Chicago Civil War Round Table May 2013 Ethan Rafuse on Lee and Gettysburg

but what Robert Lee graduate from West Point 1829 second in his class he was commissioned in the Corps of Engineers had a very distinguished career versus an engineer later transferred to Calgary courses his best-known performances were his role on window Scott staff at the Mexican War where X these weren’t so impressed Scott that’s God said afterwards that the United States government took out an insurance policy of Robbie league worth five million dollars it would be important for the United States government again worth that much to the country now Robert Lee also has the honor as Bryan knows of being a member of the Fort Leavenworth Hall of Fame and which is odd because it was never really stationed there very long the only time because there was for a court-martial but Fort Leavenworth will sometimes try to get all the glory reflected glory from people that can but Lee was not there Lee may have not been there because Kansas has some particular issues dating back to our territory but he had the successful its mission of keeping America safe for Missouri don’t bleeding and seek some time Kansas but not enough help this guy out although these do it I have a connection later on the harbor’s fair so see how it all connects somehow it’s like being six reasons that Kevin Bacon been going on all right the stuffiness of the war study of the Civil War the focused battles leaders approaching the Civil War as a conventional conflict between two nation states at World War two and I’m only on earth wars what I do like to do get people thinking about is the Civil War and as part of a larger sectional conflict just the most intense phase of the sectional con and it is especially common that the intensity rises and falls over past 200 years and during the Civil War can be basic listening the Confederacy said their independent country and we’re waging an interstate war at the war between states but the Lincoln administrator linked administration couldn’t accept that because they did not concede to the legitimacy of secession and so think about the work it is much like the American Revolution it is and other I use the term insurgency to define the Confederacy as an effort to try to overthrow the established government and secure the loyalty of the southern people to a new political arrangement and consequently the war while is a conventional war between two armies in which they are fighting two or three pieces of terrain critical points on the bathroom critical points of communication all this must be kept in mind that was a quarter of the battlefield a significant how it plays to a larger conflict for the hearts and minds of the people of the south what Josh I did is essay on the American Revolution talk with the triangularity the struggle the two armies are contending against each other and battlefield events are significant for how they affect the larger core issue of the war which is the loyalty to southern people the norms effort to try to find the combination of carrots and sticks that rule and lead people the south to come back to the loyalty to the Union military events our fort for how they relate to this the ethnic a clear affirmation sort of whale crush the problem our Confederate ranch when we study Warcraft teaching them the professional military teach them the team think about the warfare on three levels 3 levels of war the first most important is the strategic level of war basic argument is you tactics right you can get operations right but keep your strategy bad it’s almost irrelevant you what the greatest example of this is the German for the 20th century who are you know get on History Channel because they win a lot of battles well at least when the History Channel was doing this because cool helmets they won the battle myself but what correctly the German military with record Germany in war was one century to Solitude right and if there’s a famous story of a soccer match between the British and the French and of course soccer with a week off socket a couple off it’s a national game in Britain and again the German that the German national team was leading the

British national team at halftime and it wasn’t kind of the country music well those instrumental soccer leagues like to do nothing okay and so the coach came in talked to his players and he said to his players famously you know today the Germans may beat us at our national game but we take comfort the twice the century we beat them twice at theirs so the strategic level of war is a little more at which nations establish their war aims what they’re trying to achieve the ends of the earth of their objectives and they try to figure out ways to manage them means at their disposal to achieve those ends okay so that’s our chief Leavenworth of the policy of war what are we trying to achieve in this war well as level towards the tactical level of war in which parties engage each other fight with each other sort of devout what Gettysburg battling T them which is altars in your study this is a tactical level war think about Edmund summer did in the East woods moleculars I full 1080 nineteen cannot see what he haven’t even started if you salute the end of the less woods and we can work out very well but was somebody did unless was that fact how you managed to pick their battle connecting the strategy of war with the bet of the actual engagement suppose called the operational level war and that’s where campaigns are planned to try to connect battlefield events with the larger strategic goals the Antietam is significant it connects the large contingent goals the it by boarding the Confederate invasion of Maryland it maintains northern morale oppressive southern morale and provides Lincoln the opportunity to adjust the ends of the war to include emancipation okay so think of strategically what is the objectives at Confederacy Jefferson Davis the strategy to describe it as an offense and defense that’s when they’re meant to develop initially due to limits of resources the Confederacy decides to begin the war to adopt a strategy a defensive strategy your objectives are simply to maintain the loyalty of the southern people to the Confederacy and the way to do that is to defend them because the first responsibility of any government is to protect the people if a government can’t protect the people nobody can consent to be governed by a government that can’t protect them I mean that’s pretty if that’s one of the first rules of government okay so their first responsibilities to Texas other people to demonstrate that they can protect the Confederacy from the contamination of Yankee isn’t it okay the sound comes the south deceives saw the leaders secede from the union on the grounds that their rights will not be seen under a United States government run by Republicans that’s the basic idea and you need an independent Confederates to protect so other rights and therefore if the south can’t protect over the rights that do legitimizes them in the eyes of the people of the south so the objectives is naturally it’s defensible we want to protect our property defend our terrain and prove to the southern people that we can protect them and their relation consent to be governed by the operational approach initially is a defensible the basic idea which will stay on the defensive wait for the Yankees you come in just like they did the first Manassas just as they did at Wilson’s Creek they’ll take the offensive we’ll defeat them in a battle and but leave the initiative leave the offensive to the Yankees because they’re the ones who need to change things not up status quo stays the same fine but it’s up to the north to take the initiative now there’s a problem with us and that is giving the initiative the Federals proves to be a significant problem it is not necessary to post a Confederate soldier on every mile of the southern world of the North because of logistical considerations armies as you started the Civil War if they’re going to Army’s invasion they’re going to operate they need logistical support they can’t really live off the land area effectively and the girl really doesn’t have the incentive early in the world live off the land because they’re trying to send surance the southerners that your property safe under the federal government the federal government starts living off the land that sends a message this others your property is not safe under a Yankee government and that encourages them to support the Confederacy but for the discipline serations armies he one of two things to sustain themselves in the field if they’re going to be conducted a major operation to Snivy armies larger than 30,000 men and they give you the railroad or they need a river now that’s what’s so simplify the situation Confederacy because they don’t get a post a man at every mile the border they just need to concentrate armies everywhere that the Yankees can come in define the river from the railroads and

