Interactive Display Provides Pilots with Real-Time Sonic Boom Information

welcome and thank you for joining us for today’s webinar interactive display provides pilots with real-time sonicboom information presented by NASA on flight research center and tech briefs media I’m Bruce Bennett editor a tech base Media Group and I’ll be greater today this webinar which will last approximately 60 minutes will focus on a new software system capable of displaying the location and intensity of shockwaves caused by supersonic aircraft this technology can be integrated into cockpits or ground-based control rooms to help pilots place any loud booms in a specific location minimizing their impact in populated areas there will be a question and answer period at the end of the presentation if you have a question you may submit it at any time during the presentation by entering it in the box at the bottom of your screen our presenters will answer as many questions as possible at the conclusion of the presentation and participants will receive a follow-up email with instructions for downloading the presentation and viewing the archived version of the webinar in order to view the presentation profit please disable any popup blockers you may have on your browser at this time I’d like to turn the program over to today’s speakers Laura fobel and Edward Andrew herring jr. hello everyone thank you for joining today’s webinar I am Laura fillable I’ve been working at NASA Armstrong for a little over 20 years now my background is in software engineering and system engineering recently I’ve taken on the position as the NASA Armstrong Technology Transfer officer my office oversees the Armstrong intellectual property portfolio and also facilitates commercialization and development partnerships on March 1st of the year Center name change from Dryden Flight Research Center to Armstrong Flight Research Center Neil Armstrong probably best known as the first man on the moon was also a former research test pilot at center cube dragons will continue to be memorialized in the remaining of the Western aeronautical test range to join an aeronautical test range for those of you who don’t know where Armstrong Flight Research Center is located we’re located north of Los Angeles on the western edge of the Mojave Desert the center the tenant of Edwards Air Force Base if you look at the bottom right of the chart being displayed that’s Armstrong and we are right next to the Edwards dry lakebed which is perfect for flight testing our Center has a number of facilities specific capabilities and competencies including multidisciplinary flight research specifically technology integration of complex flight systems and airborne remote sensing and compliance of the patient’s our facility capabilities includes a diverse fleet of experimental test aircraft unmanned aircraft systems airborne sized platforms and range and aircraft test facilities our Center competencies include flight safety and risk management flight project and mission management flight systems and tested leaf development and also experimental and aircraft both piloted and unpiloted here I have listed three named functions of the technology transfer office we manage the technology transfer and commercialization of Armstrong innovations mainly to benefit the US public we facilitate research collaborations and most of our collaborations are in the form of spacecraft treatments and we also support the technology transfer of the innovations created from small business innovation research and small business tech transfer programs now although I’m strong it is a flight research center innovations that come out of the work done here can be applied to a wide variety of applications providing a broad range of benefits the innovations range from control of systems to sensors software packages and the real-world impacts of these technologies are significant societal food samples we’re working to advance performance and efficiencies of various aircraft improve flight and pilot safety reduce noise pollution help fight forest fires and also enhance security monitoring now here’s one specific example of the type of partnership now to Armstrong is speaking in our loathes lab we have a test a team of engineers that developed a novel approach to using fiber optics to provide real-time

straight measurements these measurements can in turn we derive other parameters such as 2d and 3d shape stress loads temperature and other parameters also including liquid levels and all of these measurements can be taken a well-known combination Armstrong partnered with the company called for TSP to develop the hardware for NASA’s fiber optic central system for ESPN license several of the technologies in the fiber optic portfolio and developed a lightweight robust fiber optic sensor system that is now available commercially the foss team has been recognized by a wide variety of receipts awards including the rnd 100 award and two federal laboratory consortium Awards another major technology our researchers are involved in sweeden technologies related to automatic ground collision avoidance our research team has developed not allowed rhythms that in able to manage examine advancements in the detail of terrain maps which in turn can provide better data to pilots and avionics systems helping them fly more safely and avoid catastrophic event the estimated that unity technologies could prevent 100 to 50 to 100 deaths each year I mentioned earlier