City College Student Panel

I asked the city college president Esther fike and Jim Howard the COO tip would you think he can get us some students to just come in and you know want to talk to Diane tice who is the co-founder of the Pacific Institute with loot ice and he said yes and so we have I think eight students am i right so first thing I’m going to do is ask Diane to come up with me on stage and then I’m going to have the students come up and have a seat with her and the idea is could I get the students to come up any ideas I want you to tell Diane your thoughts on your training the Pacific Institute your thoughts on City College then what we’re going to do I’m going to have each one do that and then when we finish we’re going to open it up to the audience because you know what you’re going to see folks your students these are your students here you’re going to see the the resemblance and the same heart and soul of the students you serve changing lives you guys aren’t nervous are you remember I told you we’re going to have fun right okay now City College has their own cheering squad here so so we’re good and you know your school was the host school this year for this best practices these folks are from all over the country we even have people from Mexico from Canada that our College people teachers of the course that you went through the Pacific Institute their presidents school owners vice president’s Dean’s and they sir we serve about 125,000 students like you every year with our materials in our training but these folks are the ones who bring it to life and you have probably have some of your teachers in the in the room here as well so I’m going to stop so could we start with you and just you know your name what you do now when you graduated and anything you want to say about City College and the Pacific Institute okay my name is Timothy Witherspoon on in the major business I’ve been in I took the class actually in 2009 and I am two classes out of receiving my bachelor’s and I’m also employee of City College I’m a master representative you said the word of changing lives that’s what I do every single day we change lives the class the class was beautiful my professor is actually dr. Radigan which is here and the one thing that I inhabit the most from the class was this cat omis the blind spots and not reaching your full potential I believe that there’s no Heights or there’s no ground that you can’t reach I mean there’s no sky that you can’t reach and I believe that I have a great future in a bright future due to this class because when I came in I was in a bad situation where I had to make certain decisions and this class actually built me up to be a better person and the business world as well as in my family so I want to thank you for creating this class it had made me a better businessman as well as a family man with my family and I’m applying this to my life every single day and I want to thank my city college staff and my family for having me to be a part of this family it is a great family it’s a great organization to be a part of and I thank you very much good job hello everyone I’m Karen major my background started out I came from a broken home and when I was very young and but my mother struggled through and she sent us all to college well of course I didn’t know what I want to do in those days and I am I went to college for a while and then I said no I want to do this anymore well I got married and I had a child I stayed home for a while so my marriage went bad and I end up getting divorced so I started late in life working and I found myself being 32 33 years old and a teller i said well i like the banking you know industry so let me continue banking and i went became a member service representative call agent and a loan officer my next big job would have been being a branch

manager well I saw myself training everyone and teaching everyone they were also passing me and I was warning what is it going what is it that I’m doing wrong and I didn’t have a degree and that was like my problem you know one of the problems i think that closet so I said you know I’m going to go ahead and I’m going to try something else I’ll go with the county and I got with the county and I work with them for a while that kept getting I don’t know if you all know about Dade County they’re going through a lot of budget cuts and I’ve been I was bumped down and all those things so I’m going back to school and I went to City College and oil will and everybody was very welcoming and I you know I love the administrators the teachers everyone was just wonderful and I my first two or three classes through every two or three semesters at city college I took a personal development class with dr. Kendricks Dr Lin Kendricks she was a wonderful teacher she’s one of the most favorite teachers in the college in the university and she started off with talking about us Catawbas she started out talking about a positive talk anything what is this gonna you know what am I going to learn from this you know my life is going pretty good and I noticed just listening doing something that when you mentioned earlier today sir about the elf’s Tommy else when I did that that was so interesting because you really can’t see everything that’s in front of you unless you take the time to actually view it and get some of all the negative stuff out of your life and that worked for me and I start going to class and I remember talking about I times I times B equals R and you know I said okay so what was the I time teaming so I read it right on it says imagination time visit vividness means realization and it was really true if you can sit back and you start and you gather Maj ination you and you can you could start working towards your goals and you know with the things that were there all the different tools that she gave us in class you know making goals and you know the positive talk talk to yourself positively when you hear people being negative not actually get them out of your life but avoid those things and I I started seeing myself growing not just that you know at work and in school but at home and the school even became much more easier for me so I use those things and I graduated last June with an A in accounting and I will be graduating December with the bachelors in accounting and at the age that I am I’m very proud and very happy because I have a grandchild my son is 26 years old his only child I’ve had and he just you know he got married and had a baby and I’m setting myself while my son’s finish college and now I’m going to finally finish college and to me it’s it’s it is it is for satisfaction but it also is so I can be better I me a better person and make more money and you know what that’s always money is always a good easier but it actually did the class was like the most excellent class I could have taken because to through this class I’ve been able to excel through other classes if anyone tells me anything negative and oh you should stops going to school you should do this you should do that I just think about that said well you know what I said I’ve already made my goals I have my goal and I’m meeting them and I plan to continue to do that I thank you all i think your husband i think everyone that was um but that was involved in making this program being the success that it is today and I thank you very much for your time good afternoon everyone my name is vanessa rodriguez i’m a student at the miami campus mississippi college i’m gonna start today to tell you a little bit by myself um I’m a proud single mother of three beautiful children the beginning of my senior year I became pregnant with my first and I was determined to graduate and not become another teenage statistic and drop out and you know so after attending four different schools 11 months later I finally graduated in august of two thousand i received my certification as a file clerk soon thereafter and in 2006 i also became certified as a medical biller and coder but i haven’t been able to work in the field because the social setbacks personal setbacks you know excuses with the kids and a lack of experience so I decided to UM you know start a a city college to get my degree and stepping out of my comfort zone has always been an issue still to this day I’m very intimidating reserved in any social setting but especially when it comes to meeting new people or speaking in front of a group much like today so if you see that I’m cracking up a little

you know you guys know so in October of last year I began my first semester at City College for my associates in science degree and medical office administration when I saw I had to take a personal intimate class I figured I was sure you know I could benefit from it and it’d be an easy a you know an easy class elective what I didn’t know was that I would learn so much and that it really this course has actually helped me to grow as a person and benefit me benefited me in everyday life thought patterns for a successful career this is the book and I keep it with Mike with me in my car all the time anytime I feel anxious or negative anyway I you know I got the book and I read from it because it really puts you in the right mindset it’s full with powerful material material that you know if you really really really get into it and and focus on what you’re reading you understand it because if you just you know skim through it it all sounds like mumbo jumbo everything sounds the same but you really really really have to practice it and you know take it all in for it to work for you if taking it all in it teaches us to be better thinkers period how to really positive self-talk how to block out other people’s negative vibes and comments and you know it opened my eyes to things that I wasn’t even aware of before I always knew that I had you know social setbacks and I was inhibited and I can like meeting new people but I really didn’t know how to change it so this book definitely um did that for me and one of my favorite units of the book is putting life on I want to because just because you know you we have to cook we have to go do laundry we have to do this I need to go to school I need to do this all that is just like- you say i want to i want to get this done i want to do this i want to do that it just makes you feel better about yourself and about achieving it you know if you feel like it’s something that you have to do it’s a necessity but now you really don’t want to but once you say i want to do this I want to finish it completely changes your outlook so that’s one of the things I really picked up from this book and from this course so will be less stressed happier people overall if we really you know take an account everything that this course and this book teaches I can only say that if I hadn’t learned to conquer and guide my thoughts and had a positive experience with this course I would not be standing here today and I’m very grateful to City College and the Pacific Institute first pushing me out of my comfort zone and teaching me I can achieve anything I put my right to thank hi my name is Wanda McDaniel and a little bit about myself while i was born in miami and i grew up on the beach with my mom and my dad it was a happy family you know my dad was a good role model my mom and I have a brother but we didn’t find out he was mentally disabled until he was like eight so basically I was like the oldest and the youngest and you know looking out for my brother and stuff at so everything was good and then it wasn’t until later when my mom and my dad broke up then my mom I guess I really affected her but you know when you’re young you really don’t see those things so eventually my mom moved south and around when I got like 15 my mom made like a bad decision where she chose a man over her child and she moved way like across the country to california and left me which was a turning point in my life cuz from that point i went to foster care think but from that point I you know I was determined to not be like her so you know hope is what kept me going and as I got older you know i was i was looking for that love also so i end up having a daughter with someone that I thought you know was going to give me that love that I needed and I thought I’d like a positive attitude but at the same time you know I figure you know I had some bumps in the ground you know that I needed to move past but I kept on going working by the time I couldn’t really go to school because I needed to work so you know to live and to make you know support my child and stuff but as I got pregnant with my second child around like 2009 where I met this other guy which was a wonderful guy and basically I say you know what I didn’t get a chance to go to school but

I have a chance now and go to school so I can you know be a good role model for my child so I end up going to school I decided to go to City College because I was out of school before and that school was coming I like I had like a preceptor that she did something that she wasn’t supposed to so there was like well you know make a long story short you might not get all your hours that you were supposed to and stuff like that that’s when I was in arm interested in surgical tech but did I change my mind and you know I had that negative talk but who will get there to that and but the thing is i decided i was going to go to City College you know what I had a lot of things a lot of excuses and stuff like that but you know I’m gonna do what I need to do for my child so I enrolled at City College at first I was kind of you know not sure because i was working full-time in taking care of a child and life was hard at the time and when I got into school my first semester I end up having a personal developing the development class sorry and I felt like you know I really didn’t too much know what the class was about but once we started getting into it I was like well I don’t really think I need this class because you know I know I’m kind of you know socially you know may have a little messed up or whatever but I don’t think I really nice on the tummy I’m going to think and stuff like that but once I started you know getting into the class and actually paying attention to learning the things I was like wow you know actually do that you know I actually do say you know like the self talking to myself I say you know no you’re not gonna be able to do that one because it did so you know you make excuses and like you know and I was like gosh I do that a lot you know I tell myself like like let’s say for example if i say i’m going to take a test and i would like do you know you really didn’t study that much so you might get an F and I’m like but if I think I’m gonna get an A I should tell myself that I’m gonna get an egg you know and prepare myself and I’ll get any but most of the time i was saying not it’s not gonna happen you know so after why I started realizing that my self talk was what was keeping me back from a lot of things and I started doing the positive self-talk as throughout life because like I said it was hard for me I would stay up three o’clock in the markets like you know what it’s the one part of let me say you’re not going to be able to do it but I say you know what self-talk you’re going to do it you’re going to graduate you’re going to get your degree you’re going to do what you need to do and you’re going to walk across that stage and your kids are going to see you and so eventually I did graduate from City College I got my degree in private investigation associates i’m currently working there now i had twins a boy and a girl which is one years old now and it meant a whole lot to me for them to see me walk across the state okay if it wasn’t for that class at the time it was so hard it really helped me and I know it benefits a lot of students cuz a lot of students are just like me because even when I was in class there’s a lot of students like man I’m going to this problem i’m going through this I can’t do it you know and at that time I was already in my third semester and I would tell them because based off what I learned that you can’t do it cuz I stay at three o’clock in the morning plenty of time studying for a test you know determined that you know what I’m gonna do this and I did it you know so you can to you know so I really thank you Wow out of all of that good afternoon dr. steis my name is Jason Doherty I’m a student at the Fort Lauderdale campus and I had a really unique opportunity in this class to take it from two separate facilitators dr. rhadigan and dr. white over there because I work schedule change I had to change from a night to add a student and so I saw a lot of people going through this class and seeing what they what they went there and what they were getting out of it now at the time I had one of the absolute worst scotoma as you could ever deal with and she’s going to remain nameless but uh I was going through a pretty difficult difficult part of my life a little bit about me on prior military I was in the I was in the Navy I was a medic for the Marines for about 14 years served overseas I know my problem leaned over here served overseas and I thought everything that I needed to know i learned from the military and if I didn’t need to know what it wasn’t

issued on my sea bag so i went to the i went to this school i finally got back into into class and i decided after a break from emergency medicine i was going to get back into it again so i’m studying to be a paramedic and I have this naysayer I have this person that’s just you know you’re never going to amount to anything you lost all your hair you’re just going to just going to completely you know not make anything out of your life i excised that cancer out of my life and started really paying attention and having a blast in these classes that i was going to learning all the terminology and the clarification of ideas and the principles that haven’t talked to me a lot during while i was in the military but also things that i applied to my personal life and i noticed things started coming together for me just a little bit better i was working as a health inspector for the state of Florida at the time and that job sucks don’t let anybody ever tell you that it doesn’t but I started getting I started getting into medicine again and opportunities started and open up for me I started getting rid of a lot of the scotoma is in my life I started writing down my affirmations and I tell you one of the best things that I ever did in that class was when I wrote down things that I’ve done well in my life I mean we all do you know things every single day well things that we have to do things that we need to do and hardly ever do we you know sit down and actually write down something well that we’ve done I wrote this down and I’m like man I’m awesome I’ve got that on my dresser right now this list of things that I’ve done well in my life and I just couldn’t believe it I’m a superhero things started going good for me at the school I became the president of our ambassador Club I became my class leader got chosen to participate as part of a team for a paramedic competition coming up and pretty much everybody knows me at the school now I’m practically staff there by this way I think you guys should clock me in I love this class and I’m gonna tell you one of the things that always stuck with me is watching your husband tell the story about I think his name was cliff young and he was a man in over in Australia who decided he was going to enter in a mega marathon a 600 mile race from Sydney to Melbourne and he shows up in galoshes and a bib overalls and I was like I grew up around a lot of people that look like that I see them he goes and he is 62 years old the only way he trained for this race was chasing around pigs and cows on his farm and then he wins the race because nobody ever told him that he had to stop at night to sleep everyone else ran for 18 hours slept for six kept going not that man he’s report he didn’t have scotoma is in his way he didn’t have that locked on locked out thing going on and that’s stuck with me that really stuck with me now I have a much better job now i’m participating in the school lot more now i have a great nan scotoma type role in my life and I really want to appreciate and express my appreciation for your husband for this class and everything that he’s done from Pacific Institute my name is Jan rudder thank you all so much thank you and I want to thank your husband for this amazing program and thank you dr. Payson I can’t tell you how excited I was when Donna emailed me and asked me to be a part of this i graduated from City College in 2008 I went back to school at 41 years old I had to I didn’t have a college degree but I had been seeing singing and dancing since I was little and that’s all I had done all of my life and I really thought I was stupid and then I had developed a vocal cord disorder and I couldn’t see me anymore after a 37-year career as a singer and I thought I can’t do anything outside there what am I going to do so I had to reinvent myself and I went back to school I went to City College and I went to do the p.i program it’s a very exciting and one of the courses that I took of course was in personal development the thought patterns for a success and I cannot tell you how how that made me look back and realize the things that I was doing the negative self-talk thats does a big thing negative self-talk when I did have the vocal cord disorder start I’m every day I’m gonna lose my voice I’m gonna lose my voice I’m not gonna be able to sing I’m gonna lose my voice tonight in my show because I had my own show I was a singer impressionist and I was working on cruise ships and working in Atlantic

