Increasing Student Learning – Full Video

♪ [music–no dialogue] ♪♪ (Dr. Mildred Pearson) Good morning To president Perry, Provost Lord, administrators, faculty, staff, students and special guests Welcome to our integrative faculty and students combined faculty development workshop with our external speaker Dr. Saundra McGuire We are indeed delighted to have you this morning where we will be discussing the topic increasing students’ learning, metacognition, and students’ learning styles are the key The student seeks, the professor/instructor responds, the curriculum and instruction are key We teach best when we teach responsibly, when we understand the need to teach human beings before us, as well as the content with which we are charged If learning is regarded not as the acquisition of information, but as the search for meaning and coherence in one’s life and if an emphasis is placed on what is learned and is of personal significance to the learner rather than how much is learned, researchers would gain valuable new insights into both the mechanism of learning and the relative advantages of teacher controlled and learner controlled modes of learning Thus, learning styles become all so important That’s the topic which we will discuss today Using the metaphors of keys to introduce the speaker today Dr. Saundra McGuire will turn the keys to our hearts and our minds by starting us to think about diverse learners in our classrooms, which will require a diversity of approaches, a diversity of techniques, and diversity of strategies Dr. Saundra Yancy McGuire is the director of the Center for Academic Success and adjunct professor of chemistry at Louisiana State in Baton Rouge, Louisiana She received her B.S. degree magna cum laude from Southern Louisiana, Baton Rouge, Louisiana She has numerous degrees and I’m going to allow you to read her vita and you probably have seen the enlarged poster of her [audience laughter] I really just stood by it and looked in amazement I just got a thrill, I wanted to say that really, she hasn’t seen it yet She won’t be able to take it home but I am going to take her around campus so she can at least see herself enlarged [audience laughter] I want to say one of the things that she is most proud of is that she is married to Dr. Steve C. McGuire They are the parents of Dr. Karla McGuire-Davis and Dr. Steven N. McGuire Please welcome Dr. McGuire to the campus of EIU (audience applause) (Dr. McGuire) Thank you very, very much Thank you so much, I am really, really pleased to be here I hear we have to change the mic out so we will do that Okay, we’ll clip it there, wonderful, good morning So I’m just going to kind of move around a little bit I’m really, really pleased to be here This has been in the works it seems to be about as long as the presidental campaigns have been going on I think I first talked with Dr Pearson about doing this probably in April or something like that so it is really, really nice that it has come to fruition and as we go along you’ll hear that the things that we’re going to be talking about this morning are actually things that I have discovered and have gotten more into since I’ve been at LSU I was director of the learning center at Cornell for 12 years prior to going down to LSU and I was also– let me get the first slide up, yes, okay– and I was also senior lecturer in the Department of Chemistry there and when I was there–I’m in my 30th year teaching now– I think I believed as many of us faculty do, let me say, how many, I know there are some students here, all students raise your hand Okay great, okay I’m going to be asking our students some questions and faculty too, but I think I believe as most faculty that there were certain students who were smart enough to do very

well in chemistry and go on to become chemists and then there were those students who were not smart enough who were pursuing chemistry but didn’t quite have the smarts and the sooner they figured out that they were put on the planet to do something else other then chemistry the better we will all be I now no longer believe that I understand now that it’s not about some students are smart and other students are not smart There are just students who have learned strategies for learning and there are students who either have not learned the strategies or who know the strategies and are not using them And so when I got down to LSU, to give you a little bit of background, when I was at Cornell I directed the center and I taught chemistry and we had an associate director who was in charge of, we called it study skills at the time And I actually thought that sure we needed to offer these study skills at Cornell, but I thought they were things that people should know when they left high school and I figured that we needed to have this center because we had to admit students whose, we needed the money from their parents They probably shouldn’t have been at Cornell but we had to let them in and so we had to have this thing for them But I have since learned exactly what this is all about and realized that everybody can benefit from having information about how to increase their learning and in fact now there are learning centers in many professional schools, medical schools, dental schools, graduate schools because a lot of the stuff that we are going to be talking about this morning are things that we’re really just being uncovered in the past 30 years by cognitive scientists And so we’re going to talk about a lot of things and the ground rules are I want this to be a dialogue, a discussion and so, first of all, if I say anything that you disagree with then just, this is a nice intimate group, so you don’t even have to raise your hand, you can just yell out that is poppycock [audience laughter] Now, I don’t want any stronger language than poppycock, but say that is poppycock and I’m going to ask you why you say that because you can rest assured that if you think it’s poppycock, there are other people who think the same thing and so I want to have a discussion and after I hear why you think it’s poppycock I might totally agree that it’s poppycock and you will have improved this presentation for all of the other faculty who hear this after that But on the other hand if I say something that you have experienced, that does resonate in your experience, if you could share that also because I’ve found that one of the most movitating things to have us as faculty and us as students alter our behavior is to know that somebody who’s doing what we do, somebody has used that strategy and it has been very successful So is that okay? Alright, let’s get started Okay, so we’re going to talk about increasing learning, let me just say that the phrase, how many of you have heard the phrase “teach students how to learn”? Okay, now I first heard that phrase in the mid-1980’s I went to, I was about to go to a conference and they were talking about teaching students how to learn and when I first heard that phrase that was the most nonsensical phrase on the planet to me What do you mean teach students how to learn? If they don’t know how to learn they’re not going to learn what you teach them so if you teach them how to learn, they aren’t going to learn it because they don’t know how to learn So how can you teach somebody how to learn? It just didn’t make any sense to me, but I now understand what that means and that’s what we’re going to be talking about this morning Now our center for academic success at LSU was named the number one learning center in the nation for 2004-2005 because we actually use cognitive science principles to help students and faculty understand the learning process and how to work with students to really understand how to increase student learning and this award is given every year by the National College Learning Center Association and we were thrilled when we got this award because we just knew that winning this award would do for our learning center what winning the national championship did for our football team And so we sat back, we were waiting for the donors to, you know, the alumni, to throw money on us, well we’re still waiting for that [audience laughter] But we’re very pleased with this award Now I’m going to start off telling you about five students at LSU and these are five of literally now it’s up to thousands of students who have had the same kind of experience and the underlined scores are the scores that they got after they started using the strategies that we’re going to be talking about and the other scores are before And I just want to take a little bit of time to tell you about the experience of these students because I think these are strategies that we can use, students can use them and as faculty we can help our students use these strategies Travis was a junior psychology student He was taking a psychology class over the summer, he made a 47 on the first test, 52 on the second test and I talked with him for about 30 minutes by phone the night before the third exam

and I thought he would probably make in the low to mid 70’s Well he called, he was so excited, and he said Dr. Maguire I made an 82 on that test and I said wow Travis, that is great, if you make higher than an–and I was trying to think of a stretch score– if you make higher than an 85 on your next test I will take you to lunch And so after the next test he called back, he was so excited, and he said I made an 86 and so I said wow Travis that is great, and so I took him to lunch and I said what are you doing? And he said I was just doing that stuff you told me to do And what I told Travis to do, he was having a problem getting a lot out of his reading and I’m going to ask for our students here, or actually all of us–because I’ve found this was true for myself too–how many of us have ever started to read something and you might read a chapter and you get to the end and you realize I don’t know what I have just read? Raise your hand–okay Well that’s what was happening to Travis and this strategy works very well for students who have a lot of reading to do and what I told Travis to do was I gave him a strategy that I actually learned at an International Reading Association workshop that I decided to take over a summer because there were so many students at LSU coming to our center saying that they were having trouble with reading and, you know, teaching chemistry, that was kind of a new thing to me So I went to that workshop and the strategy that they gave us was they would have us read a short passage–we worked in pairs although Travis didn’t have a partner to work with– but you just read a paragraph and then you stop and they called it talkback– you share that information with the other person and then the next paragraph they read and they share it with you Now the strategy I gave to Travis was actually kind of a modification of that because he was by himself so what I said was Travis just read one paragraph, stop, put that information in your own words, paraphrase it for yourself, and then read the second paragraph, do the same thing, and then fold in the contents from the first paragraph and then do the third paragraph the same way Now initially that sounds like it’s going to take a long time to read doesn’t it? But it doesn’t, what happens is after the third paragraph or so, your mind gets the idea that okay, she’s going to stop, make me put the stuff in my own words and so it starts to focus in a lot more on the reading because the main reason that we don’t get a lot out of what we read is we start to read and our mind wanders We think, oh I didn’t call that person back, oh I need to do this, but because our eyes are still falling over the words we think we’re reading But when we stop and put it in our words then we are actively reading and getting a lot out of the reading and so it takes– it’s a little bit laborious for the first two or three paragraphs–but then after that your mind focuses in and it’s able to get a lot out of the reading and Travis did well on the final and ended up with a B in the course and he was headed big time for an F before Okay, now Robert was a first year student in chemistry and he had made a 42 on the first test and he came in and he actually talked with someone else I didn’t talk with him, he talked with one of our learning strategist consultants who had never taken a course in college chemistry But the strategy that we taught him was actually a strategy that I was using when I was at Cornell and when I was there I learned that the number one reason that students don’t do well in courses that are quantitative that involve solving problems is the way they do their homework And so I’m going to ask all of us to go back to whenever you took a quantitative course, it might have been high school, college and for my students if you are in one now, how many of us–and I’ll include myself because unfortunately I did this too– how many of us when we’re doing homework we read a problem and then flip back in the chapter to find an example of the problem that we have to work? Raise your hand if you’ve ever did that, okay That is the number one reason that students are making D’s and F’s on exams rather than the A’s and B’s that they’re capable of making and when I talk with students and I’ll ask as a group when we do that are we solving the problem? No, what’s solving the problem? The book, the example is solving the problem But because we are all really, really smart people, when we look at the example what goes through our head? Exactly, would you say that a little bit louder please (female response) I know that (Dr. McGuire) I know that, yeah, I understand that and because we understand it at the time we think that there is no way on the planet that we would not know how to do this for the next 85 years And then we get to the test and what happens? We forget, exactly, and so what students have to do is actually use their own brain power to figure out how to do problems and we help students understand that your homework is the only opportunity you have to figure out how you are going to do a problem The single most important skill that a faculty member is testing on a test or quiz is can a student look at a problem