Armstrong is seeking partners to license technologies and to participate in collaborative research you’re welcome to get in touch with us to learn more about how we might work together our contact information is displayed here you can either email us or call us directly if you want to learn more about the program and the opposite skill the URL is listed there at the bottom now I’d like to introduce and herring he is one of the innovators of the technology we will be discussing today we refer to the technology and segundo it is an aerospace engineer and the technical lead for supersonic aerodynamic research here at the center and it served as the leader for many supersonic projects in areas of sonic boom research their data management GPS and ground-based radar and in his team has developed a software system that is capable of displaying the locations and intensity of shock waves caused by supersonic aircraft this technology can be integrated into cockpits or round based control rooms to help high rates place loud booms in specific location minimizing an impact in populated areas I’m Shaun and seeking partners to help us further develop and commercialize technology and we hope that after hearing this presentation interested particle contact it’s about opportunities for working together so now I’d like to hand out the presentation today Thank You Laura there’s been much talk about supersonic Overland flight but there’s still several issues that must be addressed all right there’s still several issues that must be addressed before this type of flight can become a reality when a plane reaches a certain speed that is super sonic sonic boom can occur historically civilian planes have generally only flown supersonic speeds over water that will not bother anyone to fly over land supersonic speeds sonic booms must be managed sonic booms are as the definition here indicates allowed and sometimes explosive noise caused by a shockwave that occurs as an aircraft travels faster than Mach bun or the speech sound specifically the shock wave forms a cone of pressurized air molecules that propagates forward and extends to the ground as the code spreads across landscape along the flight path the shock wave creates continuous sonic boom along the full width becomes base the following video demonstrates how love sonic booms can be you were ready for the video replay variety of variables that impact whether a sonic boom will be generated how loud it will be and where it will land there’s a aircraft and engine configuration or shaping new aircraft shaping techniques can dramatically reduce the sonic boom aircraft weights the hovering the aircraft the greater the needed lift this also makes them louder by changing woods distribution on the aircraft we can make the boom quieter sadness fear –ax the temperature winds and humidity this is beyond the pilots control but has great impact on the center field location and slowness we have the aircraft trajectory with the pilot can control speed altitude dive angle and acceleration of the aircraft and also there’s Teran topography higher terrain would get a lot of them and the topography can also

change the Levin’s to up means the pilot can control the trajectory there are things are down is control what can we do about sonic booms first we can create new aircraft designs this approach involves developing novel aircraft shapes and propulsion systems to reduce the noise masses high-speed project is seeking to develop and validate tools technologies and concepts to overcome barriers to practical high speed vehicles and I think part of this effort is finding ways to manage or limited sonic booms the key element is advanced computer-based prediction models for supersonic aircraft shapes and performance the loud sonic booms of past and present aircraft become sonic puffs for future Lublin aircraft we can also fly in the BOK cutoff zone this approach involving using the atmospheric refraction to our advantage but flying slow enough the sonic boom never reaches the ground sounds ranging from rumbles to nothing all will be heard on the ground at least one company is using this effect in their plans for supersonic civil aircraft it can also take steps to try and understand acceptable levels of sounds to people on the ground research has been conducted to quantify sonica levels that are acceptable to the residential community not harmful to the environmental wildlife and do not adversely affect buildings or other man-made structures NASA is gathering allowance and human response data in other government agencies such as the FAA will decide the acceptable levels to the public here’s the solution that we’re discussing today sonic boom mitigation technology which predicts the sonic booms so that pilots can take appropriate actions to place a boom appropriately or play it all together the idea was first proposed in 1994 and the concept has had a variety of stages of evolution today the system calculates Sun different locations and intensities based on aircraft specific operation that is trajectory atmosphere conditions as the dadit’s process it is shown visually on a screen map display the software has been run with report flight data as well as real-time in the control room using test flights with real-time of weather and downlink aircraft trajectory it’s currently used for planning of research flights at NASA Armstrong the software system is capable of displaying the location intensity of shock waves caused