City and that’s all I was doing and I it was self-fulfilled prophecy I completely fulfilled that with all of the words I said and I believed it and and I guess that’s the most important thing there’s so many important thing we kind of learned in this class but to be careful about what you say and think about what you’re thinking about because usually what you think about is what you say and I realized how powerful her words are what you speak about you can bring about and I my life was a perfect example of that so in taking this course I applied it to all the other classes that I was taking and you you’d stay up till three o’clock in the morning I go to bed early and i get up at three o’clock in the morning and study and i would say i learned to say to myself instead of saying oh i have to get up at three don’t have to get it before and study for this test i changed it to i get to get up at three I get to get up at four and it was easy when that alarm would go off I was happy to get up it just made a big difference and when you when you speak it if you just change that instead of I have to do those change it to but she said I want to do this or I get to do this and sounds crazy I know but if you start trying this you will be amazed and I remember mr. how it came into our class one day and he said if anybody any in the classroom seen the movie the secret and I thought yeah seen that movie that’s a bunch of hogwash and that’s just silly as dr. Phil would say that’s just a bunch of gobbledygook and that’s what I thought of it and then he talked about it with a lot of passion and I had it on a disc and i went back and i watched it again then I watched it one more time than I had it was like aha this is what they’re talking about in class and everything in the class is that scientific proof to back everything up about what we say how we think and when they tested people that would go through their sports routine before they would do it how their muscles would fire off certain I don’t know what you would call it you probably know medical terms there the parts of their brain would fire signals to their muscles as if they were hosted in their head and their body actually thought they had done it and just all the things that I that I that I got from your class I was able to from the class that your husband put together I was able to apply to my other classes and I graduated I made straight A’s I did not make straight a’s I made seas and all of that in junior high school in high school and I really thought I was stupid my mother did drop me on my head when I was little and she told me about that and I really thought I had brain damage I did that’s as long as I can hooray for Hollywood that I don’t have anything to worry about and then when I went to college I was terrified I’m stupid what am I gonna do I’m almost 50 years old I was absolutely terrified and this class gave me the courage to do things that I never thought I would be able to do excuse me and I’m still learning that you don’t just take the class one one time you keep that book like you said keep it with you I gave my book away just for someone to read and I didn’t get it back and I started falling away and then when thank you so much itano for sending me another one I started going through the book again and I listen to the cds I can’t tell you how many times in the car I’ve listened to Lou and I have slept with your husband so many times I still do I put this yet bent on and I go to sleep listening to him talk to me and it makes a difference and how my next day starts and that so thank you so much and City College thank you got your place thank you we know that hi everyone my name is Natasha Darius and I just want to say thank you to her you know your husband and dr. pace and this class dr. rhadigan remembers has such an attitude okay what I registered for my classes was summer term of 2012 and I look at my schedule hell my personal development I’m grown I’ve lived a little bit I’ve been through life I don’t look it but I have and I like what what is this so I went to actually try to get the class dropped and it just was not happening so I was like I I’ll embrace it so I went into class with you know my arms crossed in

my head and I was friendly to everybody and I walked in there and dr. ride again started to class and she um ran the video and mr. ties was talking about scotoma is like what is that a bad itch you know and he started explaining and I was like oh this actually might not be so bad you know and basically to make a long story short mrs. ties this class was such a blessing to me one of the things so many things stick out but one of the things that really stick out for me is how I write my goals how you write your goals for the future in the present tense and I’ve already always been a person who sees myself already there dr Ratigan knows and you know now I also find out that when you already see yourself there and you write them down you write down your goals of your future in the present and you believe that and you embrace it your peers do too so as I stand here I’m a radio personality y’all may not know it but I and my my peers anybody sees me on campus they know what’s up so you know when you believe that people around you and keep positive people around you they believe it too so I just want to say thank you so much thank you to see college this is like I love my city college family anybody has ever come to the fore title campus Natasha Nicole and WCC eyes when it’s happening so uh hello sorry I’m nervous I’m just going to start with what I tried to write nothing is impossible the word itself says i’m possible audrey hepburn i remember one day my mom telling me a story um first of all came from school learning about scotoma zand all of the stuff that I was blinded with I am haitian-american so you can until I’ve been bombarded with a lot of different stories and mr. ty stop he he opened my eyes and my mom after learning that I could have probably been implanted with different ideologies that really don’t face with my goal in life I went back to my mother we were having that discussion and I said what did you do to me as a young child and she’s like what do you mean I said well I just came from this program and it’s saying that the way I view myself is because of whoever’s raised me and as that child so what did you guys do to me so that I couldn’t know why I need to go from here so so now she she explained to me about my birth I was pronounced dead I don’t even know this sounds like what I was dead and she says yeah the doctor pronounced you dead but I said you know what my first son there’s no way God would have to go to nine months and he’s dying so the doctor gave her 30 minutes 30 minutes I appeared so I am possible I’m here success so once i got that story i started thinking about everything prior to that and I started realizing the gift that I was given to live I was destroying it and the reason being i was a straight-a student and elementary straight edge there in middle school come around high school girls started getting into my head yeah I couldn’t figure myself out I don’t know what was right you know you start watching the music video so you want to be like these guys because they have so a lot of that stuff happened and I allowed it to control me and my actions not me actually controlling the actions as dr. Tice says so I fast forward to the present moment thank you dr. Radigan I was somebody that a lot of time we think prejudice prejudging is is it love is it it pertains to a certain group of people it pertains to everyone and I was prejudiced because of the way I was raised I was always told that you can’t do this so I would always look at the weaker people and think something was wrong with them and you know I was a straight-a student so real life started happening and it let me see it on the

side that look it’s not anyone’s fault it’s it’s just personal you know the more you think of yourself is this way there’s something that’s going to happen to challenge you and you just have if you think you’re the best you’re going to be challenged to be the best you think your loser guess what you always be challenged to be a loser so just be ready and as I saw dr. Ratigan’s name I didn’t even want to go to City College because my family teaches me that City Colleges and private schools they’re no good they’re just taking your money yeah I said no no it’s all about the students as long as the students want to be something I think schools end up you know hey Harvard it was one guy that decided he wanted to build a school of it now it’s however you know so let’s do the same thing here and I and I and I stuck it through my family hates me for it but I stuck it through and one of my visions was actually the stand in front and speak to people in Wow dr. Tice he says believe I honestly dr. Ratigan again going back to the story I saw her name when I said oh because I listened to Deepak Chopra and I said dr. Radigan okay these guys are probably gonna do some spiritual stuff for well I don’t want to go into spirituality okay then they start talking about everything and he really gives you a mirror view you know I had drugs no offense to anybody but for me it wasn’t working for me because especially as a business consider I couldn’t I am a CEO of my own company I can say that now because of dr. Tice and he gave me the strength to know that hey if you believe in something the things that come into your mind as long as they’re positive you speak them out into existence they were working what we call magic in the outside world and I believe in everything that I can do I now manage a celebrity chef Ron Duprat he was on Bravo he was on spike TV we’re working on creating a show for the cooking channel and honestly this is all stuff recently happening because of dr. Tice dr. Radigan city college and just believing in the mission I also represent a recording artist and the funny thing about the recording artist the reason I took on the recording artist because it’s hip-hop and we know hip-hop right now never has a positive image and the angle I’ve taken on with this young man is let’s represent nonprofit organizations because they need the facelift they need people to show them the love just like Coca Cola’s just like Pepsi has let’s go ahead and do something for breast cancer awareness let’s do something for March of Dimes let’s do these people are just as big as any one of these corporations so a lot of what I do is about instead of people just doing things for money let’s do it for the self dr. Todd’s help me be able to find myself and all I want to do is help everybody else find themselves in this program if you take it serious it’ll seriously help you and it seriously over me to be able to provide for my family which I was unable to do before and in a Haitian family if the man can provide you’re a loser and I couldn’t stand to hear it constantly constantly so I had to go do something my son was born he’s only one but that one year I’ve done tremendous things just believing and I thank you and your husband for starting something like that to give somebody like me an opportunity to make a difference in the world and for my people and I’ll leave with a quote I don’t know if I’m gonna say right John F Kennedy not what I want to do for myself but what can I do for everyone else thank the job whoa standing ovation look at that well what we do now is take questions from the audience ask these students and questions anything come to you you’d like to ask now I know they stun you didn’t they you see your students and these students Justin hi everybody my name is Justin I’m from Asher college in sacramento california I don’t really have a question I just have a comment and I want you guys to know and I’m sure the good folks at city would agree that not only does this program change your life but watching you guys go through this it changes our life too and it has a big impact every year I’ve been lucky enough to get to come to these kind of things and see you guys do this and just wow it knocks my socks off I get to do career services where I’m from and I know that each and every one of you has a different story and I just wanted to

say congratulations I would like to piggyback on what you’re saying you stood up a new clap for us but it’s not us it’s actually you guys it’s the developers who made it this vision come true mr. Tice mrs. tice their instructors the college it’s because of you so we should be standing up and giving you guys again all right thank you let’s see why the city folks all the city folks stand up it’s just get an idea here what do you think any city folks comments questions thoughts here we go by the way well we’re going over there City College is one of the only colleges i know that teaches an accredited degree course in p.i private investigator really cool and on also broadcasting radio and broad cat really you know yeah cool stuff yeah Matthew ran from city college Miami and first thing I want to say I’m so proud of all of you but my three Miami students I’m extremely proud of you there we go David my Miami students can major vanessa rodriguez that Wanda McDaniels and I am so proud of you guys you guys did such a wonderful all of you all of you guys did such a wonderful job and I’m not from education I’m a protocol psychologist I’ve been to a mental health and substance abuse for 14 years this is my third year as a director of education and I know that sometimes they’re wondering hmm did we make the right choice but what I’ve always said from the very beginning is this is why we do what we do and you know I think it was you is your name Jason Justin you said non-traditional students that’s a term that i agree with you one hundred percent our students are students it doesn’t matter what what they are they’re just like you and me all of our students they’re just like you and me we all have different coping skills and we make different decisions but they’re just like you and me and one of the things i tell my campus my staff my students if you set the bar up here i guarantee you nine times out of ten your students will meet you right here if you set the bar right here i guarantee you nine times out of ten they will meet you right here so every single day i encourage our staff encourage me to set the bar right here and we do that I tell you what our students meet that every single time you know and that’s what’s so amazing to see they don’t all have to make straight a’s because God knows I didn’t all right but they succeed and that’s what’s so awesome about this and this program I also haven’t taught this program I’ve been through this but I was telling my my department chair here I can’t wait to go back and teach this you know because this is my first conference and I’ve been with you dr. pace before and stuff like that but this was really great to see what all the different schools use this program for and so many different schools do it differently but the result is the same is a successful student and you know what that’s got to make you just light up and I know that mr. mr Tice mrs. tice he’s looking down on us saying oh this is awesome this is awesome and so I just want to say I’m so extremely proud of you guys and I thank you so much for this and obviously city college you know dr. pace and mrs. um um mrs. tice was his Tyson sorry I just wanted to say one thing City College dog mrs. Howard dr Abraham mr. Cayley all of our administrators they are one hundred percent open-door policy they talk to us about the same all you can tell that they’ve all had this class before they’ve gone they’ve studied it because I remember talking to mrs. mrs. Howard one day in her office and she was talking we were talking and she said yes and she you know corrected she was I was talking about the I times V equals R and she was the one that gave me and I was like really you know this and she’s like yes you know everybody knows and has

studied this book and patterns of development and I just you know I think that it’s a good run i think that that’s one thing that city college does do they also practice what you guys have taught them and when they talk to us they’re very positive and they’re very motivated and they always have an open door i can go in that office anytime i say can I come and see you take kaylee can i come i see you dr. abraham can I come and see you is how is sure come on in especially they’re not doing anything so it is very very very good and we thank you also for all that you’ve done for us thank I got tourniquet from City College I’m like they’ve mentioned that more the instructors there at City College for larger who teaches the person development class and Matthew I said teach it every Friday morning so don’t be jealous and I do love it I’m going to the class at the big other term you just see a difference at the end from the students coming and I’m sure you guys can agree with me you just see a huge difference in the way they are coming in to how they leave after 11 weeks and for the students who are here represent for larger campus I just want to say thank you my axe you guys to come and speak he had no hesitation you excited about it you got right in you were very you know energetic about it and I just really want to say thank you and you did an awesome awesome job thanks i would like to add on for me normally i would not come up to speak but because ras reticular activating system when she came with it I said oh my god this was in my head so I have to say yeah so so I had to go with the flu and that’s the free-flowing thing where how did you go and speaking up I I was just being myself good and just trying to succeed so it’s again dr. Radigan you’re a great teacher you you you teach from the heart and that’s what kind of helped it for me you know the students laughed at me when I said I look at trees to relax you know and you you kept the class going and it was like okay yeah but it let me know okay we’re different you know the world is everybody all planets life is just different we all fit in some way but thank you Thank You City College for taking me in as a student a business student they tried to change the subject but I stayed on the course so thank you and I respect everything that you guys are doing here giving us this opportunity to even emancipate why don’t you you know what impresses me the most is how much how they know the curriculum so well and how they articulate it and how you practice it every day let me ask you this these folks teach this course around the country round the world their administrators do you have a you have any messages for them on how they can help their students even get better um my thing that helped me get through City College not only was the class but I can edit I’m pretty sure all campuses are probably the same but our campus is the wharf and the teachers also in the directors that you know they’re so open door and at the same time like I for me miss marty was like a big thing in my life also because she like a role model in my life sorry because she was like if you wasn’t in class she would text you you’re not in class you know and she would kill you like show you that she actually cared that you came to class Ilya market are you talking about worried she miss Martino she’s not here she’s off but oh yeah ok but you know a lot of the teachers you know they would do that like you know and that show that you actually cared whether i was there or not you know cuz some some schools not you know some of them they don’t really care if you show up or not you know and that was like a main thing to like gosh like you better cuz what were you at you know ms Martino you know whatever you want to go you think i’ll text you they go no you better get to class oh did you in didn’t elect someone that was in class same thing you know like let’s save it was a friend if they knew you liked did you talk to such a such thing why are you here what do they need a ride they could’ve got a ride with everybody you know i was like no excuse so that also makes students you know want to come to class because you know the teacher shows and you know the directors and everybody showed that you know they actually care about you as a person then you just being like you know a great or you know just a number excellent also a lot of instructors tend to and you can probably agree with me on this there’s been many times you’ve been in a class where

you’ve been taught to even talk to which haven’t really engaged in the been engaged in the class and I tell you dr white and dr. Radigan being in both their classes it was almost just like a just a fun time every single time because they were so engaging with the students everything was a discussion and yeah there’s a little you know vocabulary tests every time but it was if facilitation it was getting down here everybody you know look at this card and see do you see no woman do you see a young woman and and and really getting down um it really engaged a lot of the students that would normally sit in there and just you know be texting the entire time or be sitting there and have the scotoma zup and not be listening to what they need to do by the end of the class there was a distinct difference then from the students at the very beginning the people that were normally recalcitrant anat participate started engaging more I got told to shut up many times because I and it was just very interested it was just a lot of fun and I did want to not forget you back there dr. why you you teach a very excellent class as well being in there with you and also being in there with dr. Ratigan and are many different hairstyles I I really loved it a lot dr. white stand up because you you did a great presentation yesterday for us so so they need some more lessons from you I would tell them what to do I would say um I don’t know how the other schools do it but at City College person development is pretty much the first class and if you apply to you your class or your college being the first class attrition I mean we believe that we can make it and that’s the classes that’s what the class is teaching us that we can make it we were persistent affirmations not allowing things to block us from coming to school so it keeps the student in school so if you apply to as actually one of the first classes that you teach and the student gets into it maybe it benefits you more having that class how do you how do you handle it when just about every one of you said when you first heard you had to take this course that you push back like oh come on what is this touchy-feely huggy what is this right yeah I’m already grown I don’t know you know we teach this to CEOs of Fortune 500 companies we teach the presidents of countries and so forth but I just want to hear what what how long did it take you before you saw it or you said i’m in i know for me i because i was still you know like right here let’s say about maybe the third weekend third week yes we were talking i’m in one time of virginia college we were talking that it probably took to unit three or five before is that what some of you are finding but you got to put up with that pain to get them there right that that first that what’s the word I want getting them to persist to hang in there and so forth but any other thoughts on then about the third week the third weekend I would say one thing about this class and he made a very good point it’s very important to for it to be the first class of that first quote motion you do that right first class okay because it sets two tone for everything else afterwards like building a house right with absolutely it’s a great foundation yeah and not only does it prepare you like professionally but it also forces you to look at some personal things in your own life for me it forced me to look at some things that I didn’t want to admit to myself by myself yes so that’s one of the things i could really appreciate about this course excellent any other lessons for us yeah I kind of piggyback if I think the the teachers treat it because i think it’s dr Radigan is like a psychology type of individual I think it is a psychology class in its essence because if you allow the students to speak on behalf what the issue is say if you bring a question on what do you think this means and we all have been raised to be a certain way to be good so I think we all know the writing from wrong and if we if a teacher allows a student to answer the questions to answer the problems the situation realization starts to happen with me I the way erratic dr. rhadigan did it she let everybody have their opinions and a lot of you are weird but at the end of the day she’s me that we were quite a bit today oh and I think through that that’s what helped everybody else like wow I think I have a lot of messed up thoughts so we all started really connecting right you know what don’t think let’s go this unison so if you let us kind of say you facilitate it and we learn and we teach it to ourselves within the unit you know group group activities we learn a lot from each other that way you have to discover it and see it yourself right and when