try to block those up now the problem would be on the defensive is to give the initiative to the Federalists it gives the Federals the ability to pick and choose where they can conduct their offensive operations and this proves aren’t really 1860 to be a very bad thing for the Confederacy because invariably in 1862 when northerners are given a choice whether some in defensive they choose to use rivers railroads are generally something or a necessary evil sometime because it bored railroads create a dynamic that we call strategic exhaustion which is as an invading army advances it has to leave behind defenses for get slime communications together rivers are those obscure railroads are hard to protect because how many do does it take to mess up a real one person providing scoop of the match or something like that right that’s so consequently the Union Army is advancing the longer river along a rail road it’s going to happen these guys behind and there’s a point in which they’re leaving so many guys behind to protect their line of communications that at the point of the spear would actually the fight they are so diminished in manpower is we even fight so you’re better asleep is better at the Union is advancing on railroads also because rails are so vulnerable Union Army is going to be very very vulnerable if the Union if their caloric maneuver because railroads are very born with us rivers have less of a problem in larger because the Union has pretty much a monopoly on naval power they provide secure logistics and in what in Virginia in particular when James River takes you right up to the doorstep of Richmond and you’re going to have a situation to this defensive operational approach is going to see to the north the initiative and the north is going to see a series of tactical and operational victories out west using the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers losses as grant Reverend Bob’s hero right but you’re doing it you’re doing a book on goober or Warren I’m sure the grant fans will love you okay but out of there grant grant you success operating what we call joint operations along the rivers with secure logistics the competitors we try to block up the rivers using land defenses but the problem now for the Confederacy is when you’ve got land defenses it’s a contest of engineering and the North has far superior engineers to the Confederacy which is why they try to stop them important anything to try to stop in Fort Donelson but ultimately improves to be fuel on Mississippi River the north is able to achieve success is there a tree commanded John Pope which is pops your member nabob hear us and most significantly in Virginia what’s going to happen is the problems of this initial company strategy are going to illustrate about what happens in 1862 in the Peninsula Campaign now one of the things we do with the military officers is I teach them into modern military history and the ideas to help them use history to guide their thinking your professional judgment to inform them and history had that same function for people in the Civil War I mean we are products of past experience correct reason to study history is to benefit the past experience of others you study your own history for lessons or how to do things in the future now sometimes history is properly studied sometimes is it and sort of what things how robert e lee uses the early history of the war to shape the strategy as gonna lead to the Battle of Gettysburg and use of history is often used by policy makers I mentioned last night why did he fight in Korea the answer is often we fought in Korea the slogan was at the same Prague Czechoslovakia but what that meant was in 1938 the Allies had the opportunity to stop a totalitarian dictator right if they but instead they turned over the to date and landed Hitler imagine they fathers remember the next war and all that happened was you got a lot worse war so the lesson of 1938 was we have to stand up for dictators of medium in the lesson of Munich in 1950 when the North Koreans their totalitarian state attacks Harry Truman’s Rawls in that lessons of history sometimes often said we went to fought in Korea to save prod to show we had learned that lessons of that issue have you there’s a humorous episode of The Simpsons where information but this guy season white is white breezes like his wipers in the military is his honey I thought she was in Iraq stop in 9/11 Oh God now I’m one has mr. flame but why would we go into rock one reasons is to

prevent future 9/11 we don’t get involved in Middle East in the subways and pouring it changing it here that’s one of the arguments you’ll have to haul and I’ll agree with it but those are the arguments using the lessons of history okay and comes with it one of the ways I guess the question why their argument Gettysburg what is shaping is this thinking at Gettysburg and my answer just going to be Lee is fighting against Berg to save your tent now your town campaign what we all know about lights the one that George Washington wins single-handedly because we can’t give any credit to the French right roshun food right okay it’s nothing matters all their engineering all their engineers yeah but but then in 1862 as well no there is a second Corktown camp in a second siege of Yorktown that takes place now most of the focus when we win in literature on the campaign that Yorktown is placing in the context of this conflict in the Union High Command between McClellan who Lincoln is constantly given this tomb and McClellan who is constantly pushing back McClellan will speed up siege operations Lincoln says break the enemy’s line for calls that I’ve come to tell them straight line to themself but the focus is often on that side of the campaign and this is this least you know McClellan versus Lincoln the public can’t win this contest but in analyzing the Yorktown campaign and it’s effective longer range effect of the war look at what’s happening on the Confederate side as McClellan is digging his trenches and bringing up his artillery for the Yorktown campaign at the beginning of the campaign as the plow horses a land of insula moving towards Yorktown Joseph Johnston the first commander of the Department of Northern Virginia later Army Royal Virginia right when he finds out that he’s going to go down the peninsula his responses up there on this lot we can have no success while the clown is allowed to conduct warfare along his line to get a kid I don’t have a slide in front of me and let you see it up there right we cannot succeed we are engaging species of war that we cannot win now the worst kind of condition you can be in and war is they have no good way of wind and the Confederacy looks at the clouds doing at your death by being slowed by being methodical by digging trenches McClellan is with the Confederate Army in a no-win situation it can’t attack McClellan’s army because it’s too strong as fortifications and artillery it can’t stay at Yorktown because once McClellan opens up with artillery engineers the Army is in the or town will be trapped in captured and it can’t evacuate Yorktown right away because the do so would be concede impotence in the face of northern military strength and a confession of impotence in the base of northern military strength coming after all of this string of Union victories Fort Donelson mill Springs etc with undermine you building the Confederacy to save the people to south you should support us you consent League of miles because we can protect you and again prevent that mr. Clemens our strategy we want to create the impression of overwhelming power of overwhelming strength to discredit the southern leadership to promise to protect the people who south and I’m not attacking slavery we will make it my message there if you resist because we’re given assurances that they quit and stop contending the Confederacy everything we find to them but the situation is a battle of the better they are very situation there and in those histories no good options they can’t retreat immediately because then that gives again that museum infant depression offense and they give up more all kinds of other consequences as well ultimately Johnson is forced to retreat he pulls out he walked out just before McClellan against open wounds artillery because he knows what McClellan does that he not only loses Yorktown that loses his army Johnson retreats back towards Richmond and faces the same basic situation the clowns have operations methodically carefully cautiously and the types of operations in which the north has an asymmetric advantage would often use this term talking about military as we believe with our officers the constant of any symmetric advantage what gives your force an asymmetric Jovian with two armies have symmetry that means they’re basically equipped the same way have the same technology at the same techniques World War one to sort of use the great illustration of armies that are in similar to each other because they really cannot achieve anything each other a generation later 1940 we see Germany with their concept where they’ve come those blitzkrieg having any symmetric advantage over the competitor so asymmetry is a search for ways to have an advantage over the enemy