that they have never seen before, can they start it, go all the way through it, finish it without making a single mistake? Well there is nobody on the planet who can do that if you have never practiced that skill and the only place you get to practice that skill is on the homeworks, and so what we tell students to do instead of looking at the problem and flipping back is something different And that is before you look at the first problem you study the information as if it was going to be on the test or quiz Now for my students, do you study differently if you’re having a test the next day than if you’re just studying? Okay, I’m seeing some nods yeah and so if you are studying that way to really learn everything, when you get to an example, as you will, you just read the problem Actually, let me ask our students now when you’re reading your book or the notes what do you do when you get to an example? Who said that? [audience laughter] Yes, okay, now for faculty, how many of us know that when students are reading that when they get to the example they just skip it, do we know this? Some of us knew it Okay, I didn’t know this That’s the number one answer I get from students, just skip it And so don’t skip it anymore [audience laughter] So what we help students understand is okay, if you study this as if it’s going to be on a quiz or test when you get to the example just read the problem statement, don’t look at what the author did but work it yourself based on what you know and then when you get the answer compare the answer you got with the answer the author got If you got the same answer then you can look at what they did If you didn’t get the same answer, still don’t look at what they did yet– see if you can figure out what you did wrong, correct it Now if you got the same answer look at what they did because you might like their way better than your way, but you’re going through the process of figuring out your way to do it And I wanted to do a little exercise with us to show us why that is a little bit important, because we know from cognitive science that we are most efficient at solving problems the way our mind wants to do it Dr. Pearson talked about the diversity of learning styles, the way people want to think and so I’m going to just ask, don’t yell out the answer or anything, but in your own mind, get the product of 9 times 12 Okay, everybody got it? Okay so, in unison, the product of 9 times 12 is? (audience response) 108 (Dr. McGuire) Would somebody share with us please, what you did to get that answer? (male speaker) Multiply by 11 and add 9 (Dr. McGuire) Multiply by 11 and add 9 Anybody do it differently? (female speaker) Nine times 10 [unclear audio] (Dr. McGuire) Nine times 10 and then 9 times 2, any different? (female speaker) 12 times 9 (Dr. McGuire) 12 times 9, she knew her times table, okay That is a rarer breed these days but very good Okay, yes (female speaker) Nine dozens is 108 from working foodservice (Dr. McGuire) Nine dozens is 108 from working food service– that is the first time I have ever gotten that answer, but great Anybody did it a different way? Now that is interesting because the most common way I haven’t heard anybody say it yet Yes (female speaker) 12 times 10 minus 12 (Dr. McGuire) Ah, 12 times 10 minus 12, now that actually is not the most common way, but that is a different way Okay, yes (female speaker) Nine times six [unclear audio] (Dr. McGuire) That is my way This is the first time I have heard anybody say that I hated the 12’s times tables, I loved my 6s, so I do 6and then double This is so interesting–nobody did it in their head nine times two and then carry the one? Okay, yes I’m seeing some, yes, seven different ways Now can you imagine if the way that you wanted to do it somebody said no, you can’t do it that way, you have to do it a different way You certainly could learn to do it a different way but you’re not going to be as comfortable that way and so students have to work out the problem and when you are working with the example you are going to make mistakes, but it is good to make mistakes because if you just use the example then you are lulled into this false sense of security that I can do this and then that’s where we get screwed up on the exams And hundreds on everything else, did extremely well on the final, ended up with an A in the course Miriam was a freshman student in calculus and she actually was doing the same thing, most students I find in chemistry, physics, engineering courses, anything where they have to work problems, they are using the examples the wrong way Miriam was a freshman art student, she had made a 57 on the first test and Miriam’s problem was she was spending a lot of time studying, but she didn’t understand that there were basic concepts that fit together and so she was memorizing individual bits and pieces and so we taught her concept mapping, which we’re going to talk about a little bit later, and then there was Terrence, a junior bioengineering student who had a 1.67 cumulative GPA at the end of his junior year and I talked with him between the summer and the beginning of the fall semester Now he had actually been kicked out of the college of engineering because you have got to have a 2.0 minimum to stay in engineering, but he came to talk to us

and that Fall he made a 3.54 while simultaneously taking Calc. 1 and Calc. 2 and he made A’s in both courses Now why do you think he was taking Calc. 1 and Calc. 2 at the same time? Yes, everybody has got it He had taken Calc. 1 three times, he had failed it once, he had dropped it once and he was taking it over the summer and he was so sure that he was going to get the requisite C to get into Calc. 2 that he pre-registered for Calc. 2 Well, when I talked with him he said, ah okay now I see and he said well I still want to take Calc. 2 and Calc. 1 again because with what we’ve just talked about– and it was a whole example, thing he wasn’t learning any concepts he was just following the examples He said I’m sure I can do well in Calc. 2 and I’ve seen Calc 1 three times [audience laughter] He said I know I can do well in it that and he made A’s in both courses and that spring semester I’m wondering is he still on the wagon, I didn’t see him, but he made a 3.8 and so the really neat thing about what we’re talking about is when students learn this, after they do it then it’s just something that stays with you And this has been so successful with graduate students and many different populations that last fall we, I received an award, a presidential award for excellence in science, math and engineering mentoring in the oval office from President Bush So, what do I want us to get out of our time together this morning? Well I really want us to understand some basic principles of cognitive science that are going to help us help students improve their learning and also for faculty help us to teach in a way that’s going to facilitate learning I want us to have very, very concrete strategies that we can take back to our classes for faculty and to our own behaviors of students that we can start implementing immediately and I want us to really understand how learning styles can be very important in student learning and when we get to learning styles I will tell you my story about learning styles which is interesting and then I want us to have more of our students actively engaged in what they’re doing How many of us faculty feel that sometimes students come to class and they’re just kind of sitting there taking notes but not really engaged, does that happen? (female speaker) Do they have to be taking notes? (audience laughter) (Dr. McGuire) She said do they have to be taking notes? Okay, and for our students how many of you find that sometimes you go to class, the information is going from the PowerPoint or from the professor onto your page and it is not coming anywhere close to here? Has that ever happened? Okay and so when that happens you are like, you are sitting there taking dictation in class and you guys are busy people, students are so busy today, faculty have we noticed that? You all are so much busier than we ever were How many students have a Facebook account? Okay, yeah you got your Facebooks to do, all of this stuff that we didn’t have to do and so you [audience laughter] So you want to be much more efficient and in order to be efficient you’ve got to use that hour in class as a learning hour as opposed to a dictation hour and so we’ll also have students who make better decisions when you have greater academic success Okay, so as an overview we’re just going to look at some of the characteristics of today’s students and it’s great that we have students here because if I say anything that is not true just say that is poppycock That is not the way we are, okay? And then some cognitive science findings, learning style fundamentals, some learning strategies and then a follow-up activity But I do want to start out with a reflection question and that reflection question is what’s the difference, if you think there is any difference at all, between studying and learning, and which is more enjoyable and then for faculty I want you to think about when was it that you actually learned the conceptual structure of your discipline–what the basic concepts are, how those concepts all fit together And for students, I want you guys to think about when do you think your faculty actually learned it? And I’m going to hear from the students first on that one But take a few minutes to get your own answer and just kind of chat with either the person next to you or in two’s or three’s, get your answers to those questions and we’ll come back and see what we came up with Yeah, introduce yourself if you don’t know each other (audience talking– unclear dialogue) Okay, if you haven’t started thinking about the next question yet move to the next one and we’ll spend a minute talking about the next one, then we’ll come back (audience talking– unclear dialogue)