by supersonic aircraft as a result it enables pilots to control the place in sonic booms they can place plumes and specific locations away from populated areas or prevent them from occurring at all it can be integrated into a cockpit or flight control room and it’s designed for use in real-time or a funding tool so before we get into the details of the system we developed let’s back up a little bit help explain how we arrived at our solution here’s a photo that shows the propagation of both links which is very similar the propagation in sonic boom disturbances in the water surface moves much slower than the boat just as disturbances near the speed of sound much slower than a supersonic aircraft the boat makes a v-shaped wake while an aircraft makes a cone shape to servants behind itself the disturbances move forward and hit all along the shoreline and the supersonic aircraft will bloom all the land below into the side of the aircraft not just where it first goes through Mach 1 this beep sound there is a common misconception there’s only one sonic boom when the sound barrier is broken although only one set of boobs since heard on the ground by the observer all the observers along the path may hear the boom much as a motorboat can be seen continuously behind a speeding bill and Walker in the case of the aircraft the lake is a 3-dimensional cone instead of the 2-dimensional being the length of the aircraft its volume and weight will dictate the size and sudden boom and current what loud supersonic aircraft human ear only hears two large boom boom sounds new logo mere craft supersonic aircraft designs break these two large rooms into smaller cuts that are more acceptable the total disturbance to the air remains the same but we can make the sound dramatically quieter the video next shows the boom carpet of these aircraft for an aircraft flying in a delta 2 to 50,000 feet sonic boom carpet width is about 15 miles wide so really play the game you okay here we have a supersonic aircraft

flying from left to right it shockwaves go behind the aircraft forming what’s called the black phone depicted in red the direction that the shock waves propagate is perpendicular to the Mach cone they call this propagation the Ray cone depicted in green red cone is like the photo of the boat wake and it moves in the direction of the green arrows the shock wave generated from the turn Erik replication propagate along the Ray cone and develop the footprints affected in blue they do not hit the ground for one or two minutes although this can vary based on how fast and high the aircraft is flying the blue curves are up the shown in the cockpit display the rate zone is the part that can be controlled by the pilot Mach cone was generated from the previous aircraft trajectory and that’s a done deal these clouds are affected by several factors the first being the Mach number or scheme let’s start by looking at cones where the aircraft is just faster than the speed of sound okay so here we have Lok 1.05 and you can see that the green ray cones go very far forward it takes quite a while to get there and then as we accelerate to Mach 1.1 it starts to move back as the Mach number gets larger then we’re going to accelerate to Mach 1.8 here and step at a time and the green line was farther back and now we’re at the crews condition so with the aircraft acceleration the red cone moves aft and with the deceleration the red cone moves forward so let’s deceleration acceleration little pelagic your home computer okay unfortunately there are complications to computing where the booms go the graphic is only valid for isotherm Latin sir from the winds which of course never happens so now here’s an image that shows that the currently looks like NASA control room the different colors denote different sunny moon pressure levels Blues are quieter than yellows and reds are the loudest we will now show you a demonstration of real flight data as run through the system and displayed in the control room you’ll notice as the flight starts the aircraft speed is below Mach cutoff and the pressure waves do not reach the ground the furthest lines show up first one display and then move backward is the aircraft accelerate and pile up into a focus on a boom and move forward again as the acceleration stops the video will be played at triple real-time speed each curve is a rate code intersection with the ground from a given aircraft location and it’s plotted every three seconds of real-time so please go ahead and play the video here we have the sonic boom cockpit display as shown in the nests Armstrong control room this is data from a actual f-18 flight for the feint program about a year ago this is the ground track of the f-18 and this is the present position the f-18 we’re flying towards NASA Armstrong at Edwards Air Force Base I’m going to play this at three times normal speed normally the sonic boom lines show up every three seconds so in this video it’s a recent one second so this is the the slowest Mach number as he accelerates these show up on the ground going backward and they start to pile up here into the focus sonic boom the different colors mean different intensities blue is the quieter booms towards the red is the louder sonic booms the width of this area here is called a sonic boom carpet and you’ll notice that there’s a bit going further to the left then to the right and that’s because of the prevailing winds from left to right on this picture now that he’s got a stable speed these lines become more regular more even and we had our sensors here on the ground recording those sonic booms after we’ve passed this area the aircraft will start turning to the right and you’ll notice that it’s also slowing down so the lines become more pinched together and they turn to the right after a while the older ones go away so it’s not to clutter up the display and he’s almost your cutoff okay so now he’s subsonic not adding any more lines and these lines are disappearing and turn around for another pass here because we’re not talking about loud booms for the feature play okay this diagram represents the current system inputs of flight data weather and