McClellan views his forces have an asymmetrical advantage in three areas one is naval power okay now this is neutralized a bit by the CSS Virginia but of course there’s a problem here that the missile ax because once the Confederacy has to give a short tail they’re going to give up north up when they get normally given to give up the CSS Virginia as well what does enable resources the other two asymmetric advantages of Federals have are in engineering and in artillery because of the nature of the antebellum army and the commissioning process and education process at West Point that all the commanding commanding generals in Civil War went through now West one the curriculum at the United States Military Academy is overwhelming focused on technical aspects of war above all engineering and artillery if you do well at West Point the most prestigious branches in the army our engineering and artillery the legacy of Silvanus there that is part of mahon if you gradually do well at West Point you go in the engineering as a sign of business of good god as a future leader in the army of course number two in the class of eighteen nineteen twenty nine Rob really becomes a member of the Corps of engineer number two and 1846 towards the bottom becomes an engineer and one cadet later writing his memoirs we were talking engineers or sort of the gods of the military and that’s because the nature that way the military system develops early on engineering and artillery are not the kind of things they can be improvise using citizen soldiers if your leadership someone can be a danger Jackson bring them off the street you can point us towards and guys can go yeah we’ll go attack but you can go to build trenches to have artillery that takes technical skill and bring us back to the American revolutionary experience we’ve walked the American Revolution we had a serious problem and that was the most important point on our map reporting George Washington was where the Hudson River made a bend around at West Point okay problem was when the Continental Congress said is there any engineer who built the trenches there who can build some fortifications there there are no American trained engineers what finally happens is at Dutch Potter’s Dutch box steps forward and says I’ve read a book on engineer I said we’ll hire him he doesn’t do a very good job of building fortifications around West Wing and ultimately we’ve got to hire the Polish engineer to build our engineers build our fortifications around Western after the war is the thinking you know what it may not be a good idea to align foreign armies or our technical skill they’re in the Worcester administration school of application of Engineers established in 1802 that becomes the US Military Academy at West Point but the technical orientation means that products of a commercial technical capitalistic society are going to do better at West Point which of the two sections of the country is more oriented towards Commerce and improvement and technical projects is going to be eating some good nor okay so cadets from north or tend to do better at West Point which means when they got commissioned they went into the who’s more of Engineers or the artillery now southerners cadets tended to do not so well at West Point so they end up commissioned in Calgary or the image run and as I mentioned last night but you know this see why you want to be an engineer to your military career you need to build forts along the east coast you’ll get to mingle Society and but if your Calgary men you get stuck out west Jason in Ian’s room and godforsaken places like William Tecumseh Sherman to suffer Staff College they are per reason because we isolated from still from the politicians and the civilian for my influences at least I still oppose okay it’s improved since 1835 your running water but so you have been one has an asymmetric advantage in engineering in artillery and if you are in a situation where your armies are you a set-piece situation where it comes down to who can identify the best terrain who can hold the best terrain can build the best trenches can manage their artillery there being guns better if there’s a campaign and operation like that the north is going to have an asymmetric advantage yeah and this is illustrative at Yorktown it’s a slow campaign it’s a methodical campaign it’s a digging campaign but ultimately

for the north it is an irresistible campaign the South has no way of resisting and McClellan when Lee replaces Johnson and Command he recognizes the McCallum to do the exact same thing in front of Richmond making a campaign of trenches and of artillery and as Lee says we cannot get atom without attacking which would be very hazardous to our to our courses so this is going to be a catalyst for a fun thing at Lee’s problem here how do you know the clothes can’t strategy and operational process effective because the Confederates fundamentally reorient their strategy because they realize that they cannot succeed on the terms that McClellan is trying to impose on the war they finally change their strengths still a defensive strategy overall okay they want to preserve their independence although there is some you know try to redeem Maryland and those things but Vermont is a strategic defensive what they do is they shift to an operational offensive and try and so try to be strong everywhere dependent to come in and surrending the initiative the Federals the new idea is to concentrate your forces so you can pick and choose the places where the campaigns will take place you’re going to look for places we can have campaigns of maneuver rather than campaigns those set-piece involve trenches and heavy artillery and Lee recognizes me if McClellan has an asymmetric advantage in artillery and engineering Lee will have an asymmetric advantage in infantry and cavalry again southerners did not do so well at West Point and consequently they’re going to be over-represented in the Calvary branch in the Army before the war so there is going to be a qualitative advantage that the south is going to have a calendar which is important because in the new rule in McClellan vision of warfare you’ve no know where the enemy is and because you’re digging right in front of them okay in a maneuver situation you’re in a fluid situation where you’re not really certain where the enemy is so that’s where calorie is very important for gathering intelligence okay also leader recognize looking good Judah Judah you turn the enemy strength against them an army that’s an engineering and artillery is also you have a very very big Logistics be very very sensitive to its logistics especially it’s bigger moreover a larger Army is going to react to situations slower more slower at the end of safety – Lincoln is going to ask a question to say why can’t we march like again because why it might be enemy does look like the enemy does the answer is because your army is different your societies reduce to different types of armies the Union Army is very good you know they’re they’re a big heavyweight okay they’re very good in the slugging match Confederate Army is lighter guy faster and quicker the important thing a little guy who could do is avoid get stuck in one place okay and that’s where the situation Yorktown and the situation leave recognizes the follow-ups are replicate in front of Richmond and weeks others stay on the defensive we’re gonna lose Richmond the way we lost Yorktown and if we lose Richmond after losing Yorktown the tide of Union victory we’ve made overwhelmed Southern ability to support our our cause so what Lee is going to do is emphasize operational offense it’s going to have several effects first it is going to save Richard now one of the keys to success of these efforts is it the anchor give them a lot of help listen advance on Richard is going to be tied to a railroad instead of the rivers it is tied to the railroads because Lincoln has decided to hold back forces from affluence arm to protect Washington and then the Lincoln releases them to march south from Fredericksburg in order to protect Washington and tell us the Cleland Dallas force will come down through south you can’t be on the James River you must base your operation you must use the York River Railroad as your line of supply what Lee does in the seven days battles is well merciless into a valley campaign which prevents the forces coming down from the north and then what Lee does because the plow is depending on the supply line Lee has an opportunity to maneuver against it and in the seven days battles he goes after the following supply line and by targeting and rendering that supply line untenable which my thumb one can’t do without dejected is the Forsyth on to get out of his trenches and so they can fight any open ground a fluid situation where these lighter faster army and hopefully more knowledgeable army will have an advantage you get a seven days battles happening where leakage cheese is operational object of getting a barrel to fall back through the front of Richmond it ends up in some