Let’s see what we came up with (audience talking) I love this engagement, this is great, okay Let’s see what we came up with and again I’m going to ask a lot of questions and there are no right or wrong answers, just whatever you think First, let me ask, would anybody say that studying and learning are exactly the same thing? That’s interesting because I’ve had some audiences where there have been a couple of people who have said that Nobody here, okay Would someone share with us how you would characterize the difference between studying and learning? (female speaker) I think that studying is when you’re cramming for an exam on like the night before and you have to learn everything you have to know so you can get an A on the test and then you forget it a week later And learning is when you actually learn something you are interested in that you can apply to your life (Dr. McGuire) Ah, very, very, very good There are lots of different answers we get to this That actually is the number one answer that we get from students One of my students from LSU said well studying is what I do the night before the test to make an A, learning is when I want to apply something We talk with students about they rent the information the night before the test and it gets repossessed right after the test Okay there was another person there, yeah (female speaker) We kind of discussed that there are two types of studying–that studying that you probably will use more as a student here in college that you brought up another point that you might want to study something you are interested in, like gardening You can’t go outside with a book and be like okay, this is how I work with compost So I mean there are other things that you can study to learn, or some more enjoyable topics– I think there is a difference (Dr. McGuire) That is a very, very good point There are different kinds of studying and that is actually many times when I ask the question sometimes and usually it is more senior faculty that will say well studying, you study a discipline, so studying is much more in depth so that’s kind of the different kind of studying that you were talking about, absolutely Okay, anybody thought of a different way you want to share with us? Okay, here and then here (female speaker) We were talking and learning is when you internalize that information (Dr. McGuire) Okay, exactly and our students say when I can apply it and remember it okay, yes (female speaker) We just had an honors faculty forum last month and we were talking about the difference between high achieving students and gifted students and one of the dichotomies we use is that the high achieving students is someone who likes to study and gifted students are someone who likes to learn, I know it’s kind of extreme but It gave us a mechanism to talk about it (Dr. McGuire) Yeah and actually I’m glad you said that because and this comment has never come up before but we have two daughters that you heard about and both of them were in gifted education programs and back in those days I really did think that there were students who were gifted and students who weren’t But now I really think it is, it goes back to what happens to kids when they are in pre-school and there are certain students who are given a value and an appreciation for learning as opposed to performing and in fact that’s a cognitive science finding that we share with our students that cognitive scientists have found that early on students develop one of two types of goals Some students develop learning goals, other students develop performance goals The students who develop performance goals, and unfortunately I was one of them, our goal is to perform very well and what’s the indication that you’re performing well in school? Grades, exactly, and so when we make very good grades we’ve met our goal, what else is there? Okay, but those students who have learning goals their goal is to understand the material and they typically do very well They make good grades because they’ve learned the material But not always, our younger daughter actually has a Ph.D. in neuroscience from Oxford, she went to MIT as an undergrad, was a Marshall Scholar at Oxford and she’s an opera singer today She sings with the New York City Opera, but she only had learning goals and if she had busy work to do, if she knew that she had learned it she wasn’t going to do the rest of the assignment because that was wasting time that she could’ve spent on something else And so she ended up with very good grades but her midterm grades sometimes were not great because she’d say well, mom, I didn’t pass in those three assignments because I needed to spend time studying something else and I didn’t have time to, but trust me, at the end of the year you know my grades will be up And they were, but there are some students who their emphasis is on grades and unfortunately I think the culture now we put so much more emphasis on grades and so unless we help students understand this difference between having learning goals and performing goals I think that many of our high achieving students really could be like the gifted students, it’s just that nobody has had that conversation with them that it’s the learning that is important (female speaker) [unclear dialogue] something with a family member who will remain nameless, who is in grad school and, I think he is a great learner, I always felt I didn’t have to worry about the grades because I have a son and a daughter, anyway it’s my son (audience laughter) So he has always been a really great learner, so I didn’t worry about his grades at all

I’m learning the math, okay that’s fine, that’s all good, but he actually didn’t learn how to study (Dr. McGuire) Right, right and that happens (female speaker) [unclear dialogue] (Dr. McGuire) Okay and we’ll talk about that too as we go along because there is a way to teach students how to learn Okay, so this is great Oh, one of the answers that I got because I talked with students as I said at professional schools At the LSU dental school this one young man gave me an answer that I always share because I– and I always ask students what was it that turned around for you and many of them said it was this He said well this is the difference for me He said studying is focusing on the whats but learning is focusing on the whys, the hows and the what ifs And I find that if I focus on the whats and forget the whats I can’t recreate them, but if I focus on the whys, the hows and the what ifs, even if I forget the whats, I can re-create them And for us faculty I think what we need to do is make sure that in our classes we’re helping students understand the whys, the hows and the what ifs, because so often we’re so familiar with the subject we kind of just assume that students know why and not just explaining to students why but helping then uncover the whys and that makes a huge difference Okay then our second question–when did you learn the conceptual structure of your discipline? And first I want to ask our students when you think the faculty learned it, so is a student willing to share that with us? Okay, yes (Female speaker) Frequently we have had faculty members that it did not feel they knew the subject Let me, let me (Dr. McGuire) I’ve never gotten that answer They still don’t know it, it sounds like what she is saying (audience laughter) (female speaker) It doesn’t feel like they do because when they teach, they run through a list of definitions from the textbook– today we’re going to talk in economics about supply and demand and they’ll go through that and next we’re going to talk about this topic….topic, topic, topic, topic like you are going through an outline and there is never the structure of how everything fits together and one of us said that we think they don’t actually come to that understanding of the structure until they become faculty members and they have to teach it and students start questioning them Well how does this all work? Well I don’t understand this, you’re going to have to put it in plainer terms for me, how does this all come together? (Dr. McGuire) Okay, very interesting I’m going to get to the faculty in a minute Is there a student who thought at a different point, other than when they started to teach it? (male speaker) I was thinking like senior year of the end of the undergraduate that it kind of clicked for me because then I had enough background to build up for everything to know where everything goes into place, in order, to see the overall (Dr. McGuire) Okay, senior year in undergrad school, and then what were you thinking? (female speaker) Well I’m in psych., but I think it applies to other things too, but experiential type things (Dr. McGuire) When they started to do it okay, very common answers except for senior, that I get from faculty, except for senior year in college, almost nobody says that So faculty, in unison, when would you say you learned the conceptual structure of your discipline? (audience response) When we started teaching (Dr. McGuire) Number one answer is when I started teaching Now I did hear somebody say something else, somebody said college, sometimes people will say in graduate school when they were studying for comprehensive exams, but the reason that that is true is exactly what this young lady said– when students start to ask us questions Well guess what, when I talk with students I help them understand exactly why it is even though you gave a very good explanation I give two scenarios, and ask would you study differently with these two scenarios? Scenario one, I want you to study chapter five because Friday morning I’m going to give you a test and you have to make an A on that test, okay? Scenario two, I want you to study chapter five because Friday morning you’re going to teach it to the class, would you study any differently? Okay, yes of course and when I ask students this and I say well why would you study differently and sometimes they say well I’ve got to really know it if I have to teach it to the class And I say well, guess what– you do really have to know it if you’re going to make an A on the test Sometimes students say well I’m anticipating questions, exactly what you said One young man said well I don’t want to look stupid, I want to be able to answer questions, so I’m anticipating questions that are going to come from the group and I figure out the answers to those questions Well guess what, when you are doing that you’re interacting with the material, you’re anticipating some of the questions that are going to be on the test This last week I was doing a presentation with a group of students and they said well I have to figure out how to explain it so everybody understands it because not everybody is going to understand it the same way so I’ve got to figure out how to put it into my own words but then how to change it up so that other people understand And so when students take that different approach to learning, the approach that you are developing it so that you can teach it and you know we say that you don’t have to have your own class to go through this if you’ve got empty chairs

in your room, if you have any stuffed animals I had a vet student who told me that she had the smartest dog in animal physiology on the planet because everyday she would go home and she would teach him principles of animal physiology and I had two graduate students who last fall had a 2.7 GPA they were both on probation and they ended up with 4.0 GPA’s in the spring–one of them said I just got a white board, I put it in my room, I practiced going through the lectures because when you go through that activity, when you get stuck if you don’t know something then you go and you look it up And even though you’re reading the same thing you read before, because you weren’t looking for that information, you didn’t see it, but now that you are looking for it it jumps off the page at you and so that’s one of the things that we help students do So the learning this conceptual structure many students think that we learned it in college and we absolutely did not and so that’s important Okay, so what I found was a big part of my development in being able to help students was really to understand students When I was at Cornell, if I had a student who rarely came to class, who slept through class, who didn’t seem engaged, I just assumed that that person was not interested, they didn’t want to learn the stuff and I now know that that is not true I think students are just good scientists, they’re using their best data points, the data points that they have collected, all of these years before that come to us and with their data points have shown is that you really don’t have to go to every class because I’ll ask my students when you’re in high school what did your teachers typically do the day before the test? Review, okay and faculty that’s why all of our students want a review sheet Are you going to give me a review sheet? I wasn’t surprised the first time I asked that question I was shocked though–now Illinois may be different than the other states that I’ve been in–but I was shocked by the answers to the next question, which is what did they do during the review? And my students, what did they do during the review? Any students? Think back to the review, what did your teachers (female speaker) Maybe ask you exactly what the question is going to be, like oh you are going to ask me about this theory or what are you going to ask me about so I know what to study then (Dr. McGuire) Okay, well and that’s actually a step up from what I typically get [audience laughter] And I didn’t expect that, I thought they were just going to go over general topics, but you are saying that they told you what was going to be on the test essentially Okay, the most common answer I get is they gave us the answers to the questions that were going to be on the test How many students had that happen? Okay, yeah, see I was shocked and so for our students, you are very, very smart For students as smart as you if you never went to class a day, other than the day before the test, and you paid very close attention that one day, what was the lowest score you were likely to get on the test the next day? C, okay The most common answer I get is C, sometimes I get a B and here at the university what grade are many students shooting for in these courses that they think are, what are they shooting for? (Dr. McGuire) C, exactly So that’s what the problem is All the data points that our student have say I don’t need to pay any attention to this, I can come the day before, you’re going to give me a review sheet and so but students have you found out that it’s really kind of different? Yes, it’s very different and so as faculty I think if we understand that and understand what students are looking for and how to help them make that transition it’s a lot better I find that many students are working a lot more hours than we ever did, sometimes you know 30 or 40 hours a week, more diagnoses of ADD and ADHD and even if there are not more cases it is so much harder for anyone who has that dysfunction in today’s world than when I was a student When I was a student I could watch CNN and there’s just this one picture on the screen you know? But now you watch CNN there is a crawl on the bottom, there’s the flashing at the top, you know all this kind of stuff that are really diverting peoples’ attention Many students are interested in obtaining credentials It’s like they’re very interested in what we are going to get at the end but in really spending time in the process it’s harder for them to focus on that Sometimes students feel entitled to an A or B if they consistently attend class, now actually I’m seeing some students shake their heads, I was going to say not any of our students in here because they are the good ones, it’s their colleagues out there But faculty have you ever had students say well I was here every day how could I? Yeah, and so what we help them understand is no but that’s what happened in high school Typically in a lot of high schools if they are there every day there is enough opportunity for extra credit that they end up getting an A or a B

