80% If you’re happy 80% of the time, with a circumstance, a situation, or what not, isn’t that perfect? 100% I agree, yup See, it’s not 100% (audience laughs) I agree 100 I know what you’re saying, I know what you’re saying Yeah Well, the April issue of Cosmo with Paris with the pink poof Wow Is out now (audience applauds) Oh God What’re we gonna do? This is the last weekend of plastic bags in New York March 1st, and I go along with it, I don’t want to see animals choking in the river and things like that, but I do like to use them for the recyclable, and I have been hording them crazily, and people around here at Wendy have been really great at saving their bags too and also, there’s a lot going on around here regarding bags, but I also understand one thing What? Nothing Why you laughing? You’re just cracking me up (laughs) Look, you gotta start collecting those canvas bags, and I have some of them too, it’s just hard to always have them with you, and you have to make a plan When you go to the grocery store, it has to be a plan, it’s not just a, where you just stop anymore, but here at Wendy, we got you covered Oh! Well now hold on now Studio audience Yes? I’m giving you a Wendy reusable! (audience cheers and applauds) Uh-huh, uh-huh, uh-huh, yeah! Yeah! (clears throat) I mean, do your job, advertise the show at the same time,

get some good stuff for you and eat hearty, and do plastic (cries) Anyway, we’ve got more great show for you everybody (audience cheers and applauds) Up next, The Hot Five, with Jeremy Parsons So, grab a snack and come on back! (upbeat music) Okay I like that, okay (audience chanting) Welcome back It’s time for Hot Five, this is where we countdown the hottest things in pop culture, and here is People Now’s, Jeremy Parson Jeremy, welcome back Hello, Wendy Thank you for having me Okay What’s going on? All right let’s start with number five, it’s Lady Gaga’s new music (audience cheers and applauds) So Gaga’s Little Monsters went wild earlier this week, when she tweeted that she was gonna be dropping her new single and video called “Stupid Love,” people went crazy for that It’s a first solo Pop single in three years So fans are really pumped for it, take a look at some of the stuff she was releasing, giving us a little teasers To me, I don’t know if you think I’m crazy here, I’m feeling like a little Ariana Grande vibe with the ponytail, don’t at me, I know she does her own thing, she is her own woman, but that’s kind of like Ariana did not invent the ponytail Okay, all right I disagree (laughs) So “Stupid Love” is also the lead single on her long awaited sixth album It’s the first solo album in over four years, so it’s kind of like, you know, Gaga continues to reinvent herself Stephanie Okay, there we go We’re getting back to Pop Gaga here after “A Star is Born” and all of that I know Some of the fans have been doing some detective work, figuring out what the tone of this was gonna be, it’s gonna have this futuristic feel, but there’s gonna be a color palette affiliated with each track, stuff like that So we will see, we’ll find out, we’re pumped for it, you can be on the lookout for more music dropping from Lady Gaga, but we’re all excited for that Okay (audience cheers and applauds) So what’s number four? Number four! “Volcano Live” with Nik Wallenda, this is wild! (audience cheers and applauds) So all right here it is, Nik Wallenda is the Guinness I’m very nervous Yeah, he’s the Guinness World Record winning high wire artist Hot! I’ve talked to him and his, what’d you say? Hot? Well it’s gonna be hot, it’s over a volcano, but him and his family are very passionate about this They take the risks, they do it, he walked a 25 story high wire walk over Times Square Some of them have been there before Yeah Just not him They take the risk You’re a big fan of Nik? (laughs) We have to get him on this show So they’re coming back with the most dramatic walk ever They always say, “It’s the most dramatic ever,” this time I actually believe it because it is over an active volcano, and it’s live on ABC Okay I hope they have a 30 second delay, just in case Excuse me? Honestly, it’s a scary thing, it’s truly live Excuse me and no delay Then okay (laughs) All right, so he’s doing it over this volcano in Nicaragua, it’s part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, multiple craters, it’s one of the only volcanoes to have a lava lake It sounds horrifying, we actually have a quick look Wednesday, March fourth, Nik Wallenda will attempt the longest and highest walk ever It’s a lot of hard work it’s gone into this moment As he walks the length of six football fields across an active volcano, on a wire inch wide “Volcano Live” with Nik Wallenda Oh! Okay, I mean best of luck to him I’m there, I’m there I’ll be watching that “Volcano Live” is Wednesday at eight on ABC, check that out It could be over by 8:05 though (audience laughs) We hope not, best of luck So let’s move onto number three Number three is the movie “The Invisible Man.” (audience cheers and applauds) It’s out today, it’s projected to win the box office Okay, you were saying that you’ll do scary movies, but it’s not your number one pick, right? Well, no, I like scary movies over romantic comedies Okay, so I’m an easy scare, I have a hard time with it, but this is one’s getting a lot of buzz Elisabeth Moss from “Handmaid’s Tale” she stars in it critics are loving her So the deal with this story is that basically she runs away from her controlling boyfriend, he dies, she thinks he’s haunting her, crazy stuff starts happening, no one believes her, it gets wild, there’s also a look right here You okay? He’s sitting in that tube (suspenseful music) (vibrating) (suspenseful music) (gasps) (screams)

No, why do you even go into the attic? Why do you go into the attic? I can’t do it, no My people don’t go in the attic That’s your people, okay? All right Aldis Hodge, Aldis Hodge from “Straight Out of Compton” and “Hidden Figures” also in this, and Storm Reid from “Euphoria.” That book’s really good though, I would like to see that, but just with people over With a lot of people over, the lights all on, maybe a drink or something “The Invisible Man” is out today, check that out (audience cheers and applauds) Okay, what’s number one? The Hot Five! Number two Oh number two Number two, number two is the docu series called “Hillary.” This is on Hulu Oh! Oh, by the way, she has never looked better She looks great in this She looks terrific I mean look, Hillary Clinton is one of the most polarizing political figures of our time, right? People either love her or they hate her And what she talkin about? And this is one of the most revealing docs, that’s how they’re kind of framing it, but it covers her entire life, including the scandal with Bill Clinton and Monica Lewinsky Ooh Yeah, they talk about that, including her losing the presidency to Donald Trump, and including her political scandals like the emails, all right? Is she talking about Anthony Weiner’s ex-wife? Well, I don’t believe that’s in there, we’ll find out though, that one would be interesting Mmm What we do have is Bill Clinton and President Obama are interviewed for this, Hillary’s involved as well So it’s gonna be an honest look, obviously it’ll be a favorable look as well, let’s take a look at this clip Okay There is a set of expectations about a First Lady I violated them from the very beginning Email Email Emails blew up Bang It played into all of the suspicion She’s so sketchy Cold, calculating She could actually be crazy You know, you get scarred up a little bit It wasn’t like I thought and I can think about the most stupid thing I could possibly do and do it I didn’t want anything to do with them Chelsea put herself between us and held both our hands You wanna make a difference, you wanna have an impact Well then, you gotta get in the arena All right Today by the way is Chelsea’s birthday Right Today is Chelsea’s birthday, happy birthday Chelsea You know what I think about her, and all due respect to Nancy Reagan and Jackie O and the other women before Michelle Obama and what not, but I think that with Hillary, because she knew him for so long and they were just kind of in the pit of something, it was something weird With Bill? And then that Lewinsky girl came along, and then the daughter came, it’s like I’m watching this with a box of tissues, but also a fist up Yeah, it’ll be interesting to get that perspective and I’m sure there’ll be a lot of reaction from it in both directions That’s on Hulu Friday, so check it out, next Friday! Next Friday Yeah, all right Ready for number one? Number one is “Empire’s” final season Whoa! “Empire” back, final 10 episodes, sixth and final season Five years since they took off the best ratings, they broke records At the peak, they were getting over 18,000,000 viewers every single week I talked to Taraji P. Henson on People Now not super long ago, that cast has such a strong bond, but we’re gonna find out who’s dead, who’s alive, are people that seem to be dead really dead? All of that, also, the big question a lot of fans had, would Jussie Smollett make an appearance? Maybe pop back in or something? We’re still talking about him? Well that was the thought because it is the final final episode, but then he’s been indicted again with charges in Chicago, so it seeming that he won’t, but they say will wrap up his character a little more, so we’ll see how that ends up playing out A little more, what does that mean? Well, they’re gonna have some closure Fans will have some closure with the character Well Jeremy, you always do a good job Thank you so much! It’s my friend Jeremy Parsons everybody, be sure to pick up you copy of People Magazine It’s available now Up next, we’re in the Wendy Kitchen, eating So don’t go far I wanna eat, what’re you making? (upbeat music) (audience chants) (upbeat music) (audience chants) It’s okay Okay, we’re about to get down and really dirty The Grill Dads have been here before, they are no strangers This is Ryan Fey and this is Mark Anderson Hello All right we’re gonna do it? Yeah How you doin? How you doin? Pretty good, Mark The guys are like excellent cooks, they’re also dads, that’s why they’re Grill Dads, what’re we making, come on you guys All right, we have some really fun stuff Like we don’t even want tailgating season to end, so we kind of inspired this Like we love the XFL, we’re going 10 more weeks with this Okay! All right? Yeah, you guys know! All right, today, we got a stuffed pork tenderloin We have buffalo chicken wanton cups Oh man And grilled mango ice cream sundaes Oh man Wendy, extra spicy for you

Yeah, extra spicy Oh, man All right, so we’re gonna start with the pork tenderloin, all right? So what we’re gonna do, is we’re gonna start by sauteing some onions, we’re gonna caramelize these in balsamic vinegar First of all, there’s nothing like a pork tenderloin I agree You can’t do this even Yeah, do you want me to show you where it is on the animal? Yes, please Give her a back up (audience laughs) You can’t do this long, even if you’re a bad cook Exactly, you can’t mess this up All right, we’re gonna butterfly this, which means you cut it really thin We’re gonna take some cream cheese, all right, and we’re gonna smash it in here Yeah, you got it, and then we’re gonna add a little basil, fresh basil, we’re gonna add some mozzarella cheese, did I say that right, Mark? No Okay, and then we’re gonna put some bacon in here, and then Mark’s gonna add the onions Now what we’re gonna do is It’s balsamic caramelized onions You got it We’re gonna roll this and we’re gonna tie it up with some butcher’s twine Wow And then, what you’re gonna do is we’re gonna forward sear this, so we’re gonna put this on a hot grill, super hot grill You’re just gonna get it kind of blacked on all sides, brown on all sides, and then let it rest for a little bit, put it in an oven at 300 degrees Okay, for how long? Ah, it’s not about time, it’s about temp 140 get it out You know what? 140 Here’s the thing You like that Yeah, all the stuff that you added in there, you could actually taste it, it did not leak out Thank you very much It’s actually a very balanced dish Thank you very much All right, well we can move down, you wanna move down to the next one? Yeah, let’s do it, all right you’re ready for spicy? We’re doing buffalo chicken wanton cups, perfect for a tailgate So, we’re gonna make the sauce first, this is all hot sauce, Wendy Yeah, just for Wendy You can use your favorite No cilantro Scallions, sour cream, we got a little blue cheese Yum! And some butter, so we’re gonna mix that all around and then, once we got this all mixed around, we’re gonna add the chicken This is grilled chicken thighs that we’ve shredded This is what’s in here? Yeah You got it So we use chicken thighs If you’re gonna cook it twice, use the thigh ’cause it’s gonna maintain the moisture, it’s gonna be tender and rich and delicious Everybody says that about a thigh So delicious Right, they’re so nice Thighs are moist (audience laughs) Yeah! You heard it right here! (laughs) We’re gonna add a little of this, Mark We put it in the wanton cups that are par-baked Yum Let’s the magic of TV, everybody look away for two seconds Look away, okay and? Look at that they’re done Wow, all right! (audience cheers and applauds) We’re gonna top it off with some blue cheese, some scallions and then, Wendy? I don’t even need anymore Don’t need anymore, you’re good? No, this is, mhm So these are something you can get ready, have this all done and then it takes five minutes to make it once we people are over for the tailgate Yeah, you can pre-make this stuff and then have a rockin party All right, keep goin, we’re gonna move down to some dessert now Ryan, what is this? All right, this is grilled mango Whoever’s grilled mango before, you should do it, it’s fantastic All right, take the skin off, put it on a hot grill, a little olive oil, a little sea salt, you’re gonna grill these, and what we’re gonna do, is take them right off the hot grill, you can quarter them, you can chop them, whatever you wanna do and then we’re gonna add any topping you want So, uh-oh, where’s the other one? I’ll just get it ready Okay, all right So we have some Biscoff cookies to add to this as well Mm, I like those All right got a little chocolate sauce, and then I think we have some hazelnut pieces, and this is yours, this is what it looks like You can have whatever you want and some whipped cream Yeah, want some ready whip on there? No, I don’t wanna Oh (laughs) I knew that was gonna happen by the way We have like a whole betting one for that one Wait, I just wanna taste it The grilled mangoes are so sweet, but they still have a little earthiness Actually, it reminds us, so we’re launching our podcast, it’s called “Bone-in” with Mark and Fey You can check that out, all right? And we got your friend Rocco DiSpirtio coming on And Rocco DiSpirtio’s is coming on (laughs) I love guys that cook For more information on, these fantastic recipes, go on wendyshow.com Thanks Mark, thank you so much Thank you, thank you, you’re the best Grill Daddys, Ask Wendy, next (upbeat music) (audience chants) Welcome back! By the way, those recipes, have a seat everyone Really good, okay, Grill Daddys, okay? Anyway, it’s time for Ask Wendy, how you doin? Hi Wendy, how you doing? Come on over here I’m noticing your sneakers Thank you Very Giuseppe Yes, Giuseppe Zanotti Okay But it’s Ask Wendy, how can I help you? Okay, so my name is Michelle, I’m from Russia, and about six months ago Uh-oh Yes, I went online dating, looking for love I know I’m Russian girl, don’t get wrong idea (audience laughs) Okay, okay So I met very nice guy from New York City Okay I still have the wrong idea We talked for six months, I loved his personality,

very nice guy Older than you? Six years older, not bad And he buy me a ticket to come to New York City so we can meet And I get very excited, I come, and I show up at airport I come out and then instead of tall, muscular guy that I saw online, it’s short, chubby guy, different guy, holding flowers, I get so scared (audience laughs) Did you run back on the plane or did you stay? I don’t know what to do I was frozen, I want to talk to him to find out how he could do this to me So what do you think, Wendy? Well, I think that’s what happens when you meet people online People lie, you know, and it’s unfortunate Doesn’t just happen to you, it happens you, it happens to you, I haven’t been there yet, but if I do go there, it’ll happen to me too, you know what I mean? I still love his personality Well then you know what, how old are you? 26 You know what, at 26, there a lot of young ladies that don’t know the treasure of a great personality True But if you like his personality, I don’t care whether he’s short, green and a troll (audience laughs) If you like him, he treats you well, but he did deceive you He’s a liar, that’s the problem No, no, no maybe he was told he was ugly all of his life Maybe Now hold on now People get told things about their looks all of their lives It’s called in America, “catfish?” Yes, yes (audience laughs) You’re still here though Yes, for I have visa So I’m staying with friend on Brighton Beach, I don’t know When’s the last time you saw him? Maybe three weeks ago and he’s been calling me everyday, I don’t even know what to tell him, he’s a liar He lied about his looks, but maybe because he was told he was ugly all of his life Okay, what Ms. Wendy says, I do (audience laughs) If he’s nice to you and he’s not a thief, you know, go out with him one time, a one time meeting, not with your friends involved, okay? Thank you, Wendy Good luck Enjoy Brighton Beach I will, thank you (audience applauds) Mhm Mhm Mhm Hi Ms. Wendy, how you doin? I don’t know (audience laughs) Who are you? I’m Kaylen, I’m from Arizona I moved here about two years ago And what do you do? I’m a make up artist Okay So I freelance So I moved here about two years ago, and not that I have a big of a problem, but I have a landlord who lives above me, and she has a dog I don’t have a man yet, I’m still making friends, so I want to get a puppy She said, “No animals.” Do you think I should get a dog and hide it, or should I wait and move until my lease is up and get somewhere new? You should move because if you get a dog and you fall in love with the dog, and then it comes a choice between you and the dog, and let me tell you something right now, I love my cats Yes But those girls can go Okay Okay? Okay (audience applauds) Yeah, you know, look for a place where you can have an animal and a dog is a lot of walking and things like that I hear I just wanna tell you something about being a cat owner Okay, I’m allergic Oh, you’re allergic, well then get one of the ones that are shaved Okay They’re ugly as hell Cute can be ugly But you know what, cute could be ugly, like I was telling her Yeah, cute could be ugly Right? Yeah Good luck (audience applauds) Up next we’re playing 20 and 20, don’t go (upbeat music) (audience chanting) (upbeat music) (audience cheers and applauds) Welcome back, it’s time to play 20 and 20 Now, Chantel over here is an administrative assistant Yeah! With a full belly showing and a really nice sweater two piece I love it Thank you And so she’s from Virginia, what part? Alexandria, Virginia! (audience cheers and applauds) Yeah! Come on Chantel Three, two, one, go! Woo! (lively music) Okay? I got Kylie, you got the Grand at Moon Palace, announcer, tell her what it’s all about It’s a trip to the Grand at Moon Palace in Cancun, Mexico We’ll fly you and a guest roundtrip for a five day, four night stay at this luxurious all-inclusive resort You’ll spend your trip enjoying stretches of gorgeous beaches, gourmet dining and evenings at their ultra-sheik nightclub, Unique Their massive waterpark is perfect for letting loose and having fun This trip will be one to remember