ways not good for Lee because McClellan ends up on a river and there are serious engagements that make clear that a set-piece engagements not good for Lee the last ones being Malvern Hill where McClellan’s armies blast leaves already pretty good but the effect is it’s a success Richmond is saved it is further saved but Abraham Lincoln tells you well then leave the peninsula come up war and ring with the sender force of the job Pope’s army who is going to operate along a railroad this campaign sets almost a perfect situation for Robert elated because John Polk’s forces tied to the railroad Lee’s army more maneuver army is going to be in a situation where it can be more effective if a new verse against Pope supply line gives post it gives Pope in an uncertain situation where the where the information is unclear there’s contradictory information you can’t pin the Confederates down pins and comparators down the situation is still kind of fluid he’s uncertain he makes your stakes and then we have able to capitalize the second announcer so once again Robert Lee has got an assist from the Union High Command leaving goes into into Maryland and then the clown is placed in command who conducts the campaign the way Rob really does not even can conduct slow methodical once again frustrating to Lincoln but McClellan very carefully manages our knee the objective is not to make any mistakes that will give the Confederates an opportunity and eventually Lee’s army is forced to return back to Virginia but Ian Lincoln admires him and the command goes first off they did move down in Fredericksburg to fight the battle down there where once again means to say Robert leaves a lot of assistance in the battles that were precious where you don’t know about that right okay and birds bird flies are very helpful guy well it’s always wonderful answer Wall Street people that you did lose the others runs up what say all right we just turn up right no I greatly greatly better victory you just sit there the Yankees come to them come to the Confederates and they lose the bat draw earlier you happy in truth after the battle least act again Lee is going to have a conversation with one of his subordinates is gonna say after Fredericksburg our people were very happy what a victory I was very depressed I hope you can press into frenchburg have you basically two to one these responses you know we want the battle but we weren’t able to do anything with it the Federals just pulled back across the river and we can do nothing more with it begin 1863 campaign Easter Lee’s objective in 1863 is not to sit there behind the Rappahannock River and wait for the Federals to attack what Lee wants to do in 1863 is he wants to go north again the problem is James long fruits command is sent down to southeastern Virginia and so Lee is forced on the defensive not by his own choice and Chancellorsville campaign but by this basic let’s read this use of lawn treats command and mission the campaigns in the campaign of Chancellorsville to start how farewell relieved because hooker is able to take the first move move the Chancellorsville and then hooker begins putting his horses in a hooker candy command promising the demon colonize the army but a chance Rizzo if you look at hookers conduct of the campaign his objective is to get the Confederates into a set-piece engagement at some point and so he can blast you to pieces that’s why you must be three glorious and fly which is great because he retreat but all the hooker really wants is to reverse Fredericksburg on or he must give us bad in our chosen position and not so for subjective problem is of course the 11th Corps is out there doesn’t make any preparations and consequently Jackson is able to carry out his papers blank forms Sandersville and roll up to the 11th floor and achieve its habit and success and important that doesn’t what all focus the Chancellorsville campaign goes wonderful Jackson a new room and the reason Jackson’s able to pull this off because the situation Chancellorsville still has a bit of fluidity the following day the situation around Chancellorsville is not so fluid and Lee is going to conduct brutal assaults against the federal position they’re gonna drive the Federals from Chancellorsville but they are going to pay a huge butcher’s bill for it and eventually hookers guys are worthless Paul back across across the chest across the Rappahannock Lee later says are people who are static after Chancellorsville leaves Raiders

pictured Lee says I was more depressed after Chancellorsville than I was after Frenchburg we had suffered horrendous casualties and he could not split our victory can i slaughter victory now he faces another problem at Chancellorsville which is there was discussion in the comparative High Command the political leadership of sending partners army out west we opposes this because he want nethermost Longstreet’s command arrives what he wants to make the offensive movement into Pennsylvania to try to get the Federals away from leave recognized for how to keep playing these kind of defensive battle or at the enemy keep fighting these battles but every day that go to these vows are not good for us in deep linking in some ways read the situation the same way after Fredericksburg two to one casualties Lincoln has a conversation with some people in Washington and after he says he reflects on looks the casual numbers and goes you know what this is bad but suddenly that bad for us because we lose – okay if we fight the battle Frenchburg every day for the next week we’ll still have some guys left and they won’t and grant if it didn’t make it become a general you can realize this awful rithmetic then will win the war so consular lincoln understands this and lee recognize them they keep fighting these battles across rabbit head on rocky enemies you can keep one of these Chancellorsville but the vietnam war things you win the battles but you there’s no more the famous conversation that happened in 1975 and appease them send me three comparative he’s an American Colonel and in North Vietnamese colonel his famous conversation the American colonel said they’re getting from you know you never defeat this value and the working of these Carl Davis is that that may be true but it is irrelevant and mrs. Doolittle Lincoln hat that’s operational conduct strategic events battles are not fought for the sake of battles terrain is important but the question cost-benefit the terrain leave one back of Chancellorsville was not war to the Confederacy the casualties and the long-term consequences that had to the Confederacy okay yeah poker game up some ground but if they could buy French burger they can sure find a Chancellor’s girl every day for a week and so Lee and for the time due to the same dynamics that had terrified the Confederate High Command at work at some point you just can’t fight the kind of campaign there in a way that was she too good again to better success and so Lee decides to move north and begin pushing North Mountain Shenandoah Valley time that would gaze with its 3d battle okay campaign Lee moves north into the Shenandoah Valley and up and cross Tomek the Cumberland Valley Joe hooker isn’t coming hooker manages command very carefully very methodically Ruby to the note for the north to confront leave okay course the situation for lead becomes problematic because the cavalry doesn’t serve him very well he’s more atomic which is did you to the Antietam campaign Maryland campaign tours short Jeb Stuart’s problematic performance the Maryland campaign come up at some point he’s not very good north on the river it’s like there’s a spell that’s cast on me and so he doesn’t have the same have intelligence advantage he would have had at Virginia but he’s got a clear vision for how he wants the campaign to develop his basic idea is he’s hoping the Lincoln administration will exert pressure on hooker leave the hooker to make decisions that give me the opportunity to fight hookers army now that it’s all concentrated not once a single position not that’s Engineering and artillery can play a role Lia’s hoping is that pressure from Washington you so credit conducted operations in a way that create opportunities for lead to get a campaign to maneuver to fight one part of hookers army fight another part of hookers army defeat them eventually create a cascading effect that will defeat the Federal Army and of course on the first day of Gettysburg how’s the day go pretty good for robert e lee is what kind of battle what kind of engagement is it is this an engineering Bala is this an artillery battle it’s an infantry battle right it’s faster better which already can concentrate faster in the pattern and get a little bit of a little bit of help