And also many of our students have very few time management skills because there is so much stuff, so many things really pulling at their time and very few learning skills And the problem that I had when I was at Cornell, again I didn’t know how to teach students how to learn If I had a student and we had students come to the center say I study hours and I’m still making C’s and D’s, I would say go and see Dr. Soko She was the person who did our, we called it study skills Now I didn’t know exactly what she did with them They came out looking happier than when they went in [audience laughter] But you know, I didn’t know what she did but it got my attention One summer I was director of a professional summer program, it was a bridge program, we’d have 175 students, mostly from New York City, and they were considered high-risk I taught in a chemistry course that had 1100 students and we would recognize each year the number one student in that 1100 student course One fall, the number one student in that course was a student in our summer program and so I went and talked with him and I said well I know you are in our program and you took our study skills seminar this summer was that course very helpful? And what I thought he was going to say is it was okay but I pretty much knew all that stuff anyway, but that’s not what he said– he said I think that is the single most important course I will take my whole four years at Cornell Now that got my attention It didn’t get my attention quite enough to find out exactly what they were doing in this course, but it got my attention and so then when I came back to it later I could use that And so it really is up to us as faculty and actually I’m going to skip this, you have, you can go to the web site This is just a little video that talks about millenial students and some of the characteristics, but, in the interest of time, I’m going to skip this But it is really important that we as faculty understand how to help our students learn how to learn When I was at Cornell I considered myself the Heinz 57 variety chemistry professor I’d won teaching awards, I could explain any chemistry concept 57 different ways, I was the most patient person on the planet, I didn’t care if you didn’t understand it the first 50 ways I would explain it a different way Now though I understand that it is not about how I explain it, it is about how the students are hearing it and so it’s very, very important I was in talk mode at Cornell, I’m in listen mode at LSU because students have to explain to me what they are thinking and that’s where we can go So why is it that students don’t know how to learn or how to study? Very, very good reasons and actually if you ask our students why didn’t you study in high school? Didn’thave to, exactly., didn’t need to And these are some statistics from the UCLA Higher Education Research Institute study and 2003 was the last year they asked the question in exactly this form, but they found that about two-thirds of entering first-year students have spent less than six hours per week doing any homework in twelfth grade, but almost half of those students graduated from high school with an A average and also students’ confidence level is very, very high Seventy percent of them thought that their ability was above average or in the highest ten percent among people their age And it’s very good to be very confident but sometimes you can be overconfident and the way the overconfidence plays out and some of us faculty have heard it is if students don’t do well but they know that they’re very smart, then whose fault is it that they haven’t done well? It’s the faculty members’ fault because they know they’re good And so that can sometimes be a little bit of a problem And so what we have to do is turn our students into expert learners and students, you can turn yourselves into expert learners And a lot of this difference of studying, of looking at experts versus novices also comes out of the cognitive science research and they have studied a number of different populations but I’ll just mention a couple One is chess players, the experts were chess masters and the novices were people who have been playing for only about six months and they showed them the configuration of chess pieces on a board and asked them to describe what they saw and they described things in totally different terms The novices described what pieces were on the board, where those pieces were, but the experts spent more time talking about the series of moves that would have brought the board to that configuration and the series of moves that would move it from that configuration to either check or checkmate So they’re looking at the same thing but very different stuff is going on in their heads With physics, another group was physics professors and physics students and they gave them a problem to solve that was outside of the expertise of the physics professors and they saw they approached it totally different ways The physics students–what do you think was the first thing they wanted in order to solve the problem? Okay, the example, or the formula, yes Just give me the formula I can plug it in

Wheras the physics professors, excuse me, started thinking about what concept is this problem about because they recognized that the formula that’s going to be appropriate really comes from the concept that’s being tested And so they also learned that– okay and we’ll get to this in a minute–but they also identified a third group and they called those intelligent novices and intelligent novices, they said, are people who are totally novice in one area but they have become expert in something else And they found that intelligent novices learn new things much more quickly than people who have not yet become expert in anything yet, and that’s because they understand metacognitive skills, metacognition, the things that have allowed them to be successful learning one thing they transfer it into what they’re going to learn into the new area and they are very successful And so what we are helping students do is become expert learners Well what is an expert learner? An expert learner is one who knows that you’ve got to actively engage with the material, you know That you can’t just have you’re eyes fall over the words in the textbook, that’s not going to work Take responsibility for their own learning and sometimes it is a delicate kind of task to help students assume that responsibility because when they were in high school they didn’t have that responsibility, it was the teachers’ responsibility And so doing it in a way that helps them understand that they are very, very bright, but not just tell them you’ve got to take responsibility for your own learning, but helping them understand how that happens and what they have got to go through Motivate themselves and guide their own learning Getting back to this studying and learning, one young lady said well for me the difference is studying is like being sat in front of a meal of stuff you don’t want to eat and being force-fed it, whereas learning is being sat in front of a gourmet meal and I get to pick and choose what I want to eat Well if you can motivate yourself to learn you are definitely an expert learner and sometimes what we help students understand is that the motivation actually can come from within and with faculty we talk about, there is an old saying–you can lead a horse to water but you can’t make him drink and I was at a conference one time and I heard the phrase well yeah that’s true, but what if we led a horse to water and made him thirsty? And so as faculty our job is to make our students thirsty and there is a way to do that with active engagement Expert learners know how to learn, they attribute failures to correctible causes and successes to their own effort, whereas the students who are not expert learners assume that the failure is whose fault? The teachers’ fault, the professors’ fault and sometimes the students will say well I made an A on that test, don’t know what I did but, you know, I made an A But expert learners understand that it is their behavior that directly translates to success and they use learning strategies very selectively based on what the task is and on their own learning style and there’s the web site reference if you want to do that Okay, so cognitive science and again we’re using the results of cognitive science to get these strategies and behaviors that people need to use and cognitive scientists study how is it that humans process information, how is it that we increase our knowledge, what are the factors that influence learning, what kinds of learning facilitate transfer because we as faculty very often if we are teaching upper-level courses we say ah, when the students get to me they haven’t learned any of the basic stuff they need to know And for how many of our students, when you get to the upper-level courses do you remember any of that stuff you had first year? No, okay and it’s because of, I think, the way we are learning and as faculty the way we’re teaching, and getting back to that example and I’m sure that faculty members not here because you probably would not have said that [audience laughter] But it is very common, I mean if we just give it, okay, here is the outline, we’re reading the definitions and not helping students develop that connection between concepts, there is no way they’re going to be able to transfer the information And finally, how can we change teaching in order to improve learning? Well there are a lot of things we know about learning now We know that active learning is much more important and much more successful than passive learning Now, this was another one of those terms that about 20 years ago they’re talking active learning Well you know what is active learning? And Pat Cross actually says that there is no such thing as passive learning, but active learning is when you are actively engaged with the material, you’re looking at it as if you have to teach it You are asking the why, how, what if questions and not doing what so many of us do as passive learners How many people in here have a highlighter, our students? Okay, how many people highlight when you’re reading?

Okay, many students do and if you look at the page and 80 percent of it is highlighted, then you go back and you have to read all of that stuff again Well now if you are actively reading, you are, it’s almost as if you are having a dialogue I got this from one of our professors at LSU He teaches his students you are having a dialogue with the author and you can annotate the book, you can use post-it notes How many students here do not like to write in your textbooks? (audience response) They can’t We rent the books [audience laughter] (Dr. McGuire) I’m sorry what was that word you used there? (female speaker) We have textbook rental (Dr. McGuire) Ah, I see Okay, well for our faculty and our students I’m going to suggest that you highly recommend that students buy their books [audience laughter] (Dr. McGuire) Now you guys are way ahead though because you are renting books I go to a lot of institutions where faculty are recommending that students don’t even buy the book and they’re not written books either But they’re passing out PowerPoint copies of lecture notes which is you know not the greatest thing either, but I was going to say even if you rent the book you can use post-it notes and you can use it because, I for one, and it’s a psychological thing– and I’ll have to ask my therapist why–you could not pay me to write in a book You could not pay me any amount of money to write in a book and it’s because, part of it is I think if I want to go back to it I want to have a fresh perspective, I don’t want to be colored by what I was thinking at the time But I can use post-it notes but it is so important when you’re actively reading to do that kind of annotation Was somebody about to share something with us? No, okay, they know that thinking about thinking is very important, this is this whole thing of metacognition, and the level at which learning occurs is very important Now I’m sure all of our faculty have seen Bloom’s Taxonomy How many people have not seen Bloom’s Taxonomy? Okay, many of our students and we’ll get to it in a minute, but let’s talk about metacognition first Metacognition is the ability to think about your own thinking and the way that we explain it to students is that it’s as if you have a big brain outside your brain looking in at what your brain is doing and it is analyzing–okay is she just memorizing this stuff or does she really understand it? Is she just having her eyes fall over every word on the page or is she understanding what she’s reading? Is she looking at the examples to work the problem, or is she working the problem from her own knowledge? So you think about your own thinking, consciously aware of yourself as a problem solver and that is very, very important because if you’re in problem solving mode that is very different than–I see a lot of students who I would say are more in victim mode, that things kind of happen to them and they don’t really understand why and they’re not really generating options, generating possible solutions But if you see yourself as a problem solver and you take the first test and you don’t do very well on it then that’s a problem and so you’re figuring out what can I do to do better? I can talk with the professor, I can buy the book, I can do things differently whereas if you’re in victim mode then your mind goes to okay, the test was too hard, the test was unfair, they didn’t say they were going to have this on it, but if you consciously viewing yourself as a problem solver you act very differently You monitor your mental processing and you don’t just monitor it you control it, so if you find that you are in the let’s say it’s late at night–ah, for our students– what part of the day do you do most of you’re studying? Great, she said during the day How many students do most of your studying during the day? You guys are fantastic Most places they do it at night in their room and that is not good so keep doing it during the day so this is great Okay, and then accurately judging your level, oh yes? (female speaker) I don’t really agree with that Because one of the things in the class that I teach is that you find the best time of day for you So some students do much better because that’s their best time–at night Mine is first thing in the morning, but if you make me study past nine o’clock at night you might as well forget it Because several of my students say one or two o’clock in the morning they’re up, they’re ready to go (Dr. McGuire) Got you, I’m so glad you said that because we also–in our center– we tell students there is no one size fits all That everybody is different so you have to find your style but one of the cognitive science findings is that for most people studying during daylight hours is more efficient, up to fifty percent more efficient, because what happens at night? Okay, there are more distractions at night and typically you’re more tired at night because you