you see it through your own eyes from your backgrounds and so that’s when you get it that’s what that’s that aha moment yeah because that’s where the facilitators caused that to happen what else anymore or lessons for us um for me um basically that class I did take it in my first semester so that’s what helped me because if I I know if I didn’t have it I probably would have said I’ll forget this I can’t do this it’s working full-time going to school full time or I have kids it’s too hard I would have just said forget all about it but that gave me you know built my self-esteem build my self talk the way I thought about stuff it made me think more positive you know stop seeing the negative stuff and push myself you know to continue on cuz I said you know what I know I can do it and even now like I still use it you know because you have your bumps and curves in the road but you know you get through it and even with my kids cuz I have for now because of my twins I you know it might my four-year-old sometimes she would say like mommy I can’t do it I’m like don’t say that yes you can if you say and you believe it you can’t do it and this is what I teach them so I use what I’ve learned for my kids I teach them you know to think positive all the time whenever I hear them say something negative I’m like don’t you ever say that because you could always anything you put your mind to you can do it yeah you’re um I don’t remember now because after two days but the word was used earlier you’re rewriting your stories and it’s going to affect your children and your children’s children it’s just a way of thinking and we used to think it was just you know genetic you know the lucky gene club that you were born into but it’s really not it’s the way you think and city college and all these other colleges allow students to have that knowledge right up front and that awareness but but it’s I read somewhere less than three percent of the population of the world actually knows and applies this stuff I mean the three percenters so so as you pass this on to generation the generation you’re rewriting your whole family tree your whole family’s story changing lives and that’s really what this information does yeah I just want to let you know you have you have all of us here too or there’s a lot of Pacific inst to people here dr. Scott myself Mike Seaford Jamaat Kenley so we’re all this thing and then we and then you have mrs. tice so keep going I wanted to say I’m sorry I do want to have a comment and a question and I mean I love what you got to say that this is a fantastic is beautiful is great it’s like you have a hand-picked just to show us the perfection that the program is I mean it’s totally cool my question is that it seemed like many of you two took this course early in your act make career if that’s the case how did it get you through it specifically how did it get you through those rough times when things just aren’t working the way you want them to work how did what you learn so long ago get you to push you through that that’s what I think I would love to know like you uh as far as for me I live in a part of broward county that’s like I live in parkland and City Colleges is far and I don’t have a vehicle so i have to catch the bus around in those i have to catch the bus around like six o’clock in the morning and it never gets there because I guess they assume people from parkland don’t catch the bus but I do so so I have to wait for the bus it gets here around eight thirty and I have to go back to the principles around that time because if I start oh my gosh panicking the type of person that I would be is like you know what there’s no point the best is coming late i’ll turn around which i used to do how walk into dr. Ratigan’s class after the the first half of break and people are Oh deadly deadly and I wouldn’t let that affect my learning because I say you know what I have two be here I have to do this I have to do this I have to do this it would be easier for me to just sit in my bed look at my son and then in the future not be able to do for him so I know one thing dr. ty says is what you do now later it will just keep on going so I have to school is one of the process I have to get up so I use that process and don’t let what you see in front of you happening dictate that future go to school the bus is not here wait for it when it comes get on then when you get off walk there the rest of the way if they tell you to go turn around and go but if this is sit down have a seat so I know I was always defeating myself before and I don’t do that anymore now with the principles I’m for your question for me because I took that class in 2009 because I’ve already

graduated and I’m working now at City College for me I said it benefited me because at that time it was like right on time cuz I was going through a whole lot and that’s what kept me focused because it made me change my way of thinking instead of thinking negative and just like how he said like sometimes I would be so exhausted from staying up late you know studying taking care of babies you know getting up early singing school stuff like that sometimes I will be running late I said you know what still gonna go because you know you have a goal that you want to succeed and you’re not going to say no I’m going to go back home cuz sometimes that’s what students do like oh wait man is what not girl anymore might as well go back home and stay home because you’re late I’m like I don’t know what you know what that’s plenty times where I was late and then my goal was you know what imma start waking up earlier I’m a start it’s basically yourself talk I’m gonna start waking up earlier start doing what I need to do so I can get there on time that way i want everybody looking at me crazy and i walk in the classrooms and 30 minutes late you know so basically it’s the self-talk that kept me going and my goals that I you know visualize for myself the things that I learned like not letting the Sequoias all the stuff everything that I learned in that class was a benefit for me because that’s what got me to where I’m at now because if I didn’t have the class and honestly I wouldn’t be able to even say if I would have gotten to this point because that was a turning point in my life and I had a lot of goals for my cell phone so after I got that class and I started writing down positive stuff about myself we’re moving the negatives not listening to negative stuff that people say because you’re wrong and negative people all the time even in the class there will you be students I’d be like man I gotta catch the Bunsen man I’m tired you know like I don’t want to get on the bus and this and you know I can’t come to school tomorrow cause I got to go to work or you know um you know I gotta go to work so imma be too tired so I’m like I’m a missed class tomorrow you know and because of what I learned in class after my second third semester I started telling them the positive stuff like you know you shouldn’t do that you know if you really want this for yourself you need to make it here you know you need to do this you need to do that so honestly that class did it for me like it helped me to now and so that’s why i was able to do what I need to do and I’m still reaching for my goals and still I’m teaching it to my kids you know and I’m going back to school in august for my bachelor’s in criminal justice so I’m still striving you know the class is a good class go ahead last comment did I hear right but there’s going to be a like a part 20 we have yeah we have we have is a part two in the middle and we have a one called gainful employment or helps you get jobs and you know you’re thinking and all that yes that’s wonderful I took the class at the end of my two years and I remember as I took it i thought i wish i had taken this at the beginning if i had known then what i knew now because I was so afraid and that’s one of the first things you learn is it’s okay to be afraid it’s not it’s not okay just a afraid Wow and I wish that I had learned sounds like glue in the beginning well thats what hes yeah and I’m was just thinking it would be wonderful to take the class at the beginning and then have part two just before you graduate see then yeah bookended know that city come back and take that I want to come back and take part 2 if you do it I welcome back I can take part I wanted to try to answer your question when you say how do we work with it in our life what to me how it’s done is that when they first start the class is broken down with the chapters each chapter gives like a little step and it can start you out like the scotoma they tell you about your brain about it even talks about your subconscious thoughts that you don’t even think that you’re doing but you’re actually doing it and then it goes into the the affirmations it goes into and and then when the goals and you start writing your goals down you start with the short term goals and once you see yourself doing your short-term goals you do your long-term your your middle goal or you know like a five a four year or three year and then you do the and you go on so forth so you see yourself going through it but with the meat of it is to me um how i would apply it every day is you it develops you you grow you mature from this is like things that you were doing that you really didn’t see yourself doing subconsciously it brings that to the forefront of your mind and you realize that you know what I’ve been really immature about this I’m really I mean it does it that’s why you know it seems like it’s kind of hard like we’re all saying the same thing over and over again but really that’s what it is it’s like you each you have each time you come up with a problem you have to go to the core of it find out what is it the problem the problem that you’re dealing with and then you try to

see how you can deal around it or you can deal with it and then make goals on it you know because you can’t when you have death I’ve had three deaths in my family since I’ve been in college you know they were very close you know the stepmother it was a mother-in-law and then it was uh was all cousin so the thing about it is you know it’s sometimes hard to go to school when you have these deaths going and it’s very frustrating it’s very hurtful but you know you said yourself yes you’re positive thinking my mother-in-law would have want me to finish this such and such as such I mean it’s just something that’s ongoing like most things that are positive and you just try just to look at the positive point of it and all because ever there are so many things in the book that you could go back and you can look at but the things that stand out to you and and that we’re arm most important to help you change I continue to use those things to deal with life each day you know even a problem at work that you might be having it helps you to grow up and mature and mature in ways that you might not even thought that you need to change in it did you have a question yeah recognize more of an observation than a question um thank you all for coming in today and sharing your stories with us but most of all I heard several view when you came in so you’re stepping out of your comfort zone and getting up in front of people was really terrifying for you and now I’m sitting here watching you reach for the microphone answer every passenger so thank you for not only sharing your stories with us but showing us that it works right in front of our eyes that’s just absolutely amazing to me so thank you all very very much add one thing sure if this could be more mainstream first voyage children like if they could take a course like this in elementary fifth grader you know we were talking about yeah yeah it would definitely change things you know completely in society it’s because I feel cheated that I didn’t have this in high school I would have had this i lost 14 years you know no making babies and cleaning houses and yeah i should have been doing something with myself we got to get better so we got to get better definitely if something needs to be done to teach children all these you know skills I’m gonna turn over to mrs. Tyson we do have a teacher education program and then for grade school the lesson plans for the teachers and we’re doing a cartoon for the preschoolers we do on our retail website do have support for parents to be able to implement it with their children so there’s some other useful tools that we try to reach all grade levels and it’s a continuous upward but yes we do any comments for these students diana anything you want to tell them well i just like to say it’s it’s we’re so often like Santa Claus who leaves presents under the tree and goes away and never gets to watch people open them and see the joy on their face and see them play with the toys or use their computers or whatever but for me to be able to come and not only see the wonderful instructors that have helped facilitate this program but to see the students and see the results because it’s changing for the rest of your life it really makes me proud and and so it’s been my privilege to come and listen to you and I hope to keep up with all your good successes in the future you’re all going to make it that’s good you have already nice going you know I’m city you do a great job I need to tell you that my oldest grandson is a student at City College Hollywood taking the first responder I think that’s what it’s called first responder course and Sharon and I my wife and I are just amazed that this kid how he’s grown and how he went to college up in Orlando for a while but the personal attention and and everything that’s given by city college so we personally thank you too for all all your good work because he’s doing really well and he loves going on those up he gets to ride with the what is it different right oh my god 12 hour days and he’s the rookie and they send him and he comes home and he sits with me and he says pop I gotta tell you what I did today and he would tell me the whole story but he didn’t like he found it difficult anatomy and physiology and so I said that all I said to him was Nick if you don’t learn that you could kill somebody one day and they look on his face you know so puts getting 89s 90s up whatever it takes you know but that’s true isn’t it he has to know these things so I hope my wife and I Sharon personally thank City for all that you’re even doing for my grandson Nicholas final comments you guys stole the show again so let’s give them another round of applause you

One Year of COVID-19: How Women Across the World are Coping, Managing, and Resisting COVID-19

Alright, can I start now? Thank you Dave for the music Namaste! We acknowledge the Tutelo/Monacan people, who are the traditional custodians of the land on which we work and live, and recognize their continuing connection to the land, water, and air that Virginia Tech consumes We pay respect to the Tutelo/Monacan Nations, and to their elders past, present, and emerging Welcome to our webinar “One year of COVID-19 how women across the world are coping managing and resisting COVID-19” Namaste! My name is Dr. Sweta Baniya and I am an Assistant Professor of Rhetoric, Professional and Technical Writing at Virginia Tech University. As the chair and organizer of this program, thank you everyone for joining us today from multiple time zones and countries across the globe. If you have any technical difficulties, please contact Dave Schuh and Xuqing Wang whose contact information are on the emails we sent out earlier today. Please feel free to drop questions anytime by using Q/A feature, we will take questions at the end This event will be recorded and for accessibility purposes we have closed captions available. If you are live Tweeting this event please use our hashtag #COVIDSHEROS Let’s take a moment to remember lives of hundreds of thousands of people around the globe whom we have lost due to this virus, millions who are fighting against this virus, and all the first responders as well as immigrant first responders who haven’t stopped since the pandemic began last December Let’s not forget those who have lost their lives to police brutality, caste discrimination, and gender-based violence! #NavarajBK, #SamjhanaBk #NirmalaPanta, (NEPAL) #RosimarRodríguez, #MichelleRamosVargas (PUERTO RICO) #UwaveraOmozuwa, #TinaEzekewe (NIGERIA) #GeorgeFloyd #BreonnaTaylor #RashadBrooks (USA) and many more This month marks a year of Covid-19 pandemic which has challenged human civilization and our lives in a way we have never seen before. Like any other disasters, in this global pandemic the role of women in crisis response has been completely ignored We see interviews, feature stories, and news of many male heros and rarely female. Hence, breaking the stereotypical only male heroic narrative, this transdisciplinary feminist collaborative panel features scholars and practitioners from Puerto Rico, Nepal, and Nigeria representing the Americas, Asia, and Africa. The speakers will present on their feminist research and feminist praxis of the community work during disasters including the global pandemic We dedicate today’s webinar to all the #Sheros who are continually coping, resisting, and managing the consequences of #COVID19 I would like to thank the College of Liberal Arts and Human Sciences at Virginia Tech for providing me with the International Initiative Small Grants to organize this global transdisciplinary feminist event. Likewise, I would like to acknowledge the Dean of our college, Dr. Laura Belmonte and her continuous push towards transdisciplinary research, teaching and practice which helped me envision this program And, without Associate Dean Dr. Farida Jalalzai’s Global Engagement Initiative and support by the chair of my Department Dr. Rebecca Weaver-Hightower, this event, this event wouldn’t be possible It is my honor to present three outstanding panelist whose research, teaching, and practice has inspired me! 1) Dr. Ricia Chansky, Professor in the Department of English at University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez 2) Dr. Neeti Aryal Khanal, Lecturer in the Department of Sociology at Tribhuvan University, Nepal 3) Ms. Tosin Akibu, Program Manager at the UN-Women, Nigeria Lastly, I would like to introduce the respondent of the panel, my mentor and colleague and an amazing scholar Dr Sheila Carter-Tod, Associate Professor at the Department of English, Virginia Tech

Thank you very much, Sweta, both for that very nice introduction and for arranging this panel I am also grateful to Virginia Tech for hosting us today. And I’m very grateful to be on such a panel with such esteemed colleagues. Thank you very much. I hope you’ll bear with me as I navigate technology and do somewhat different things here in there than I’m used to. And I hope you’ll also bear with me, this is an emotional presentation for me as it is every time I talk about women in disaster, and I hope you’ll grant me your patience as I talk about some difficult issues On my presentation today, I want to talk about decolonial eating I want to talk about first, what are some of the colonial contexts of Puerto Rico that are both historic and contemporary? And how do they impact food and eating in Puerto Rico, especially in terms of food insecurity. And the idea of food insecurity is when we have groups of people who cannot access the nutritional and quality food that they need to survive? I want to focus in on up what happened during Hurricane Maria when Hurricane Maria struck in September of 2017. What did it reveal in the sense of some of the failures of food security that we have in Puerto Rico? And I want to highlight what are some of the community based groups that either sprang up or adapted themselves to new needs, and I will focus on women led community based projects of which there are many. I want to talk about how have these community based projects that sprang up in the aftermath of the hurricane, adapted themselves change themselves and grown for the new needs of the time of COVID-19? What does this mean both for Puerto Rico and for other areas in terms of how we can think about facing food insecurity in areas that are impacted by disaster? And then finally, I’ll finish up with a thought about how we can think through those as an act of feminist rhetoric. And so I’m, I’m moving towards sweater it’s very important question about the year of COVID-19 by for grounding it in the layers of colonialism and disaster that Puerto Rico has been facing over the years Um, Puerto Rico is a twice colonized space. And we can look first at Spanish colonization of Puerto Rico and the Americas. Christopher Columbus landed in Puerto Rico in 1493. On the second of his journeys, he these were spaces that were already inhabited, they were inhabited by a tiny no and our walk indigenous peoples. Christopher Columbus writes throughout his journals that he met people who were the kindest, most gentle, most docile people, and he wrote that they would be perfect for servitude and enslavement around 1500. We don’t have an exact date for that But around 1500, King Ferdinand wrote a letter to the Taino and the rock indigenous peoples, stating that he now owned all of their lands, and they were now automatically Christian there And they’re a life’s job was now in servitude to the crown. And he ended that letter by saying, if you do not agree with this, we the crown will kill you. And so this is the frame work in which contemporary histories of the Caribbean Sorry, that was my cat jumping up to get a better view of our meeting today. And so this is the context and within approximately two decades, the indigenous population was decimated, and King Ferdinand legalize the transatlantic slave trade in Puerto Rico and legalized the owning of other humans, predominantly for the support of plantation culture and a sugar economy And I’m compressing here out of necessity. So please bear in mind that this is a compressed version of this moment in history. In the 1780s, the new nation of the United States started to think about building a new