a little bit of luck right holy what kind of qualities you look for a gentleman Foley says give me luck right give me general got luck pretty much everything else falls in place that you got luck okay Lee is always needed to walk in this right he’s got me out and other forces needed help with a federally to fellow human some help of the first day of Gettysburg yeah they end up fighting the battle George Meade takes over from hooker right me is very much a general into McClellan mode an engineer West Point graduate he wants to keep his army in a good concentrated position which is a watch them on the pine tree plan that he develops on the 1st of July of course John Rylands and John you forget the army engagement right Gettysburg and pike replaying soybeans pasta al Allen gals oh the Reda’s well to tell you me whatever true the whole talking that’s out there good allocates toward me personally but that mean was the conductor’s candid pykrete plan is informed by the same kind of analysis of the where the asymmetric advantages are the Federalists versus for the Confederacy leaves approach to Gettysburg is shaped by the same sort of thinking of where am I asymmetric advantages over the battles and so but again type three plan does get implemented the Battle of Gettysburg starts on the 1st of July anybody who understood the dynamic scope of the campaign in East what happens is eminently predictable it’s a fluid situation which side current can respond faster and quicker and in it the first of July is you got to give a day to bigger patterns right they look at the second day of that right what’s the situation at the second day about it is a day of transition both sides are still concentrating their forces okay they’re still concentrating their post meters trying to get this army well in hand well position we just try to find a way to get him before we can carry that out okay now one consolation today but this guy do you try to get on two blanks and maybe the Federals to make the mistake and create an opportunity to achieve decisive success on the 2nd of July well that’s debate about it but I think is pretty clear dan sickles makes a mistake creates an opportunity for stress and some inside the battlefield but leave some tentative success but it’s not enough because Mead has enough horses coming up to contain any successes that he is going to achieve and then comes the third day of battle and Jorge means knocking them to command me bad news man leaves this is not a good thing means not the kind of guys who think mistake on my front third July he’s got his army position his guns are position it’s not campaign to maneuver Lee tries to find ways to not do what he does it turns out he ends up doing the salt on needs position ok the retrospect we know this is gonna be a failure but if you know the history of the war in the east the Yankees can be counted on and almost every engagement to make a mistake someone they’re not followed blue blocks on a map these are human beings white generous in the past and they’re not going to be but the surest way to get them to make mistakes is to engage them get them wrapped up in the fog and the friction of war so they make decisions on incomplete information of course towards me doesn’t do that being your army doesn’t do it Thursday it’s the kind of balance and harmony Tomek kind of bad and the Union wins it decides the picture of the third day of the battle reinvention retreats back into the road to victory from getting a long story have Gettysburg a horse okay look let’s go what basically happens under 200 listen to this grant is after the polygamist of the Overland campaign he gets lead into a campaign the trenches of artillery of siege work around Richmond and Petersburg that campaign is over on April the 2nd 1865 the Confederacy has only a week of life left in it from these army lives a week of life and of course that leaves our tea rest of the hopes of the suffering people that this government can defend them can’t protect them can achieve injuries thank you very much other engineering yes we have coverage

people engineering experience in terms of as a field command only persons have any kind of giving a field families with those jobs we had the 40,000 men in the actually the outside ended up Marty the larger the sembly troops it takes place before the Civil War takes place at militia Buster’s nobody in the antebellum Army has experienced that Ben Butler did as a militia commander of the Massachusetts Kentucky review and maneuver with 6,000 troops okay they just don’t get that kind of experience now that they do get which is very valuable in the antebellum Army is because the Army has conducted an extensive campaign geographically on the frontier where it just explains a big role the quartermaster Department is a very very well the legacies of the quartermaster department has projecting the power over distances that’s really it definitely taken me the problems with larger scale but the end of autumn army does have experience in that kind of logistical support for extended operations and that’s very valuable in civil war the terms of preparation for command there wasn’t something that being a staff officer was your best preparation because you were at the right hand of a commander who’s making decisions about big operational decisions international field command it just it just wasn’t something these guys are trained to do if they read Joey or if they read only on it book wonderful this is an interesting story but this army is a lot of the lieutenant’s it conducts Constabulary operations in the frontier it builds roads it establishes forts in projects civilization it pacifies the tribes what army does that today but it’s not doing it it’s not the very problem is open there’s also Christians in the United States Army for not being prepared to fight the Civil War okay you 19th on today he’s not prepared to fight a civil war I hope not right they’re not making a plan for this right the antebellum army music is a Constabulary power projection nation building army they’re not preparing to fight a war like this ok read a book they read Germany they read a point book this is an interesting story I’ll never do something like this of course they do start doing something like this and they’ve got to kind of learn as they’re going along but there is none that preparation for my command West Point teaches and tenants and engineers and that’s right done didn’t you love the frontier I think you almost famously said you know I went out on the frontier give up I commanded it but everything was the command company introduced and I forgot everything else yes sir Oh chief everything ferrocene the germs against question was the question of the defensive strategy wait for the enemy to come in and attack rather than take the initiative that’s kind of the Germans did at Normandy the German idea at Norman there was there was a division of opinion there was the idea to defend the beaches or do we wait for the enemy because they you know try to defend the beaches mean for guys to spend everywhere to defend no Bravos idea was in line at war with the duck Dodgers got World War one you hold light defences at the front put your hold back counter-attack forces and then you concentrate your forces from striking in some ways that’s Lee’s idea we want to concentrate our forces for offensive operations counter offensive operations once we figure out that that was going to come you know whatever force is concentrating to strengthen where they come and be given up campaign so there are some rough analogy to that Robert leaves a lot like tanks probably good World War one tank to everything we’re not very good effectively does it make sure your question okay I felt so bad don’t hear how large these plants at that point this is a small class today the glass is very small West Point the entire four-year plan for your contract I would be nerd never really more than 200 so this class is probably up 50 graduated hey there is this thicket he comes up pick at this idiot you finish last this class at West Point right Holly you told me to finish