have gone through the day Now I have had a lot of students also tell me I do my best studying under pressure that’s why I need to cram the day before, because I can’t start studying too soon because I’m going to forget it They say I am a crammer I do my best studying and then they say I do my best work between one and three in the morning and then I say just try it just for a few days, try studying during the day and they come back and they say oh, that is better but I’d never done that And so when you’re talking– and your point is perfect that for some people studying at night, at one, may be good– but for most people that is not true because the whole thing of sleep deprivation, which is a whole other talk, but so many students are sleep deprived and when they study between one and three do they get themselves to the eight o’clock class alert and ready to go? And my students are saying no Yes, so try doing it during the day and if you find it’s best you can but for most students during the day is better (female speaker) [unclear dialogue] well try it this way because well, in the writing center people always say, when they say this is when I do it best really what they are telling you this is what I always do They are telling you what their practices are And it has, you know, they haven’t been kicked out of the university, so it must be working But you know a lot of times they say well I always do this and I say well how’s that working for you? Because it’s really not always and you can change You don’t have to do it that way, so I think making people try something different tests their own theory of what works (Dr. McGuire) Exactly and we say just try it for a few days and see how it works because as humans we are all resistant to change We do not like change, we are very comfortable doing what we are doing, and many times students think that I just have to do what I’ve been doing harder I just have to do it better, I just have to start studying two nights before the test instead of one night before the test and we know that having a whole different paradigm is much better We are going to do right now this little exercise, does everybody have one of those little turquoise handouts that I said please don’t open it until? Okay we’re ready to do that and if you don’t have one, raise your hand, we’ll get one to you Okay, everybody’s got one Okay what I’m going to do is I did not say to open yet, no, just kidding [audience laughter] Okay, actually I do want us to get it open but don’t look yet because there is one person that did Yeah you need one? One, I should have some, I put all of them back there so, yes is one more, Krishna, please Okay what we’re going to do, so everybody rip it open but don’t look yet I’m going to give you 40 seconds to count the vowels that are on this list of words or short phrases and the rules are if you finish before 40 seconds are up then just turn it face down but everybody has got to stop when I say stop at 40 seconds, okay? Okay so let’s get ready and start counting the vowels now [no dialogue] (Dr. McGuire) Ten seconds Five seconds And…stop Okay, so everybody should have your paper face down and now what I would like for you to do is on the back of the page write down all of the words that were on the list [audience laughter] As many as you remember and after you have written down as many as you remember, then just look up at me Let’s see is anybody still writing? Yeah, one person– he just stopped Let’s see how we did–there were 15 words on the list– let’s see how we did Anybody remember more than ten? Okay, raise your hand when I get to the number you did remember Nine Eight Seven Okay, six Five Four Three Two One Zero Okay, alright it’s kind of spread out, but it looked like our average was somewhere between two and three so I’m going to give us the benefit of the doubt and say three Now, there are actually three parts to this exercise but in the interest of time I’m going to skip the second one The second one I give you 40 seconds to look at the words and memorize them, now you can look at the words again Now the third part is we would point out that the words are there according to a certain organizational principle,

does anybody see what they’re arranged according to? What are they arranged according to? (male speaker) Well, I think some of them are arranged in numerical order (Dr. McGuire) Exactly, according to number Dollar bill for one, dice for two, tricycle for three, four leaf clover, et cetera, et cetera Okay, now what I’m going to give us, I’m going to give you 40 seconds to memorize the words on the list and this time instead of taking the time to write them all down this is what we’re going to do, when I say time, I want everybody to just close your eyes and then just silently recite the words to yourself in your mind and then when you get as many as you remember then open up your eyes and we’ll see how we did, okay? Okay so start memorizing the words now [no dialogue] Five seconds And…stop So just close your eyes and silently recite the words to yourself [no dialogue] One person is, now two people still have their eyes closed [no dialogue] He’s still working on it [Dr. McGuire laughing] Okay he just opened his, okay let’s see how we did The last time our average was about three so this time I’ll start there Raise your hand when I get to the number you remember this time Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten Eleven Twelve Thirteen Fourteen Fifteen Wow, okay so our average this time was more like about 14 it looked like, and the point of this exercise is we are not any smarter people in this room when the average was 3 out of 15, and what percent is 3 out of 15? Twenty percent, okay. What letter grade is 20 percent? [audience laughter] F-minus And typically the average is about twelve and so I’ll– okay 13 out of 15 is 87 percent What letter grade is 87 percent? A “B-plus” exactly Very, very hard, I mean easy to get to an A, and so the point is that everybody has the ability to do very well Now there were two–at least two–major things different between the first time we did it and the second time What was one of the things that was different, anybody? (female speaker) We knew what the pattern was (Dr. McGuire) Okay, we knew what the pattern was, we knew how the information was organized and what was the other major difference? We knew what we were trying to do, yes, and that’s a big mismatch in the communication between faculty and students When we tell students we want you to read chapter one, we are saying, students, we want you to read and understand what’s in chapter one and be conversant on what’s in chapter one, but many times students are thinking if I just get through all of the pages, I have read it And so many times students are spending hours and hours counting vowels because they don’t know that we want them to do something and they come to class and they say, how many of us have heard I studied hours for that test and still failed it, that ever happened? They are counting those vowels so diligently and then when they get to class we not only want them to write down the words, we want them to write a paragraph that contains the words They haven’t even noticed that there are any words on the list because they think they are supposed to be counting vowels, and so a big part of what we have to do is help them understand this structure of our discipline and what it takes to perform at the level that

we want them to perform and, oh yes? (female speaker) What is a vowel? (Dr. McGuire) Ah, excellent question (female speaker) Do you consider Y a vowel? That’s what I got hung up on (Dr. McGuire) Excellent point, and she said well what is a vowel, are you considering Y a vowel or not? And actually I was a little bit surprised that nobody asked that question before Most times I do this exercise nobody asks that but you guys have been so interactive, you all are on it and I said I bet somebody is going to ask is Y a vowel And very good question and so this is, this afternoon we are going to talk about critical thinking and for our students what I’m going to say that if a question pops into your mind because you probably thought of that question before we started counting, didn’t you? Yeah, okay she didn’t but I’m hearing some other people say yeah and so if you think of a question always get it out there and ask Now what I would’ve said is we’re not going to count Y’s but before I said that I would have asked well when is Y a vowel and when is it not? And in most audiences, most people don’t really know how to explain when it is and when it’s not, we just know A,E,I,O,U and sometimes Y and so then that gets into a whole other area of when is it a vowel and when is it not and et cetera, et cetera So part of what we’re going to emphasize in terms of critical thinking, we’ve come up with very good questions but we have to make sure that we get those questions answered or we answer them ourselves And that question you certainly couldn’t have answered because you wouldn’t have known if I was including Y’s, but with our students we talk a lot about most of the questions that we have that we get other people to answer and I’ll throw it out as a yes or no question, could we actually answer those questions ourselves, most of the questions that we ask other people? But it’s more efficient to ask other people because they can give us the immediate answer, they may have expertise in that area, but if we take the time to look up the information ourselves, so I was just going to suggest the next time a question comes into your mind just ask yourself could I answer that question or do I need somebody else to answer that question, And I’ve actually started implementing that in my life I am a dinosaur, technophobe, victim of techno-trauma every other day And so I call my tech people in and every two minutes, but now i’ve started saying I can figure this out, there’s a help screen and so I started answering my own questions and you learn so much when you do that because when other people tell you the answer they still have all of the knowledge and so if you just do that little change in behavior I bet you are going to see a big difference, but no, we weren’t going to use Y Now the question I thought you we’re going to ask, now this is interesting I hit something and this thing shouldn’t have popped up Okay, yeah techno-trauma, It reared its head But it is so important to know what those questions are but then to try to answer them yourself Now Bloom’s Taxonomy– and we’re going to talk about a lot of stuff We have about another half hour, we’re going to finish on time, but the things that are the most impactful for the students that I have worked with are understanding Bloom’s Taxonomy How many faculty teach Bloom’s Taxonomy to your students? Okay a few people but not a whole lot I think it is really important for us to do that Before I came to LSU I knew Bloom’s Taxonomy because my Ph.D. is in chemical education, but I never taught it to students When I got to LSU they were teaching it to students with great effect and I do realize that there is a, another Bloom’s Taxonomy, a new Bloom’s Taxonomy that has everything in verbs and it actually puts creation or creativity in there at the highest level, but most people are familar with this form so that is why I still tend to use that form And when we discuss it with students we talk about the fact that there are different levels of learning and most of our students have never heard this discussion At the very lowest level is just memorization You could spit back any formula, any definition verbatim, but if you had to express that in your own words you wouldn’t be able to do it If you have an understanding now you can take anything, you can put it into your own words, you can explain any concept to your 8 year old nephew or your 80 year old grandmother in words they understand If we are talking about limiting reactant problems in chemistry you could think of analogies, you could think of examples that would be relevant for their life just if you had comprehension If you had application now you can use the information to solve problems you have never seen before, answer questions you have never seen before If you had analysis you can take any concept and you know what the component parts of that concept are and the way I explain it to students is I could take any concept in a course, if I ask you to come up here and give me a three minute mini-lecture on a topic, it might be buffer solutions in chemistry,