And needed a naval stronghold. And so the United States turned its attention to the Caribbean and tries to purchase or to annex a space in the Caribbean for the Navy. However, the United States is also looking at the thriving sugar economy and plantation culture and wanting to somehow control that wealth that’s based in agriculture. Um, in 1819 1898, the United States wins the Spanish American War and annexes Puerto Rico as part of that, in 1917 the Jones Act is signed and Puerto Ricans become US citizens. However, they become non voting US citizens who do not have voting representation in the United States Congress. This date coincides However, with world war one and m 236,000 Puerto Ricans registered to be drafted in World War One. I want to skip ahead again, and again, I’m sorry for compressing so many things But I want you to have a context of where we are today. In 2006, incentives that had been in place to bring industry to Puerto Rico were ended and a great deal of industry left Puerto Rico, um, do in response to this, the Puerto Rican government created a body known as cofina that started generating a number of bonds, which was borrowing funds that were unable to be paid back in order to meet that loss of revenue. Louise Fortunato in 2009. Signs last seven that is meant to curb government spending. But what it does is it cuts social welfare programs for women and children who smoke laying a foundation for the humanitarian crisis that we are in today By 2014. Governor Garcia pardon podia declares that the debt from these bonds is unpayable may 2017. President Obama signed promesa into law, it allows Puerto Rico to file for bankruptcy But it also allows this externally appointed governing fiscally governing board to control what is spent, and this board enact severe austerity measures. This is where we are in May of 2017 And I want us to think a little bit here about what does this mean in terms of food and eating, agriculture and food production are tied into colonization from the moment that the Spanish crown asserts dominance in the Caribbean Racial and Ethnic injustice in Puerto Rico, indigenous, Afro diasporic and Latina acts are linked to food insecurity over hundreds of years. capitalism and food security are not compatible. As programs designed to distribute food to vulnerable communities are often the first to be cut from a budget that has to be balanced colonialism impacts all aspects of food production and distribution. And so this is where we are in September of 2017, when Hurricane Maria batters Puerto Rico, and we have a strange meteorological phenomenon that happens in that hurricane Jose comes to the area before hurricane Maria, and hurricane Jose pacified but it’s stalled off the Mid Atlantic region of the United States because of a low pressure system. So every time he tries to leave, she meets this low pressure system from Jose and comes back. And so we have approximately 30 hours of this hurricane stalled over Puerto Rico And the other thing is that hurricane Maria arrived literally two weeks after Hurricane Irma. So hurricane Irma hit predominantly the eastern side of Puerto Rico but also damages Florida quite heavily. And so in response to Hurricane Maria on the campus of the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez, I began a project called Maria, Puerto Rico after the hurricane. This is a classroom based project and a colleague and myself trained approximately 100 undergraduate students in the ethical collection, transcription, translation, editing and dissemination of oral histories of disaster And this is what has kind of started my interest in disaster studies to think about how I can serve the needs of students who are survivors in the classroom by helping them become a gentle

in their home communities and take action With a a way to address what has happened, we designed a i’d signed a two semester course one that collected oral histories and then one that responded to the issues present in those oral histories. We now have a body of approximately 150 oral histories. And when I sat down to read them as a grouping, I saw that the Polly vocal narrative of Hurricane Maria in Puerto Rico was a narrative of community responses to disaster, especially when governmental systems that are put in place to help people post disaster failed, or did not succeed to the level as expected This is a heroic body of text to say the least It within that community response to disaster, we’re seeing that there are four main areas that people are talking about again, and again, in their oral histories. They’re talking about the lack of access to potable water to clean drinking water, the lack of access to food, and that’s both agriculture, the farms that were destroyed in the hurricane. That’s both important food. Over 80% of the food consumed in Puerto Rico is important It is imported through ports in Florida that were impacted by Hurricane Irma two weeks before hurricane Maria. And then we’re looking also at communal kitchens, the rise of mutual aid communal kitchens after the hurricane We also saw extreme concerns about homelessness, and we’re breaking homelessness down into two areas house lessness I lost my house, but then also homelessness in the sense of how do we define the nation as hosts and what happens when the systems that the nation or the government have in place to help us after disaster fail? And we can’t see what how we belong to that community group. And so what are we doing now we’re currently thinking through this idea that the aftermath of this detrimental hurricane is very similar to some of the needs that are happening during this time of COVID-19 And we’re trying to understand how the two are connected, and how they inform each other. And I just want to share with you a quote that one of our narrators shared with us and this is Vivian Miranda Rodriguez, who on October 9 began delivering food to communities in Moscow and Maya was that were flooded by the Rio Grande Bay and the storm surge from the ocean She says, I’ll never forget one woman who was home with her two children The neighborhood where this woman lived was between two bodies of water, the Bay of my glass and the mouth of the Rio Grande day. Everybody was flooded there. And it was still full of water We were outside of the house at the front gate. Both my boys were standing beside me The woman was about my height. She had dark brown hair element eyes, light elements skin She looked a lot like me I asked, Have you had lunch? The woman said no. But we were about to eat some pickle Gow is the crispy, almost burnt rice at the bottom of the pot We gave her sandwiches and she started to cry She couldn’t stop hugging me. And my boys started crying too. Because it was a human moment. Mother to mother and her kids were just so happy because they were going to eat A Vivian’s narrative continues and she says the majority of the people I spoke with hadn’t seen any official help. Not FEMA, not the municipality, not a military And FEMA is the Federal Emergency Management Agency in the United States And so these, Vivian is one example of multiple stories that we recorded in which lack of food and lack of access to food

played a dominant role in the narrative. And she is one of many people who were community members who are not affiliated with an aid organization who stood up and said, What can I do to feed others. And this is the space that becomes extremely interesting to me. So after Hurricane Maria 80% of the food in Puerto Rico that is imported reports in Florida could not arrive and could not arrive for months, the majority of farms in Puerto Rico or destroyed and the systems to distribute the food failed. They failed because of closed roads. They failed because of lack of gasoline for trucks and other vehicles to carry the food. They failed because people homes and stores in which neighborhoods would turn to to receive food and goods were destroyed And the picture that I’m showing you here is a warehouse that I and my team of students uncovered in auto cebo, which is on the northern coast of Puerto Rico. we uncovered this warehouse in March of 2019. It is a former grocery store that is piled high with relief supplies for the hurricane for victims of the hurricane. And these materials were sent in October of 2017. So they remain on distributed. There were two mash units mobile hospital units, there were four community sized water filtration centers, along with the boxes upon boxes of food, medical supplies, feminine hygiene products that you can see here And this is not the only a warehouse that has been and so I’m sharing with you a list of some of the women led community based organizations that either began after the hurricane or adapted the work that they were doing for the specific needs of the harking regada solidaria dealt with de casa Pueblo from dasun Casa Cortez Fondazione colibra as departamento de la comida, Ella Coulson Cersei and comically here comically here is the one that I want to focus on as an example, I’m going to tell you a little bit about what comically hjelle did after the hurricane but and what they are doing during the time of COVID. But I’m using it as a single example of the way in which women are leading community based groups to feed others in times of disaster and great insecurity The woman in the middle of this photograph is an amazingly special woman Her name is Lucy sadananda phone. I am privileged and proud to call her a friend, Lucy Serrano, I’m in 2014, we found at our university that a group of students were sleeping in one of the buildings And when we went to talk to this large group of students and ask, Hey, how are you sleeping in the bio building? The answer was we don’t have enough money to attend school and pay rent and school is more important. And so Lucy Serrano, in response to Lacey I’d say which cuts social welfare programs and to this realization that we had students who could not afford to house themselves and feed themselves begin a very small organization Coleman could be here, and comically help began at our university Food Bank in 2017, before the hurricane hit, this program was serving approximately 150 students After the hurricane Lucy opened the sign up to anyone who is in need. And at 1125 students, she had to close the list because we simply could not feed all of those people Since that time, Lucy has partnered with numerous other food banks, she has received grants, she has been able to buy refrigerators. And starting on December 28 2019, we began an earthquake swarm and what that means is the off the southwestern coast of Puerto Rico 1000s of earthquakes have happened over the last approximate one year. What that means is that we have people who are out of their homes and unable to shelter in place We have people who are unable to wash their

Hands in the time of COVID, because they do not have a home to go to with running water comically Hill adapted to serve the needs of those people. And then in March of 2020, the University shut down its campus operations because of COVID-19. Lucy, again, adapted the program to have touchless delivery service. Her motto is everyone eats, I want to give you a little bit of the context of what’s happening during COVID-19 Our governor closed the public schools in person service. That is a problem because the majority of our children receive food at school and that program was shut down as well. international students who were studying in Puerto Rico, were under the laws of the United States, which I don’t know if you heard or not. But initially, this presidential administration said we are not going to support international students when the campus is closed. So we had those students to deal with the earthquake swarm is still active, and our economic depression and austerity measures are still in place. Here is a brief overview of what we’re looking at for komikko ETL, as adapted to the needs of COVID You can see that the the leader Lucy is there with student volunteers and they are masked up, you can see that they’re organizing non perishable products for distribution. They’re driving the bags of non perishable goods where they can handing them off. And you can see the other thing is, there’s a poster there for a free market where you can drive up and get a free bag of food, no questions asked. I’m Lucy Serrano, this is a quote from Lucy. And Lucy saying thanks to the efforts of companies, associations, teachers, community entities, anonymous people, among many more, we have delivered 14,408 dishes of food and counting We always feel grateful for each one. Everybody Sorry, there was my technical difficulty I told you, I was going to have one. Um, and so this raises some very important questions that help us to think through the situation, who eats who is able to eat who has access to food, what do they eat, when we received care boxes of food from the United States government after Hurricane Maria, I received one and I opened it up. And there was a letter in it that said, Dear citizens of Houston, your government is with you. And so these were leftover boxes from Hurricane Harvey. And when you looked at the boxes, all of the nutritional food had been removed, and they were filled with starbursts, and Snickers bars. When do you eat when? How often do you get to eat? How much do you get to eat? What is on your plate? How much does this cost the person who is eating? And how easy is it to access the food? So these are some important questions about food distribution. And I’m very grateful to swift for asking the question of what happened this year. And I’d like to say that what happened this year is that we had previously been called to action from disaster upon disaster upon disaster, and hundreds of years of colonial contacts. And so this year, what happened was in concert with hundreds of years, but also the last few years, and these are some of the things that I have been thinking about. The women of Puerto Rico are feeding as many people as we can while thinking through self reliant practices for food production and distribution And I want to make it clear that the women I’m talking about here today are necessary heroes. They are heroes. They have stepped up in unimaginable ways but they have done so because of an abandonment from the government and unfair, unjust and unnecessary abandonment. And that does not change the fact that the people in question are heroes, but they’re heroes in the face of it

absence and failure. And so we are reflecting upon what we have learned about the incompatibilities of colonial practices and equity for all people How do we unmake hundreds of years of colonialism? working to articulate how a basic human right to food is interrupted by the systems of colonialists, structures, that tie eating to income, grappling with the instability of food production, distribution and procurement that hurricane Medea revealed. And it’s not that these are necessarily new problems. But the problems have been shown in very dramatic ways of assessing community based responses to disaster that were quickly created or adapted in the wake of Hurricane Maria, and developing long term solutions to widespread hunger and injustice that they represent We don’t want to go back, we’ve seen a problem we’ve seen a failure and to quote Lucy, no one should go hungry So how can we move forward, making sure that this does not happen, again, developing mutual aid programs that link community centers and regions, I was, I have been working with a center high in the mountains, and a center on an island off the east coast. And they’re doing very similar wonderful things. And they don’t know about each other They don’t know how to share resources, they don’t know how to share information. So how can we make sure that people know about each other and can work together and share resources, adapting our strategies for rural mountainous and urban communities, as well as those that do not have stable communication networks or utilities. Many of the groups that we work with want us to create digital components for information circularization But we do not have stable electricity, we do not have stable internet, we do not have widespread high bandwidth internet. And so we have to think about low tax or no tax ways of sharing information as well as digital components. And then creating flexible approaches for a variety of a ton of events, hurricanes, earthquakes, and global pandemics. Um, the last thing that I want to say in my presentation, and I just want to call attention to this idea that the act of feeding is can be read as feminist rhetoric. And I’d like to um, employ Judith Butler’s understanding of gender construction here in which that which is masculine is not necessarily male, and that which is feminine is not necessarily female, rather binary opposition’s and power dynamic dynamics come into play here in that within the colonial model, that which is masculine allies is that which is in power, and that which is feminized is that which is a disempowered. And so I just want to leave you with the thought that I’m reading the act of widespread feeding, as a way of undermining the dominance and power of colonialism. As I’ve briefly explained, in this presentation, when we tie who eats to who has income, we maintain the utmost power over them and their bodies, the women who have risen up in the aftermath of Hurricane Maria, who have kept their momentum going, and we’re actively resisting, the boundary is placed upon them by COVID-19 And I mean that from a governmental perspective, not from a viral perspective, they resist a colonial model that seeks to disempower them So the act of feeding and the act of nourishing the nation becomes a stand against imposed control by an in this case, the United States. Thank you very much. Thank you Thank you so much, Dr. Chansky That was wonderful. I have goosebumps all over me Thank you. Thank you for providing this arena and I’m trying to stop sharing now Stop, share. There we go. Okay Thank you again. Now I like to invite Dr. Neeti Aryal Khanal for your presentation. And her presentation is titled hearing the most vulnerable stories of Nepali women COVID-19 warriors. After you Thank you so much, Sweta