last class at West one keep in mind West Point classes lose half of their units in the course of the four years and just see a 22 West Wing you got you gotta get congressional support you got deficit you can actually something academically then you’ve got to go through a series of very rigorous entrance examinations to get in just to get into West Point is a heck of an accomplishment for anybody in antebellum America and they don’t live through the conditions at West Point where I mean it’s you know you you match to the ground the food sucks and your ass by the seniors and you you’ve got to recite everything okay and there’s the engineering look at something perimeter engineering mathematical stuff they got into me eons beyond me and you got imagine these guys they don’t know about the modern hydration and nutrition and stuff like that a little really rigorous experience so for any way to get through first the classes a negative comment even if finishing 46 in the class of 46 is a heck of accomplishment at that point so I think it don’t put much stock on there’s a guy there’s classic West don’t know I could sew my dress where my mattress feel sucks which is why I didn’t hate I didn’t hate math I mean I took algebra like three years ago I love it so much and that is what do I do I have a menu of bad choices and god-awful guaranteed to fail choices I’m working through the third day case ok when the rings do their so we’re thinking about campaign to the campaign plans they got an acronym called draw your options at the beginning of any day of that what are our options then what is D defend third date games can lead go on the defensive he could okay but the question of cost and benefits he goes on an offensive these armies maneuvering in the door and they’re on a very limited supply line okay if he stays in one place when the great danger Napoleon comes Napoleon knew was great with his armies marching because there’s armies marching they steal the food for local area and they would want to next play steal the food there the second they stopped during the same area for a long time it’s hard to the grass up steal okay and so going in defensive and because that relies on need is gonna do something stupid to make an attack and one thing we you know may not be the most old and exciting guy of the world but he’s probably not gonna make a stupid decision to attack okay the R is the R is retreat okay retreat from Gettysburg on everything but your if your lady you’re going north not just achieve a battle but they have a moral effect on the north you can’t destroy the ability of the north to make war they just got too much stuff what you can do the only way you can win is you break the North will not to use that stuff anymore okay well how do I break their will to use it well the answer is you infect the clinical process in the north and in 1863 winning victories could be very very beneficial for the Confederacy particular at the time because you’ve got two critical gubernatorial elections in 1863 in Ohio and in in Sylvania okay if the Republicans lose Ohio Pennsylvania you know although that’s no more armies they’re not raised by the federal government they are raised by the state okay governor Curtin has been an incredibly enthusiastic Republicans floor of the Lincoln administration and raised in truth there is you start bending away to talk over to the mantra Pennsylvania residents raised note Pennsylvania regiment no army look Tommy okay so Keisha but again basic idea is I can achieve victories and I can make the war so frustrating for the North that they say you know what cost benefit benefit of Union cost to keep it yeah give it up that’s all I chance Lee have to win the war because he can’t destroy the ability big war so to retreat from Gettysburg would be to concede he lost the battle which is not going to have that war better an indication you want first day the second thing was marginally draw but still you can say I secured the peach or you can all been against Bert right peach orchard we did that we did the the tour that’s half right there for the 150th program

standing the peach orchard this is very very important terrain on that battlefield I’ve got it that okay I push them to work back here push the north back there and retreat is not doesn’t give me any benefit so pretty retreat a a is attack ok many question comes the other W is wait but that’s one I’m the past defensive and being on the past offenses the Confederacy proven to be a loser okay so the final thing is tact the question comes out of these happen the I is initial idea do we did the poor which is to try to attack both ends of the federal line but Longstreet is slowly extorted and by the time Lee has been really rewarding something the Federals and twelfth or have already punched Richard Ewell’s guy doing a good slug meaning division is doing no coordinate attack may result in any case you think you lost a good problem they were strong one flank strong in another flame that guy didn’t reach someone and I’m starting last night the analogy to Antigua okay Antietam Gettysburg is Antietam in Reverse and T there is Gettysburg intruders it ants eat them the Confederates are on an interior line the Federals on an exterior line okay McCallum basic plan is to hit at one place and hopefully will weaken himself someplace else on his lawn which have that effect leash strips his right of a division which enables Burnside to get across and they’ve got a pretty good opportunity to attack to get better by Clement League is in the same situation as McClellan was and Antietam he’s on a long exterior line meat is on an interior line the way he deal with the enemy is hidden in one place hope he shifted reserves someplace and created a weakness somewhere else in the battlefield the assumption guy who I hit him on this on the two flanks if he stripped his forces from anywhere to the center and yesterday we nearly had as in the center because he was caught up in that promise if you horses back around so from the logical standpoint what you’ve worked once you work through the problem as Lea’s working through the problem you realize that what else is the least bad option that he has in front of them okay problem seven defect the Federals are careful and cautious because usually they’ve got a series of well you know there’s a risky option and there’s a safe option okay the safe option is not as potentially beneficial as the risky option but it’s a safe option okay and if it doesn’t work out we’ll kill a lot of the Confederates anyway okay the situation is I’ve got the safe option which means I’m guaranteed to lose I got the risky option excuse me the only chance I have of not losing so I might roll the dice we we love these armies in history that take chances that are risky the reason that the polling of Napoleon love started polling take chances he’s a risk taker he’s got to do that because he is out and on he’s fighting the rest of Europe he’s got to take chances doesn’t take chances he gets crushed and in the end holding gets crushed robert e lee’s got to take chances why cause he’s finally huge or doesn’t think chances he gets crushed definite lesson you are doing you’re starting the jurors in World War two they take lots of chances they remember because they don’t take chances they’re fighting all of Europe they’re gonna get it all today get crushed okay again it’s an interesting dynamic the military history with military to be studied okay and the forms of strategy pursue the forces that shape Strad this is kind of thing we want our officers thinking about studying mission okay I know there’s a million words for my hero growing up as a kid was joke dice okay so I’m not going to slow down once I’m going to roll one time Joe Theismann he was he was in his house and he burned out the motor on his refrigerator because where you open up the light came on and he just start talking next question I know yes I reckon I used to hear the phrase which of your accountant but I understood that any image that the adherence to where he was strongly the better salute but probably he has on the big problem he has is come back to my home one last event but the big problem is is his relationship with his commander-in-chief the changing war aims he is I just mentioned the general would