you could talk for three minutes without running out of stuff to say, without saying and it’s kind of like um, and um I think it’s uh You could just talk for three minutes about that, explaining what the concept is, what concepts go into making that larger concept, how they fit together If you’re at synthesis now you can come up with a new product and a lot of, I read your mission statement and I noticed that there are faculty-student research projects that are going on and so if you are at synthesis you can come up with the research idea, you can do things that haven’t been done before And if you are at evaluation now you can determine if one theory is better than another theory, one project, you can judge projects, you can read papers and determine which things are good and which things aren’t And so when I discuss this with students and I ask students to go back to high school and I’ll ask our students here Just by a show of hands when we go up the levels, what was the highest level at which you routinely had to operate in order to make A”s and B’s in your high school classes? How many people would say it was knowledge? Okay, comprehension? Application? Okay, analysis, synthesis, evaluation? And you guys are very similar to most audiences I talk with You did have more at the application level than I usually see even though the majority of you were either at knowledge or comprehension And then the next question I ask is, here at EIU, what is the lowest level that you have to operate in order to make A’s in your classes because you’re still the A students you were in high school it’s just that things are a little bit different and now just yell out what level do you think it is that you have got to be here to make A’s in all of your classes? I heard application, did somebody say a different level? (female speaker) [unclear audio] (Dr. McGuire) Ah, what year are you? (female speaker) I’m a senior (Dr. McGuire) A senior–faculty take note [audience laughter] (female speaker) [unclear dialogue] just for some of my classes, not all of them (Dr. McGuire) Okay, well no, to make A’s in every single one of your classes, what’s the lowest level you can be at and still make A’s in every single class? (female speaker) It’d have to be application (Dr. McGuire) Okay, very good, whew [audience laughter] Okay anybody say a different level other than application? Yeah, typically I get a mixture of application and analysis and I’m going to suggest in the social science courses because if you have got a lot of essay questions then you are going to have to see how things fit together So typically it’s application or analysis and so that is the problem that most of our students are going through They have been very proficient at knowledge and comprehension but then when they get to the university we want them at application and analysis and typically that’s only in the first year or the first two years and by the time they’re seniors they are at, we want them at synthesis or evaluation because we are getting ready to send them out to grad school or into the work world Now this is just, a teacher in Colorado sent this to me Bloom’s level of learning applied to “Goldilocks and the Three Bears” Knowledge just lists the items she used Comprehension–why she liked baby bear’s share the best Application–what would she use if she came to your house Analysis–what event couldn’t really happen in reality Synthesis how would this story be different if it were Goldilocks and the Three Fish And then evaluation–was Goldilocks a good or bad person? Okay, and just for curiosity how many people would say Goldilocks was a good person? How many people would say Goldilocks was a bad person? How many people would have said Goldilocks was good before I threw that thing up there? Yeah I hate to use this, I think around the country I’m creating Goldilocks haters, but okay so there are some effective metacognitive strategies that work very well and one of them is always ask these why, how, what if questions and again, for faculty, I recommend that we help students understand that it’s important and what are the why’s, how’s and what if’s, they don’t know this stuff I mean we’ve known it for years and years We see how things fit together but we have to help them understand Use SQ5R for reading How many people have heard of SQ3R, SQ4R, SQ5R? It’s up to five now, yeah and so, with this reading again, before you even start to read you survey because we know from cognitive science that it is easier for people to have a big picture into which you’re going to fit individual details, than to start with individual details and try to create your own big picture And so you survey the information to get the big picture then you can come up with questions that you want to have the reading answer for you and so when you read you’re looking for the answers to those questions, you’re having this conversation with the author, et cetera Test your understanding by giving those mini-lectures that

we talked about later, I mean earlier Move higher on Bloom’s Taxonomy and always, always, always solve your problems and answer questions without looking at the example and sometimes students, if they have essay questions, they’ll look at the question and then flip back and just read that section and then answer the essay question based on that but no, you want to use the information to answer questions based on what’s in your head as opposed to looking at other things And finally use the study cycle with intense study sessions, and I would say that of the things when we’re talking about learning strategies Bloom’s Taxonomy is very impactful and the other one is this the study cycle Because it is important for students not to just rent this information for the test or for the year and go on, but to retain it And I can say that the behavior of not really owning information is much more prevalent in this generation of students because information is so widely available on the net, but what we emphasize is that if you don’t have information in your head you really can’t solve problems that require you to manipulate that information Sure you can look things up but you’re not going to have it there and this behavior is actually perculated itself up into our medical schools Our older daughter is a faculty member at Baylor College of Medicine and one of her jobs is to train the residents and she said one day she was rounding with this group of residents and she asked this young man is it ok to prescribe drugs like Sudafed and Actifed to women who are pregnant? And she said she thought he would stop and say well it constricts blood vessels so she said instead he whipped out his PDA, called up the Physician’s Desk Reference, read a few lines and said no And she asked him why? He was absolutely clueless as to why you couldn’t do that and so it is so important for us to get information that we have that we can use and using the study cycle it was one way to do it And just a four step process where the first is to preview the information that is going to be covered in class before you go to class and by that we mean take the book and look at the bold-faced print, the italicized words and read charts and graphs so you get this big picture for yourself And some of the faculty at some institutions, they’ll ask students to do previewing and then bring in a question that you want to get answered by the lecture Sometimes we have them turn them in, sometimes we won’t, but students have got to get this preview of the information And then the next thing is to go to class, but I realize that, because I studied you guys on the web before I came, and I learned that your classes are typically very small like 18 to 25 students and one young lady wrote it was not possible to skip classes here because your professors know if you’re not there and they make it very difficult for you So this is good, faculty All of your students always show up for class, right? Oh, okay, alright there are some students, not the ones who are here again, but some of your colleagues but you have to go to class and a lot of times students say well I don’t go to class because class is useless You know all they are going to do is just say what I read in the book but, if you’ve done your previewing, you have this big picture and you experience lecture a whole different way than if you hadn’t done previewing Some of our students say wow, it makes such a difference I thought that lecture was really boring but when I do previewing it’s really interesting and so if you do the previewing and then go to class you can answer questions that the professor is asking and you are actively engaged in that And then phase four, I’m sorry, phase three, is to review and process the class notes as soon as possible after class and that information, that advice is based on the results of a study that was done Large history class, center aisle down the middle like here, Monday, Wednesday, Friday class At the end of Wednesday’s lecture, and I would encourage some of our faculty here just do this little test in your classes, but she stopped ten minutes early on Wednesday and told the people over here you can leave now, don’t look at your notes before Friday morning People over here she said I want you to sit here just for ten minutes, go over your lecture notes, make any notes in the margins to yourself that you want to At the end of ten minutes she said okay you guys can leave now, don’t look at your notes before you come back Friday morning Friday morning they came back, she gave them a retention test, guess what percent the people over here retained? Just throw out a number (female speaker) Zero (Dr. McGuire) A little higher than zero Thirty percent Guess what percent the people over here retained? It’s actually higher than sixty, higher than seventy Eighty percent and that was just spending ten minutes and the reason of course is the way memory is structured We’ve got short-term memory and long-term memory and when you hear something in a lecture it