Yeah! (audience cheers and applauds) Yes, I’m about to go on vacation So Kylie got backlash for letting her daughter wear what? Go Girl, she was wearing hoop hearing like this! You’re going on vacation (bell dings) Yeah! (audience cheers and applauds) Sorry, Wendy! Sorry, girl! Thank you, Chantel, and we’ll be right back (lively music) (upbeat music) (audience chanting) He tried to break my back right before the commercials end Okay, it’s time for Star Flashback, now what is your name, where are you form, and what do you do? My name is Mournet, I’m from South Africa, and I work on a cruise ship, and how you doin, Wendy? How you doin, Mournet? Okay, here’s the picture, I didn’t guess it I can give you hints She is a personal friend of mine Hm She is a reality star She is equally as cute now as she was then Her mother is co, co, co, co Can you give me one more clue? Okay Her real name is Angela Any idea? Okay, she looks equally as good with blonde hair and she’s friends with the Kardashians! Oh, I know, I know, I know, I know, I know It’s Blac Chyna, of course! (bell dings) (audience cheers and applauds) Here you go A 60 minutes massage at Haven Spa We’ll be right back Thank you very much (upbeat music) (laughs) Monday, a full hour of juicy Hot Topics, I love you for watching, have a nice week and see you next time on Wendy, bye (audience cheers and applauds) (audience chants) How you doin? Nice (suspenseful music)

Moringa Monday Podcast 02 – Uncle Bob

hey Uncle Bob how you doing thanks for doing this with us yes it’s beautiful to have you here today happy Monday morning everybody welcome to the Moringa Monday Podcast we’re here with Uncle Bob today it’s February 4th or 3rd 3rd we’re here at Numa Farms and we just had a really productive market weekend although we did get rained out on Saturday yeah we’ve been slightly more productive yeah you you held it down for us at Hyde Park so every week we go to different farmers markets in that in the neighborhood in Tampa so that way we can get our products out there Uncle Bob’s been a part of the Moringa operation now for about a year yeah so who are you I’m just an old country boy from Zephyrhills that’s who I just work many different jobs through my life just follow my path Wow I’m so grateful for you being here it’s a beautiful happy to be here brother thank you love it it’s a beautiful place you look great I love your bandanas everyone’s loving your vibe at the farmers market you’re loving it I’m loving it I love it I’m alive when I’m at the farmers market I can see it I love talking to people I love sharing information about learn about health and hoping to help them help theirselves before they get in the position I was in seven years ago Wow you know I mean you look great like even just from one year ago you look amazing in just the last months that we’ve been here you know I’ve totally you have grown and you have my health has blossomed so much amazing I mean we’re like old fraternity brothers now living here together here at Numa forms where Uncle Baba’s has been a live-in assistant for the past four months since we’ve been here at Numa farms and Plant City and how did we meet we met through Angie & Denise yep I was which you know I’ve done lawn service for eight nine years now and I actually met them and started working for them and became real good friends with them and I met you one day when you were planting some trees on their property some Moringa trees yeah and we just said hi how you doing you know we were both in our own jobs and we went on about our business you know didn’t think much about it and then a second time he was harvesting their oldest tree there which is about three years old now oh wow the oldest tree I think the oldest tree is even more like seven so seven or eight yeah yeah so we met at Angie and Denise’s place when I was harvesting a tree crazy story I met Angie and Denise from Nancy so Nancy and Angie go back to elementary school best friends me and Nancy and Angie attended a workshop like eight years ago about on Moringa and they both got Moringa trees at the same time and Nancy is the South is the huge tree in South Tampa and I met Nancy the very first day at the farmers market in 2016 crazy and then just a year or so later I get introduced to her best friend Angie and Angie has a huge tree also in her yard oh so she’s in Zephyrhills so you and I we met one day I’m harvesting the tree you’re cutting the grass and Angie is this this little angel in our ear like Moringa Moringa Moringa Moringa and she just kept mentioning it to you and you’re like okay okay I was I was just overlooking it you know I was in so many other aspects of health you know and doing other protocols you know the sole solution you know different herbs you know ashwagandha mucuna can’t even think a half of them now you know your Bamonte

a the yerba maté a came yeah a little later on in time but yeah once I learned about the yerba you know I was using it every day and it was I drank it all day every day and I did meal replacement shakes through a company it was the best company I guess I can say the name max vibrance hell yeah and I was just drinking the shakes you know one in the morning one at night and drinking yerba all day mowing yards trimming trees whatever and I was full of energy you know and love it feeling light and healthier that’s great you know compared to what compared to eating heavier foods and you know you know just being really sick yeah and being sick for so long yeah so we’ve we’ve gone we you and I have been able to to get to know each other over the past few months it’s been great living here with you and you telling me your story of your healing process is something that I would really love to get into yeah to let everybody know just how severe you know you really were essentially you know you were knocking on the door you know wanting to get out of here as far as I was concerned seven years ago roughly I was dying and I was suffering to the point that I truly wanted to leave this world I was ready to go but I didn’t want to leave my family behind I didn’t want them to grieve over me and I asked some questions to God the universe however you want to put it and I didn’t know I’d still be getting answers today it’s been quite a path I just like I’ve been taking about of here and led to sit in front of you today Wow seven years ago that’s about the same as that time that I realized also there was something going on 2012 2013 I think energy you know the Mayan calendar you know the end of the the so-called end of the Mayan calendar which was December like 21st 2012 yeah like I became plant-based in January of 2013 I’m wondering if something has something to do with that shift in in consciousness was with many people real good question you know and the more I’m researching and the more I’m seeing I do believe that that’s part of the reason you know is is people have started waking up we see that every day at the markets and right here you know we’ve got people calling you know yes helped advice and wanting to get on the Moringa you know and learn how to live lighter and healthier you know yeah get rid of all the negative foods you know the sugars the table saw you know processed foods with chemicals and additives right you know well I’d love to enjoy a glass of tea with you happy Monday happy moringa Monday cheers your brother mmm Uncle Bob that’s liquid gold brother liquid gold he hooks it up so what’s what’s in here this is usually it’s just Moringa in your vomit a moringa powder Moringa powder and loose leaf yerba Matte how do you make it I actually use a French press and I make it a half gallon at a time in a mason jar I put a little bit of honey in in the jar first I had hot water and I dilute the honey and I put that in a refrigerator the other I heat up the water trying to keep it under 180 degrees so we don’t kill any beneficial enzymes and all that and yeah I put three teaspoons of the Moringa powder and three tablespoons of the yerba mate a loose-leaf per half gallon half gallon so once I get the French press to set up I put them in the refrigerator so I got my jars of honey there – everything’s cooling down so there’ll be the same temperature want to pull them together Wow and we just recently this one yeah this one has just recently added maca root powder a teaspoon of that and a teaspoon of camu camu is really bringing up the berrylicious yeah that fruity taste for the camu camu yet no so I had I had fasted on Moringa about six years ago Moringa alone now when I would get twitches in my muscles I would chew roots because of the potassium in the roots I would just go outside pull a bunch of roots out and then just chew on them and then during that time I was just drinking tea a lot of Moringa tea right now what I’ve been witnessing with you over the past year and what started our relationship was that you got a

kilo of powder right so we started you started or purchasing kilos of powder from me and I sort of take notice and asking you what are you doing what are you eating like what’s your regimen with your protocol and your you literally say that every day – yeah yeah gotta show my job yes so this this is your everyday this is my food right here and inside there you have a yerba mate a tea with Moringa powder yep and you just drink about a half a gallon a day I try to drink a gallon I count Wow so I’m getting six teaspoons of Moringa powder and six tablespoons of yerba matte both are completely food sources really that’s unbelievable I mean your proteins proteins vitamins minerals fiber everything’s there now in the mornings also – you drink that sole solution that salt right and that’s the minerals right the monatomic minerals yeah you get your 84 at least 84 of your minerals you know your gold silver copper rhodium meridium the list goes on you know and also yeah most people don’t know about monatomic elements or arranged or really rearrange monatomic elements mm-hmm you know and they’re super conductive and we’re super conductors super what’s your blood type do you know believe it says O you’re a O no way usually when people come to me in the booth and they and they and they say you know they’re they’re an O and I have this feeling that O may need more heavy meats you know because they’re the original bloodline they may need more heavy denser proteins you know like what’s been advertised and the Paleo diet and the keto diet you know much more of a so-called caveman diet or mean how do you feel I feel great super energetic I’m going all day every day you know you deal you see me I get up in the morning I take my time in the morning I’m just an old country boy you know so I start slow and I usually finish fast you know yeah you’ll speed up a good night man I’m still packing product or whatever yeah well you worked overnight for like 10 years didn’t you well I did yeah yeah the chemical company as a lab technician for seven of those years quality assurance Yeah right nasty chemicals oh well this is what makes you an asset to the team is that you’re a hard worker and and you’re here you’re devoted you know you’re devoted completely to what we’re doing because you see the mission absolutely essentially of what we’re doing we’re just providing people with with with powder to make teas and smoothies Moringa capsules in case you want something fast and quick and then we also have our teas here and then inside the box we have you know the tea’s essentially Uncle Bob helped to develop this packaging system and also this package all together because of your passion and love for the moringa tea and and this helped to inspire this this whole package because I mean you’re a testament to to what moringa moringa tea and really do as far as nutrient I’ll use it for the rest of my life it’s amazing you know and I’m like my own guinea pig right now you know just to see you know to make sure that there’s not gonna be any adverse effects over long-term use of the same thing every day yeah you know any only way to find out is to do I mean we already had the research saying that people who lived eight years on Moringa oh I’ve seen that so if that’s the case then you can live the rest your life for Moringa what are they what are they doing in Africa are they they they’re they’re feeding children rice with Moringa greens in the rice as a complete food source like are they doing that here too I mean what have you seen at the farmers market like you said there was a gentleman that that got a half a kilo of the loose leaf and and and he was a little bit overweight and he hadn’t heard of it before right yeah and yeah he’d come back to me and he thanked me over and over again you know for the information that I gave him you know I gave him the Moringa you know and him and his life were standing out in the middle of the road you know they just happened to look over and I said hi how you doing today you know want some tea and and yeah they you know they looked and I said do you like to drink tea and he’s like yeah me too and he came on over and found out about Moringa and I

couldn’t believe he bought you know five hundred grams and half the key though Wow you know right then and there but yeah he come back a couple weeks later and he says Robert he says you’ve changed my life Wow from what you told me he says my blood sugar was running around 200 every morning he says now it’s ninety really and he’s drinking the Moringa tea every day and he’s fasting every other day now so intermittent fasting using Moringa knowing that Moringa is a complete food source not in needing to overstuff ourselves as much I mean I have gained so much more profit in I say Profidence – confidence comes in myself especially since taking the sole as well especially since even drinking more Moringa tea I feel more in my power to know it’s taking you know several years for both of us to go more of a plant-based diet so what else do you eat in the day like this is crazy like I see this guy running well I’ll tell you when I go to the farmers markets I’ll snack on some good whole-grain clean bread yeah well this isn’t free yeah there’s nothing wrong with carbs carbohydrates I mean we need carbohydrates but I don’t really look at carbs I don’t look at calories you know other people do I look at vitamins and minerals minerals above all because the minerals you know I’d like I got to find out the man that wrote the book you know using his quote but every disease I say it’s just a condition not a disease it’s a break in your DNA because you’re lacking a mineral so every disease known to man is merely a lack of minerals Wow it can be traced back to that how did you so you heard of Moringa essentially through Angie and myself yeah I heard of Moringa from Dr. Sebi in 2013 and he says the same thing that in order to really heal the body you have to give it a break you know you’ve had a you had a lifetime of poor eating but also mental stress and strain emotional stress and strain you know with family and and and doctor said a would say you know just take a break from blood and starch and just focus on your cellular level getting minerals salts you know and in Moringa and he also promoted burdock root sarsaparilla a few other herbs that I got into through doctors have a sea moss you know looking to sea moss we have some in the fridge actually I was just gifted some sea moss one of one of the first people I studied under was Dr. Sebi you know I’ve just through YouTube videos yeah you know and it seems like a lot of people actually start out learning through the same people that we have Dr. Sebi and John Bergman you know I also looked at Robert Kassar now John Bergman and Robert Kassar were both chiropractors really you know and I’m finding that chiropractors are much more educated and how the body works then maybe even some other medical doctors absolutely what’s the what’s the other gentleman that you watch with the white beard in the robe that talks a little bit I guru Sadhguru and he talks a lot about the food right yeah and in the relationship that we have with food yes and he only eats one meal a day you know later and even I think it’s around 4:30 ish or so you know and he says this and I believe it I feel it is that the body and the mind is that as fast when the stomach is empty I feel that too and you pretty much fast all day I only see you eat an avocado sandwich you know about five o’clock every day six o’clock you might have a banana here and there but an avocado sandwich lots of sea salt yeah I pour it on pour it all of that on Himalayan salt don’t be afraid to use it no don’t be if there’s not too much no this is a misconception food was salt was used as money absolutely salt is as valuable as money any more so and more so does life you know this is what wim hof did he he traveled 40 days and 40 nights in the desert just to prove yeah it didn’t didn’t wim hof just recently travel through the desert not drinking any water in a marathon randoms the desert he ran a marathon across a desert now you love wim Hof’s method right it

has changed my life really so in conjunction with eating less incorporating more minerals what else have you been doing using wim HOF doing the breath work really you know I’ve been doing the cold showers really yes Wow I’m working up to an ice bath yeah because when when what the weather started changing you were extremely cold and you were like you know what this is a weakness that I’m gonna kick yes and so what did you start doing well like I say yes I looked at the Wim HOF thing you know and I started doing the breathing and that led into make me want to do head stands just coming natural you know doing yoga poses that I’ve never practiced and your Ariel your girlfriend is telling me says she’s a yoga instructor said that I got perfect form you mean your back muscles I mean when I was holding your your legs up I mean you’re just boom boom boom stacked like you just you’re solid muscle and that’s what you’ve been trying to do to is just from your from your illness you lost a lot of weight you lost a lot of muscle mass walking skilled walking skeleton and luckily you were able to have some help from the Western medical system you got some help I had a surgery that I didn’t want to have but I did and I think I think the universe happened it’s over we are grateful for all systems of and modalities of medical because we can use them in different ways we just have to navigate through these systems and know that it’s not all one way it’s not all necessarily Ayurveda it’s not necessarily all Western medical it’s not necessarily all Chinese medicine but in a sense we have to bring everything really in alignment with ourselves you’re a Virgo yeah Libra cusp Libra cusp more so on the Libra side which has a lot to do with your mental state and and just how how you think and operate it and it’s one of the reasons why I think we’ve come together because for some reason I have attracted more virgos these past few years in my life I don’t know if it’s the salts or whatever I have this feeling like when we’re born say I was born in January that someone maybe in like April May or June July has more salts that I don’t have and I’m attracted to them that could be that because we are all lacking according to our zodiac sign certain cell salts dr Schuessler he actually burned some bodies down to ash to see what was left and he found out that the only thing he was left was sell salt for salts and minerals Wow that’s it that’s it so we are basically water salt and you’re you’re like just dancing you’re flowing you’re vibing you’re feeling you’re getting back I mean you were born in 1961 yeah 1961 same age as my dad and he actually just came to visit us here at the farm which was great great yeah awesome I’m so glad you had a chance to meet actually yeah you’ve been like an uncle to me you know over these this past year and I appreciate you as a mentor and and going through this with me I mean it’s not always roses and it’s life its life and thank you for just being there and just being a solid ox you were born the year of the Ox right the Chinese year of the Ox year of the ox I’m the I’m the rabbit yeah so tell us a little bit more about where you fit in here and what you’ve been doing lately as a as a team member with Numa farms well like I say when I met you you were by yourself basically you know you were living in a little hole of a storage shed and you were trying to make videos you were trying to make products and you’re trying to make your farmers markets do harvest I mean you’re running yourself ragged brother you know I’ve been doing the lawn service for eight nine years I mean it’s like a walk in the park for me as far as physical labor goes you know but I don’t get to use my mind and I’m not you know really helping other people in that business you know other than I’m getting their yard cut for them they’re trees trimmed edges you know but here yeah you know I’m helping