be studied we generally say are awesome of the generals who take lots of risks okay take chances who quite and outnumber didn’t win done a bit of done right with a bowl commander Colin is my problem for all his imaging and presenting himself as a bowl commander is not really a bold command he doesn’t need to be a Vulcan okay we’re starting a publication question I asked my officers at the GSD we’re doing two to two lessons focused on the polling okay we’re not doing any lessons based on the law engine well into one Indian okay well that’s not right you know Napoleon Napoleon was now number you got understood you know that’s well it did have everything on his side you know I said are we studying the Germans we sent their blood stream but we also need shook off the Russian command oh well you just hit work more people you know quantity of quality all its own is a Russian city okay and the problem is safe methodical I suspect my suspicion is it’s probably in the file and changed place McCallum may happen as bold as lead because I just don’t think the problem makeup was that way but I think we would have been the very methodical careful commander as well the Johnsons Johnson yeah the answer is wanted question you know what happened Johnson’s didn’t command one originally party speculated if Johnson’s a to Satan command in Atlanta they would have fought the battle somewhere around Savannah because Johnson I’ve kept on the treatment ok but it’s again there’s so many factors that play into this McLaren is waiting for the forces to come down under the old conductor can’t you conduct your operations in line with our desire that the dowels poor will be held back from you protective Valley will come from the north cloud says I will do that I will obey there’s follows the problem isn’t something now the guys right the funnels haven’t reached out at the right hand for when we doubt them down it means he has to do this railroad and he’s reaching out and there’s no one to grab the Confederates going to move around and go get the railroad and that’s what happens the seven days battles and just once the seventies battle sets that takes place McClellan is still championing the strategic strategy the cordage in my administration in July fundamentally makes a change from the conciliation policy of a harder war against the south and McClellan clearly makes clear that he is not comfortable with that that’s not something he wants to do the important a pope is supposed to change the ward at least by bringing a new commander who brings the right kind of spirit hope fails McClellan comes back to the back is greater than wind but the Emancipation Proclamation comes in and the antagonism between Army Potomac headquarters and Washington just becomes too big to breach too big too big the bridge and someone’s got to go and in our system properly the generals got to go with it when he can’t work with the president anymore so I mean that’s it’s it’s spelled out a lot more detail and blow up somewhere but but again there’s a lot of dynamics going into the McClellan Lincoln relationship which is why it inspires so much interest in the subject is the problem that loaded it on in force afterwards the arms ohmic generals are getting Kennedy convinced that the mislead campaign was sound what was undermined by Washington Washington is gonna believe that missile campaign was funding unsound because they create the opportunity for the Shenandoah Valley campaign and armed commanders who believe that Washington is too concerned about the defensive depends at the Capitol and it’s time to handle the commander’s and this is a big conflict and they believe that Republican politicians metal too much of the war when war should be a matter for professional officers you know the politicians create the war the generals go solve it and the politicians come in when the war is over and that simply isn’t you know it’s nicer than when you believe in that kind of clean separation for more involved it it just was not realistic generals you try to separate more from politics generally end up losing strategical girls yes sir the bass problem was hopeful legally lincoln was concerned he believed the problem and the Shengo Valley was the three forces were not coordinated bring together a Jambo link Lincoln never room fought we had never bought the Peninsular concept never bought he always believed that the wick on atomic

should stay north of Richmond operate along the railroads because it just is not comfortable with arm Tony being away from Washington Lincoln head read is plagiarized Germany aka Henry Halleck elements of the part in science and said you do not divide your arm concentrate your army in one place the army goes peninsula you gotta move some people behind that violates the principle of concentration of Morsy is gonna concentrate before you had to choose to concentrate in one place Lincoln prefer that the concentration be done where Washington is safer along the orange of Alexandra railroad line of communications which has many problems one insufficient successful about railroad the other the orange outdated railroad goes Southwest before Charlotte small enough for Richland and we’re no problem you know Andrew that’s cheating exhausted probably get restored for the army of Potomac has left so many guys behind that doesn’t have enough at the tip of the spear reach that point between gravity and rapid rivers approximately and that’s why they are me constantly was using that line of operations and stuck in that the area mrs. grant is when you started campaigning citizens or that’s where John Pope John goes his operations in 1662 it’s just the problematic logistics with that then gets a faceful week that going to amend veto if there’s this logistical issues there and Lincoln just his sense was always behavior war the comments weren’t sort of policy follow my ideas will have it of the war with over quickly and we campaign in the Western what matters so much because what’s that capture Richmond to get better once the clone has a setback missile Oh Lincoln listens to help how its idea how it Protege Winfield Scott says no the wars and lasts a long time so we need to focus on the gingival objectives out west above all the Mississippi River and so the emphasis of northern strategy shifts from one holding in the West supporting in the West decisive action in East to really holding in the East to decisive action now to us and that’s what if that’s what your funnest things is to work is when Robertson wrote in yesterday and Gary gallery collection two three robotically Glenn Roberts a nice preview good case we haven’t we had our discussion and we have our discussion team tortured and we did have no we showed how we do the staff ride other ways we’ve any character they won’t run what the siccolas case can be made by standing on two pieces of ground that is first piece of ground goes to the cave of rubbish Angela okay and you look from from eggs grow toward Chancellor crossroads you’ve had your memory they go to the beach or look impeach fortune towards sickles original position it’s not an exact match but it is close enough that if you’re Dan sickles and you are remembering a commander and a commander and Joe hooker who you like told you to do this as opposed to Jorge meet me you hate tells you to do something you don’t trust okay this is a classic question that comes up in teaching army officers the question of how much initiatives should subordinate to able to exercise that you go into it is one of the great questions because there is no formulaic answers for this tonight in some situations you delegate authority the low-level guy and it works out with something does it then you own officers is to try to get them awake the temptations believe it every problem has a set mathematical answer to it because war is much too complicated I think that’s what makes me sometimes I’m Chris I have ability to complicated simple sort of thing but I guess it was the gala dress it’s anything as long as you