I hope everybody is hearing me fine So I will be starting the screen sharing as well First of all, I would like to thank Dr. Sweta Baniya for bringing us all together to share the stories of how women are coping and resisting and negotiating the challenges posed by COVID-19 all over the world so it’s my honor to share the panel with Dr. Ricia Chansky and Dr. Tosin Akibu thank you all the participants for joining with us today So, today, I will be talking about I will be sharing about the COVID-19 warriors from Nepal, stories of Nepali women So I will be sharing my screen and I hope my screen is visible to you. I’m supposed to — First I will be talking about sharing a bit of a background and context about Nepal Because the way Nepal has experienced COVID-19 is very much shaped by Nepal’s social and cultural and economic context. So I’ll be elaborating on that. And I will be talking about how COVID-19 has impacted Nepali women and our be sharing stories of three COVID-19 sheros So, because this is an international seminar, I would just like to show where Nepal is, because this is a frequently asked question for many of us, Nepalese, where Nepal exactly is so Nepal is sandwiched in between two Asian zines India and China. It’s a small country. It’s a landlocked country in between India and China. And Nepal is also country of diversity, Nepal is multicultural, multiracial and multi linguistic, multi ethnic country. It is home to 125 ethnic and class groups, and they speak 123 languages. And they also follow at least him and different religion and Nepal is also very much geographically diverse. We have like three ecological drones that ranges from sea level to the highest peak in the world. And the parent is considered a developing country and it’s HDR ranking is 147 out of 189 among all other countries So talking about women in Nepal, um, women in Nepal are considered secondary citizen. This argument I make on the basis of Nepali women are do not still have full rights to confer their citizenship to their offspring independently. It doesn’t mean they cannot do it at all. But prohibition stipulates that you really have to prove that the Father is absent and go through a various bureaucratic hurdles in order to do that And stories of women who have received certain certificates from those mediums show that it is a very humiliating and disturbing experience. So women in Nepal are secondary citizens and women in Nepal have actively contributed to different political and social movement in Nepal, Nepal has had a very turbulent history, from monarchy, and then democracy to now the federal liberal Republic, and we also had a 10 year long armed conflict. So in all these movements and political movements, women played a very vital and significant role. But despite their significant contribution when it came to capitalizing and getting the benefit of these movements when it came to getting the leadership opportunities, women were always sidelined, and experiences of Nepal’s experience with conflict zones that women were the most victimized. And also, they were the active participants, like 40% are comprised of women competence, but despite that, when it came to peace process, and post conflict, political and social panic in Nepali women still are their concerns are not seriously considered So, this these are some very simple fact about Nepali women just to share that we have had an incredible progress over the year, but it still if we look at the education significant discrimination, still actress political participation has been increasing, but again, it has been very much limited to the token representation and token inclusion So COVID-19 and Nepal COVID-19. As we all know, it has posed as an unprecedented challenge

in modern times. It’s not just a health issue, it’s a social issue So I’m a sociologist, and as a sociologist, I believe that social impacts of COVID-19 has emerged as one of the most profound crises in Nepal and it has tested the very strength of our social fabric, our notion of community, our notion of society, is all being challenged. And I very much was inspired by what was said about the social importance of studying COVID-19 from a sociological perspective. She argues that it is during the moment of crisis that we can learn most about the social order and also think about what’s happening right now with the massive inequalities that emerging in this pandemic and the social economic faultlines that are opening wide So what she says is very much true about what’s happening in Nepal right now So looking at the world map and available data on coronavirus, we can see Nepal is emerging gradually as a hot spot for Covid 19. But despite increasing numbers, if we compare with the death counts, the death counts seem to be incredibly low But I argue that for Nepal it’s more than the death happening due to COVID-19, the death impact by COVID-19, I argue that social impact of the pandemic has actually claimed more lives in a country divulged with inefficiencies on all accounts of government, and a weak system and social inequality based on class, gender, and regional identities I argue this because Nepal, in Nepal the way Beirut has responded to the pandemic has claimed more lives. I’ll be talking about how that is actually happening So In Nepal and for most — informal sector employs more than half of the people who are working in informal sector are actually women belonging to marginalized and vulnerable communities and they have been hit hardest, and along with that Nepal is a country that is emerging as a serious economy and recently as the Covid 19 crisis started building up all over the world, Nepal citizens were forced to return home and they were caught in a situation where the host country wants them to leave the country but Nepal government was not ready to have them back So there have been a high number of Nepalese citizens who are continuing to not come back and it has created a big crisis for Nepali economy. And not only that, COVID 19 and the government response has actually claimed more lives … mental health response hasn’t been that good. For instance, Nepali government issued the first lockdown and if we look at the data on the very first seventy four days of the lockdown, 1,227 people committed suicide and if we compared the rate of suicide in the earlier year, that was almost double So COVID19 I argue that in case of Nepal it is more than a public health challenge. It has emerged as a serious economic and social crisis So Talking about Nepali women, the Nepal government instituted a nationwide lockdown with the message “stay home” that is where the safety is But for women in Nepal, Nepal already has a high rate of domestic violence And home has never been a safe place for women Everyone in the world because of the high rate of domestic violence they have opinions. So in the case of Nepal the official data has yet to emerge there has been small studies that may not be representative of all the sample but there is a hot line run by the national women’s commission and according to their data, a total of 885 complains of domestic violence existed in a 24 hour toll free hotline from April to June 2020 So this number was the cause of the complaints received during the same period

of lockdown. That show that the level of domestic violence increased exponentially And it is evident that like women all over the world, women in Nepal are also coping with emotional and physical care burden which I would like to call it a fourth shift. We often talk about the first shift in the morning then in the afternoon doing the work and then the evening, but there is also something called fourth shift where women consider the care of the family, consider the care while they are sick and making sure they are supported In times of COVID19 when the families and people in the communities have fallen sick it is considered the responsibility of women to take care of the sick and elderly So these increased burdens has also challenged women in Nepal. So on the backdrop of these extremely challenging conditions, we see there have been few Nepali women rising above the challenges and they have embraced the roles of the carers of the most vulnerable people affected by COVID 19. Sso I have chosen 3 COVID19 Sheroes by choosing these three women. I’m not saying other women’s contributions are less I’m only saying these women as representative of the courage and bravery all COVID 19 frontline warriors including women in Nepal are going through. SO these COVID 19 Sheroes I argue are breaking the stereotype and they’re challenging established gender norms and questioning the people in power including the government. They are doing exactly what the government is lacking. They are supporting exactly where people are in need Iargue that stories of these COVID 19 Sheroes are even more important to acknowledge, to compliment, and to talk about the challenge the systemic silence about women’s contributions to society. So over these years, there have been social movements in history. We see that the women’s contributions have always been systematically silenced and hidden. So acknowledging this COVID-19 Sheroes is an important way for us to acknowledge their contribution So I’ll be talking about three women, I will be introducing them and I will be talking about what exactly they’re doing. And then I’ll be talking about how their work actually challenges the established gender norms and stereotypes in Nepali society. So first of these female warriors I am talking about is Dr. Runa Jha, she’s a chief pathologist and Director of National Public Health laboratory in Nepal. So earlier, in the beginning of the COVID-19 crisis in Nepal, there was only one public health lab that was actually authorized to do the COVID-19 testing because government hasn’t hasn’t had authorized private labs yet to do the COVID-19. It was all in her shoulder to lead the team who was doing the testing from, from the samples all over the Nepal from different parts of the Nepal and this laboratory is a public laboratory which is linked with other 277 government laboratories so and she was in respect to the contribution and exemplary leadership that she’s so during the crisis, she was included in un women’s five women on the front lines of COVID-19 response and she is her contribution has also challenged a various stereotypes about women working in the medical professions, women working in the science women working in medical disciplines. The second COVID-19 warrior that I am talking about is Miss Indira Rana Magar See is a social worker with exemplary and inspiring history of working in this organization called Prisoner Assistance Nepal. And this organization has been looking after the children from criminal parents living in jail because in Nepal, there was just there was a situation where if parents are convicted children have to live together with the parents because Nepal did not have a alternative welfare system where children could leave. And again, see independence. So

seeing that gap she actually founded that organization and over the years, it has become a mother of 20,000 children who have been deserted by their parents due to challenging circumstances. So during the first lockdown, she was one of the very few people who responded to where it really mattered and I don’t so much from what we stopped Dr Chansky said earlier food is not just a food It is a very important issue particularly during the pandemic and the food security issue was left under the trust by the Nepalese government when they introduced the nationwide lockdown and especially people who are poor and vulnerable who did not have permanent jobs and security of earning living They were directly impacted and they were coming out in the streets and having to be forced to scavenging in the garbage so when she saw that we miss Rana Magar saw that she started feeding poor people. And her initiative initially started with feeding 20 people a day. But now she feeds more than 700 people every day, and she feeds it right in Kathmandu in the middle of Kathmandu is the capital of the city repeated in the speech people in the middle of the heart of the city and government response to her initiative was the mayor of the municipality another municipality said it was embarrassing them that it was giving a wrong message to international community that Nepal has many problems so it was very much focused on saving the face and saving the face, not so much focusing on supporting the people. So these are the pictures that I have got from Miss Rana Magar’s Facebook profiles which are public. So she was sharing about her work. So this is how she has been working tirelessly every day bringing hot meals to the poor people who have been impacted by COVID-19 and this is the picture of says cooking So now they and other inspiring women I would like to share about his 18 year old Sapana Roka Mager so she was also recently a week ago was recognized by BBC as one of the 100 influential women of 2020 and Sapana’s work work currently is she works with the homeless management in rehabilitation center. So, it is a Nepali charity which provides assistance to homeless people. In addition to that, what they have been doing also they actually have to perform the last funeral rites to the abandoned and unidentified bodies So, during this Coronavirus period, there has been on unidentified people have died because of COVID-19 as well and that was a huge crisis of who is going to manage these bodies which sometimes family members also hesitated to become involved. So, they provided this service to provide a respectful funeral, right according to the Hindu tradition, and settlers engagement is also very interesting, because in Nepal, traditionally, women do not have rights to do on a roll and attain the fundamental rights of even of their closest family members Because the way in the balance of patriarchal society with a high level of son preference So the reason why sons are so much valued by the parents is because sons are expected to do the fundamental rights of their parents with the hope that they will have a secure afterlife because having a good funeral done by the sun is the way to ensure that you have a good afterlife. So, borders were never considered as the rightful people to conduct the funeral rights of their parents, not just their parents of their any family members. So, Sapana’s engagement in this is breaking a lot of stereotype because the very presence of Sapana in this morgue shows that she is, um, she is challenging these stereotypes and norms

Last I would like to conclude that in Nepal, Nepal has been traditionally considered a Hindu country now it’s a secular country. And by using this analogy, I am not trying to do disrespect to other communities and religion in Nepal. But I couldn’t help but connect the image of the three Trinity that we usually associate with Hinduism In Hinduism, three gods are considered to be the people who hold the civilization together Brahma is the creator who creates the life who create the earth. And Vishnu who is in the middle, he sustains and takes care of the people of the living beings in the in the world. And then Shiva is the God of the destruction, He is the God of the dead. So I argue that these three women among the many others COVID-19 sheroes, have emerged as the new Trinity because now the way the COVID-19 frontline warriors have been working, healthcare professionals have been working to take care of COVID-19 patients shows that they’re giving new life to COVID-19 serve survivors to medical care And second, people like Roka Maker are making the most by caring and feeding the most vulnerable are sustaining the people taking care of the people. And people like Sapana are providing dignified funeral rights to homeless and unidentified. So this is the COVID-19 Sheroes stories of the COVID-19 sheroes I wanted to share with you all, and there are a lot more stories so many stories that have showed that women have shown courage and perseverance and vigilance in these trying times and I would like to acknowledge them all all of the world. And again, thanks for listening and thank you very much Thank you Dr. Aryal Khanal, that was really wonderful and it really hit home as as the you all know that I’m from Nepal, and it’s Just made me so emotional. Well now without delay I would like to welcome Mr. Tosin Akibu from UN Women Nigeria for her presentation “resilience of Nigerian women in COVID-19.” Thank you very much Greetings to my, my co panelists, Dr. Ricia, Dr. Neeti, and Farida, and Dr. Sheila for the opportunity to participate in this very, very heartwarming, very insightful engagement. My name is to Tosin Akibui. And I’ll be speaking about the resilience of Nigerian women, as we have seen at the advent of COVID-19. And my outline will, the presentation will focus a bit on the COVID-19 situation in Nigeria, effect on the women and the gender gap that have been further exacerbated by COVID-19 The overview was for like the joint EU UN Spotlight initiative and then in interventions and then I’d like to talk about a case in point and then conclude that way In Nigeria, as of today, we have 69,000 and some fraction of confirmed cases. The first case was reported on the 27th of February in 2020. After which, a month later, we were sent into a complete total shutdown of the entire country, Nigeria has over 180 million people And what we saw emerging what we what we currently see emerging as COVID-19 effect from the control measures include impact on the economic and livelihood of everyone, but especially women, and especially those left further behind. There has been the loss of income imagine data from UNDP has said another shutdown will throw 15 million women into complete abject poverty The increased social and domestic responsibilities my co panelists have mentioned this, the health and well being access to healthcare was reduced. There was an increase in maternal and infant mortality,

burden on mental health and poor psychosocial support systems. And then human rights. We had increased incidences of domestic violence. A lot of people were literally locked in with the enemy They couldn’t go anywhere. And the the In fact, we had instances where women during the lockdown knew that immediately after the lockdown, they were going to get a divorce. Because what they had been, you know, trying to work on, fell into pieces The gender gaps that we photo store that were widened by COVID-19 was the absence of a central GBV data collection system It was difficult to find data absence of gender policies for emergencies, such as COVID-19 authorities were were at a loss of how to respond or react in a gender sensitive manner To what COVID-19 there was an absence of social safety nets for women, especially those in businesses. We also had lack of gender sensitive emergency health system That was the burden of care on women and girls, poor access to water and sanitation The lockdown generally further broke down strained already strained, intimate relationships. And then we had the humongous issue of a lack of disability friendly helpline Now, I’ll be talking briefly about the joint eu un spotlights initiative and the interventions that we we adopted to address some of the gap What is the spotlight initiative? It is the global multi year partnership between the EU and the United Nations to eliminate all forms of violence as the largest global funding and it responds to all forms of violence. It is an initiative focused on issues and spotlights in issues of women achieving gender equality and women’s empowerment and the interventions, multi sectoral and multi phased approach and they have six reinforcing programming pillars And I’ll be reading that statement by the deputy UN Secretary General Amina J. Mohammed. She said prevention is a central component of our new UN EU spotlights initiative. It’s a large scale Global Initiative to finally end all violence against women and girls. Now, very quickly, these are the pillars. We have laws and policies, we have institutions transmitted federal and government institutions, prevention through the promotion of gender equitable social norms, you will agree with me that if we take, for example, the social ecological model that takes into cognizance, the significant others in the influence in favor of an individual, then we may be able to actually understand where the facilitators have the barriers of certain social norms, and the perceptions and attitudes that portrayed them We have services and showing the high quality services for survivors of violence available, we have a self improving the quality, accuracy and availability of data on violence against women And then we have the women’s movement, promoting strong and empowered civil society and women’s movement. And so my presentation will focus a bit around women’s movements today, on the spotlight initiative at UN Women, we have women led civil society, grassroots organizations at the center of effort And at the advent of COVID-19. We had to quickly work revive both plans to adapt the COVID-19 it was it was tasking a lot of people had to redesign has to think out of the box and how they could reach beyond the serve the underprivileged and perhaps reach women in the communities, especially in the face of a lockdown. And so for Northern policies, what did we do? We realized that, yes, a lot of the states had gender policies. But the gender policies did not speak to how there was going to be a response during an emergency such as COVID So women’s Coalition’s in the six spotlight states worked with the state ministries of women’s affairs to develop gender policy briefs, that speak to gender sensitive responses And then, during that, the advent of COVID, we also were able to through the women’s movement, push for the Senate to pass the sexual harassment bill in tertiary institutions