you grow this business to another level now with my production experience my sells experience my lab experience you know so you you sold cars in the 80s cars well actually in the 80s I was a service advisor for buddy foster Chevrolet which was very busy dealership by then we’re at times up for who Zephyrhills so you’re pretty much Zephyrhills born the raised and then I run the body shop for him for a good while you know and then I moved on from there and ended up working for Publix in the warehouse mm-hmm produce warehouse you know just physical labor Chunkin produce around all day everyday right right and yeah but yeah it’s been a long road do things man so I learned a lot you’re like a whole new person shares the experience of the working world you know you really have a lot of production work you know and that’s where I shine is in production and I you see I’m like a one-man production crew you are zip it up so Uncle Bob has helped to take over a lot of the production aspect of Numa at the moment and we’re beginning to train others and so if you’re interested in coming in Uncle Bob and I have set up a station essentially to teach people how to go from raw greens dried greens to powder capsules tea I mean we have everything right here and we’re looking forward to the next step as now we’ve spent the last four months training and getting your stations set up so that way you can help others come aboard but also teach them about the farmers market so like this is a major part of our business as the farmers market right yeah it’s it’s really besides the experience of being with the people you know which is the most important part for me but it’s very lucrative very lucrative right markets the crowds you know you can make a thousand dollars in a couple hours we’ve seen that literally I mean you’ll have people coming into the booth and you’ll have lines yeah once you start serving and you’re like it’s tea time everybody I mean you have like people lining out the door for tea and samples and also you know your your energy and your vibe and people seeing you this is a great you know aspect of you being a part of the team like yeah people see me it’s great you know I’m a young guy and I just got out of school and I’m talking about this but also the dynamic of you being in there is really special because a lot of the people at the farmers market are more so your demographic yeah you know there’s a lot of country folks out there you know they’ve lived hard lives and they’re suffering now and they’re waking up to you know and they’re realizing that there’s there’s got to be a better way to live you know and that’s what you know we’ve been watching this you know our whole lives basically well I’m older you know I’m twice as old but I started out when people were still eating a little cleaner you know they were still eating a lot of meat and all of that dairy but you know the produce was cleaner your wasn’t quite as contaminated with the chemical fertilizers and stuff people were still turning their crops back in the ground you know and keeping the organic matter in and I think that’s what helped me stay healthy through most of my years until I started really eating all of these process can packaged foods right you know yeah but you know nowadays we sit out here and we you know go into the stores or the Market wherever we go out on the streets and we see everybody you know – saying now is fat sick and nearly dead everybody’s walking around fat sick and really dead jeez and it just hurts my heart so bad now that I know there’s a way around that yeah you know and I’m here that’s why I’m here now that’s flying the universe has led me here is now it’s not about the money Kendrick no you know the money will come oh yeah but what we’re doing is we’re helping people help theirselves live a longer healthier happier life through nutrition Wow you know I mean you’ve got to heal your gut when you heal your gut you kill your body when you heal your body your mind opens up and then and only then will you connect spiritually and grow wow you’re so spiritual I mean I love you’re like a Native American blood a little bit I have Seminole love me some Seminole

blood through my grandmother Wow and you know I said when we first come here that this is sacred ground no faster yeah the word Thonotosassa means land of much Flint I’m at home I feel like I’m at home there you are so you’re you’re pretty powerful at the farmers market I feel like a human magnet a lot of days now you are now literally when I did Zephyrhills the fall festival I mean literally is like people were just drawn to me and just cramming around me man this whole time we’re talking I literally have chills just looking at you it just brings me so much joy and seeing you blossom I mean you have become a whole other person well you know that’s what we’ve talked about too we sit out here at nights when it was warmer more so and we’ve talked a lot you know yeah and we kind of used the reference to the butterfly into cocoon you know going from the caterpillar and both of us right now are like the butterflies we’ve come out of its cocoon we are drying our wings and we can ready to fly yeah where do you see yourself here in the next year in the next year it’s hard to say you know will that time tell but I see this business growing exponentially and I’ll take on more of a leadership role and yeah that’d be great get other people trained up to do the processing you know that and then we’ll move out and maybe start doing more teaching and yeah yeah yeah because and this is what I was really thinking this whole time is getting back to your story and what you’ve been trying to do you started a website yeah got a long way to go yeah what’s your domain do you have a domain we what we haven’t decided really yeah no we’re just writing we’re working on a few different things from health to enlightenment yeah I love that and you drink a lot of kombucha well not as much as I used iced I’ve noticed but I’ve notice that I have one in the morning I call that my breakfast my coffee you know and then I start drinking the tea all day all right and that’s great because we were thinking of you know now that we’re here how do we become more self-sufficient now that we have one of our main food sources we get you know fresh Moringa every day for me I eat a lot of mushrooms yeah so we’re gonna start growing mushrooms beautiful drinking carbonated water sparkling water mineral water I do you know I spend quite a bit of money on you know just sparkling water yeah trying to get a system set up here to where those little things you know start generating income for us in a way where we’re not having to spend spend those funds and and you you’re interested in possibly learning how to make kombucha and more fermented foods yeah we look at that using the Moringa then we won’t have to buy our kombucha we can make it taste the way we want it to yeah and then also also provide that to people at the farmers absolutely absolutely kombucha is considered the elixir of immortality by the Chinese it’s a living food Wow so just got your probiotics it’s got some good acids in it acetic acid and connick the qur’anic acid yeah so it’s a living for the Wow and living energy is what we need to be putting in our bodies live living energy – closer from the bush or tree to the fruit to your mouth this word should be that’s Wow I’m really grateful for you being here being a part of the team we’re looking to expand the team and bring some some of really good people here and especially the farmers market I keep bringing coming back to the farmers market because that’s where I’ve seen you shine you know and yeah you do great here and it’s and it’s great that we have it quiet I’ve been able to keep it really quiet here you know people come making appointments and I love it quiet I’m also decompressing and healing from constantly being bombarded by questions

and people and no offense to them I mean I put myself out there to take to get asked these questions I’m also learning how and when to shut that off you know and when do I step away from answering questions and comments and emails and I have to also be healthy right you can’t stretch yourself up too far well that’s what you being here has helped me to do is take it a little slower and and you’ve been taking a huge load off of me and just taking on more responsibility so I really appreciate for doing that well you shine with the technical aspects of the business you know you’re getting really you’re you’re blossoming you’re blooming with your videos thank and yeah I’m really glad to have you here you to have the time to do that because we need to get the word out there yeah you know and your demand for that you know yeah thank you like to say you’ve blown me away you know from the time I’ve met you and as I’ve got to know you would your intelligence you are super super intelligent and high Gandhi everybody boy hi boy let’s get you off the table yeah come on nice that’s Gandhi our farm kitty so you know he really impressed me when I started looking at the fact that he has literally every package every label is his create your creation you know I mean you were literally cutting these you were printing these boxes on paper thick paper and cutting them out by hand until you were able to get it set up to where they could make them in a factory were you yeah you know and I mean you know it takes some dedication and you know thank you a mind to do these things Kendrick you know but I mean this is one thing but your architectural skills now that’s for you really blow me away would your aerial beehive yeah and all of the other models you show me that you created you know and the one about the Grand Canyon ohhh yea I love that blew me away man yeah we’ve got to go to the Grand Canyon haven’t been much out of Florida have you no only been as far as well I’ve been to Niagara Falls once on the truth were my wife my ex-wife and sister-in-law wanted to go so I went with him just to see this ice didn’t even gamble at a casino that’s what was all about yeah and but that’s the Florida stuff in you know so just we took trips every year from Florida up through Virginia to Ohio just visiting her family you know and then back down so whatever I pass through from here to there that’s all I’ve ever seen well that’s that’s this is what I’m wanting to help facilitate for you is more freedom yeah you know with you being here putting in this work it’s it’s inspiring for me to try to put something aside for you so that way we can get you out and about and traveling and spread the word because you’re saying that you want to be a teacher you’re a philosopher I mean you’re becoming you’re an elder now that’s that’s what I’ve been telling my family is you know that I’m becoming an elder you know and I told them a few years ago probably more than that but at least a few years ago as I was coming through my healing experiences and started opening up spiritually you know I told them that I feel like someday I’m gonna be speaking in front of people and helping them to know what I’ve learned you know and my philosophy on that is that all the knowledge in the world is no good if we keep it right here in our head we got to share it with others and you’re starting to experience that that feeling in little tidbits right now as you’re a traveling market vendor for us you’re I mean I go to the farmers markets and you go to the farmers markets right now we don’t have anyone else right now I mean we do have Kevin from real sweet farms and he helps us out every once in a while we didn’t meet a new new guy this week potentially a training Nick hopefully he can he can really be an asset to the team I believe he can he’s got moringa experience he just graduated from the Peace Corps right yeah yeah he spent two years in Senegal and growing and learning more about Moringa trees calls us last week saying hey I know everything there is to know about

Moringa and it seems like you do too can we get together somehow yeah you know and I said yeah so he came by and we’re excited to get him under our wing as well and they even trained up what little training he needs I think yeah you know but this is what you’ve you’ve really I think blossomed I know I have blossomed because of the farmers market the confidence that I have when I see people but also I’ve learned these series of questions that people ask us so maybe we can go through kind of like so what’s what’s the most common question that you could ask at the farmers market that’s really a hard woman you know it’s I mean but really the biggest question is what is this Moringa stuff what does it do yeah what can it do for me you know what do you tell them well I tell them it can change your life really I like that I like that I like that you’re not into you know because we both have to be very careful making claims talking medical people you know they have we’re not doctors and and so when someone asks you you’re you’re speaking on your experience right you know all I’m doing is sharing the information I’ve learned they can take from it what they want yeah right or need I’m only the vessel or however whatever word I’m losing or yeah no that’s perfect only the conduit for the information to put a spark in their mind to get them to go do more research you know yeah basically I like the hose everyone needs to educate yourself and everyone speaking of doctors need to learn to be their own doctors because mother nature gives us everything we need being active in our own house yeah and grow yeah because one pill doesn’t fit all you know one herb doesn’t fit one person what we want to study more is is this these Ayurvedic herbs this is why we grow Moringa we’re gonna be growing tumeric you know we love the curry tree all these medicinal herbs that are coming out of you know tropical lands you know ancient lands I mean we have herbs here in the states you know common herbs that we may not hear of as much that have been suppressed like one of the biggest ones is dandelion absolutely especially making the roasted root making a coffee replacement in mm-hmm go to : good stuff gota kola in asia is also known as dollar weed here and I’ve mentioned that to you before and I didn’t even know yet even though and those are the number two herbs that are shut down by Agent Orange or I mean round oh yeah yeah yeah yeah what’s the advertisements about that I mean they’re getting ridiculous with a dandelion you know the weed killers and their commercials man are just totally ridiculous yeah you know but they’re telling everybody to kill something that it’s not a one of the most nutrient dense plants on the planet yeah right and that’s from here in the States so good for your liver your whole body though you know it helped it helped with my irritable bowel syndrome and am I in my onset crohn’s disease I just started eating raw dandelion root in in conjunction with Moringa and that’s really what brought my liver back to stasis you know in balance I mean I was passing by oh I was just going number two and I was just passing bile hmm because of the liver flush that the dandelion was causing right I mean there was no solid coming out it was just you know by I’m talking about that man people don’t realize that these gall stones and kidney stones and things like that they don’t need surgery to get rid of them know if they used to right herbs and minerals and all of that the body will naturally break these things down in the mouth it’s funny to say that I actually I did Dr. Andres Moritz’ protocol for the gallbladder liver flush I think it was a half a cup of Epsom salt with a half a cup of water so it turned into a cup about a cup of Epsom salt water and then also like a cup of olive oil and I drank they have some salt water and I drank the olive oil and immediately I had to clench because it was about to just come out but I held it as long as I could how’d it as long as I could and I wanted

to see what was inside and so I went number two in the bathtub and when I did that everything evacuated my entire system thousands and thousands of tiny pebbles tiny little pebbles came out of my system and I do believe that that was in my liver and in my gallbladder absolutely and little stones that were preventing my my my full healing process but since then I haven’t had a problem going to the bathroom literally and I did that probably about four years ago and I was part of my problem you know my bowels were gone you know back when I was so sick I couldn’t even leave the house man I couldn’t even make it from the chair to the bathroom so you had the opposite yeah just the opposite so I was stuffed up and you were and I was probably detoxing too you know and I was not looking at stones you know I was doing number two in the toilet but I was going in there and actually looking at the parasites coming out of really you’re kidding me took a flashlight in there man you saw the parents I looked at and I saw all of these little worms coming out of my body I did the same thing yeah and saw worms yeah I mean anything from little bitty things some of them look like little black dot the right you can spread them out and you can see you’re kidding see their tail yeah this is in our body like our wore gloves now yeah this is in our bodies yes so we have parasites that live inside of us at all times this they help us break down our food they do and some of them actually control what we eat your kid here are mine you mean if they want sugar if they want sugar they’re gonna tell you to eat that sugar cravings yeah you don’t I remember I remember just equal the the cravings that I had the physical cravings in my jaw cuz I store a lot of energy in my jaw and I think just because of you know how I talk my muscles in my face but I can just feel tension under mine under my neck especially when I stopped smoking tobacco I had this severe craving for tobacco but also sugars and certain foods if I didn’t eat like donuts cookies or something I was just cottonmouth dried mouth just like craving this this food but now that I’ve been cleansing and you have experienced us – we have no cravings for things we crave good stuff yeah like maybe some chocolate here and there yeah good good cacao 75 to 90% yeah real chocolate yeah and and do you think that that was like a parasite cleanse that essentially we got on I mean just naturally through what we were doing we were having it we were doing a parasite cleanse yeah it’s gonna naturally happen when you when you clean up your food source start eating plant-based basically well really that’s what we’re doing you know no dairy no meat seven years ago I just wanted cold turkey you know same overnight man I gave up all meat dairy refined sugar sugar table salt yeah processed foods of any kind that’s those are the five things that I gave up too so what are the five you said it was you gave up meat meat dairy dairy refined sure table-salt in processed foods and any processed food I want a straight plant-based I started doing green smoothies and I advanced to the juicing and but the problem is I found out just how expensive and time-consuming it is and also you can be wasteful if you try to store too much and you can’t get to it before you can use it so I started looking at simplifying all of that because I know the body only needs so many things to function and survive and so that’s when I went to the meal replacement shakes and I would add like chlorella spirulina you know other green powders in with that and was living fine on that – Wow you know it was more cost-effective and I could do it fast and easy so you know very little cleanup or prep and so now that’s what I love about drinking moringa and yerba mate is this basically takes me what about 20 minutes to set up my four French presses and my jars and set them in refrigerator and then I’m good for a couple days I don’t have to make no food Wow so if you’re making tea you make it hot you put it in the French press yeah and then you chill it yeah I’ll let it

steep warm but you know it don’t matter cuz you put it in refrigerator it you know and it’s got to take its time to cool down so it’s steeping the whole time true and yeah basically cold brew after that and then it’s and then it’s cold it’s like we’re drinking it cold right now and it tastes great I’m it’s chilly Monday morning I’m trying my best to lock in the nutritional value with the cold you know after bringing it out with the heat and it lasts a couple days yeah I mean you know I go through maybe a gallon a day you know and I’m making two gallons at a time so you know between what I drink and what actually you know you drink with me you know yeah but we can do a couple more minutes and and and just kind of wrap it up and and is there anything else that maybe we you wanted to cover you what we were just talking about you know your your cold brew your tea you know you’re going to the farmers market and the first thing that you do you know you have a you have a booth with Numa and you’re behind the table and you and you bring tea to the farmers market so dude so you make it every morning just fresh from our greens and we’re gonna start adding yerba mate in there as well just to show people to how great it can taste you know because sometimes people will say oh I don’t really like the taste of Moringa and you have it in a powder form in this which is which is pretty cool because some of it will settle to the bottom and every time we drink it we kind of have to stir it up a little bit it’ll settle to the bottom but it’s in there and this is what I’m realizing is that it’s in there and not only do we get the fiber but you’re drinking it but it’s also it’s it doesn’t dissolve no so it’s in there but it’s still as if it was a loose leaf right you know but just broken down and you might actually we might actually be accessing even more of the nutrient because we’re breaking it down into that fine powder yeah but in the solids are still goodness you know so I like to shake it around yeah and get those solids in me too yeah I notice that fills me up more if I drink the yerba mate tea with the Moringa powder in it and I’m drinking the powder and I physically see the powder that I’m drinking and eating I feel fuller yeah you know because you’re you you’re knowing I think that’s what this is is it’s a process of people knowing what they’re eating is powerful right you know because sometimes I have a doubt you know it in it do I feel weak because I’m a plant on plant-based why should you you know what it was strongest athletes in the world the best athletes in the world or plant-based vegan yeah well you know what it was I wasn’t doing my push-ups now you’re doing now you and I both will get down and we’ll do our push-ups well I’m up to like a hundred push-ups a day now I feel amazing in my last video I noticed my my arms were getting nice and big really good see like right there that last little little cup at the bottom had a bunch of powder at it huh in it and it tastes great it doesn’t taste chalky I used to think that it was chalky but I you know we’re getting used to it we’re just having to change our taste buds and the mental and the middle it’s the mental aspect of it man you know bottom line is everything on this earth everything is mind over matter putting on your mind it don’t matter I Love You Man I Love You Man you have literally just shown as a testament you know the power that someone can have on the on their deathbed not able to leave the house you know not able to take care of yourself too now being a provider you know healthy as an ox you know working for yourself uplifting others teaching others about your story and this is why we’re doing this podcast today is to help get people to know you as as an integral asset and role in Numa you’re gonna be here planting trees with us teaching people how to grow Moringa trees I’m excited for this next season and here it is February we’re almost through we’re almost through we’re almost through we’re trying to get to the spring when we moved in here in October we said oh we just got to get through February and we’ve already started planting seeds you could possibly see just back there we um Kevin from real sweet farms he actually helped us build a greenhouse on the property our first greenhouse all of our

trees in there we just got an order for 50 Moringa trees yesterday so those 50 Moringa trees that are in there they’re gonna be going out to a new home in Riverview shout out to Bob’s berries because he’s gonna supply that gentleman with pots and also the education and mulch to grow those trees and as a co-op member do you want to own land one day absolutely possibly a neighbor somewhere around here yeah farming oldest area but you just you’re thinking traveling you’re thinking about traveling yeah and that’s something I never actually considered when people talked about traveling to me you know oh my gosh screw that you know but I was too caught up and taking care of others my family members mother father just working everyday just to make what I needed live and help them get by and I mean so I never even thought it was a possibility for me you know I figured I’d just be working until the day I die and that’s it mm-hmm but now I know and now I want to live to be over 100 years old you can do it and I know that there’s a world out there but even if I never left Florida and if I just traveled around Florida I could spend half of the rest of my life just exploring Florida’s beaches yeah inland campgrounds lakes rivers whatever right yeah yeah thank you so much Uncle Bob for coming out it’s been about an hour and I’ve loved sharing with the world your story your experience here thank you so much for joining us today and every day for being here as a record of my life you’re a rock thank you I love you thank you so much uncle Bob and we’ll have plenty more of these times so people can get to know you more so thank you thanks everybody for joining us peace love prosperous growing and health be with you may health be with you thanks Uncle Bob yes sir that came out pretty nice