atmospheric data are fed into the system this boom da stands for cockpit interactive sonic boom display avionics system produces tabular data some of the locations and intensities that can be plotted a variety of ways some of which we’ve showed earlier currently this output is being fed into the mastic forum system and displayed there it was to facilitate flight planning analyzing plan trajectory or weather data to determine Seneca compact locations and intensities also is a real-time display viewing current and past sunny publications depicting the boom carpet during flight the Saab that can also be fed into a cockpit display or air traffic controller display and this is where we’re looking for development partners to help commercialize the system and realize the future capabilities first employed predictions provide pilot with predicted bloom carpet based on current trajectory and store data during flight enabling real-time adjustments to ensure desired outcome and flight management provide system that allows air traffic controllers to analyze flight paths for approval modern aircraft in flight and review flight data to enforce regulations Nasus hi speech projects goal is develop and validate tools technologies and concepts to overcome barriers to practical high speed vehicles moon prediction and plan placement will be a key component of this effort several commercial companies are working to design aircraft that can achieve Overland supersonic travel those flying supersonic speeds will need to prove to the FAA and ensure that their booms will be acceptable levels and placed appropriate places those flying in my cutting zone will need to prove and ensure that they will not generate those at all air traffic controllers need this type of system to approve flight plans Muhtar aircraft in flight and review flight data to enforce regulations technology could be used to intelligently route supersonic aircraft and limit acoustic signatures to acceptable levels are–can recent market study considerably predicted the sale of supersonic aircraft to be between 300 and 500 vehicles over the next 10 years Thunder we have worked with provided information that their aircraft will sell for approximately 80 million dollars likely to be similar for many similar aircraft they’ve already received 50 orders with $250,000 deposit for each order our prediction is that sonic boom display component will be at about 1/8 of 1% of the aircraft cost or about $100,000 if you multiply that times all the expected sales in the next 10 years the sales of the system could be between 30 and 50 million dollars add that similar cost per unit for outfitting aircraft control stations with sonic boom displays and market could be between 50 and 100 million dollars so NASA’s future plans we’re going to plan to fly this display in the cockpit of an f-18 aircraft during 2014 and planning integration with a future low boom flight demonstrator aircraft simulator and then eventually in the real vehicle we’re seeking partners to develop and commercialize a system that can use for flight planning and flight adjustments and flight planning and monitoring we have systems since boom software that produces tabular data that can be applied in a variety of ways we’re seeking licensees to partner to find the best way to display the data to the pilot air traffic controller preferably into existing cockpit displays like in the center it gives value added for supersonic flight without detracting from other needed display information to minimize display clutter and test at saturation and now war is going to say a few more words again at Armstrong is seeking partners to advance persistent daaad technology and to develop commercially available product we’d like to welcome interested parties to contact us to discuss discuss opportunities specifically for research and development partnerships or licensing opportunities we do have a little bit of good news just this week we were informed of a partnership opportunity that I’d like to expand on before we close okay there’s an opportunity for NASA funded development let’s display let’s go to the end site the website inspires show here in the top line you can download a solicitation for subtopic two point four point one development and flight validation of a sonic boom cockpit display the estimated level of effort is for two to three years at $350,000 per