know you think you force it put yourself in singles and stuff it makes sense these guys when they make wrong decisions there’s rarely situation within it once you understand that thinking what the it’s it’s very hard not used to protect these guys and it kind of the conditions of fog friction uncertain information the physical conditions are available it’s hard not be sympathetic you guys I was considered staff right successful if the officers couple they will greater sympathy empathy for the losing commander because they be for the winning commanded because you watching work through it like this you have a commanding commander got lucky as hell and you have knob question why don’t they pursue after these battle to the victories you have thinking for your commander I mean I just you’re conscious and aware they were horse dirty with important planning but you are so cognizant of just how lucky you’ve got in this king and what happened that the idea of pursuit just has got to seem like I’m not going to push my luck too much I mean it’s understanding what human conditions and problem warfare right again it’s not blocks on a map the way you have to depict it on the maps human beings make human decisions and drawing on the resources they have very very difficult yes Rebecca definitely two questions yes part of it because the nature of what the combatants were and that they were people who knew each other they were countrymen and it wasn’t like let’s just keep going you slaughter I’m like you might with a born country fed okay I won the point today go home then agree to which the brother versus brother sentiments it was actually is a matter of the haze of memory of the war and how much they really gave each other the time there’s a lot of debate in scholarship over that would agree at which Confederates really really developed a hatred again not just brothers we have never the world with we really do ain’t getting in northern arms and all the important soldiers taking the same attitude brother versus brother thing we’re fighting people they are resisting us join our friends they’ve gotten bushwhackers all over the place don’t follow the rules of war and me whatever comedy there may exist between honor between combatants is usually in that a matter of memories fading after the war I perfect no no one’s going to be inviting one person Quebec and obtaining more than they what a dangerous one of the things combatants end up having something greater problem to do with the enemy is there sometimes a danger that they have problems with their own people back home you see this incident soldiers letters I hate the rebels with those copperheads are the worst and this is and this is an issue too that comes up in contemporary we talk about the topic officers their contemporary civil military relationship the Danes the question of having an all-volunteer army what is its relationship with the students civil society that it serves I mean is it a healthy one or are they starting to develop a sinister there’s the danger was also much about sensory and mentality and this is one of the contexts that put McClellan’s infamous letter to Lincoln you have done your best to destroy this arm letter horrible unforgivable but in the context of McClellan why the arms pochittona soldiers loved him so much what a commander what a commander who will rank that kind of letter to the politicians back home you want someone who’s wanted reason he got the problem courses gets edited out of transcript portland sees it but McClellan in that letter just throwing down your stars and saying fire me because I you know you have I’m telling truth to power and I put that content and makes what I was doing not defensible that you can understand the mentality behind it I you have done your best to destroyed this morning for me to tie us feel that I have created that I and to the people to sort of the our intimate I am more protected from the Washington politicians and that’s a very powerful message performance and constrain is actually as we’ve developed it more mean that is less is the soldier oriented one profession is a danger of those kind of attitudes developing the wind army after uh after Algeria during the out during conflicts and the yet vietnamese problems I mean this is this is another thing we talk about their officers and assessment the degree to which the relationship between the civil

okay last question yes or no how much do you think they charge of the center was influenced by please contents and themself on our city to express cookies he was unquestionably confident in his honor he said before in the men are great you know they’ll go anywhere do anything I ask you to if they’re properly led and this was in the context of you know Jackson is get to give up reorganizing the army how can I find the guys to lead this army but he refused Longstreet’s advice long as it’s advice with added this that’s why the assumption you are making in long streets to do laundry smart is the assumption that George Gordon Meade is too stupid to recognize the potential danger of a Confederate force separated from Washington this goes into sickness one of the reasons sickles makes his move is nervous because the Calgary humors cabbage protecting his left flank is sent away it is sent down to pressure if Longstreet is going to make them move they’re going to on treats March first like in this case all the way around there’s no way you need to pick up pick up somehow somewhere there the Virginia they might not pick it up Ginger’s well where we need to go any guy lives near Bachmann show us how good they’re no one’s doing that pencil thingy good but Gilly duper salary the county goes down to Frederick and they are there watching the probing in fact that Burnham in third July they pose a danger to lease line of escape because of the third July some unique appellee makes a staff for Fairfield gap which is one of only two passing South Mountain that robert e lee has behind them to get back just get away move and you know there’s something similar to butters just show up on the ground from happening but you know the Federals are alert to the situation down you think it’s up most you looking at map site now just do this if ever say the same thing what’s what’s the most dangerous thing they can do to us and so that the Longstreet idea was not necessarily great terms that we have in competency to them it was just amazed at ripeness of tribalist have tried this other options aren’t good so this is the least that I can do and Jackson’s March Jessica bad idea it was based on the assumption that the federal would be in the exact same place ten hours later that when the March ended that they would be when the March began and the only reason the Federals aren’t in that situation is because of order from hooker to John Reynolds to get to the battle is scary and it gotten there on time and the orders to Reynolds within there to help out the epital hour so I mean it’s just how much these three soldiers are aware it is those kind of little slips here or there yet habitable is a human activity you know and their consciousness that this is a big is going to shape a lot of the later person adopted it was a big moment so you think it was Lee’s only option then I think it was Lee’s only it was Lee’s least bad option okay and there was the only one that he could really feasibly carry off that day thank you very much