Intro To Herbs 101| How To Natural Medicine (Lecture)

Peace, love and life family. To get access to my raw, uncut content swing by my patreon at Patreon.com/Dudley Dudzz. On my Patreon, we are a tight knit community dedicated to personal development and overall ascension. Due to YouTube’s policy and guidelines, a lot of my educational content that’s waking people up cannot be posted. So consider becoming a member today and let’s get it poppin. Now, this is typically content that I only put on my Patreon for my patrons. This is exclusive access to one of my lectures. So, if you want to support me make sure to go to my patreon at Patreon.com/Dudleydudzz for more edifying and overall self-mastery and educational videos, alright? So, with that being said, Man, let’s get straight into this lecture. Let’s get it poppin. Make sure to smash that like button. I appreciate y’all, man. Thank you What’s good family, what’s good Dudzz nation, man! Welcome back to another video. So, in this video, this is going to be an introductory lecture style video to herbs. I typically would do this on my PowerPoint. But because I lost my Microsoft Office a couple of days ago, which I’m still pretty mad about, I had to write down my whole lecture on paper. And so what this video is going to be is; I’m going to be discussing herbs with you guys. I’m going to talk about different classifications, I’m going to throw off certain names. What I do have to say first is that there’s a lot of different sub-categories and species and classifications of herbs. And so for the purpose of this video, I’ve just simplified the names a little bit based off of the taste and the reaction that the herb has once it interacts with the human body. And so, with that being said, a lot of these classifications have many other names. They’re known as other things in different regions, so I just had to get that out of the way. Now, make sure to smash that like button. Because I’m about to tell you guys about herbs. I’m gonna tell you guys certain energetic properties that they have for the body, certain herbs that you can use for certain maladies, the effects it has, the side effects it has, and how each organ has, excuse me, how each herb has a certain level of intelligence and organ affinity. And once it interacts with the body, it knows which organ to go to and which organ to help Every organism on this planet is trying to survive. So, I’m going to start the lecture off with this; every organism on this planet is trying to survive. So, the number one law of nature is self-preservation. With that being said, different plants, different herbs have different defence mechanisms, by a lot of names, some we’ll call legumin, you know, lectins, raphides, trichomes: a lot of these herbs have different defence mechanisms. And so, certain herbs grow at a certain elevation, a certain climate and so, there’s different medicinal properties. Some are used topically, some are meant to be ingested, some both, right? And so, with this lecture, we will be discussing a little bit about how, you know, every plant is trying to fight for survival, right? And so, a lot of plants that are trying to fight for survival, when you do eat it, you’re actually sometimes able to absorb that fighting energy inside of you, and it combats maladies and diseases. And so with that being said, Man, let’s get started into this video. Again, make sure to smash that like button. If you’re new here, my name is Dudleydudzz. We’re all about health, self-mastery, and just, overall, having a healthy life in its entirety, alright? So, I wrote everything down man, so, going into it, right? So, the first classification of herbs that I’m going to be talking about are called pungent herbs Now pungent herbs are a bit more spicy They have a hot taste. Once you bite into it instantaneously, you can tell that it’s hot and sometimes it has a bit of a bitter taste, a little bit. And so, in terms of the energy it provides is mainly warming and drying. And it’s good for energy dispersion meaning it actually flushes energy out of you cause it heats up the body. And so, examples of these herbs are chili peppers, ginger, garlic, mustard, thyme and eucalyptus, also horseradish and cinnamon. If you ever tried to do the cinnamon challenge, you’ll know that you start to get hot and sweaty. And so, the organ affinity for these herbs; these herbs are good at actually bringing blood upwards to the body. This is why when you

eat something spicy, you start to sweat And so, these are great for decongestion, these are great for colds and flushing things out and heating the body up, okay? So, with that being said, pungent herbs remove stagnation, they push energy towards the head, as I said, increase blood flow and circulation, aids in digestion, increase the temperature, also, expels mucus in the body so, really good for colds and congestion. Now, the side effects: Over-use depletes energy reserves, because it’s actually flushing blood outward and releasing energy as you’re sweating and, as I said before, it brings the blood upward so, once after you sweat, you’re going to have a cooling sensation, okay? Anybody that’s had a fever knows that once you start having cold sweats, you actually start to get cold after sweating. And so, this is not the best for people who are already hot, who were already, you know, having heatstroke or something like that; you don’t want to consume these herbs, or people having a fever, aright? So, that was the pungent herb category. Moving into aromatic herbs. Now, aromatic herbs are what it says: it has a very strong aroma, okay? These herbs are generally used for seasoning and cooking or for essential oils, they extract the oil out of it. In terms of the energy it provides, it’s warming and drying, but it’s milder than the pungent herbs so, it’s not going to be as strong and overpowering. Now these herbs include peppermint, basil, lemon, oregano(which actually grows at a higher altitude so it’s good for fighting off diseases because of what it has to fight when it’s up in the higher altitudes and mountains), sage, rosemary, dill, chives (Dill is actually an alkaline herb that’s approved on Dr. Sebi’s lists). These herbs are strong for the nervous system; they have very strong Nervous System effects And, as you know, there’s different nervous systems. There’s the parasympathetic and then there’s the sympathetic, which is responsible for the fight or flight, right? And so, these herbs are mild stimulants. Unlike caffeine, they’re not going to overstimulate you. It’s a mild stimulant, it aids in digestion cause it’s gonna mildly stimulate that. Great for disinfecting, so you can actually clean with these herbs. Helps destroy harmful bacteria and microbes in the body, especially inside the gut. These don’t have a lot of side effects. The only thing is that whenever you’re extracting these oils, it’s more potent than the actual herb itself. So, too much of anything can be a bad thing. A lot of the Essential oils that are extracted from the herbs should mainly be used topically and not eating because as I said, it is more potent and since it is mildly stimulating, you can have heart issues if you start messing with the chemistry of the herbs, alright? So, the next category that we’re gonna move into, family (by the way if you haven’t already, smash that like button) are “Bitters” or bitter herbs. So, bitter herbs obviously have a bitter taste. In terms of the energy it provides, it’s cooling and drying such as mint leaves. A few have a warming effect. Now, these are the polar opposite to pungent herbs, they actually draw blood inward. And so, bitters actually have organ affinity to the liver, the kidney, the colon; so, in organs that are designed for cleansing the body. And so, examples are: alfalfa, artichoke, kale(the greens), dandelion, chicory, tumeric, soursop and ashwagandha which is my personal favourite. Now, these have a bit of a warming and drying effect, move energy inward and downward, as I said, digestive stimulant, very good for detoxifying and are mild sedatives. So this is what I take soursop tea at nighttime, because it is a mild sedative The side effects are really not a lot. If it’s excessively used, it will dry you out. And, weak individuals should not really mess with bitters if you’re already weak sometimes, okay? So, moving on to the next herb. I call this alkaloid herbs; these herbs have a bit of a bitter taste there. It’s hard to name all these because there are a lot of hybrids and yes, some hybrids do occur naturally in nature, but most are actually manmade. So there’s a lot of different species now. Examples are caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, Golden Seal, barberry and chocolate. Now some of these

have a detoxifying effect, but that’s not their their primary use, they mainly stimulate the heart. And so with that being said, you can already tell that the side effects is, if you use too many of these it can lead to heart abnormalities in terms of the rhythm of your heart, and possibly heart attack if you’re abusing these types of stimulants, okay? These also dry you out as well and have a bit of a cooling effect. So, moving into astringent herbs, which is one of my favourite classification of herbs. These herbs are slightly bitter and drying Example is green tea, Witch-Hazel(which I use a lot), sage, bayberry, rose and blackberry root. Now, these have a constricting effect. In fact, my lady was sick the other day and she had stomach cramps, so I got her some green tea as an astringent and it immediately constricted her stomach and stopped it from cramping and she thanked me for hours. And so, it’s perfect for tissue that is out of balance It has a drying effect. It actually is a great coagulation; it coagulates blood to stop bleeding, which is kind of like clumps it up a little bit. Perfect for major trauma or bleeding when someone gets shot, stabbed or something like that bones up leaky gut syndrome, as I said it’s great at coagulating, at clogging. It helps neutralise animal venom, so good for snake bites, often mashed and chewed and then applied topically on somebody that has a severe cut or trauma and this is great for a counter to poisons. So, the side effects of these are it reduces digestive function obviously because it’s constricting so it’s not going to let anything flow through. It interferes with mineral absorption sometimes because it’s constricting. Best taken in between meals and can cause constipation if taken in large amount, obviously because it’s constricting, and it can irritate skin because it is a counter to certain poisons and certain stuff like that. So, moving on to the next category, which I call fragrant bitters or aromatic bitters Obviously these have a bitter taste, but these actually have a strong scent but it’s not like a typical aromatic that smells good. It’s not always the most pleasant scent. Examples are mugwort, wormwood and tansy. These are actually anti-parasitic so, very powerful with the body of parasites. These are digestive stimulants, because it’s going to flush you out. The side effects for these can draw you out when used in large amounts, not best for pregnant women, and there are really a lot of side effects to those, you feel me? So, that’s that for the the aromatic bitters or what I call fragrant bitters. Moving on to acrid herbs. Acrid herbs are one of the most disgusting they have a bitter and nasty disgusting taste In my culture in Haiti we have something called jiwof, which is a clove that is classified as an acrid; Very powerful herb but has a disgusting taste, but great for actually balancing in flavour of food. And so, examples of these are certain citrus, ginger, clove, as I said before, angelica herb, skunk cabbage… stuff like that Now, these have a relaxing and sedative effect similar to ashwagandha. It has a cooling effect, it enables energy to flow through the body. It actually fortifies or strengthens the kidneys and the stomach So, this is why I cook with a lot of cloves. These release cramping and muscle spasms. As I said before, it kind of relaxes the whole body. The side effects for these: some acrid herbs actually induce vomiting if you over-use these in large amounts. Over-use may affect nerve function because it is such a calming and relaxing herb. So, you shouldn’t overuse anything in nature, anything in excess is a bad thing. Nature is always striving to be balanced so that’s even on a spiritual level, right? So that’s it for that man Moving into what I call sour herbs, the kind of herbs that kind of make your mouth go like, you feeing me? So, these are typically more edible. These are mainly like fruits, you feel me? Now, obviously these are very nourishing and enriching and are moist. So, these have a lot of antioxidants which combat free radicals Examples are lemon, lime, mangosteen, cranberry, stuff like that. These actually

reduce free radical damage, cool the body and nourish the cells, on a cellular level. These tighten tissue; great for skin because of the antioxidants, strengthen and tones the liver amongst other cleansing organs in the body. These have no side effects. And so this is why I always tell my clients that I’m personally training to consume lots of fruits, right? Moving on to what I call salty herbs. Now these are like the greens. They have a very earthy taste, sometimes bitter Examples of these are nettle which is very good for male pattern baldness. If you’re a balding look into nettle tea. It’s great for actually regenerating the hair follicles on your head, spinach, algae, spirulina(my favourite), celery, wheatgrass has a very bitter earthy taste These actually contain a lot of electrolytes so I blend these in my water sometimes to have like a Natural Gatorade These also have a lot of magnesium and salt spray for balancing the body’s Ph These are actually classified as superfoods. They’re healing to the tissue These are natural diuretics, they’re going to make you pee, they support kidney function, as you can imagine, as I just stated before, loosens the mucus so it can exit the body easily. It decongests you, much like alkaloid herbs; sometimes they have a bit of a decongestant component to it. This actually relieves lymphatic congestion as well and these are superfoods. So, there are no side effects So eat as many of these as you want. Next moving up to sweet herbs, as I call it Some might call it different but I call it sweet. These often have a bit of a bitter taste, but mainly a sweet taste. Sort of like chocolate; chocolate can be made sweet or not. But these characteristics are moistening, maybe slightly warming Example is bee pollen (which is not really an herb but I call it an herb), stevia (not stevia extract but stevia,) licorice, cocoa, ginseng, stuff like that. These strengthen the immune system, regulate cortisol levels, which is stress and just overall stress in general. These are nourishing to the vital organs and promote gland health and promotes energy due to the polysaccharide chains which is a chain of sugar. The side effects of these are weight gain, and that’s pretty much it So, just eat these sparingly, you feel me? Too much chocolate will make you gain weight, you feel me? The next one is mucilaginous or muculent herbs (which mucus). So, the consistency of these are slippery and slimy and have a bit of a sweet taste. The energy of this is moistening, nourishing, and cooling. You always hear me talk about seamoss and seamoss actually falls into this category of herbs. So, examples of these herbs are aloe vera, okra(okra is very slimy), mushrooms are very slimy, pumpkins, chia seeds, sea moss and a lot of mushrooms These have a cool and a moisting effect on you and it actually moistens the tissue, it’s good for digestion, it’s a modal accidte it’s gonna promote that that easy passageway in your intestines to poop With that being said, they promote bowel movement. If you’re constipated, you want to look into mucilogenic herbs. These promote gut health and reduce cholesterol and enhance immune system and actually enhances mineral absorption. This is why sea moss has so many minerals that you can actually absorb that are good for bone density. It’s a natural aphrodisiac, and amongst a bunch of other stuff. So, the side effects for these: they can slow down digestive function through excessive use As I said, you never want to overuse these herbs, these herbs are to balance out your body, not to abuse. And if you overuse, these can reduce mineral absorption because the body cannot take all the minerals; like sea moss, if you consume way too much sea moss, you may not be able to absorb all of those minerals so, it’s gonna get flushed out through your kidneys and urine, right? And so, moving into fatty, oily herbs, you already know where I’m going with this one in particular. So, fatty and oily herbs, of course, oily in texture such as olive, they make their natural oil. These have a moistening effect, they’re very good in HDL, which is the good cholesterol. These have a cooling effect, very nourishing and yield a lot of energy. As we know, fat calorically yields the most energy, right? And so this is why when we are starving or in ketosis, our

body will utilise our fat stores for energy because fat yields the most energy and our body will actually break down muscle first before it goes to fat because fat is the last resort, alright? So, people who go on ketosis diets actually want their body to burn fat first and save the muscle, right? So, examples of these are flax seeds, mainly a lot of nuts and seeds, flax seeds, coconuts, olives, hemp seeds, and mainly, this is the the category that’s going to have your seeds in it, because seeds and nuts yield a lot of healthy fats. And so, these provide a lot of energy. These are good for brain health, are very good for cognitive health, and just overall, promoting a healthy brain and thinking. Another herb that is very good for cognitive and brain health is actually tumeric. So, that’s a little fun fact for y’all man. But as I said before, these are excellent for brain health. Now these do have a mild laxative effect. Now, many of you know that if a lot of nuts or seeds, you’re going to be pooping a little bit more, right? And so, these actually promote healthy bowel movements. So again, if you’re constipated, I recommend that you consume a little bit more nuts or seeds. If you have a nut allergy, then seeds, these also lubricate dry tissue. So if you have extremely dry tissue, I would recommend you eating some more nuts and seeds in your diet. Now, these actually lubricate dry tissue internally and externally. So they’re for somebody like me who has dry skin, I could benefit from eating nuts and seeds and also it lubricates the inner linings of your intestines and your insides as well. So that’s the plus of the fatty or oily herbs. And they’re also great for topical use. Now, these are the herbs that you can use interchangeably to cook with or actually use it as a skin topical such as coconut oil, olive oil, even grapeseed oil and various other natural seed oils and nut oils. You can actually use it on your skin as lotion and stuff like that, you feel me? So, these are like a double whammy, great for topical, great for eating and just overall great for your health. So, that was pretty much the classifications of herbs that I wanted to talk to you guys today about, in terms of herbs that you can get started using both topically and eating. The purpose of this video was to be a beginner’s guide, an introduction to people who are probably a little bit intimidated by herbs. I know there’s a lot of people who want to get into herbs, but they don’t really know where to start and there’s not a lot of videos on YouTube or a lot of videos out there in general. Now, this is typically a video that I would make for my patrons only, on my Patreon but I decided to make this video public So, shout out to all my patrons that have supported me. If you want to support me for more knowledge you can go to my patreon at Patreon.com/Dudleydudzz. But until then, family: peace, love and life So, sincerely, thank you. Stay bless