I do not know if some of you saw the October 7 2019 report, the BBC report of sexual harassment in some Nigerian universities. And it was before now there has been no law, no policy, around sexual harassment in tertiary institutions So through the spotlight, we were able to have a collective signature petition in the Senate to be able to move this forward. And then we have the women’s movement presented at the second reading the second hearing of the panel What that did for us was it gave us the leverage to be able to work in casual institutions virtually to work with sexual and school related gender based violence response teams, set them up and have ambassadors who could support each other students at the tertiary institution And then virtually we were able to engage over 100 government officials across the six states on gender responsive budgeting, because that came out of a huge gap. There was no gender responsive budget, that called support, for example of the provide social safety net for women during COVID-19. And so we set up these engagements and we have allies in and male champions in all of the ministries, the departments and agencies, where right now we’re currently reviewing the 2020 budget, and we’re making sure that it is gender responsive, we’re not doing this alone, but doing it with the allies that we have worked with in the last couple of weeks And then we looking at the prevention and services Billa We met in 10 household clusters formed community surveillance groups, it was a beauty to see where they could come together within a few meters radius of their household Once they receive palliative funding from UN Women through the joint eu un spotlight initiative, and then because we’re providing Second Chance education, which includes functional literacy, livelihood, and other other support mechanism for women We realized that because of social distancing, we couldn’t bring all this women together And so we went online Went to reduce the ratio. So we set up radio listening groups and cheap, tiny little reduce that called, quite boom, the sounds, you can see some of them on the table, different colors, beautiful ratios, where you’d have women in little clusters, listening, learn how to read, learn how to write. And I just cover and share some of the video of women who got married off at 14. And who never could write their names, being able to start reading and writing their names. And so using that functional literacy to support the businesses that they were doing, they didn’t need to put money in their husbands accounts anymore, because they didn’t know how to read. But they’re now able to open bank accounts, right in their name, find and have custody of their money. For me, it is very, very happy woman when women come together to ensure that we have each other’s backs. We have seen this, this intensified referral for gbv services, we in fact, started seeing some women and put that who would otherwise be quiet, who would otherwise not have access to any form of service, access and services because of this women, community surveillance groups. This activity prevented child marriage COVID-19 in Nigeria, especially in northern Nigeria, became a breeding time for the perpetration of harmful traditional practices. families could not get access to livelihood, they didn’t have money. And so the next option was to give of their daughter in marriage for exchange of some money, or some food item. And so this community, problem groups put a stop prevented dozens of child attempted child marriage. And then during the COVID-19 in February, I’m just using one example And it’s just an illustrative example, where in February, we had, let’s say, 11 cases of gender based violence consistent predominantly of women by match during the lockdown, the cases quadrupled. We had about 364% of people reporting domestic violence. And so we had to quickly quickly open a one stop center

in Sokoto, that’s Northwest Nigeria And it’s the first of its kind fair It’s sad to say that the first child that was brought was just three years old, and she was badly badly badly defined Between much. And today, we’ve had several hundreds of cases. And on the next slide, I will be showing you that we have a 15% increase in the number of men and boys reporting incidences of violence perpetrated against them. Predominantly cases of photo me in the picture is a young woman who is reading her book she never could read before. And maybe what I’m going to do is add some of the videos to this presentation before I share with Dr. sweets So you can hear it’s so beautiful to hear them saying I can’t believe I’m reading this. I can’t believe I’m reading this. I’m so grateful I can read. Thank you for helping me read, of course So I mentioned that we had the problem of data collection. Through the joint un spotlight eu un spotlight initiative, we were able to establish the GDP data situation room, and that is the Deputy Secretary General She launched this a few weeks ago as well as the honorable minister Federal Ministry of women affairs, where we have it’s a collision center of all data, data concerning gender based violence The women’s movement was able to petition the presidential task force because we had issues at the beginning of the shutdown. People were locked in with with the with their abuser, they would attempt to go out and the police will tell them is not an essential request, and they would send them back. And so over 300 signatures we’ve gotten from women’s coalition and the petition the presidential task force to recognize gender based violence response as an essential service. And I’m so glad to see if this was recognized immediately and it made a declaration and that allowed the service providers access as well as access to homes where they could ever quit women and children The collective action of this women led to the to the declaration by Nigeria Governor’s forum on the state of emergency on Wait, it’s the first time ever it never happened before in Nigeria and now state governments are working to ensure that This state is positioned to apply respond to gender based violence. We also jointly developed briefer suggestions for COVID and disability sensitive response towards COVID-19 Women led household opened up their homes as temporary shelters, whether were new government supported shelters, feminist movements, set of virtual prep platforms for system such as whatsapp group, toll free line, social media groups and all of that. And then we men were trained to make hand sanitizers. face masks one of I have two pictures one picture that shows the sample of the facemask women set up hand washing, they publish support groups, women lawyers provide provided pro bono services, women in the private sector supports at small and medium scale enterprises and provided grants to women This is my last slide. And I’d like to talk to you about the money white practice in Oban, nickel, local governments have cross River State, Nigeria, in south south Nigeria, the practice is one where before God child is born, maybe at the age of two, maybe three months, wants to go go child, families give her out in marriage with the exchange of tubers of young goats, sheep, or a material such as the one I’m wearing, or, or paltry some watches maybe $20. To for the family, it could also be in exchange for a debt settlement that a family member of a gold had insured. And so you’d see in this community, that you have 15 year old girls with three children who are widowed, never gone to school, no education, you can see the Healthy Living young girls pregnant, caring children, babies having babies. And they will fall back that during the COVID-19 situation, more of this was going to happen. But what the women’s movement and cross river did a coalition of several women banded up with a group of allies meant in cross river in the community, and engage the traditional system and get the religious system engaged with the community

helpful to household. And it is with so much pride. With so much relief that I’m sharing with you. There’s a link here where the practice has been abolished. And you can you imagine the release of the next girl that was supposed to be given of the money wife, and the effect of this abolishment on the future and the life of that girl child. I’d like to conclude by by reminding us that collective action towards eliminating violence against women works every time, especially in emergencies, such as COVID-19, and that we should invest in women led businesses The picture on the right is one that we took last week. And for the first time ever again, because of this women’s Coalition for Nigerian governors white against gender based violence came together from 25 out of the 36 states to make a declaration and serve the Governance Forum with a community demanding for improved restaurants for gender based volume These are interesting times with seen shifts that we have never seen before We need to move beyond income generating activities to access to markets for young women so that we build a generation of young women who can run businesses who can be CEOs who can be intrapreneurs, and will open the door for other women to pass through mentoring programs have worked during this period intergenerational dialogue has has been very useful, where women that attended the Beijing nine to five conference at tutoring and mentoring younger women to be able to assess the progress that was made several years after leaving no one behind is very crucial. And I’m going to leave you with a with an actionable step This morning this afternoon this evening Wherever you are there. There are listeners that in the fight against gender based violence. What can you do beyond what the government can do beyond what institutions can do? Would you leave your home open a shelter for a woman? Would you raise your voice against the battery of a neighbor, would you speak for the child on the street. Thank you so much for this opportunity and how Have a wonderful day over to you Thank you so much. This has been an amazing panel and I cannot stop my tears Thank you so much to Tosin for sharing these stories and heartwarming presentation Now I’d like to invite Dr. Sheila Carter-Tod my colleague from the Department of English for presenting her response to the panel, welcome Dr. Carter-Todd Okay, it is, was, I was quite overwhelmed by all that I heard. And so I think, as Dr. Chansky said, bear with me, as I tried to speak through this, I will, I tried to take notes and capture a lot of what you’ve said, the joy of having your presentations given to me was that I could actually use some of your words. So I’m going to let you know ahead of time that I will be utilizing a lot of your words, it’s really important that we have these conversations, particularly to our understanding of the influence of women And Virginia Tech talks a lot about beyond beyond boundaries. But this is this is very, very largely beyond boundaries, particularly in the time of pandemic I’m just going to briefly recap a few points that you all have made And then I’m going to close with a actually, before we started, we had some time together And there were some things that were discussed And so I’m going to close with those comments Dr. Chansky helped us to understand a little bit about how feeding as many people as we can, while thinking through self reliant practices for food production was important. I really appreciate the way that she she sort of had us reflected on sort of the history of Puerto Rico, but then led us to think about who eats What do they eat? When do they eat? How much do they eat? And how much does it cost? And how easy is it to access. Um, she talked to us about some wonderfully wonderful women led community based groups working to feed those who are experiencing food insecurity during times of disaster, but also now during the times of pandemic. And then I also like the way that she sort of moved just to think about reading the act of widespread feeding, feeding as a feminist rhetoric, the actions of this year within the context of colonial colonialization and disaster, she said, work to re humanize those who have been dehumanized through a purposeful positioning and second class citizens. And and

that was, I think that was quite effective. The way that she said that, um, Dr. Nolan and Miss Keith, both presented valuable information on Nepali and Nigerian women’s increased burdens, and overwhelming resilience during this time of pandemic. And Dr. canals taught, caring the most vulnerable stories of, of Nepalese women during COVID women warriors She talked to us about how in a backdrop of these extremely challenging condition, these Napoli’s women, naturally, women were rising above their space buzzing above what they had been their position in life. And she said that these COVID heroes that she mentioned, are breaking the stereotypes and challenging the established gender norms, and are also questioning people in power, including the government and I, the contextualization of that helped us to understand how hard something like that is in this particular situation. And then she ended with and she said, there were so many people she could tell us about. But then this the concept of redefining the Trinity I so appreciated that she argues that these three women, among many others, during the COVID, cheers have emerged as a new Trinity. And she said that they’re giving new life to COVID surviving survivors through medical care, caring and feeding the most vulnerable, providing dignified funerals of the criminal rights to homeless and and unidentified. And I, I was quite overwhelmed by the discussion of how that what kind of what role that has in the social standing. And then what was really challenging is having to actually speak after after Ms. Akibu’s talk because I was frantically trying to bring it all together while holding it together. So in your discussion about the resilience of Nigerian women and coping and managing and resisting this whole idea of the collective action towards gender based violence, in terms of thinking about how women came together to change, not only change the situation, but also change the rules and the laws that kept that kept these women in these honorable positions was exceptionally effective in the way that women, the women led households were opening up their homes as temporary shelters and even at the end challenging us to think about that same concept, the way that feminist movements set up virtual platforms for assistance The whole idea of the second chance, and I appreciated that he looked at the economic sense of it, as well as the educational sense talking about Second Chance education And bringing literacy and skills acquisition to women and girls who would not have had access to that in the also the looking at from the legal realm providing pro bono legal services, and how the women led private sector was actually bolstering and being supported in a time of challenge and a particularly difficult time At the beginning of our conversation, we were sitting in the room trying to check our our sound and our video and Dr. Chomsky had said that what this talk does is this begins an important conversation that is timely, because we are in the midst of witnessing it as we are reflecting on it. This is a global communal trauma, we may have a different perspective later, but we may forget. And so these conversations as, as we’re having them now are important to capture as a way of thinking about the narratives of these women’s experiences in the moment at the time. I want to thank you so much, Dr. Swift, the venue for letting me be a part of this, for coordinating this conversation and breaking the hiss as you said, the historical male focus narratives by bringing together these scholars to acknowledge international sheroes Thank you so much Thank you so much, everyone, for joining me today I think we have time for some questions. If you want to use q&a feature to share your questions Again, read it out to our panelists thing, we have one here for Dr. Chansky. It is nice to hear from your presentation, I learned a great deal here I’m curious to know about the methodology of oral histories that you have used with your students And wondering how did you start this project and the methods that you used and effective, how effective you find this method of transcribing history? Thank you for that question. Sheila mentioned getting a little emotional So please, excuse me, this is a little bit more personal part of the conversation When we returned to campus, just over one month after Hurricane Maria destroyed the majority of Puerto Rico My University distributed a questionnaire regarding students material needs so that we could attempt to feed and house as many students as possible

Being that I’m interested in autobiography studies I invited students to write ungraded, not assigned hurricane memoirs. And I did that because I believe that in the midst of disaster, we don’t have the opportunity to share our experiences and that transaction between this is what happened to me and sharing that story with a witness is part of a healing process. And I’m not saying people are healed as in final or absolute, but part of a process of healing. Um, I didn’t expect that very many students would do that Every single student wound up doing it and I carried home, a collection of narratives written with pen or pencil on whatever paper was available because there was still no electricity and no internet at that time. I read those narratives by candlelight, after I had made food for my community on a one burner campstove. And as I read them, they became more and more powerful to me until finally, I read a narrative by a young person named Alejandra. And Alejandra told me that after the hurricane, she had watched her neighbors bury two family members in their backyard, because the hospital was closed, and they were so without electricity. And the two people needed treatment that was tied to electricity and something they could not go to the hospital and they could not use the equipment that they needed to use Those family members had died and were buried in the yard Obviously, I found that to be an extremely moving experience, and I realized that the disempowerment was extremely dangerous, that I had a campus of students who felt powerless both against an unnatural disaster and I use my little air quotes there because of fossil fuel greed, changing the climate and instigating super storms But then helpless in the face of government level failures that lead to electricity being still off months and even years in some places after a natural disaster, lack of medical care and lack of dignity. I think bot of my — presenters used the term dignity. I think that’s the foundation we’re talking about here That’s why I started the project because storytelling restates the narrator as a protagonist, as gentle, as the storyteller Additionally it helps someone facilitate. the telling of their story which is a great and powerful gift. Then the dissemination and the sharing. of that story rewrites that national story or narrative or media narrative that erases people from their own stories. I have found this to be an extremely extremely effective model to use Again I’m not a counselor i’m not a therapist, I’m a literature professor and I feel as though teachers are often the people who show up and are there after disaster or tragedy. we have been there every day for our students throughout COVID And so adjusting, and shaping, and changing what we need to teach, what. we are mandated our learning objectives and adapting that to our situations as we are able to, understanding that we are also partners in communal trauma, is an effective way in recognizing and witnessing our student experiences and empower them to shape their communities Thank you so much. We have another question from a professor from Virginia Tech. “Dr Chansky asked us to think about how we can get away from binary system position and consider instead how power is masculinized, and lack of power is feminized. I wonder if Dr. Akibu and Dr. Khanal could speak about how activists they have observed and work with, would react to stepping away from the binary conception of these problems? Whoever can go first Well, should I answer? Yeah, go ahead Yeah. Okay. Um, that’s a very interesting question. And

yes, I agree that when we talk about power, because we see usually men holding the powerful position. So power has been equated with power has been symbolized as something masculine rather than the feminized. As a feminist researcher, I think we can challenge those conceptions of power by bringing in the values that women represent values of love, care, and empathy, and vulnerability as in redefining what power means. I haven’t. And the presentation today is based on the stories of the women that I shared with I think, they are redefining that notion of power by themselves by feeding the poor, the after feeding, which is considered a very feminine, but at the same time, it also represents the value of you know, what women stands for, as the care of the community. So I think challenging that notion of power by our activists and men bringing in our feminist values of love caring, empathy is the way that we can challenge that. Thank you so much for the question. Very interesting. To see Do you want to go there? We cannot hear you think you have to unmute yourself Maybe we can go to another question at the moment Since I think there is some technical difficulties. Ana Shresta has asked, grateful to hear their unheard narratives of our COVID sheroes. I wonder if you all think yourself as COVID sheroes what were your struggle and challenges and how did you find resurrection? backwards for me as well? I think um, yeah, I think we all are COVID sheroes all of this and COVID sheroes not just me, I think all of the participants who are present here we all are survivors, we all are coping and resisting in our own way and my own personal mechanism is to collaborate and like this and you know talking to families returning like we have here and we do have a reading group which set me are part of the meet we every Sunday. This has been disrupted a bit last few weeks but we meet every week and then we do discussion and then the informal conversation just sharing our you know, coping and challenges. So these are the way that I have been trying to cope with the situation so my answer we all are COVID sheroes All of us including you yourself Microphone is back I don’t think we can hear Okay, maybe you can share in chat Go ahead She’s typing I will. I will read it out. And again, thank you so much, everyone. We have around, over 100 participants from all around the world. From Italy, Germany, Nepal, India, many parts of the US and a lot of people around the world I’m so humbled by your participation Another commenter says that we should take a critical look at hegemonic masculinity and how power dynamics affect the work we do. I think that’s a great answer. And I think we are running out of time and we have. But I would like to thank you, all of us for joining, joining me and all in this panel as well as in this webinar. And again, thank you David Schuh and Xuqing Wang

who were my technical support. Thank you, Dr Sheila Carter-Tod, Dr. Neeti Aryal Khanal, Tosin Akibu, and Dr. Chansky. Thank you all Without you all this event wouldn’t have been possible and I wouldn’t have been able to envision plan and execute this without Dr. Farida Jalalzai, Dr. Laura Belmonte and Dr. Rebecca Weaver Hightower, thank you so much, everyone. Have a good day evening and good night. Bye!