goes in the short-term memory If you don’t do something to move it from short-term memory to long-term memory that information is not going to be accessible to you, yes? (female speaker) Well something struck from part of your lecture [unclear dialogue] Given how busy students are That our whole sense of how much we have to build into class rather than expect them to do out of class, it’s not efficient if we could do that outside of class then [unclear dialogue] unless it’s simply not going to happen otherwise (Dr. McGuire) Yeah and that’s a very good point and that’s where we as faculty have to kind of adapt some of the things we do Their faculty at LSU, one young lady in physical chemistry, she said it was so impactful for her physical chemistry professor always stops about five minutes before class and he allows the class to review or either he will review so he does that pulling everything together And at the beginning of class I have, there was a writing instructor who said that I assign students to do the previewing and then we take the first three minutes of class and we talk about what they found in the previewing and so there are ways for us and our classes to incorporate these things (female speaker) [unclear dialogue] (Dr. McGuire) Exactly, In fact I’m glad you said that because I have an entomology professor who gives her students metacogniting assignments, where she asks them to show what metacognitive strategies you will use on this particular test And so the more we can get students to reflect on what they’re doing and use these strategies, the more we can see a lot of learning, exactly Did somebody, yes? (female speaker) My daughter teaches biochem And she has [unclear audio] (Dr. McGuire) Yeah and anything we can have students do before class is going to be very helpful We do a lot of web stuff and what we learned is that a lot of our students, even if they did a quiz before class they would just kind of get together and do the quizzes And so they, not everybody was getting what they needed to but when we explained to them why they needed to do that, then it made a big difference And so then phase four is implement intense study sessions and then once a week review the entire week’s work And the intense study session, this is more a time management tool where you just take an hour–and so many times students have breaks during the day between classes that they don’t use for studying Even if you have a twenty minute break, a thirty minute break, you can put one of these things on it where take a minute or so to set goals on what you want to accomplish, and that prevents you from starting one thing and saying oh I forgot I had to do this and oh I forgot to do that so then at the end of an hour you haven’t done anything But you set goals for what you want to accomplish And then for the next thirty to fifty minutes you study with focus and action, you turn off the cell phone, get rid of distractions and our students tell us that when they start doing this it makes such a big difference in the amount that they accomplish because before they thought they were studying but really weren’t getting a lot done because there were so many distractions Then take a break and then come back and review what you’ve just studied, because the review is very powerful and again it has to do with the way the mind works How many people in here have seen a movie, any movie, more than one time? Okay, how many of you have noticed that the second time around you see things you didn’t even know were there the first time? Okay, yeah and when we as faculty are giving tests or quizzes, we are giving it at the level that we assume that students have seen the movie, the whole movie, at least three times, but our students are coming having glanced at the previews [audience laughter] And when that happens there is a big, big, big gap between what they can do And so review what you’ve just studied and then repeat it And for students if you could do two or three of these during the day, even two during the day and then another one or two at night, you’ve studied four hours that day and that’s much more than many of our students usually do Okay and then learning strategies and learning styles Now I wanted to, we’re not doing a whole lot on learning styles even though it was in the title because I want to introduce the topic and I’m going to give you some web resources where you can have your students go on-line and determine their learning style and we’re going to talk about what this whole learning styles thing is about and I said I was going to tell you a story about learning styles When I first heard about learning styles I was very resistant My first experience with a student with learning styles was, I was at Cornell and this student came up after class one day and she said Dr. McGuire, I am a kinesthetic learner, and I need to be up and moving around to learn chemistry in your class I go [audience laughter] excuse me And then I thought these learning styles people were trying to tell me that I needed to know,

the learning style of everybody in my class and teach them according to their learning style Well this was just not logistically feasible, and so I had written off those learning styles people big time The style of my class is I teach, you learn That’s the style, you know? What else is there? But then when I got to LSU they were using learning styles to great success so now I am a firm believer in learning styles and we are going to talk about different types of learning styles But there is a little activity I want us to do to really help us as a group to understand how I mean everybody can learn a number of different ways and we don’t say find out what your learning style is and just do that because we need to be versatile, but if you start from your learning style it’s going to be easier to gain skills and then you can branch out Okay, what I want everybody to do is to just clasp your hands like this, please Okay, now look at your thumbs and those people who have your right thumb over your left thumb please raise your hand Okay, everybody look around okay For those who have your left thumb over your right thumb, raise your hand Okay we’re about half and half Okay now what I want you to do is clasp your hands but put the opposite thumb on top than the one you had before How does that feel? It does not feel good And that’s exactly the same thing I saw this activity on the web on a learning center director list-serve, and I thought it was so impactful And it’s not that we can’t put the other thumb on top because we can, it’s just that it doesn’t feel right, and so if students are trying to learn in a learning style that is not natural for them then it is, they’re not going to be as efficient And so learning styles do a number of things They really do influence how we like to take in information from the outside world I’ll give you another quick scenario Let’s say that we are at a conference, new city we’ve never been to There’s a social event that is off site from the conference and we have the option of either getting a map to this location or getting a set of instructions You know, first you do this, turn left…okay How many of us would prefer to have the map? Okay, how many of us would prefer to have the written directions? Okay, a few of us Now and that’s also, that deals with learning styles If you are very linear logical as I am, I like the directions How many of us would want both? Okay, now I’ve learned that I need both because the people with the maps are going to have an advantage because if one of those streets is blocked off, if all we have is directions we ain’t going to get there [audience laughter] But the people who have the map would be able to find alternate routes But they influence how we process information and how we interact with others, if we are talking about personality How many people know their Myers-Briggs? How many people have taken the Myers-Briggs test? Okay, yeah I was resistant to that and I’m a chemist, personality, what does that have to do with learning nucleophilic unimolecular substitution? [audience laughter] But they made me take the personality test Now I really believe in that and understand it, but for the first six months all I could remember was my letters were something close to ESPN [audience laughter] Okay, but they also influence our motivation for learning things and we are very visual learners and if everything is only in words then we find that frustrating, but we teach students that you know you can transfer, take away how the instructor does it and convert it into a form that is easier for you At the same time we’re helping instructors recognize that we need to have a variety of different ways and activities for people to learn so students have different– I mean students will have different learning styles We’ll be doing something that kind of intersects with everybody’s learning styles And it certainly influences our frustration level with learning tasks, because if we’re totally outside of our domain then that’s going to be much more difficult And these, on our web site, the learning style diagnostics that we cover it very quick and dirty They’re very, very quick, it only takes about a minute or so to do this, but we have them in brain dominance, cerebral hemisphericity, personality and also sensory preference, which is normally what we think of as learning styles And with the brain dominance, right brain versus left brain, typically and that’s the cerebral cortex, whether you tend to like to process information in one hemisphere or the other And again we’re not saying that everybody does not use both sides because you do, it’s just that in processing information sometimes you have a tendency to go to one or the other Right brain folks, preferenced folks, are typically visual, intuitive, they look holistically, they think in abstract terms and they typically will pick up on main ideas and they are in tune with spacial orientations Whereas left brain learners typically tend to be

very verbal, really linear logical, concrete, very cognizant of time, and they are very focused on details as opposed to the big picture And then these are just some of the strategies that work better for the different types, but many students will be balanced, especially upper-level students because they have had to use both sides Okay now with the personality profile, and these were Myers-Briggs categories, and what do you think is really important especially for those courses where you are going to be doing any kind of group work And students really need to understand each other and what their characteristics are And the scales are extrovert, introvert, sensing, intuitive, thinking, feeling, judging, perceiving and again I’m just kind of touching on this to introduce it, but we find that the two that are very important are extrovert, introvert because there are a lot of students who are introverted but typically in education which type of student do we really reward more? The extroverts because they are the ones who are going to be talking, they are responding, but introverts have a very, very rich inner thought life and we find that so often our introvert students come to us really kind of feeling like Rodney Dangerfield you know? They don’t get any respect and even in study groups we want students to understand this because, when you’ve got introverts and extroverts together, the introverts have a lot to contribute, but they are not going to jump in and say something until us extroverts shut up, but are the extroverts ever going to shut up? No, not unless the group is structured such that there’s somebody there who makes sure that everybody participates And so the extroverts many times end up the thinking about the introverts, why are they even here? They’re just bumps on a log, they’re not contributing anything, but the introverts are wondering why don’t these people shut up because they are not making any sense And so when we help students understand that it is very impactful, and then judging and perceiving is the other category that’s very, very important Again I don’t really like the terms they use but judging, um, folks that like to get things done, they keep lists you know, just check it off, just get ‘er done, get ‘er done Whereas the perceiving folks really like to ruminate, oh what if I do it that way and how would it be if I did that? And the way that it plays out in students lives many times, the students who are in “J” mode, they will turn in something that is not very good quality but they will rush through it and get it done Whereas the students who are perceiving won’t turn in stuff on time because they’re trying to figure out how can I make it better and so when we help students understand these characteristics then they can see how it plays out in their own lives and so again, yes? (male speaker) How do you structure the groups? Just by these extroverts/introverts? or do you put all of them into a group? (Dr. McGuire) All of them in a group together and that’s an excellent question because I think, I really think groups need to be heterogenous and when when you have heterogenous groups then they play off each other’s strengths So I would definitely mix them up but make sure that they understand each other’s characteristics because then they will be able to work much better and even set out some ground rules that everybody has to, you know Everybody has five minutes to contribute or there is somebody in the group who makes sure that everybody participates, absolutely, yes? (female speaker) I’d disagree with the comment about extroverts and introverts I think that introverts think that they talk all of the time, I just think introverts take longer to [unclear dialogue] (Dr. McGuire) Very good point And I think that some introverts because they have told us actually in our office that when they’re in groups they really feel frustrated because they don’t get to say anything because everybody else is talking But you are absolutely right, one of the reasons that introverts aren’t out there is because they are processing and sometimes what we say is introverts think before they speak, extroverts think while we’re speaking You know we actually want to hear, get it out there, we’re seeing how people react, we’re hearing how it sounds and very, very good point and I’m glad you said that, and that’s another thing we can help introverts and extroverts understand about the introverts, that they are thinking and when they say something it is very powerful, yes? (female speaker) As a student, I think I’m an extrovert I’m going to communicate and I feel as though I’m learning, as I’m talking [unclear audio] I feel very frustrated with introverts because I feel as though that they’re not participating, like they’re very much misunderstood So especially in small groups I’m very agitated because, like you said, a lot of class work and classes are very small And it’s not so much that they don’t feel they can’t talk, they sometimes don’t participate as much as we want them to and