Zimbabwe | Wikipedia audio article

Zimbabwe (), officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly 16 million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then-government, and from which it withdrew in December 2003. The sovereign state is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) It was once known as the “Jewel of Africa” for its prosperity.Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe’s authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe’s economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him “a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator” The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way.On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe’s rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country’s national army in a coup d’état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed == Etymology == The name “Zimbabwe” stems from a Shona term for Great Zimbabwe, an ancient ruined city in the country’s south-east whose remains are now a protected site. Two different theories address the origin of the word. Many sources hold that “Zimbabwe” derives from dzimba-dza-mabwe, translated from the Karanga dialect of Shona as “houses of stones” (dzimba = plural of imba, “house”; mabwe = plural of bwe, “stone”) The Karanga-speaking Shona people live around Great Zimbabwe in the modern-day province of Masvingo. Archaeologist Peter Garlake claims that “Zimbabwe” represents a contracted form of dzimba-hwe, which means “venerated houses” in the Zezuru dialect of Shona and usually references chiefs’ houses or graves.Zimbabwe was formerly known as Southern Rhodesia (1898), Rhodesia (1965), and Zimbabwe Rhodesia (1979) The first recorded use of “Zimbabwe” as a term of national reference dates from 1960 as a coinage by the black nationalist Michael Mawema, whose Zimbabwe National Party became the first to officially use the name in 1961 The term “Rhodesia”—derived from the surname of Cecil Rhodes, the primary instigator of British colonisation of the territory during the late 19th century—was perceived by African nationalists as inappropriate because of its colonial origin and connotations.According to Mawema, black nationalists held a meeting in 1960 to choose an alternative name for the country, proposing names such as “Matshobana” and “Monomotapa” before his suggestion, “Zimbabwe”,

prevailed. A further alternative, put forward by nationalists in Matabeleland, had been “Matopos”, referring to the Matopos Hills to the south of Bulawayo.It was initially unclear how the chosen term was to be used — a letter written by Mawema in 1961 refers to “Zimbabweland” — but “Zimbabwe” was sufficiently established by 1962 to become the generally preferred term of the black nationalist movement In a 2001 interview, black nationalist Edson Zvobgo recalled that Mawema mentioned the name during a political rally, “and it caught hold, and that was that”. The black nationalist factions subsequently used the name during the Second Chimurenga campaigns against the Rhodesian government during the Rhodesian Bush War of 1964–1979. Major factions in this camp included the Zimbabwe African National Union (led by Robert Mugabe from 1975), and the Zimbabwe African People’s Union (led by Joshua Nkomo from its founding in the early 1960s) == History == === Pre-colonial era (1000–1887) === Proto-Shona-speaking societies first emerged in the middle Limpopo valley in the 9th century before moving on to the Zimbabwean highlands The Zimbabwean plateau eventually became the centre of subsequent Shona states, beginning around the 10th century. Around the early 10th century, trade developed with Arab merchants on the Indian Ocean coast, helping to develop the Kingdom of Mapungubwe in the 11th century This was the precursor to the more impressive Shona civilisations that would dominate the region during the 13th to 15th centuries, evidenced by ruins at Great Zimbabwe, near Masvingo, and other smaller sites. The main archaeological site uses a unique dry stone architecture The Kingdom of Mapungubwe was the first in a series of sophisticated trade states developed in Zimbabwe by the time of the first European explorers from Portugal. They traded in gold, ivory, and copper for cloth and glass.From about 1300 until 1600, Mapungubwe was eclipsed by the Kingdom of Zimbabwe. This Shona state further refined and expanded upon Mapungubwe’s stone architecture, which survives to this day at the ruins of the kingdom’s capital of Great Zimbabwe. From c. 1450 to 1760, Zimbabwe gave way to the Kingdom of Mutapa. This Shona state ruled much of the area that is known as Zimbabwe today, and parts of central Mozambique It is known by many names including the Mutapa Empire, also known as Mwene Mutapa or Monomotapa as well as “Munhumutapa”, and was renowned for its strategic trade routes with the Arabs and Portugal. The Portuguese sought to monopolise this influence and began a series of wars which left the empire in near collapse in the early 17th century.As a direct response to increased European presence in the interior, and especially due to the increasing amount of Carnegie family farmers, a new Shona state emerged, known as the Rozwi Empire. Relying on centuries of military, political and religious development, the Rozwi (meaning “destroyers”) expelled the Portuguese from the Zimbabwean plateau by force of arms. They continued the stone building traditions of the Zimbabwe and Mapungubwe kingdoms while adding muskets to their arsenal and recruiting a professional army to defend recent conquests.Around 1821, the Zulu general Mzilikazi of the Khumalo clan successfully rebelled against King Shaka and created his own clan, the Ndebele. The Ndebele fought their way northwards into the Transvaal, leaving a trail of destruction in their wake and beginning an era of widespread devastation known as the Mfecane. When Dutch trekboers converged on the Transvaal in 1836, they drove the tribe even further northward, with the assistance of Tswana Barolong Warriors and Griqua Commandos. By 1838, the Rozwi Empire, along with the other smaller Shona states were conquered by the Ndebele and reduced to vassaldom.After losing their remaining South African lands in 1840, Mzilikazi and his tribe permanently settled in the southwest of present-day Zimbabwe in what became known as Matabeleland, establishing Bulawayo as their capital. Mzilikazi then organised his society into a military system with regimental kraals, similar to those of Shaka, which was stable enough to repel further Boer incursions Mzilikazi died in 1868 and, following a violent power struggle, was succeeded by his son, Lobengula === Colonial era and Rhodesia (1888–1964) ===

In the 1880s, European colonists arrived with Cecil Rhodes’s British South Africa Company (BSAC). In 1888, Rhodes obtained a concession for mining rights from King Lobengula of the Ndebele peoples. He presented this concession to persuade the government of the United Kingdom to grant a royal charter to the company over Matabeleland, and its subject states such as Mashonaland as well.Rhodes used this document in 1890 to justify sending the Pioneer Column, a group of Europeans protected by well-armed British South Africa Police (BSAP) through Matabeleland and into Shona territory to establish Fort Salisbury (now Harare), and thereby establish company rule over the area. In 1893 and 1894, with the help of their new Maxim guns, the BSAP would go on to defeat the Ndebele in the First Matabele War. Rhodes additionally sought permission to negotiate similar concessions covering all territory between the Limpopo River and Lake Tanganyika, then known as “Zambesia”.In accordance with the terms of aforementioned concessions and treaties, mass settlement was encouraged, with the British maintaining control over labour as well as precious metals and other mineral resources.In 1895, the BSAC adopted the name “Rhodesia” for the territory, in honour of Rhodes. In 1898 “Southern Rhodesia” became the official name for the region south of the Zambezi, which later became Zimbabwe The region to the north was administered separately and later termed Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia) Shortly after Rhodes’ disastrous Jameson Raid on the South African Republic, the Ndebele rebelled against white rule, led by their charismatic religious leader, Mlimo. The Second Matabele War lasted in Matabeleland until 1896, when Mlimo was assassinated. Shona agitators staged unsuccessful revolts (known as Chimurenga) against company rule during 1896 and 1897.Following these failed insurrections, the Ndebele and Shona groups were finally subdued by the Rhodes administration, which organised the land with a disproportionate bias favouring Europeans, thus displacing many indigenous peoples Southern Rhodesia was annexed by the United Kingdom on 12 September 1923. Shortly after annexation, on 1 October 1923, the first constitution for the new Colony of Southern Rhodesia came into force.Under the new constitution, Southern Rhodesia became a self-governing British colony, subsequent to a 1922 referendum. Rhodesians of all races served on behalf of the United Kingdom during the two World Wars. Proportional to the white population, Southern Rhodesia contributed more per capita to both the First and Second World Wars than any other part of the Empire, including Britain itself.In 1953, in the face of African opposition, Britain consolidated the two Rhodesias with Nyasaland (Malawi) in the ill-fated Central African Federation, which was essentially dominated by Southern Rhodesia. Growing African nationalism and general dissent, particularly in Nyasaland, persuaded Britain to dissolve the Union in 1963, forming three separate divisions. While multiracial democracy was finally introduced to Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland, however, Southern Rhodesians of European ancestry continued to enjoy minority rule.With Zambian independence, Ian Smith’s Rhodesian Front (RF) dropped the designation “Southern” in 1964 and issued a Unilateral Declaration of Independence (commonly abbreviated to “UDI”) from the United Kingdom on 11 November 1965, intent on effectively repudiating the recently adopted British policy of “no independence before majority rule” It was the first such course taken by a British colony since the American declaration of 1776, which Smith and others indeed claimed provided a suitable precedent to their own actions === UDI and civil war (1965–1980) === After the Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI), the British government petitioned the United Nations for sanctions against Rhodesia pending unsuccessful talks with Smith’s administration in 1966 and 1968. In December 1966, the organisation complied, imposing the first mandatory trade embargo on an autonomous state. These sanctions were expanded again in 1968.The United Kingdom deemed the Rhodesian declaration an act of rebellion, but did not re-establish control by force. A guerrilla war subsequently ensued when Joshua Nkomo’s Zimbabwe African People’s Union (ZAPU) and Robert Mugabe’s Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU), supported actively by communist powers and neighbouring African nations, initiated guerilla operations against

Rhodesia’s predominantly white government ZAPU was supported by the Soviet Union, the Warsaw Pact and associated nations such as Cuba, and adopted a Marxist–Leninist ideology; ZANU meanwhile aligned itself with Maoism and the bloc headed by the People’s Republic of China. Smith declared Rhodesia a republic in 1970, following the results of a referendum the previous year, but this went unrecognised internationally. Meanwhile, Rhodesia’s internal conflict intensified, eventually forcing him to open negotiations with the militant communists In March 1978, Smith reached an accord with three African leaders, led by Bishop Abel Muzorewa, who offered to leave the white population comfortably entrenched in exchange for the establishment of a biracial democracy. As a result of the Internal Settlement, elections were held in April 1979, concluding with the United African National Council (UANC) carrying a majority of parliamentary seats. On 1 June 1979, Muzorewa, the UANC head, became prime minister and the country’s name was changed to Zimbabwe Rhodesia. The Internal Settlement left control of the Rhodesian Security Forces, civil service, judiciary, and a third of parliament seats to whites. On 12 June, the United States Senate voted to lift economic pressure on the former Rhodesia Following the fifth Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM), held in Lusaka, Zambia from 1 to 7 August in 1979, the British government invited Muzorewa, Mugabe, and Nkomo to participate in a constitutional conference at Lancaster House. The purpose of the conference was to discuss and reach an agreement on the terms of an independence constitution, and provide for elections supervised under British authority allowing Zimbabwe Rhodesia to proceed to legal independence.With Lord Carrington, Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs of the United Kingdom, in the chair, these discussions were mounted from 10 September to 15 December in 1979, producing a total of 47 plenary sessions. On 21 December 1979, delegations from every major interest represented reached the Lancaster House Agreement, effectively ending the guerrilla war.On 11 December 1979, the Rhodesian House of Assembly voted 90 to nil to revert to British colonial status (the ‘aye’ votes included Ian Smith himself). The bill then passed the Senate and was assented to by the President. With the arrival of Lord Soames, the new Governor, just after 2 p.m on 12 December 1979, Britain formally took control of Zimbabwe Rhodesia as the Colony of Southern Rhodesia, although on 13 December Soames declared that during his mandate the name Rhodesia and Zimbabwe Rhodesia would continue to be used. Britain lifted sanctions on 12 December, and the United Nations on 16 December, before calling on its member states to do likewise on 21 December. Thus Zambia, Mozambique, Tanzania, Angola and Botswana lifted sanctions on 22–23 December; Australia partly pre-empted this, lifting all but trade sanctions on 18 December, and trade sanctions on 21 December.During the elections of February 1980, Robert Mugabe and the ZANU party secured a landslide victory. Prince Charles, as the representative of Britain, formally granted independence to the new nation of Zimbabwe at a ceremony in Harare in April 1980 === Independence era (1980–present) === Zimbabwe’s first president after its independence was Canaan Banana in what was originally a mainly ceremonial role as Head of State. Robert Mugabe, leader of the ZANU party, was the country’s first Prime Minister and Head of Government.Opposition to what was perceived as a Shona takeover immediately erupted around Matabeleland. The Matabele unrest led to what has become known as Gukurahundi (Shona: “the early rain which washes away the chaff before the spring rains”). The Fifth Brigade, a North Korean-trained elite unit that reported directly to the Zimbabwean Prime Minister, entered Matabeleland and massacred thousands of civilians accused of supporting “dissidents”.Estimates for the number of deaths during the five-year Gukurahundi campaign ranged from 3,750 to 80,000. Thousands of others were tortured in military internment camps. The campaign officially ended in 1987 after Nkomo and Mugabe reached a unity agreement that merged their respective parties, creating the Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front (ZANU–PF).Elections in March 1990 resulted in another victory for Mugabe and the ZANU-PF party, which claimed 117 of the 120 contested seats.During the 1990s, students, trade unionists, and other workers often demonstrated to express

their growing discontent with Mugabe and ZANU-PF party policies. In 1996, civil servants, nurses, and junior doctors went on strike over salary issues. The general health of the population also began to significantly decline; by 1997 an estimated 25% of the population had been infected by HIV in a pandemic that was affecting most of southern Africa.Land redistribution re-emerged as the main issue for the ZANU-PF government around 1997. Despite the existence of a “willing-buyer-willing-seller” land reform programme since the 1980s, the minority white Zimbabwean population of around 0.6% continued to hold 70% of the country’s most fertile agricultural land.In 2000, the government pressed ahead with its Fast Track Land Reform programme, a policy involving compulsory land acquisition aimed at redistributing land from the minority white population to the majority black population. Confiscations of white farmland, continuous droughts, and a serious drop in external finance and other supports led to a sharp decline in agricultural exports, which were traditionally the country’s leading export-producing sector. Some 58,000 independent black farmers have since experienced limited success in reviving the gutted cash crop sectors through efforts on a smaller scale President Mugabe and the ZANU-PF party leadership found themselves beset by a wide range of international sanctions. In 2002, the nation was suspended from the Commonwealth of Nations due to the reckless farm seizures and blatant election tampering. The following year, Zimbabwean officials voluntarily terminated its Commonwealth membership.The Zimbabwe Democracy and Economic Recovery Act of 2001 (ZDERA) went into effect in 2002, creating a credit freeze of the Zimbabwean government through Section 4 C, Multilateral Financing Restriction. The bill was sponsored by Bill Frist, and co-sponsored by US senators Hillary Clinton, Joe Biden, Russ Feingold and Jesse Helms. Through ZDERA Section 4C, the Secretary of the Treasury is ordered to direct US Directors at the International Financial Institutions listed in Section 3, “to oppose and vote against– (1) any extension by the respective institution of any loan, credit, or guarantee to the Government of Zimbabwe; or (2) any cancellation or reduction of indebtedness owed by the Government of Zimbabwe to the United States or any international financial institution.”Following elections in 2005, the government initiated “Operation Murambatsvina”, an effort to crack down on illegal markets and slums emerging in towns and cities, leaving a substantial section of urban poor homeless The Zimbabwean government has described the operation as an attempt to provide decent housing to the population, although according to critics such as Amnesty International, authorities have yet to properly substantiate their claims.On 29 March 2008, Zimbabwe held a presidential election along with a parliamentary election. The results of this election were withheld for two weeks, after which it was generally acknowledged that the Movement for Democratic Change – Tsvangirai (MDC-T) had achieved a majority of one seat in the lower house of parliament.In late 2008, problems in Zimbabwe reached crisis proportions in the areas of living standards, public health (with a major cholera outbreak in December) and various basic affairs.In September 2008, a power-sharing agreement was reached between Tsvangirai and President Mugabe, permitting the former to hold the office of prime minister Due to ministerial differences between their respective political parties, the agreement was not fully implemented until 13 February 2009. By December 2010, Mugabe was threatening to completely expropriate remaining privately owned companies in Zimbabwe unless “western sanctions” were lifted A 2011 survey by Freedom House suggested that living conditions had improved since the power-sharing agreement. The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs stated in its 2012–2013 planning document that the “humanitarian situation has improved in Zimbabwe since 2009, but conditions remain precarious for many people”.On 17 January 2013, Vice President John Nkomo died of cancer at St Anne’s Hospital, Harare at the age of 78. A new constitution approved in the Zimbabwean constitutional referendum, 2013 curtails presidential powers.Mugabe was re-elected president in the July 2013 Zimbabwean general election which The Economist described as “rigged.” and the Daily Telegraph as “stolen”. The Movement for Democratic Change alleged massive fraud and tried to seek relief through the courts