2017 AAFSW Secretary of State Award for Outstanding Volunteerism Abroad

PROGRAM CHAIR SHEILA SWITZER: Good morning, ladies and gentlemen Can you take your seat, please? We’re going to start our program The Associates of the American Foreign Service Worldwide, AAFSW, warmly welcomes you to join us in recognizing the outstanding work of the recipients abroad and here It is my pleasure to introduce our president, our AAFSW president Doctor Joanna Athanasopoulos Owen who is geoophysics and environmental management consultant She was born in California and she was raised in Greece, Athens As a result of that, she was raised in five languages– English, Greek, Spanish, French, and Italian She is the recipient of the Outstanding Teaching Award from the University of California in Santa Barbara, UCSB And Dr. Joanna Athanasopoulos has been the president of AAFSW since August 2016 and– excuse me, my voice is so bad You can hear me — I have a throat problem with the allergies and I lose my voice very often But anyway, she is also the fundraising for the AFSW chair for us So thank you so much, Joanna [applause] DR. JOANNA ATHANASOPOULOS OWEN: Thank you so– thank you very much, Sheila Thank you for the nice introduction Good morning everybody AUDIENCE: Good morning DR. OWEN: Deputy Assistant Secretary Dierman, distinguished guests, colleagues, and friends, as our AAFSW program chair, Sheila Switzer, kindly mentioned, my name is Dr. Joanna Athanasopoulos Owen, and I am president of the Associates of the American Foreign Service Worldwide And I am a volunteer Let’s go one more time Hi, I’m Joanna and I am a volunteer [applause] That’s when you get to say, hi, Joanna I’m a volunteer too, because I’m sure inside here, we have many, many, many volunteers And that’s what we’re celebrating today This is a celebration for all our volunteers across the American foreign service, mainly abroad, but also domestically You will see in all the awards that follow So this is the 27th annual presentation of the Secretary of State Award for outstanding volunteerism abroad, otherwise known as SOSA This award recognizes the most compelling volunteer efforts by Foreign Service employees and family members abroad During its history, the SOSA program has honored more than 116 honorees chosen from over 130 diplomatic missions within the six graphical bureaus We are grateful to have the continued support of former Secretary of State James A. Baker and his wife, Mrs. Susan Baker, who helped establish this award in 1990 to recognize the goodwill of Americans for exceptional community service abroad, former Secretary of State Colin Powell and his wife, Mrs. Alma Powell, former Secretary of State George Shultz, the Ambassador Stevens A. Green School of International and Public Affairs at Florida International University, and the Green Foundation, as well as the support of the Center Family Foundation and the countless AAFSW members and volunteers The winners of the annual SOSA award exemplify the best of the American spirit of volunteerism SOSA [INAUDIBLE] demonstrate outstanding creativity and commitment to improving the lives of others in our host nations by reflecting the highest ideals of diplomacy and humanitarian leadership SOSA winners are engaged citizens who believe that giving is receiving Today the SOSA winners will receive a certificate of gratitude for their inspiring contributions signed by the Secretary of State and AAFSW Festively Thanks to the kind contribution of our generous donors mentioned before, each of the SOSA awardees will also receive a cash award of $2,500 as well as a pin–

which we have it here– that reads outstanding volunteer which commemorates the annual AAFSW ceremony As the AAFSW president, it is my great privilege and honor to introduce our keynote speaker, Deputy Assistant Secretary in the Bureau of Human Resources Constance Dierman Deputy Assistant Secretary Dierman oversees issues relating to family members, overseas employment, [INAUDIBLE] services, retirement, and grievances A career member of the Senior Foreign Service, Deputy Assistant Secretary Dierman has served overseas in Kabul, Baghdad, Bridgetown, Canberra, and Geneva Her domestic assignments include tours in the bureaus of Human Resources, Near Eastern Affairs, South and Central Asian Affairs, European and Eurasian Affairs, Overseas Buildings Operation, Protocol, and the Executive Secretariat Deputy Assistant Secretary Dierman has earned numerous individual performance awards, including the 2013 Director General of the Foreign Service and the Director Human Resources Award for Excellence in Human Resource Management The Associates of the American Foreign Service worldwide and I personally are grateful for the continued support of our annual awards ceremony and welcome Deputy Assistant Secretary Dierman to the states to honor the 2017 award recipients Please join me in welcoming Deputy Assistant Secretary DEPUTY ASSISTANT SECRETARY CONSTANCE DIERMAN: Thank you so much for the kind introduction, Joanna, and thank you for allowing me to participate with you today Good morning, everyone I would like to extend a very warm welcome to all of you here today to recognize the exceptional contributions of very special members of the Foreign Service family These are our 2017 SOSA honorees who today join the ranks of over 150 SOSA recipients since 1990 It’s truly a privilege to be able to stand before such an incredible group of individuals who have given selflessly of their time and talents Throughout my career in the Foreign Service, I’ve always been impressed by the amazing contributions made by our employees, our eligible family members, and are members of household who every single day create a long lasting positive impact around the globe You motivate us to be our very best selves with projects and activities that showcase service, compassion, and commitment to the Foreign Service community Your selfless acts on behalf of all Americans have for many become the face of our country abroad We are truly fortunate to have you as part of the State Department family I think we all know this, but volunteer work is not a part of all cultures, and host country nationals are often fascinated by the creativity and dedication of our community members who willingly contribute their time and energy Volunteer work constitutes a very effective form of personal and unofficial public diplomacy All of today’s awards– SOSA, Tragen, Dohrmann, CCE, EFM– seek to identify and recognize those individuals whose efforts have greatly enhanced the lives of others Through volunteer opportunities, support for EFM employment, or enhancing the rights and benefits of Foreign Service community members, today’s awards recognize those that have labored tirelessly to contribute to the department’s mission We are incredibly appreciative of the award recipients here today You have made significant and lasting contributions You have managed clinics You’ve increased public awareness by creating web sites You’ve exposed young women to technology and entrepreneurship You’ve served as the embassy’s community outreach lead

and you’ve developed new economic opportunities You’re really an inspiration to all of us I understand this type of commitment could not be made possible without the support of families So at this moment, I would like to take the opportunity to extend sincere gratitude to the family members that are here today and at home for your continued support Clearly, they have encouraged you in your endeavors Families, please accept my deepest appreciation for all you do and all you have done for your loved ones I know you are so proud of them, and I’m so pleased that some of you could be here today for this special moment On behalf of the Secretary of State and all of my colleagues around the world, I wish to applaud you all and to most sincerely thank you for your generous and valued contributions to the U.S government We are so very grateful to have you on our team Honorees, thank you for your compassion and for your outreach Your work continues to improve the lives of those around you every single day And last and certainly not least, a huge thank you to the Associates of the American Foreign Service Worldwide for administering the SOSA awards for the last 26 years We look forward to many more years of exceptional service and volunteerism from the Foreign Service community Thank you and congratulations to all DEPUTY ASSISTANT SECRETARY DIERMAN: Thank you very much for the kind words As the AAFSW president, it is my great pleasure to introduce the AAFSW SOSA chair, Ms. Yolanda Macias-Cottrell Ms. Macias-Cottrell has a certificate in management of tourism enterprises, and she has always been involved in volunteer activities, such as the Link literary program in Johannesberg, South Africa, a project designed to help improve the reading of children in low income communities for whom English is a second or third language Our AAFSW SOSA chair will introduce this year SOSA winners Yolanda? MS. YOLANDA MACIAS-COTTRELL: Thank you all Good morning The Associates of the American Foreign Service Worldwide presents every year the Secretary of State Award for Outstanding Volunteerism Abroad to recognize the most exceptional volunteer efforts by Foreign Service employees and family members who are living and working overseas As you hear, the SOSA program was established in 1990 with the direct support of then Secretary of State James Baker and his wife Susan During an official trip, Mrs. Baker was impressed by the extraordinary volunteer work performed by the Foreign Service community that she decided to establish an award to recognize volunteer accomplishments And she approached the AAFSW with this idea And since then, the Associates of the American Foreign Service Worldwide has managed and promoted this award As Joanna also said, we are fortunate to have the continued support of former Secretary of State James Baker and his wife Susan We are grateful for the contributions from former Secretaries of State George Shultz and Colin Powell, the Center Family Foundation, and retired Ambassador Steven Green, who continues to donate annually through his Family Foundation Without these donations, we would not be able to host the annual ceremony and present the winners with a financial award This year, we received 17 nominations from five of the seven regents bureaus The selection process was a difficult one because all the nominees were impressive A key factor in selecting a winner is sustainability, and we believe the projects of this year awardees will continue over the long term, reaching many local citizens in their communities I would like also to give thank you and appreciation to the continued support of the regional [INAUDIBLE] who make it possible for the winners to return to Washington to receive this award You will learn more about the winners as we present each with a certificate signed by the Secretary of State and a check from the AAFSW And I’m sure and I’m certain that you will be inspired by what these honorees have accomplished at their post So I will introduce now the 2017 SOSA winners

From the Bureau of African Affairs, Grace Anne Turner Grace is recognized for her great contribution to improving the quality of medical care at the House of Hope clinic in Dakar, Senegal Grace then designed a program to improve patient intake device, an ingenious way to train mothers to rehydrate their ill children at home, and train their staff to use the World Health Organization triage system This system was instrumental in identifying and stopping a potentially dangerous outbreak of measles throughout urban Dakar Dr. Grace, as she is affectionately called by her patients, raised the profile of the clinic in the local community and internationally, raking in thousands of dollars in donations, medicines, and materials Congratulations, Grace MS. GRACE ANNE TURNER: Deputy Assistant Secretary Dierman, AAFSW members and SOSA selection committee members, family, friends, ladies and gentlemen, good morning, and thank you Thank you very much for honoring me with such a prestigious award I am grateful and humbled Thank you to the members of the AAFSW, all volunteers themselves Having the opportunity to meet Alicia, Craig, and Merissa and hearing about their innovative projects has been inspiring I would like to take this opportunity to thank my colleagues also in Senegal As with any health care facility, we worked together as a team, and I would have nothing to show for my time at the House of Hope if it weren’t for the motivation and efforts of my friends and colleagues These 25 clinicians and support staff work every day under difficult conditions, striving to provide high quality health care with limited resources They’ve embraced me with open arms and have been patient when my language skills failed or when my cultural understanding, or rather misunderstandings, created friction As is true with most volunteer positions, I feel I have received far more than I have contributed Thank you again MS. MACIAS-COTTRELL: From the Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs, Craig Houston Craig Houston is recognized for his selfless dedication to the issue of air quality awareness, which has improved the health and lives of northern Thailand’s residents and visitors Working without compensation, staff, or budget, Craig Houston created a multifaceted website to promote awareness of severe air quality issues during northern Thailand’s annual agricultural burning season, provide sustainable solutions to the problem, and support information sharing He partnered with local air quality experts, NGOs, schools, and film directors to tackle this issue and provided training to the use of the air quality monitors in the schools and local businesses Congratulations, Greg MR. CRAIG HOUSTON: Good morning, everybody Firstly, again, I’d like to reiterate my thanks to the AAFSW for this huge honor And it really is amazing to be considered among this year’s winners and all the other past winners of this award It’s truly humbling to be considered amongst them I’m sure like many of you here, I got my first experience of air pollution living overseas From my family, that happened to be Beijing So we started at the extreme end of the pollution

And I still remember the days when I could look out of our apartment and not be able to see the building across the road And clean air really is one of those things that you don’t really appreciate until you don’t have it And as bad as the air was in Beijing, I didn’t really feel compelled to do anything about it until our baby boy came into our lives And having someone who depends entirely on you for their health and protection kind of changes your perspective on things We live in beautiful northern Thailand now, but like many parts of Southeast Asia, it suffers from extreme air pollution during the agricultural burning season during several months of the year I’d read that young children were particularly susceptible and vulnerable to air pollution And that got me thinking about our son’s health And so I decided to try and learn more about the problem and see if I could help protect his lungs So I started measuring air pollution inside of our apartment And I think that [INAUDIBLE] may be pleased to find out that our air purifiers are actually making sure our air was actually clean inside our house So that was a relief And thanks to our local GSO there and many others I know tackle this problem But outside was a different story, and what I discovered was there was very few measurements of the most dangerous type of particulate pollution in our city in Chiang Mai And that bothered me because where we live, we’re next to three large elementary schools And I know that the children going to school there were being exposed to dangerous levels of air pollution during the burning season And I knew that the parents of those children cared just as much about the health of their sons and daughters as my wife and I cared about our sons So working with several schools, we helped install a number of air quality sensors And that led to some of those schools installing air purifiers in all their classrooms And others decided to change their physical education timetable during the smoky season to protect the children and we’re now working with a team of concerned citizens to install a citywide and regional wide network of air pollution sensors to raise awareness of the problem through the website we’ve created and also ultimately encourage creative solutions to the problem I’m grateful to all the schools, the community leaders, the teachers, parents, and actually the consulate community who continue to support our efforts to raise awareness of this problem in Northern Thailand And I’m also grateful for what this experience taught me, which was there’s no better way to feel part of a community than to sit down and work together on something that’s meaningful to the people we share a home with So thank you very much MS. MACIAS-COTTRELL: From the Bureau of European Immigration Affairs, Alesia Krupenikava Alesia is recognized for her extraordinary volunteer work as Ukraine’s first regional ambassador of the Technovation Challenge Alesia recruited more than 150 girls from all over Ukraine to participate in the program and found 50 mentors to coach them She signed up several partners like Microsoft to support the program and recruited the top technical university in the Ukraine to host the country’s technovation challenge event She raised over $20,000 to pay for travel to Kiev, prizes for the teams, and the travel cost of one team to attend the world event in San Francisco She then recruited a team to take over and grow the program after she departed post Congratulations, Alesia MS. ALESIA KRUPENIKAVA: Thank you, Deputy Assistant Secretary– one day, I will get the protocol right AAFSW– everybody involved in this award, it’s– I’m truly honored to be here and really humbled Working with Technovation in Ukraine has been a life changing experience for me I wish I could tell you all about 150 girls that participated in the program But as an example, I would like to share with you

one of the stories of one of the teens So these are four girls I don’t know if you can see These are four 13, 14-year-old girls from a small town in Ukraine They come from pretty hard family situations Through this program, they have done something they have never done in their life before– they identified a problem in their community and tried to solve this problem with the help of technology Their little town that they live in has lots of train tracks, and they saw every year lots of kids crossing those tracks and get killed This had happened to some of their friends, and they wanted to help Within three months– excuse me Within three months, they coded a mobile app from scratch that could warn the users about the train that is approaching And they will take off their headphones, will see the train, and it will potentially save the kids’ lives Then they developed business plan and did a marketing research to present it to potential sponsors Within just three months of participating in this program, they grew from being extremely shy to even talk to their mentor to being able to stand on the podium in front of a more than 100 people to present their pitch in English and talk later, give interviews to local TV and radio stations Technovation provided this girls with encouragement and opportunities to learn lifelong skills of teamwork entrepreneurship, and leadership Giving girls like this a chance to see what they are capable of has truly been one of the most rewarding things I’ve ever done in my life I would like to thank all the volunteers and mentors who coached and guided our teams and who helped us start this program in Ukraine this year Sandra [INAUDIBLE] all the Peace Corps volunteers who mentored the teams– Kelly, Janet, Jason, Casey, and many, many others who helped us reach out to the most remote areas in Ukraine and small towns and villages And I would also like to thank my best friend, my husband, who mentored this team And without your help and your passion for helping people, I wouldn’t be here today in front of you So thank you, every– thank you very much to everyone, and thank you for this award Thank you MS. MACIAS-COTTRELL: From the Bureau of South and Central Asia Affairs, Lisa A. Hess Lisa unfortunately was unable to travel to Washington this time, and Mr. Howard [INAUDIBLE],, executive director of the SCA Bureau, kindly accepted to receive the certificate on her behalf Lisa Hess is recognized for her central role in organizing community engagement activities that provided benefits to Sri Lanka while also giving embassy staff and visiting U.S. sailors an opportunity for service Lisa’s projects included refurbishing a community center, providing [INAUDIBLE] clinics to poor children, repainting [INAUDIBLE] animal shelter, and painting classrooms in a school for the deaf and blind Lisa also coordinates fundraising projects which benefit an under-privileged local school and spearheaded a fundraising campaign to provide a month’s salary to 19 of the embassy’s LES employees and families who lost everything during the floods in Colombo So if you can [INAUDIBLE] Thank you, Mr. [INAUDIBLE] SPEAKER 2: I’m not Lisa Hess, but I