year with one will board anticipated two year proposals are strongly encouraged with the first year being concept development and the second any subsequent years and we include flight validation the Notice of Intent is due very soon a week from today and proposals are due on the fly 9th of May procurement regulations prohibit me from discussing the petition further all proposals are pending but please download and read the solicitation for further details okay in closing I’d like to thank everyone for attending a webinar once again here’s our contact information and we’d like to invite you to contact us to inquire about how you can get involved as you highlighted earlier Armstrong has had some great technology contre successes and we look forward to adding the secure technology presented today to that list I’d like to hand it back to the facilitator yes thank you for an excellent presentation we have a few questions from the audience let’s see what question how do you get weather or terrain data into the program okay well currently in the control room we use either weather balloon soundings or model data and load it up before the flights but we’re also looking at things we’ve done the past other research flights where the aircraft itself measures the weather winds aloft and temperature during climbs of descents and can also share data between aircraft that are climbing and descending for terrain we have a database that’s local to the Nets Armstrong area the area that we fly but any existing database could be used and we have some ideas for additional improvements in that regard development what programming language we used the code was originally written in Fortran and it’s recently been upgraded to c-sharp – while ISO 9001:2008 protocol is software customizable very much so so right now the software takes the inputs calculates where the booms go how loud they are and then I think it’s up to the developers to figure out what sort of mapping display how to best present that to the power environmental impacts of supersonic aircraft other than the obvious consequences of noise pollution in shockwaves well in the past to the present sonic booms have been very loud and that’s why the currently there’s an FAA there’s a law against flying supersonic over land for civilian jets the class of videos we’re looking at will be so quiet that most of them be unnoticed or by just being kind of like a noise of a car down the street closing store so very obtrusive sound are the levels of which we’re not quite sure yet but we are not looking at sonic booms that will break windows like military planes of the past these will just be small to non-existent poisons what is the level of development of the current software systems is it ready to integrate I mean can the code be handed over into a plane or is it more algorithm development needed the code as it stands right now is ready to go in the cockpit and we’re actually just waiting for one aircraft to be available later this summer the part that needs development is exactly how its distilled in the pilot and doing future maneuvers for the pilot but as far as current location of the booms that’s ready to go we also have in the code the ability to calculate over-the-top sonic booms where the sonic booms go up very high altitudes and refract back down potentially hundred miles away from the aircraft they’re very low-level booms but they can rattle buildings so we are interested looking got to what funding is available for a partner that would work with Armstrong well as stated being in the solicitation for the uninspired there’s $350,000 for each of three years available and other licensing opportunities what a photo would have to answer that offline all right what is the likely royalty rate I think that’s it yeah if you if you have any specific licensing questions I would prefer that you email us licensing is on a case-by-case basis and that is negotiated between the center and the

licensee so I don’t I can’t go into any specific questions about royalties right now because that is something that’s associated the effective wing shape on sonic booms it has a great effect that the entire aircraft shape the fuselage the wing of the lip distribution the propulsion system they all have to be integrated to make the plane that’s quiet on the ground what methods do you use in the simulation that’s kind of a broad topic but you have the system dot in our f-18 simulator and when we’re preparing for a research mission we have our pilots fly the mission and we tailor the maneuver to get the desired glooms on the ground that we’re looking for we’ve done tests where we’re looking at the sonic boom focus the edge of carpet effects we also apply low-level sonic booms to human subjects and they give us their their take on if it was loud or inborn odd or annoying or not the algorithm need further validation against non edwards weather conditions being the basis for system dark comes from a program called pc boom developed out of wiley labs and that’s had extensive development and validation in a desert type environment but yes we would like to validate that in other environments especially areas that have high humidity the higher the stability the sharper the crackle ascetically under the elevation requirements on approach or cutoff of cuff capability we’re below sonic booms are not allowed below altitude I think that’s up to the FAA to decide how they’re going to legislate levels I think they’re going to legislate to how loud noise is not really where the balloons go now I’m afraid that’s all the time we have I’d like to thank our two experts for giving us such an informative presentation and I’d like to thank today’s attendees for participating that concludes today’s webinar sponsored by NASA and Terry’s media however the complete webinar will be available on demand for the next twelve months at wwe.com