it’s like you think that they’re not participating so you get agitated and they feel outcasted and that kind of leads them into the whole introvert ideology and pushes them further into that aspect versus participating amongst and taking off some of those layers and wanting to (Dr. McGuire) Yeah, and I did not pay her anything to say that But that’s exactly the point and so I think that if extroverts understood that introverts, it’s really not a choice I mean they can’t decide, they couldn’t decide to jump in there and just say stuff any more than you could decide I’m just going to sit here and not say anything And so then when faculty and that’s where ground rules are so important that somebody is in the group whose job it is to say well does anybody have anything else to contribute or Jan what do you think about this, because Jan has been processing information and she has ideas but she just hasn’t jumped out there to say it, and so it’s a matter of making sure that everybody understands and respects everybody else, exactly, yes? (female speaker) I’d like to add one more thing Those of us who are introverts find it very hard to, it’s very hard to jump in sometimes because you leave yourself open to be vulnerable And extroverts are so darn confident [audience laughter] They’re out there, they know what they think or at least it seems like they do (Dr. McGuire) Or they think they do (female speaker) And I think it’s very hard to be vulnerable, to put yourself out there even in social situations I’ve very recently had someone look at me and say you don’t talk much, do you? Okay, well what do you want me to say? [audience laughter] And I think sometimes in the groups that the introverts are observing everybody and they are kind of feeling everybody out a little bit Can I be vulnerable in this group, to say what I really think? I think that’s part of it too, not just having somebody making sure that everybody has a chance to say something, but making sure that the group has a relationship and a bond where everybody feels like they can be vulnerable (Dr. McGuire) And I think that’s one of those discussions that we as faculty can have when we’re talking about forming groups and sometimes just having people throw out something and have people write their thoughts down before anybody speaks and so then the introverts have their thoughts formed and they can talk at the same time as the extroverts is very important Okay, alright and so this is sensory preference visual, oral, read, write, kinesthetic and oh, and then concept maps and so we are going to move right along here But these are really great tools for visual learners where they actually put the information in pictorial form, and even though I am very, very linear logical, there are certain concept maps that I can do A chapter one and I started recommending that students do this because we work with students from a number of different courses and I would have students coming in and I would say okay, what are you doing in physics and they would say we’re on chapter six Ah, great what is chapter six about? They could not tell me one thing that chapter six was about, but with a chapter map they have the chapter at a glance and sometimes if it was a long chapter you would have to tape two pieces together But you’ve got the title, the primary headings, the subheadings, the secondary headings and this is a great tool to practice that, the little mini-lecture thing Just randomly pick an area and give a two minute mini-lecture on that, show how it’s connected to the things it’s on the same level with, the things below, the things above, and our students tell us that this is really impactful Picture, cause and effect, ideas, all different kinds of things You can get creative, there’s a topic, all different kinds of subtopics that are associated with that one Persuasive writing– sometimes students have difficulty organizing persuasive writing, but if you put it on a concept map what are all the different view points, What are ways that you’re going to support one view point? What are the reasons, facts, examples and then using all of that look at what the conclusion is going to be Compare and contrast This is one of the most effective kinds of maps when students have a tendency to get things mixed up Just put a compare and contrast map on it How are they similar, how are they different and you will see a lot of things And then in the last three minutes, okay, motivation and Linda Nilson says “in the academy the term motivating means stimulating interest in a subject and therefore the desire to learn it”, so that’s the part about making the horse thirsty And these are the results from a study that was done by Eric Hobson in a pharmacy school and he looked at the, oh, you know this is a little late to be saying it Have you been capturing what’s on the PowerPoints or just basically me? (male speaker) Just you

(Dr. McGuire) So in the last three minutes, you can actually because I’m sure there is, they know what I look like really, really well by now So if you want to just get either one of the PowerPoints then that would be great, does that work? (male speaker) Well we could just get a copy of the PowerPoints (Dr. McGuire) I see and then you could project them at the same time that we’re doing, perfect Metacognitive skills [unclear dialogue] Thank you Alright, okay so what Eric Hobson found was when he looked at all different kinds of factors that affect motivation were the teachers’ attitudes and behaviors in both positive motivation and negative motivation What motivates students to study, what demotivates them? Teachers’ attitudes and behaviors number one, course structure number two Those are things that are within the faculty member’s ability to control, and about teachers’ attitudes and behaviors it was if they were in a class with a teacher’s attitude seemed to be well this is a really, really hard class, typically only 10 percent of the students make higher than a D [audience laughter] You know and with the course structure if there was just one midterm and a final, okay then they tended to procrastinate, but if a teacher’s attitude was that everybody can master this stuff and I’m going to teach you how to learn this information, you have got to put in your work, I’m not going to do the work for you, but I can show you what you have to do and how things are structured Students were much more motivated and if there were multiple ways for them to demonstrate what they knew Maybe not just in tests, I know you have looked at Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences If there were things, if there were service learning projects where they might construct a unit that could be taught to junior high students on a particular topic, if there were a number of different ways for them show what they knew then it made a big difference And there are some things that are motivators, that really boost students motivation If they get partial credit for partially correct answers, early and frequent tests and quizzes It is so important for us as faculty to give tests very early on because the first test or quiz is the student’s data point about what we expect We are all over the map as faculty in terms of what we expect– some of us only want memorization, some of us want students to synthesize something on the first test, and students don’t know where to go if we don’t give them something I now give the first thing within the first three or four days of class You don’t have to count it if you don’t want to, but it gives students the indication of what we as faculty are expecting Letting students use their own methods as opposed to forcing them into one way of doing things and when I say flexible grading scale based on student performance I don’t mean that if everybody makes 10 percent then 10 percent should be an A What I do mean is if we give a test or a quiz and the average is 30 percent, that we are willing to look at why is it 30 percent Was there something that we didn’t communicate and then either give students a chance to take the test again, but having some flexibility so the students recognize that we are interested in their learning And then that demonstrated personal interest in and belief that every student can succeed Yes? (male speaker) Are you suggesting that number three there applies to tests? (Dr. McGuire) You mean letting students use there own problem- solving methods? (male speaker) At test time, I’m not sure (Dr. McGuire) Not necessarily at test time, although there are a lot of students with disabilities who need increased test time No, I mean when I was at Cornell we would give problems on tests and we would grade them so if they did this step they got 3 points, if they did this they got 2 points, this they got 4 and so it all added up to maybe 20 But if a student wanted to skip three of those steps then they would lose credit And so I’m saying that if they get the right answer and there’s logic in the way they are approaching the problem then let them use their own method as opposed to saying you have to do it this way, you’ve got to multiply 12 times 10 and subtract 12 as opposed to doing 9 times 6 and then doubling that, okay (female speaker) [unclear dialogue] I would think particularly in the sciences and math where actually it’s this method of solving problems that we’re focusing on, not the answers (Dr. McGuire) Whether it can process versus product is a very important question And I think the emphasis should be on process, but product now is so important and our students, how many of you students had to take a high stakes test to graduate from high school or fourth grade, eight grade? Yeah around the country there is so much emphasis now on product so we now have to do it both ways, but I think one thing we as faculty can do is, during our classes, really let students spend a lot of time determining what method would you like to use and I’m not saying we shouldn’t suggest a method because we can and that whole scaffolding thing is very, very important that we make very transparent what the steps are in solving the kinds of problems But then once we throw it out there, since our students will have previewed, they will have gone to class, they will have thought about the way they want to do it that we allow them to

do what they want to do Okay, and so we will not have time to do this now but I think we can think about this The follow-up activity was going to be for us as faculty to determine how we can incorporate or have incorporated learning styles, information and learning information into our teaching and them describe one strategy we can implement to help students or for our students to help themselves achieve greater academic success And the course I’m teaching this semester, I’m teaching it very differently than I have taught it before It’s a new course but I’m always changing it because if one thing doesn’t work then we are doing something different And the bottom line is we really can significantly increase the learning of our students, and students you can increase your own learning, but we as faculty have to teach students what the learning process is and students since you have heard about it now, you know what strategies to use We can’t judge student potential on their performance on the first test and our students can’t either Many times I will see students that will fail the first test and they will say ah, I can’t do this, I’m not good at this Well no, just because you made a 20 on the first test doesn’t mean that you can’t make a 100 on the next test You just have to do some things a little bit differently We have got to encourage students to persist in the face of initial failure and we really have to help students to use metacognitive skills And so, as a final reflection question, I’m going to ask us who do we think is primarily responsible for student learning? Is it the student, is it the instructor or is it the institution? And so just by a show of hands how many of us would say it is the student? Okay, how many of us would say it is the instructor? Okay, and how many of us would say it is the institution? Okay, and this is the first time I’ve asked this question to a mixed group–typically when I ask it of students, what do you think most students say? The instructor, yeah, they say well if they don’t teach it, I can’t learn it, you know And so then the question is for students, if your learning were 100 percent your responsibility is there anything you could or would do differently? (female speaker) Study more (Dr. McGuire) Okay, she said study more and for us as faculty if our student learning were 100 percent our responsibility, is there anything we could do differently and I’m seeing some yeses And I think the best learning environment is going to be when all three of those energies come to the table with the attitude that student learning is 100 percent my responsibility When that happens we’re going to see student learning go through the roof, and as a special note this is our web site and we have online workshops and it’s open to anybody in the world Students can go on and take the little assessments and I encourage faculty to do that also Determine your learning style, go through some of the workshops and have fun turning your students into expert learners and on the next slide there are some other web sites that have great learning tools and great ways to get learning styles and then there’s some references there for any of the faculty who want to and also one for students “Becoming a Master Student” by Ellis is a great reference for students and the other ones are good if the faculty wanted to get a little bit more information about how to get more about this Okay, well thank you guys very much, you’re a great audience and I enjoyed talking with you [audience applause] ♪[music–no dialogue]♪♪