In a surprising moment of candour at the ZANU-PF congress in December 2014, President Robert Mugabe accidentally let slip that the opposition had in fact won the contentious 2008 polls by an astounding 73%. After winning the election, the Mugabe ZANU-PF government re-instituted one party rule, doubled the civil service and, according to The Economist, embarked on “misrule and dazzling corruption”. A 2017 study conducted by the Institute for Security Studies (ISS) concluded that due to the deterioration of government and the economy “the government encourages corruption to make up for its inability to fund its own institutions” with widespread and informal police roadblocks to issue fines to travellers being one manifestation of this.In July 2016 nationwide protests took place regarding the economic collapse in the country, and the finance minister admitted “Right now we literally have nothing.”In November 2017, the army led a coup d’état following the dismissal of Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa, placing Mugabe under house arrest. The army denied that their actions constituted a coup Mugabe resigned on 21 November 2017, after leading the country for 37 years. Although under the Constitution of Zimbabwe Mugabe should be succeeded by Vice President Phelekezela Mphoko, a supporter of Grace Mugabe, ZANU-PF chief whip Lovemore Matuke stated to the Reuters news agency that Mnangagwa would be appointed as president.In December 2017 the website Zimbabwe News, calculating the cost of the Mugabe era using various statistics, said that at the time of independence in 1980, the country was growing economically at about 5 per cent a year, and had done so for quite a long time. If this rate of growth had been maintained for the next 37 years, Zimbabwe would have in 2016 a GDP of US$52 billion Instead it had a formal sector GDP of only US$14 billion, a cost of US$38 billion in lost growth. The population growth in 1980 was among the highest in Africa at about 3,5 per cent per annum, doubling every 21 years Had this growth been maintained, the population would have been 31 million. Instead, as of 2018, it is about 13 million. The discrepancies were believed to be partly caused by death from starvation and disease, and partly due to decreased fertility. The life expectancy has halved, and death from politically motivated violence sponsored by government exceeds 200,000 since 1980. The Mugabe government has directly or indirectly caused the deaths of at least 3 million Zimbabweans in 37 years == Geography and environment == Zimbabwe is a landlocked country in southern Africa, lying between latitudes 15° and 23°S, and longitudes 25° and 34°E. It is bordered by South Africa to the south, Botswana to the west and southwest, Zambia to the northwest, and Mozambique to the east and northeast Its northwest corner is roughly 150 meters from Namibia, nearly forming a four-nation quadripoint. Most of the country is elevated, consisting of a central plateau (high veld) stretching from the southwest northwards with altitudes between 1,000 and 1,600 m. The country’s extreme east is mountainous, this area being known as the Eastern Highlands, with Mount Nyangani as the highest point at 2,592 m.These highlands are renowned for their great natural beauty, with famous tourist destinations such as Nyanga, Troutbeck, Chimanimani, Vumba and Chirinda Forest at Mount Selinda. About 20% of the country consists of low-lying areas, (the low veld) under 900m. Victoria Falls, one of the world’s biggest and most spectacular waterfalls, is located in the country’s extreme northwest and is part of the Zambezi river === Geology === Over geological time Zimbabwe has experienced two major post-Gondwana erosion cycles (Known as African and post-African), and a very subordinate Plio-Pleistocene cycle === Climate === Zimbabwe has a tropical climate with many local variations. The southern areas are known for their heat and aridity, parts of the central plateau receive frost in winter, the Zambezi valley is also known for its extreme heat and the Eastern Highlands usually experience cool temperatures and the highest rainfall

in the country. The country’s rainy season generally runs from late October to March and the hot climate is moderated by increasing altitude. Zimbabwe is faced with recurring droughts, the latest one commencing early in 2015 and ongoing into 2016. Severe storms are rare === Flora and fauna === The country is mostly savannah, although the moist and mountainous eastern highlands support areas of tropical evergreen and hardwood forests Trees found in these Eastern Highlands include teak, mahogany, enormous specimens of strangling fig, forest newtonia, big leaf, white stinkwood, chirinda stinkwood, knobthorn and many others In the low-lying parts of the country fever trees, mopane, combretum and baobabs abound Much of the country is covered by miombo woodland, dominated by brachystegia species and others Among the numerous flowers and shrubs are hibiscus, flame lily, snake lily, spider lily, leonotus, cassia, tree wisteria and dombeya There are around 350 species of mammals that can be found in Zimbabwe. There are also many snakes and lizards, over 500 bird species, and 131 fish species === Environmental issues === Large parts of Zimbabwe were once covered by forests with abundant wildlife. Deforestation and poaching has reduced the amount of wildlife Woodland degradation and deforestation, due to population growth, urban expansion and lack of fuel, are major concerns and have led to erosion and land degradation which diminish the amount of fertile soil. Local farmers have also been criticised by environmentalists for burning off vegetation to heat their tobacco barns == Government and politics == Zimbabwe is a republic with a presidential system of government. The semi-presidential system was abolished with the adoption of a new constitution after a referendum in March 2013. Under the constitutional changes in 2005, an upper chamber, the Senate, was reinstated The House of Assembly is the lower chamber of Parliament. Former President Robert Mugabe’s Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front (commonly abbreviated ZANU-PF) has been the dominant political party in Zimbabwe since independence.In 1987 then-prime minister Mugabe revised the constitution, abolishing the ceremonial presidency and the prime ministerial posts to form an executive president, a Presidential system. His ZANU party has won every election since independence, in the 1990 election the second-placed party, Edgar Tekere’s Zimbabwe Unity Movement, won only 20% of the vote.During the 1995 parliamentary elections most opposition parties, including the ZUM, boycotted the voting, resulting in a near-sweep by the ruling party. When the opposition returned to the polls in 2000, they won 57 seats, only five fewer than ZANU.Presidential elections were again held in 2002 amid allegations of vote-rigging, intimidation and fraud. The 2005 Zimbabwe parliamentary elections were held on 31 March and multiple claims of vote rigging, election fraud and intimidation were made by the MDC and Jonathan Moyo, calling for investigations into 32 of the 120 constituencies. Jonathan Moyo participated in the elections despite the allegations and won a seat as an independent member of Parliament.General elections were again held in Zimbabwe on 30 March 2008. The official results required a runoff between Mugabe and Morgan Tsvangirai, the opposition leader; the MDC challenged these results, claiming widespread election fraud by the Mugabe government.The run-off was scheduled for 27 June 2008. On 22 June, citing the continuing unfairness of the process and refusing to participate in a “violent, illegitimate sham of an election process”, Tsvangirai pulled out of the presidential run-off, the ZEC held the run-off and President Mugabe received a landslide majority The MDC-T led by Morgan Tsvangirai is now the majority in the Lower chamber of Parliament The MDC split into two factions. One faction (MDC-M), now led by Arthur Mutambara contested the elections to the Senate, while the other, led by Tsvangirai, opposed to contesting the elections, stating that participation in a rigged election is tantamount to endorsing Mugabe’s claim that past elections were free and fair. The opposition parties have resumed participation in national and local elections as recently as 2006. The two MDC camps had

their congresses in 2006 with Tsvangirai being elected to lead MDC-T, which has become more popular than the other group.Mutambara, a robotics professor and former NASA robotics specialist has replaced Welshman Ncube who was the interim leader of MDC-M after the split. Morgan Tsvangirai did not participate in the Senate elections, while the Mutambara faction participated and won five seats in the Senate. The Mutambara formation has been weakened by defections from MPs and individuals who are disillusioned by their manifesto As of 2008, the Movement for Democratic Change has become the most popular, with crowds as large as 20,000 attending their rallies as compared to between 500–5,000 for the other formation.On 28 April 2008, Tsvangirai and Mutambara announced at a joint news conference in Johannesburg that the two MDC formations were co-operating, enabling the MDC to have a clear parliamentary majority. Tsvangirai said that Mugabe could not remain President without a parliamentary majority. On the same day, Silaigwana announced that the recounts for the final five constituencies had been completed, that the results were being collated and that they would be published on 29 April.In mid-September 2008, after protracted negotiations overseen by the leaders of South Africa and Mozambique, Mugabe and Tsvangirai signed a power-sharing deal which would see Mugabe retain control over the army. Donor nations have adopted a ‘wait-and-see’ attitude, wanting to see real change being brought about by this merger before committing themselves to funding rebuilding efforts, which are estimated to take at least five years. On 11 February 2009 Tsvangirai was sworn in as Prime Minister by President Mugabe.In November 2008, the government of Zimbabwe spent US$7.3 million donated by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. A representative of the organisation declined to speculate on how the money was spent, except that it was not for the intended purpose, and the government has failed to honour requests to return the money.In February 2013, Zimbabwe’s election chief, Simpson Mtambanengwe, resigned due to ill health. His resignation came months before the country’s constitutional referendum and elections === Human rights === There are widespread reports of systematic and escalating violations of human rights in Zimbabwe under the Mugabe administration and the dominant party, the ZANU-PF.In 2011, there were reports of 640 corpses having been recovered from the Monkey William Mine in Chibondo. They were allegedly authenticated by the Fallen Heroes Trust of Zimbabwe and the Department of National Museums and Monuments who are leading the exhumation process as victims of the Ian Smith regime during the Rhodesian Bush War. One body was identified as a ZANLA cadre, Cde Rauya, by the Fallen Heroes Trust Chief exhumer.Government Minister Saviour Kasukuwere admitted the remains were discovered in 2008, but claimed the remains were decades old despite clear evidence the exhumed skeletons still had hair and clothes Solidarity Peace Trust said that the presence of soft tissues “is not necessarily an indicator that these bones entered the grave more recently, although it could be.”Journalists found a body in the mine with ‘what appeared to be blood and fluids dripping onto the skulls below’. The opposition MDC called for research on all violence that included killings of its supporters during disputed elections in 2008. Amnesty International (AI) expressed concern that “international best practice on exhumations is not being adhered to … [M]ishandling of these mass graves has serious implications on potential exhumations of other sites in Zimbabwe. Thousands of civilians were also killed in Matabeleland and Midlands provinces in the mid 1980s and are allegedly buried in mine shafts and mass graves in these regions”, AI added.According to human rights organisations such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch the government of Zimbabwe violates the rights to shelter, food, freedom of movement and residence, freedom of assembly and the protection of the law. In 2009, Gregory Stanton, then President of the International Association of Genocide Scholars, stated there was “clear evidence that Mugabe government was guilty of crimes against humanity and that there was sufficient evidence of crimes against humanity to bring Mugabe to trial in front of the International Criminal Court.Male homosexuality is illegal in Zimbabwe. Since 1995, the government has carried out campaigns against both homosexual men and women. President Mugabe has blamed gays for many of Zimbabwe’s problems and viewed homosexuality as an “un-African” and immoral

culture brought by European colonists and practiced by only “a few whites” in his country.Opposition gatherings are frequently the subject of brutal attacks by the police force, such as the crackdown on an 11 March 2007 Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) rally and several others during the 2008 election campaign.In the attacks of 2007, party leader Morgan Tsvangirai and 49 other opposition activists were arrested and severely beaten by the police. After his release, Morgan Tsvangirai told the BBC that he suffered head injuries and blows to the arms, knees and back, and that he lost a significant amount of blood and hundreds were killed.Police action was strongly condemned by the UN Secretary-General, Ban Ki-moon, the European Union and the United States. While noting that the activists had suffered injuries, but not mentioning the cause of them, the Zimbabwean state-owned daily newspaper The Herald claimed the police had intervened after demonstrators “ran amok looting shops, destroying property, mugging civilians, and assaulting police officers and innocent members of the public”. The newspaper argued that the opposition had been “willfully violating the ban on political rallies”.There are also abuses of media rights and access The Zimbabwean government is accused of suppressing freedom of the press and freedom of speech It has been repeatedly accused of using the public broadcaster, the Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation, as a propaganda tool. Newspapers critical of the government, such as the Daily News, closed after bombs exploded at their offices and the government refused to renew their license. BBC News, Sky News, and CNN were banned from filming or reporting from Zimbabwe. In 2009 reporting restrictions on the BBC and CNN were lifted. Sky News continue to report on happenings within Zimbabwe from neighbouring countries like South Africa === Armed forces === The Zimbabwe Defence Forces were set up by unifying three insurrectionist forces – the Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army (ZANLA), the Zimbabwe People’s Revolutionary Army (ZIPRA), and the Rhodesian Security Forces (RSF) – after the Second Chimurenga and Zimbabwean independence in 1980. The integration period saw the formation of the Zimbabwe National Army (ZNA) and Air Force of Zimbabwe (AFZ) as separate entities under the command of Rtd General Solomon Mujuru and Air Marshal Norman Walsh who retired in 1982, and was replaced by Air Marshal Azim Daudpota who handed over command to the late Rtd Air Chief Marshal Josiah Tungamirai in 1985 In December 2003, General Constantine Chiwenga, was promoted and appointed Commander of the Zimbabwe Defence Forces. Lieutenant General P. V. Sibanda replaced him as Commander of the Army.The ZNA currently has an active duty strength of 30,000. The Air Force has about 5,139 standing personnel. The Zimbabwe Republic Police (includes Police Support Unit, Paramilitary Police) is part of the Zimbabwe Defence Forces and numbers 25,000.Following majority rule in early 1980, British Army trainers oversaw the integration of guerrilla fighters into a battalion structure overlaid on the existing Rhodesian armed forces. For the first year, a system was followed where the top-performing candidate became battalion commander. If he or she was from ZANLA, then his or her second-in-command was the top-performing ZIPRA candidate, and vice versa. This ensured a balance between the two movements in the command structure From early 1981, this system was abandoned in favour of political appointments, and ZANLA and ZANU fighters consequently quickly formed the majority of battalion commanders in the ZNA.The ZNA was originally formed into four brigades, composed of a total of 28 battalions The brigade support units were composed almost entirely of specialists of the former Rhodesian Army, while unintegrated battalions of the Rhodesian African Rifles were assigned to the 1st, 3rd and 4th Brigades. The Fifth Brigade was formed in 1981 and disbanded in 1988 after the demonstration of mass brutality and murder during the brigade’s occupation of Matabeleland in what has become known as Gukurahundi (Shona: “the early rain which washes away the chaff before the spring rains”), the campaign which finished off Mugabe’s liberation struggle The Brigade had been re-formed by 2006, with its commander, Brigadier-General John Mupande praising its “rich history” === Administrative divisions ===

Zimbabwe has a centralised government and is divided into eight provinces and two cities with provincial status, for administrative purposes. Each province has a provincial capital from where government administration is usually carried out The names of most of the provinces were generated from the Mashonaland and Matabeleland divide at the time of colonisation: Mashonaland was the territory occupied first by the British South Africa Company Pioneer Column and Matabeleland the territory conquered during the First Matabele War. This corresponds roughly to the precolonial territory of the Shona people and the Matabele people, although there are significant ethnic minorities in most provinces. Each province is headed by a Provincial Governor, appointed by the President.The provincial government is run by a Provincial Administrator, appointed by the Public Service Commission. Other government functions at provincial level are carried out by provincial offices of national government departments.The provinces are subdivided into 59 districts and 1,200 wards (sometimes referred to as municipalities). Each district is headed by a District Administrator, appointed by the Public Service Commission. There is also a Rural District Council, which appoints a chief executive officer. The Rural District Council is composed of elected ward councillors, the District Administrator and one representative of the chiefs (traditional leaders appointed under customary law) in the district. Other government functions at district level are carried out by district offices of national government departments.At the ward level there is a Ward Development Committee, comprising the elected ward councillor, the kraalheads (traditional leaders subordinate to chiefs) and representatives of Village Development Committees. Wards are subdivided into villages, each of which has an elected Village Development Committee and a Headman (traditional leader subordinate to the kraalhead) == Economy == Minerals, gold, and agriculture are the main foreign exports of Zimbabwe. Tourism also plays a key role in its economy.The mining sector remains very lucrative, with some of the world’s largest platinum reserves being mined by Anglo American plc and Impala Platinum The Marange diamond fields, discovered in 2006, are considered the biggest diamond find in over a century. They have the potential to improve the fiscal situation of the country considerably, but almost all revenues from the field have disappeared into the pockets of army officers and ZANU-PF politicians.In terms of carats produced, the Marange field is one of the largest diamond producing projects in the world, estimated to produce 12 million carats in 2014 worth over $350 million. Zimbabwe is the biggest trading partner of South Africa on the continent.Taxes and tariffs are high for private enterprises, while state enterprises are strongly subsidised. State regulation is costly to companies; starting or closing a business is slow and costly. Government spending was predicted to reach 67% of GDP in 2007.Tourism was an important industry for the country, but has been failing in recent years. The Zimbabwe Conservation Task Force released a report in June 2007, estimating 60% of Zimbabwe’s wildlife has died since 2000 due to poaching and deforestation. The report warns that the loss of life combined with widespread deforestation is potentially disastrous for the tourist industry.The ICT sector of Zimbabwe has been growing at a fast pace. A report by the mobile internet browser company, Opera, in June/July 2011 has ranked Zimbabwe as Africa’s fastest growing market Since 1 January 2002, the government of Zimbabwe has had its lines of credit at international financial institutions frozen, through US legislation called the Zimbabwe Democracy and Economic Recovery Act of 2001 (ZDERA) Section 4C instructs the Secretary of the Treasury to direct directors at international financial institutions to veto the extension of loans and credit to the Zimbabwean government According to the United States, these sanctions target only seven specific businesses owned or controlled by government officials and not ordinary citizens Zimbabwe maintained positive economic growth throughout the 1980s (5% GDP growth per year) and 1990s (4.3% GDP growth per year). The economy declined from 2000: 5% decline in 2000, 8% in 2001, 12% in 2002 and 18% in 2003 Zimbabwe’s involvement from 1998 to 2002 in the war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo drained hundreds of millions of dollars from the economy. From 1999–2009, Zimbabwe saw the lowest ever economic growth with an

annual GDP decrease of 6.1%.The downward spiral of the economy has been attributed mainly to mismanagement and corruption by the government and the eviction of more than 4,000 white farmers in the controversial land confiscations of 2000. The Zimbabwean government and its supporters attest that it was Western policies to avenge the expulsion of their kin that sabotaged the economy.By 2005, the purchasing power of the average Zimbabwean had dropped to the same levels in real terms as 1953 In 2005, the government, led by central bank governor Gideon Gono, started making overtures that white farmers could come back. There were 400 to 500 still left in the country, but much of the land that had been confiscated was no longer productive. By 2016 there were about 300 farms owned by white farmers left out of the original 4,500. The farms left were either too remote or their owners had paid for protection or collaborated with the regime.In January 2007, the government issued long term leases to some white farmers. At the same time, however, the government also continued to demand that all remaining white farmers, who were given eviction notices earlier, vacate the land or risk being arrested. Mugabe pointed to foreign governments and alleged “sabotage” as the cause of the fall of the Zimbabwean economy, as well as the country’s 80% formal unemployment rate.Inflation rose from an annual rate of 32% in 1998, to an official estimated high of 11,200,000% in August 2008 according to the country’s Central Statistical Office. This represented a state of hyperinflation, and the central bank introduced a new 100 billion dollar note.On 29 January 2009, in an effort to counteract runaway inflation, acting Finance Minister Patrick Chinamasa announced that Zimbabweans will be permitted to use other, more stable currencies to do business, alongside the Zimbabwe dollar. In an effort to combat inflation and foster economic growth the Zimbabwean Dollar was suspended indefinitely on 12 April 2009. In 2016 Zimbabwe allowed trade in the United States dollar and various other currencies such as the rand (South Africa), the pula (Botswana), the euro, and the Pound Sterling (UK).After the formation of the Unity Government and the adoption of several currencies instead of the Zimbabwe dollar in 2009, the Zimbabwean economy rebounded GDP grew by 8–9% a year between 2009 and 2012. In November 2010, the IMF described the Zimbabwean economy as “completing its second year of buoyant economic growth”. By 2014, Zimbabwe had recovered to levels seen in the 1990s but between 2012 and 2016 growth faltered.Zimplats, the nation’s largest platinum company, has proceeded with US$500 million in expansions, and is also continuing a separate US$2 billion project, despite threats by Mugabe to nationalise the company. The pan-African investment bank IMARA released a favourable report in February 2011 on investment prospects in Zimbabwe, citing an improved revenue base and higher tax receipts.In late January 2013, the Zimbabwean finance ministry reported that they had only $217 in their treasury and would apply for donations to finance the coming elections that is estimated to cost 107 million USD.As of October 2014, Metallon Corporation was Zimbabwe’s largest gold miner. The group is looking to increase its production to 500,000 troy ounces per annum by 2019 === Agriculture === Zimbabwe’s commercial farming sector was traditionally a source of exports and foreign exchange, and provided 400,000 jobs. However, the government’s land reform program badly damaged the sector, turning Zimbabwe into a net importer of food products. For example, between 2000 and 2016 annual wheat production fell from 250,000 tons to 60,000 tons, maize was reduced from two million tons to 500,000 tons and cattle slaughtered for beef fell from 605,000 to 244,000. Coffee production, once a prized export commodity came to a virtual halt after seizure or expropriation of white-owned coffee farms in 2000, and has never recovered.For the past ten years, the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) has been assisting Zimbabwe’s farmers

to adopt conservation agriculture techniques, a sustainable method of farming that can help increase yields. By applying the three principles of minimum soil disturbance, legume-based cropping and the use of organic mulch, farmers can improve infiltration, reduce evaporation and soil erosion, and build up organic soil content.Between 2005 and 2011, the number of smallholders practising conservation agriculture in Zimbabwe increased from 5000 to more than 150000. Cereal yields rose between 15 and 100 per cent across different regions === Tourism === Since the land reform programme in 2000, tourism in Zimbabwe has steadily declined. After rising during the 1990s, (1.4 million tourists in 1999) industry figures described a 75% fall in visitors to Zimbabwe in 2000. By December, less than 20% of hotel rooms had been occupied.In 2016, the total contribution of tourism to Zimbabwe was $1.1 billion (USD), or about 8.1% of Zimbabwe’s GDP. It is expected to rise 1.4% in 2017. Employment in travel and tourism, as well as industries travel and tourism indirectly supports, was 5.2% of national employment and is expected to rise by 1.4% in 2017.Several airlines pulled out of Zimbabwe between 2000 and 2007. Australia’s Qantas, Germany’s Lufthansa, and Austrian Airlines were among the first to pull out and in 2007 British Airways suspended all direct flights to Harare. The country’s flagship airline Air Zimbabwe, which operated flights throughout Africa and a few destinations in Europe and Asia, ceased operations in February 2012 As of 2017, several major commercial airlines had resumed flights to Zimbabwe Zimbabwe has several major tourist attractions Victoria Falls on the Zambezi, which are shared with Zambia, are located in the north west of Zimbabwe. Before the economic changes, much of the tourism for these locations came to the Zimbabwe side but now Zambia is the main beneficiary. The Victoria Falls National Park is also in this area and is one of the eight main national parks in Zimbabwe, the largest of which is Hwange National Park The Eastern Highlands are a series of mountainous areas near the border with Mozambique. The highest peak in Zimbabwe, Mount Nyangani at 2,593 m (8,507 ft) is located here as well as the Bvumba Mountains and the Nyanga National Park. World’s View is in these mountains and it is from here that places as far away as 60–70 km (37–43 mi) are visible and, on clear days, the town of Rusape can be seen Zimbabwe is unusual in Africa in that there are a number of ancient ruined cities built in a unique dry stone style. The most famous of these are the Great Zimbabwe ruins in Masvingo Other ruins include Khami Ruins, Zimbabwe, Dhlo-Dhlo and Naletale The Matobo Hills are an area of granite kopjes and wooded valleys commencing some 22 miles (35 km) south of Bulawayo in southern Zimbabwe The Hills were formed over 2,000 million years ago with granite being forced to the surface, then being eroded to produce smooth “whaleback dwalas” and broken kopjes, strewn with boulders and interspersed with thickets of vegetation Mzilikazi, founder of the Ndebele nation, gave the area its name, meaning ‘Bald Heads’ They have become famous and a tourist attraction due to their ancient shapes and local wildlife Cecil Rhodes and other early white pioneers like Leander Starr Jameson are buried in these hills at a site named World’s View === Water supply and sanitation === Water supply and sanitation in Zimbabwe is defined by many small scale successful programs but also by a general lack of improved water and sanitation systems for the majority of Zimbabwe. According to the World Health Organization in 2012, 80% of Zimbabweans had access to improved, i.e. clean, drinking-water sources, and only 40% of Zimbabweans had access to improved sanitation facilities. Access to improved water supply and sanitation is distinctly less in rural areas There are many factors which continue to determine the nature, for the foreseeable future, of water supply and sanitation in Zimbabwe Three major factors are the severely depressed state of the Zimbabwean economy, the reluctance of foreign aid organizations to build and finance infrastructure projects, and the political instability of the Zimbabwean state

== Science and technology == Zimbabwe has relatively well-developed national infrastructure and a long-standing tradition of promoting research and development (R&D), as evidenced by the levy imposed on tobacco-growers since the 1930s to promote market research.The country also has a well-developed education system, with one in eleven adults holding a tertiary degree. Given the country’s solid knowledge base and abundant natural resources, Zimbabwe has the potential to figure among the countries leading growth in sub-Saharan Africa by 2020 To do so, however, Zimbabwe will need to correct a number of structural weaknesses. For instance, it currently lacks the critical mass of researchers needed to trigger innovation. Although the infrastructure is in place to harness research and development to Zimbabwe’s socio-economic development, universities and research institutions lack the requisite financial and human resources to conduct research and the current regulatory environment hampers the transfer of new technologies to the business sector. The economic crisis has precipitated an exodus of university students and professionals in key areas of expertise (medicine, engineering, etc.) that is of growing concern. More than 22% of Zimbabwean tertiary students were completing their degrees abroad in 2012, compared to a 4% average for sub-Saharan Africa as a whole. In 2012, there were 200 researchers (head count) employed in the public sector, one-quarter of whom were women. This is double the continental average (91 in 2013) but only one-quarter the researcher density of South Africa (818 per million inhabitants) The government has created the Zimbabwe Human Capital Website to provide information for the diaspora on job and investment opportunities in Zimbabwe.Despite the fact that human resources are a pillar of any research and innovation policy, the Medium Term Plan 2011–2015 did not discuss any explicit policy for promoting postgraduate studies in science and engineering The scarcity of new PhDs in science and engineering fields from the University of Zimbabwe in 2013 was symptomatic of this omission.Nor does the development agenda to 2018, the Zimbabwe Agenda for Sustainable Economic Transformation, contain any specific targets for increasing the number of scientists and engineers, or the staffing requirements for industry and other productive sectors. In addition, the lack of co-ordination and coherence among governance structures has led to a multiplication of research priorities and poor implementation of existing policies The country’s Second Science and Technology Policy was launched in June 2012, after being elaborated with UNESCO assistance. It replaces the earlier policy dating from 2002. The 2012 policy prioritizes biotechnology, information and communication technologies (ICTs), space sciences, nanotechnology, indigenous knowledge systems, technologies yet to emerge and scientific solutions to emergent environmental challenges The Second Science and Technology Policy also asserts the government commitment to allocating at least 1% of GDP to research and development, focusing at least 60% of university education on developing skills in science and technology and ensuring that school pupils devote at least 30% of their time to studying science subjects.In 2014, Zimbabwe counted 21 publications per million inhabitants in internationally catalogued journals, according to Thomson Reuters’ Web of Science (Science Citation Index Expanded). This placed Zimbabwe sixth out of the 15 SADC countries, behind Namibia (59), Mauritius (71), Botswana (103) and, above all, South Africa (175) and the Seychelles (364). The average for sub-Saharan Africa was 20 scientific publications per million inhabitants, compared to a global average of 176 per million == Demographics == Zimbabwe’s total population is 12.97 million According to the United Nations World Health Organization, the life expectancy for men was 56 years and the life expectancy for women was 60 years of age (2012). An association of doctors in Zimbabwe has made calls for President Mugabe to make moves to assist the ailing health service The HIV infection rate in Zimbabwe was estimated to be 14% for people aged 15–49 in 2009 UNESCO reported a decline in HIV prevalence among pregnant women from 26% in 2002 to 21% in 2004.Some 85% of Zimbabweans are Christian; 62% of the population attends religious services

regularly. The largest Christian churches are Anglican, Roman Catholic, Seventh-day Adventist and Methodist As in other African countries, Christianity may be mixed with enduring traditional beliefs Ancestral worship is the most practised non-Christian religion, involving spiritual intercession; the mbira dzavadzimu, which means “voice of the ancestors”, an instrument related to many lamellophones ubiquitous throughout Africa, is central to many ceremonial proceedings Mwari simply means “God the Creator” (musika vanhu in Shona). Around 1% of the population is Muslim Bantu-speaking ethnic groups make up 98% of the population. The majority people, the Shona, comprise 70%. The Ndebele are the second most populous with 20% of the population.The Ndebele descended from Zulu migrations in the 19th century and the other tribes with which they intermarried. Up to one million Ndebele may have left the country over the last five years, mainly for South Africa. Other Bantu ethnic groups make up the third largest with 2 to 5%: these are Venda, Tonga, Shangaan, Kalanga, Sotho, Ndau, Nambya, Tswana, Xhosa and Lozi.Minority ethnic groups include white Zimbabweans, who make up less than 1% of the total population White Zimbabweans are mostly of British origin, but there are also Afrikaner, Greek, Portuguese, French and Dutch communities. The white population dropped from a peak of around 278,000 or 4.3% of the population in 1975 to possibly 120,000 in 1999, and was estimated to be no more than 50,000 in 2002, and possibly much less. The 2012 census lists the total white population at 28,782 (roughly 0.22% of the population), one-tenth of its 1975 estimated size. Most emigration has been to the United Kingdom (between 200,000 and 500,000 Britons are of Rhodesian or Zimbabwean origin), South Africa, Botswana, Zambia, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Coloureds form 0.5% of the population, and various Asian ethnic groups, mostly of Indian and Chinese origin, are also 0.5%.According to 2012 Census report, 99.7% of the population is of African origin. Official fertility rates over the last decade were 3.6 (2002 Census), 3.8 (2006) and 3.8 (2012 Census) === Largest cities === === Refugee crisis === The economic meltdown and repressive political measures in Zimbabwe have led to a flood of refugees into neighbouring countries. An estimated 3.4 million Zimbabweans, a quarter of the population, had fled abroad by mid-2007. Some 3,000,000 of these left for South Africa and Botswana.Apart from the people who fled into the neighbouring countries, there are approximately 36,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs) There is no current comprehensive survey, although the following figures are available: The above surveys do not include people displaced by Operation Chikorokoza Chapera or beneficiaries of the fast-track land reform programme but who have since been evicted === Languages === English is the main language used in the education and judiciary systems. The Bantu languages Shona and Sindebele are the principal indigenous languages of Zimbabwe. Shona is spoken by 70% of the population, Sindebele by 20%. Other minority Bantu languages include Venda, Tsonga, Shangaan, Kalanga, Sotho, Ndau and Nambya Less than 2.5%, mainly the white and “coloured” (mixed race) minorities, consider English their native language. Shona has a rich oral tradition, which was incorporated into the first Shona novel, Feso by Solomon Mutswairo, published in 1956. English is spoken primarily in the cities, but less so in rural areas Radio and television news now broadcast in Shona, Sindebele and English.Zimbabwe has 16 official languages and under the constitution, an Act of Parliament may prescribe other languages as officially recognised languages === Religions === An estimated 80% of the country’s citizens identify themselves as Christians. Protestants

(mostly followers of Pentecostal African Churches) are around 63% of the population. Estimates from 2005 said there were 1,145,000 Roman Catholics in Zimbabwe. This is about 9% of the total population. The followers of ethnic religions are around 11%. Around 1% are Muslims, mainly from Mozambique and Malawi, 0.1% are Hindus and 0.3% are Baha’is. Approximately 7% of citizens have no religious practice or are atheist == Culture == Zimbabwe has many different cultures which may include beliefs and ceremonies, one of them being Shona, Zimbabwe’s largest ethnic group. The Shona people have many sculptures and carvings which are made with the finest materials available.Zimbabwe first celebrated its independence on 18 April 1980. Celebrations are held at either the National Sports Stadium or Rufaro Stadium in Harare. The first independence celebrations were held in 1980 at the Zimbabwe Grounds. At these celebrations doves are released to symbolise peace and fighter jets fly over and the national anthem is sung. The flame of independence is lit by the president after parades by the presidential family and members of the armed forces of Zimbabwe. The president also gives a speech to the people of Zimbabwe which is televised for those unable to attend the stadium. Zimbabwe also has a national beauty pageant, the Miss Heritage Zimbabwe contest which has been held annually ever since 2012 === Arts === Traditional arts in Zimbabwe include pottery, basketry, textiles, jewellery and carving Among the distinctive qualities are symmetrically patterned woven baskets and stools carved out of a single piece of wood. Shona sculpture has become world-famous in recent years having found popularity in the 1940s. Most subjects of carved figures of stylised birds and human figures among others are made with sedimentary rocks such as soapstone, as well as harder igneous rocks such as serpentine and the rare stone verdite. Zimbabwean artefacts can be found in countries like Singapore, China and Canada. e.g. Dominic Benhura’s statue in the Singapore Botanic Gardens Shona sculpture in has survived through the ages and the modern style is a fusion of African folklore with European influences. World-renowned Zimbabwean sculptors include Nicholas, Nesbert and Anderson Mukomberanwa, Tapfuma Gutsa, Henry Munyaradzi and Locardia Ndandarika Internationally, Zimbabwean sculptors have managed to influence a new generation of artists, particularly Black Americans, through lengthy apprenticeships with master sculptors in Zimbabwe Contemporary artists like New York sculptor M. Scott Johnson and California sculptor Russel Albans have learned to fuse both African and Afro-diasporic aesthetics in a way that travels beyond the simplistic mimicry of African Art by some Black artists of past generations in the United States Several authors are well known within Zimbabwe and abroad. Charles Mungoshi is renowned in Zimbabwe for writing traditional stories in English and in Shona and his poems and books have sold well with both the black and white communities. Catherine Buckle has achieved international recognition with her two books African Tears and Beyond Tears which tell of the ordeal she went through under the 2000 Land Reform. The first Prime Minister of Rhodesia, Ian Smith, wrote two books – The Great Betrayal and Bitter Harvest. The book The House of Hunger by Dambudzo Marechera won an award in the UK in 1979 and the Nobel Prize-winning author Doris Lessing’s first novel The Grass Is Singing, the first four volumes of The Children of Violence sequence, as well as the collection of short stories African Stories are set in Rhodesia. In 2013 NoViolet Bulawayo’s novel We Need New Names was shortlisted for the Booker Prize. The novel tells the story of the devastation and emigration caused by the brutal suppression of Zimbabwean civilians during the Gukurahundi in the early 1980s.Internationally famous artists include Henry Mudzengerere and Nicolas Mukomberanwa. A recurring theme in Zimbabwean art is the metamorphosis of man into beast. Zimbabwean musicians like Thomas Mapfumo, Oliver Mtukudzi, the Bhundu Boys; Stella Chiweshe, Alick Macheso and Audius Mtawarira have achieved international recognition Among members of the white minority community, Theatre has a large following, with numerous theatrical companies performing in Zimbabwe’s urban areas === Cuisine ===

Like in many African countries, the majority of Zimbabweans depend on a few staple foods “Mealie meal”, also known as cornmeal, is used to prepare sadza or isitshwala, as well as porridge known as bota or ilambazi. Sadza is made by mixing the cornmeal with water to produce a thick paste/porridge. After the paste has been cooking for several minutes, more cornmeal is added to thicken the paste This is usually eaten as lunch or dinner, usually with sides such as gravy, vegetables (spinach, chomolia, or spring greens/collard greens), beans, and meat (stewed, grilled, roasted, or sundried). Sadza is also commonly eaten with curdled milk (sour milk), commonly known as “lacto” (mukaka wakakora), or dried Tanganyika sardine, known locally as kapenta or matemba. Bota is a thinner porridge, cooked without the additional cornmeal and usually flavoured with peanut butter, milk, butter, or jam. Bota is usually eaten for breakfast Graduations, weddings, and any other family gatherings will usually be celebrated with the killing of a goat or cow, which will be barbecued or roasted by the family Even though the Afrikaners are a small group (10%) within the white minority group, Afrikaner recipes are popular. Biltong, a type of jerky, is a popular snack, prepared by hanging bits of spiced raw meat to dry in the shade. Boerewors is served with sadza. It is a long sausage, often well-spiced, composed of beef rather than pork, and barbecued. As Zimbabwe was a British colony, some people there have adopted some colonial-era English eating habits. For example, most people will have porridge in the morning, as well as 10 o’clock tea (midday tea). They will have lunch, often leftovers from the night before, freshly cooked sadza, or sandwiches (which is more common in the cities). After lunch, there is usually 4 o’clock tea (afternoon tea), which is served before dinner. It is not uncommon for tea to be had after dinner.Rice, pasta, and potato-based foods (french fries and mashed potato) also make up part of Zimbabwean cuisine. A local favourite is rice cooked with peanut butter, which is taken with thick gravy, mixed vegetables and meat. A potpourri of peanuts known as nzungu, boiled and sundried maize, black-eyed peas known as nyemba, and bambara groundnuts known as nyimo makes a traditional dish called mutakura. Mutakura can also be the above ingredients cooked individually. One can also find local snacks, such as maputi (roasted/popped maize kernels similar to popcorn), roasted and salted peanuts, sugar cane, sweet potato, pumpkin, and indigenous fruits, such as horned melon, gaka, adansonia, mawuyu, uapaca kirkiana, mazhanje (sugar plum), and many others === Sports === Football (also known as soccer) is the most popular sport in Zimbabwe. The Warriors have qualified for the Africa Cup of Nations three times (2004, 2006, 2017), and won the Southern Africa championship on four occasions (2000, 2003, 2005, 2009) and the Eastern Africa cup once (1985) Rugby union is a significant sport in Zimbabwe The national side have represented the country at 2 Rugby World Cup tournaments in 1987 and 1991. The team are currently ranked 26 in the world by World Rugby.Cricket also has a following among the white minority. It is one of twelve Test cricket playing nations and a ICC full member as well. Notable cricket players from Zimbabwe include Andy Flower, Heath Streak and Brendan Taylor Zimbabwe has won eight Olympic medals, one in field hockey with the women’s team at the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, and seven by swimmer Kirsty Coventry, three at the 2004 Summer Olympics and four at the 2008 Summer Olympics Zimbabwe has also done well in the Commonwealth Games and All-Africa Games in swimming with Kirsty Coventry obtaining 11 gold medals in the different competitions. Zimbabwe has also competed at Wimbledon and the Davis Cup in tennis, most notably with the Black family, which comprises Wayne Black, Byron Black and Cara Black. Zimbabwe has also done well in golf. The Zimbabwean Nick Price held the official World Number 1 status longer than any player from Africa has ever done in the 24-year history of the ranking.Other sports played in Zimbabwe are basketball, volleyball, netball, and water polo, as well as squash, motorsport, martial arts, chess, cycling, polocrosse, kayaking and horse racing. However, most of these sports do not have international representatives but instead stay at a junior or national level Zimbabwean professional rugby league players currently playing overseas are Masimbaashe Motongo and Judah Mazive. Former players include

now SANZAAR CEO Andy Marinos who made an appearance for South Africa at the Super League World Nines and featured for the Sydney Bulldogs as well as Zimbabwe-born former Scotland rugby union international Scott Gray, who spent time at the Brisbane Broncos === Media === The media of Zimbabwe is now once again diverse, having come under tight restriction between 2002 and 2008 by the government during the growing economic and political crisis in the country. The Zimbabwean constitution promises freedom of the media and expression. Since the appointment of a new media and information minister in 2013 the media is currently facing less political interference and the supreme court has ruled some sections of the strict media laws as unconstitutional. In July 2009 the BBC and CNN were able to resume operations and report legally and openly from Zimbabwe CNN welcomed the move. The Zimbabwe Ministry of Media, Information and Publicity stated that, “the Zimbabwe government never banned the BBC from carrying out lawful activities inside Zimbabwe”. The BBC also welcomed the move saying, “we’re pleased at being able to operate openly in Zimbabwe once again”.In 2010 the Zimbabwe Media Commission was established by the inclusive, power-sharing government In May 2010 the Commission licensed three new privately owned newspapers, including the previously banned Daily News, for publication Reporters Without Borders described the decisions as a “major advance”. In June 2010 NewsDay became the first independent daily newspaper to be published in Zimbabwe in seven years.ZBC’s monopoly in the broadcasting sector was ended with the licensing of two private radio stations in 2012.Since the 2002 Access to Information and Protection of Privacy Act (AIPPA) was passed, a number of privately owned news outlets were shut down by the government, including Daily News whose managing director Wilf Mbanga went on to form the influential The Zimbabwean As a result, many press organisations have been set up in both neighbouring and Western countries by exiled Zimbabweans. Because the internet is currently unrestricted, many Zimbabweans are allowed to access online news sites set up by exiled journalists. Reporters Without Borders claims the media environment in Zimbabwe involves “surveillance, threats, imprisonment, censorship, blackmail, abuse of power and denial of justice are all brought to bear to keep firm control over the news.” The main published newspapers are The Herald and The Chronicle which are printed in Harare and Bulawayo respectively. The heavy-handedness on the media has progressively relaxed since 2009 In its 2008 report, Reporters Without Borders ranked the Zimbabwean media as 151st out of 173. The government also bans many foreign broadcasting stations from Zimbabwe, including the CBC, Sky News, Channel 4, American Broadcasting Company, Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC), and Fox News. News agencies and newspapers from other Western countries and South Africa have also been banned from the country === Scouting === It was in the Matabeleland region in Zimbabwe that, during the Second Matabele War, Robert Baden-Powell, the founder of Scouting, and Frederick Russell Burnham, the American-born Chief of Scouts for the British Army, first met and began their lifelong friendship. In mid-June 1896, during a scouting patrol in the Matobo Hills, Burnham began teaching Baden-Powell woodcraft. Baden-Powell and Burnham discussed the concept of a broad training programme in woodcraft for young men, rich in exploration, tracking, fieldcraft, and self-reliance. It was also during this time in the Matobo Hills that Baden-Powell first started to wear his signature campaign hat like the one worn by Burnham.Scouting in the former Rhodesia and Nyasaland started in 1909 when the first Boy Scout troop was registered. Scouting grew quickly and in 1924 Rhodesia and Nyasaland sent a large contingent to the second World Scout Jamboree in Ermelunden, Denmark. In 1959, Rhodesia hosted the Central African Jamboree at Ruwa. In 2009, Scouts celebrated 100 years of Scouting in Zimbabwe and hundreds of Scouts camped at Gordon Park, a Scout campground and training area, as part of these celebrations.Besides scouting, there are also leadership, life skills and general knowledge courses and training experiences mainly for school children ranging from pre-school to final year high school students and some times those beyond High school. These courses and outings are held

at, for example, Lasting Impressions (Lasting Impressions ~Zimbabwe on YouTube), Far and Wide Zimbabwe (Far and wide.) and Chimanimani Outward Bound (Outwardbound Zimbabwe at the Wayback Machine (archived 16 June 2007)) === National symbols === The stone-carved Zimbabwe Bird appears on the national flags and the coats of arms of both Zimbabwe and Rhodesia, as well as on banknotes and coins (first on Rhodesian pound and then Rhodesian dollar). It probably represents the bateleur eagle or the African fish eagle.The famous soapstone bird carvings stood on walls and monoliths of the ancient city of Great Zimbabwe, built, it is believed, sometime between the 13th and 16th centuries by ancestors of the Shona. The ruins, which gave their name to modern Zimbabwe, cover some 1,800 acres (7.3 km2) and are the largest ancient stone construction in Zimbabwe.Balancing Rocks are geological formations all over Zimbabwe The rocks are perfectly balanced without other supports. They are created when ancient granite intrusions are exposed to weathering, as softer rocks surrounding them erode away. They are often remarked on and have been depicted on both the banknotes of Zimbabwe and the Rhodesian dollar banknotes. The ones found on the current notes of Zimbabwe, named the Banknote Rocks, are located in Epworth, approximately 9 miles (14 km) south east of Harare. There are many different formations of the rocks, incorporating single and paired columns of 3 or more rocks These formations are a feature of south and east tropical Africa from northern South Africa northwards to Sudan. The most notable formations in Zimbabwe are located in the Matobo National Park in Matabeleland.The National Anthem of Zimbabwe is “Blessed be the Land of Zimbabwe” (Shona: “Simudzai Mureza wedu WeZimbabwe”; Northern Ndebele: “Kalibusiswe Ilizwe leZimbabwe”) It was introduced in March 1994 after a nationwide competition to replace “Ishe Komborera Africa” as a distinctly Zimbabwean song. The winning entry was a song written by Professor Solomon Mutswairo and composed by Fred Changundega It has been translated into all three of the main languages of Zimbabwe == Health == At independence, the policies of racial inequality were reflected in the disease patterns of the black majority. The first five years after independence saw rapid gains in areas such as immunisation coverage, access to health care, and contraceptive prevalence rate. Zimbabwe was thus considered internationally to have an achieved a good record of health development.Zimbabwe suffered occasional outbreaks of acute diseases (such as plague in 1994). The gains on the national health were eroded by structural adjustment in the 1990s, the impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and the economic crisis since the year 2000. In 2006, Zimbabwe had one of the lowest life expectancies in the world according to UN figure – 44 for men and 43 for women, down from 60 in 1990, but recovered to 60 in 2015. The rapid drop was ascribed mainly to the HIV/AIDS pandemic Infant mortality rose from 6% in the late 1990s to 12.3% by 2004. By 2016 HIV/AIDS prevalence had been reduced to 13.5% compared to 40% in 1998.The health system has more or less collapsed. At the end of November 2008, some operations at three of Zimbabwe’s four major referral hospitals had shut down, along with the Zimbabwe Medical School, and the fourth major hospital had two wards and no operating theatres working. Due to hyperinflation, those hospitals still open were not able to obtain basic drugs and medicines. The situation changed drastically after the Unity Government and the introduction of the multi-currency system in February 2009 although the political and economic crisis also contributed to the emigration of the doctors and people with medical knowledge.In August 2008 large areas of Zimbabwe were struck by the ongoing cholera epidemic. By December 2008 more than 10,000 people had been infected in all but one of Zimbabwe’s provinces and the outbreak had spread to Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa and Zambia. On 4 December 2008 the Zimbabwe government declared the outbreak to be a national emergency and asked for international aid.By 9 March 2009 The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that 4,011 people had succumbed to the waterborne disease since the outbreak began in August 2008, and the total number

of cases recorded had reached 89,018. In Harare, the city council offered free graves to cholera victims. There had been signs that the disease is abating, with cholera infections down by about 50% to around 4,000 cases a week.The 2014 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for Zimbabwe was 614 compared to 960 in 2010–11 and 232 in 1990. The under 5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births was 75 in 2014 (94 in 2009) The number of midwives per 1,000 live births was unavailable in 2016 and the lifetime risk of death for pregnant women 1 in 42 Source: UN World Population Prospects == Education == Due to large investments in education since independence, Zimbabwe has the highest adult literacy rate in Africa which in 2013 was 90.70%. This is lower than the 92% recorded in 2010 by the United Nations Development Programme and the 97.0% recorded in the 2002 census, while still substantially higher than 80.4% recorded in the 1992 census.The education department has stated that 20,000 teachers have left Zimbabwe since 2007 and that half of Zimbabwe’s children have not progressed beyond primary school.The wealthier portion of the population usually send their children to independent schools as opposed to the government-run schools which are attended by the majority as these are subsidized by the government School education was made free in 1980, but since 1988, the government has steadily increased the charges attached to school enrollment until they now greatly exceed the real value of fees in 1980. The Ministry of Education of Zimbabwe maintains and operates the government schools but the fees charged by independent schools are regulated by the cabinet of Zimbabwe Zimbabwe’s education system consists of 2 years of pre-school, 7 years of primary and 6 years of secondary schooling before students can enter university in the country or abroad The academic year in Zimbabwe runs from January to December, with three terms, broken up by one month holidays, with a total of 40 weeks of school per year. National examinations are written during the third term in November, with “O” level and “A” level subjects also offered in June.There are seven public (Government) universities as well as four church-related universities in Zimbabwe that are fully internationally accredited. The University of Zimbabwe, the first and largest, was built in 1952 and is located in the Harare suburb of Mount Pleasant Notable alumni from Zimbabwean universities include Welshman Ncube; Peter Moyo (of Amabhubesi); Tendai Biti, Chenjerai Hove, Zimbabwean poet, novelist and essayist; and Arthur Mutambara Many of the current politicians in the government of Zimbabwe have obtained degrees from universities in USA or other universities abroad National University of Science and Technology (NUST) is the second largest public research university in Zimbabwe located in Bulawayo It was established in 1991. The National University of Science and Technology strives to become a flourishing and reputable institution not only in Zimbabwe and in Southern Africa but also among the international fraternity of Universities. Its guidance, cultural values is the encouragement of all its members and society of those attitudes of fair mindedness, understanding, tolerance and respect for people and views which are essential for the attainment and maintenance of justice, peace and harmony at all times Africa University is a United Methodist related university institution located in Manicaland which attracts students from at least 36 African countries. The institution has been growing steadily and has steady study material and learning facilities The highest professional board for accountants is the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Zimbabwe (ICAZ) with direct relationships with similar bodies in South Africa, Canada, the UK and Australia. A qualified Chartered Accountant from Zimbabwe is also a member of similar bodies in these countries after writing a conversion paper. In addition, Zimbabwean-trained doctors only require one year of residence to be fully licensed doctors in the United States. The Zimbabwe Institution of Engineers (ZIE) is the highest professional board for engineers Education in Zimbabwe became under threat since the economic changes in 2000 with teachers going on strike because of low pay, students unable to concentrate because of hunger and the price of uniforms soaring making this standard a luxury. Teachers were also one of the main targets of Mugabe’s attacks because

he thought they were not strong supporters == See also == Index of Zimbabwe-related articles Outline of Zimbabwe == Notes == == References == === Citations === === Sources === == Further reading == == External links == Parliament of Zimbabwe—official government site Zimbabwe Government Online official government mirror site Zimbabwe at Curlie Zimbabwe profile from the BBC News Wikimedia Atlas of Zimbabwe “Zimbabwe”. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency Zimbabwe from UCB Libraries GovPubs Key Development Forecasts for Zimbabwe from International Futures World Bank Summary Trade Statistics Zimbabwe