was in touch with Lisa Hess She was overwhelmed by receiving this award She told me that during her time in Sri Lanka, just participating in these activities was the most fulfilling thing that she was able to do That was plenty of recognition and reward for her Her ambassador, however, asked me to convey to this very distinguished group his opinion that Lisa’s participation in leadership in these community events was absolutely essential in turning around aspects of our relationship with Sri Lanka In fact, her time in Sri Lanka coincided with an election when we– when a government that didn’t like the United States was ousted and one that was more sympathetic towards the United States came in Lisa’s participation and leadership, organizational skills, and actually her work with the press helped to illustrate to somewhat skeptical public the United States was committed to improving things in Sri Lanka in a very meaningful and impactful way And so I think that is real testimony to the power of volunteerism and to your good organization So thank you very much MS. MACIAS-COTTRELL: Thank you, Mr. [INAUDIBLE] And from the Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs, Maritza Wilson Maritza Wilson is recognized for her extraordinary efforts to improve community health in Nicaragua As a volunteer doctor at the AMOS Foundation, a nonprofit clinic in Managua, she conducted home visits and home surveys to better understand the needs of the community, training members and leaders of the community in basic home health care She has spent a week in an impoverished Atlantic coast village teaching basic health concepts Maritza lead training sessions at four high schools, providing instructions on reproductive health, and worked alongside U.S [INAUDIBLE] surgeons visiting Nicaragua every year to provide training and assistance in their urology treatments Maritza also worked to develop economic opportunities for families in her home village of San Juan de Oriente is starting a nonprofit venture to expand marketing opportunities for local artisans Congratulations, Maritza MS. MARITZA WILSON: Good morning Can you hear me? Good morning, Deputy Assistant Secretary There [INAUDIBLE] invited guests Thank you for inviting me to this event Thanks to AAFSW and the department for supporting the award Thanks to the embassy in Managua for this nomination, especially Ambassador Dodd and Chair Davis This is a great honor to be here and receiving this award I want to thank to my husband who supports me not only helping with homework with the boy but economically [INAUDIBLE] more around the country Thanks also to God for opening doors in different countries where I can see the needs and the opportunities to serve Before coming a U.S. citizen, I was born and raised in Nicaragua I graduate in medical school in Managua After 20 years living overseas, it is very special to return to my birth country where I met my husband when he was a Peace Corps volunteer Now that we are back, we are happy to serve Nicaragua and the family and the people I know the story of Dr. David Livingstone and the exploration of Africa In particular, I admire his medical work, which is an inspiration to my medical career also I like one of his famous quotes He said I determined never to stop until I have become to the end and achieve my purpose I look forward to continuing my projects wherever we go Thank you, everyone [APPLAUSE] DR. OWEN: Well, thank you, everybody, and congratulations

I wouldn’t be a good president of the Associates of the American Foreign Service if I didn’t put a commercial right now So all these awardees, all our SOSA winners, although they don’t have to be a member of our association to earn the award or even to be nominated for the award, we offer a free and honorary membership for one year so that we can lure into our association volunteers of that caliber So hopefully you are going to join us further in the future and we’ll see more of you Thank you very much for your service So now it is my great honor to introduce the president of the core, Mr Jim Benson, who will present Eleanor Dodson Tragen award Jim Benson, who is a retired Foreign Service officer, posted in many Central and South America countries, holds a master’s degree focusing on strategic planning from the National [INAUDIBLE] College For many years, Mr. Benson has shared his expertise about the Andian region countries with other Foreign Service officers while teaching in FSI Mr. Benson? PRESIDENT JIM BENSON: Thank you and good morning For those of you who don’t know DACOR, I’ll give you a brief primer on that It is an organization of foreign affairs professionals made up principally of retired and active duty members both in the Foreign and Civil Service from the five foreign affairs agencies Each year, DACOR presents two major awards, one of them being the Foreign Service Cup, which is given at Foreign Affairs Day in May, and the other is the Eleanor Dodson Tragen Award that we give today As you note in your programs, this award is given to someone who was chosen for his or her efforts to enhance the global rights and benefits provided to the Foreign Service family I should also recognize Mr. Irving Tragen here, who is the backbone behind this award and the one who really gives us a lot of support at DACOR for having this award go forward So thank you very much, Irv Thanks again You’re welcome This year’s winner is Kelly Bembry Midura Kelly and her husband Christopher served in assignments, in seven assignments overseas in Europe, Africa, and Latin America And I say served together because I think everybody in this room would understand that eligible family members serve as well and support the aims and the benefits and the life, really, of the United States of America and its foreign policy overseas just as much as the officers who are being sent overseas at that time Kelly spent many years working in a variety of the sort of activities that really do fit exactly with the definition of the award that I described in terms of serving families and in providing the benefits to those families overseas The one thing I really note in her biography here that I thought was really great, particularly after years myself of dealing with issues overseas, is the name of her blog– Well, That Was Different– which is something I think many of us have said at some time or another in our time overseas Like to read the citation of this so you can get a real sense of the reasoning behind the decision to give Kelly this award today Kelly Bembry Midura is the poster child for if you can find a support source– if you can’t find a support source, create it yourself– something else we know quite well– a philosophy she embraced throughout her 30 years as a Foreign Service spouse Wherever she was posted, she created support groups for the local Foreign Service community, receiving numerous citations for her work She also created web sites, blogs, and discussion groups to advance community building at the global level Described as a lifeline for all in the Foreign Service, much of her work has been institutionalized by the State Department, various posts, and AAFSW, ensuring that those still to come will find rich resources to support their service abroad So it gives me a great honor at this time to present Kelly with the Elanor Dodson Tragen Award for 2017

MS. KELLY BEMBRY MIDURA: Well, good morning, everyone I’m really a writer, not a speaker So I’m going to keep this very short I want to thank my longtime Foreign Service friend Jen Fisher Bachmann, who is out there somewhere, for nominating me for this award We’ve been friends– oh, there she is We’ve been friends ever since AFSW playgroup when our kids were toddlers And since then, we’ve bounced back and forth between different countries and cities And at one point, we’re even sort of inadvertently neighbors on the same street for several years, which just goes to show you how the Foreign Service community works– that you just never know who you’re going to run into In any case, also thank you very much to DACOR and AFSW and to Mr. Tragen We are about to– we’ve just retired after 29 years of service in the Foreign Service And so this award is particularly well-timed I’m sort of looking at it as my gold watch And I really appreciate it Thank you from the bottom of my heart I’d say more, but I have a blog for that So I’ll let you go Thank you DR. OWEN: Congratulations Now I’m very happy to introduce Bob Castro, a member of the AAFSW Eligible Family Member Selection Committee as well as the 2016 Tragen Award and the 2016 SOSA award winner In 2014, Bob conceived and advocated for the creation of the Champions of Career Enhancement Award Today, he will share the objectives and criteria of this award while outlining the specific accomplishments of the 2017 winner Bob? [INAUDIBLE] MR. BOB CASTRO: Thank you Thank you, Joanna [INAUDIBLE] Dierman– I like saying that because Connie and I go way back– Acting Assistant Administrator Barnett, who is the senior USAID member of the audience today, and a who’s who of the Foreign Service community who’ve showed up for Judy Ikels, all protocols observed The CCEEFM Award was conceived not simply to reward those who go above and beyond their day job to deliver lasting tangible employment opportunities– AFSW seeks also to highlight individuals who serve as catalysts and encourage those who are in a position to make a difference This past year especially, that means not just creating or helping EFMs find jobs– rather looking to help Foreign Service family members approach their entire career trajectory as an ongoing enterprise, a continuum that needs cultivating and which serves as an asset to U.S foreign policy and national security objectives Whether they are working at post or taking time away from work to support intermittent family needs or constant moves or putting their talents to work towards public diplomacy and global development goals through work outside the mission on the local economy, on the global economy, or in pro-bono and volunteer roles, doing what today’s SOSA recipients so ably embody as the face of America Each year we have outstanding nominees as examples, and this year’s runners up, Laura Sheehan at Embassy Hanoi and Amanda Walters at CG Sao Paolo, deserve honorable mention, and I hope you’ll read about their actions on AAFSW’s online media But without doubt, Judy Ikels’ body of work and a lifetime of achievement demonstrate that sustained heart of a champion whose persistence on pivotal issues facing EFMs in a series of roles garnered nominations and endorsements from some of the most respected members of the Foreign Service community Many of them are here today Judy would be the first to share the credit with others on her team, but without her leadership, these watershed victories and support of EFMs would not now exist, in my opinion Creation of the Family Member Appointment, FMA, with full benefits to replace the Part Time Intermittent Temporary PTIT category and then going back to allow for a buyback of PTIT time towards retirement The SNAP program, now known as the Global Employment Initiative– and we have global employment advisers in the room, I see

Differentiating the voluntary and involuntary categories for Separate Maintenance Allowance, SMA– student loan repayment program for Consular Fellows, a wellness coordinator pilot program in Bogota that may soon roll out globally, and DAETO, one of my favorite new terms, a policy framework enabling domestically assigned employees to telecommute from overseas posts and maintain their federal government employment here And it’s possible the bilateral work agreement at your post was negotiated with Judy’s help During her various roles in FLOW, the Work Life division, Employee Relations Office, Office of Overseas Employment, functions in HR, or as an EFM herself, Judy Ikels has consistently demonstrated the core criteria for the CCEEFM award– exceeding expectations, creative solutions, sustainability and longevity, scope and reach, and impacting other decision makers while serving as a role model For these reasons AAFSW Selection Committee was unanimous in choosing Judy Ikels as the 2017 Champions of Career Enhancement for EFM winner Judy, please come accept your award MS. JUDY IKELS: Well, my goodness Thank you very much, Mr. Castro We met just yesterday, and I just appreciate so much your remarks Thanks to AAFSW and to Deputy Assistant Secretary Connie Dierman, otherwise known as Connie to all of us Thank you so much for being here I’d also like to thank Mr. Bruce Williamson, the [INAUDIBLE] designate to Bolivia, for placing my name in nomination, to Deputy Assistant Secretary Steve Walker, and FLOW director Susan Frost for their support I’m sorry that Susan couldn’t be here today I am deeply honored to accept this award on behalf of working family members who serve our communities at home and abroad every day many of whom are here today Nothing at the department is a solo achievement I assure you Teamwork is everything and I have had the honor to work with the best I actually joined a long line of advocates, including our beloved Leslie Dorman, to speak out about family member employment and the importance of it to the Foreign Service community And I applaud the family Liaison Office for all of their recent achievements in this regard And looking forward, I’d like to quickly mention a new project that we have– never wanted to pass up an opportunity for a little, you know, announcement It’s been my dream to expand wellness programming overseas, and in 2016, Employee Relations teamed up with the Office of Medical Services and launched a wellness pilot in Bogota, Colombia Some of the people who worked on that program are here today with my friends from that I hope you have a chance to talk to them We now have a successful roadmap for this program, and there are 60 posts that have expressed interest in having a wellness program at their post So that is the potential, not to put too fine a point on it, for 60 new jobs for family members if we can just keep going I’d like to recognize my current director, Sigrid Emrich, for all her support and my colleagues in the Work Life division, a team of talented HR professionals developing policy on telework, parental leave, and benefits among many other important programs that they support I’m so happy that Ambassador Rob Nolan, who was on the committee that hired me into the Family Liaison in 1995, is here today Can you believe this, Rob, that we are still– it’s just hard to believe, isn’t it? And special thanks to Kendall Montgomery and Faye Barnes, fellow directors under whom I served, and all of our past and present colleagues I’m so touched that you’re here I hope that all of you have a chance before the morning is over to say hello to our son David, our daughter, and her son-in-law Catherine and Carl [INAUDIBLE],, who are sitting here, and my grandson Thank you for being here And Larry Thank you for that Foreign Service journey

It was great Thank you all DR. OWEN: Congratulations I’m very happy to introduce Dr. [INAUDIBLE] our AAFSW state liaison, who will present the 2017 Leslie Dorman Award, which is dedicated to a former AAFSW president [INAUDIBLE] has been an AAFSW member almost as long as Leslie and has also served as a president She received both the Tragen and the Dorman awards and was one of the two people selected by Leslie and a State Department committee to open the Family Liason office in 1978 Subsequently, she received a State Department superior honor award to recognize her work in the [INAUDIBLE] community Liaison Office [INAUDIBLE], please SPEAKER 3: Thank you, and good morning We have now reached the final portion of the program when the Leslie Dorman award will be presented as many of you know, Leslie Dorman was a devoted member of the AFSW for over 50 years She was a tireless advocate for Foreign Service spouses and families, and her dedication and determination resulted in major accomplishments, most notably in the establishment of the Family Liaison Office, which will turn 40 years old next year Would you believe? In 1993, to honor her many accomplishments, the AFSW established the award which I’m about to present on behalf of the Dorman family We are very pleased to welcome Tim Dorman, who is the son of Leslie and Philip Dorman This year’s recipient of the Leslie Dorman award is Anna Dworken Anna has supported the AFSW since 1981 when she first became a member Overseas she served as the AFSW post representative and also supported the AFSW through her job as the CLO coordinator In Washington, Anna joined the AFSW board and served as its assistant treasurer for three years She still serves on the finance committee Born in New Zealand herself, she was active in the setting up of the original foreign born spouses network and also served on the board of the Foreign Service Youth Foundation Since 2008, she has concentrated on the AFSW book room and the book fair At one point, a huge backlog of old, rare, and potentially very valuable books was discovered Anna took on the Herculean task of cleaning up this back log This was a very specialized, exacting, and time consuming task which involved learning a great deal about valuing, pricing, and selling rare old books It also took several years to do She still enjoys managing the collector’s corner for the bookstore and for the book fair She has commented that it is most satisfying when a customer finds a volume which is particularly appealing With her specialized knowledge and steadfast support, she has been a very important part of the book store book fair operation, for 10 years As a colleague of Anna’s wrote, I have worked on several projects with her over the years She continues to have enthusiasm, is thoughtful in her ideas, and takes the time to make suggestions and improvements to the task at hand Anna has been a wonderful asset to the Collector’s Corner And so on behalf of the Dorman family, it gives me great pleasure to present the 2017 Dorman award to Anna Dworken for sustained outstanding service to the associates of the American Foreign Service worldwide Thank you MS. ANNA DWORKEN: Thank you, [INAUDIBLE],,

for that wonderful introduction It is now more than a year since Leslie Dorman passed away, but I think she would be very happy to know that her annual award will continue to recognize those who volunteer for AAFSW And it is special that her son could be here today Books are very important to AAFSW We receive wonderful donations all year round and we sell them in our bookstore downstairs in the State Department and at our annual art and book fair, which is very special The proceeds support the scholarships we give to Foreign Service family members and other member services I really enjoy the process of pricing and selling the gold old books, the collectible ones, the beautiful ones I really do enjoy it And I especially value the friendships I have made with others while volunteering, and there’s many of them here today, and that is very special So thank you very much for this award DR. OWEN: And this is yours also So ladies and gentlemen, distinguished guests, there is a very special guest and longtime AAFSW member sitting in our audience today that we would like to honor with a much deserved surprise award This award is very timely, as the volunteers of the Associates of the American Foreign Service Worldwide and the Association for Diplomatic Studies in Training are launching a joint effort to record the history of the American Foreign Service spouses This long time AAFSW member has been a pioneer of this effort by recording the stories of over 170 American diplomatic spouses and initiating the Foreign Service Spouse Oral History Project in 1986 Most of these stories are now in the Library of Congress, and a summary of this appears in her book, Married to the Foreign Service, which was published in 1994 To help me give this special award, I would like to invite one of the spouses interviewed for this project and whose interview is in the Library of Congress, Mrs. Sheila Switzer, our AAFSW Program Chair and foreign [INAUDIBLE] spouse state liaison As the president of the Associates of the American Foreign Service Worldwide, it is my great honor to present the AAFSW Lifetime Achievement Award to Ms. Jewel Fenzi Jewel, please [INAUDIBLE] This award includes the picture of the family of Jewel [INAUDIBLE] the Associates of the American Foreign Service Worldwide present the Lifetime Achievement Award to Jewel Fenzi for being a pioneer in recording the oral history of the American diplomatic spouse– Tuesday, November 7, 2017 Thank you very much MS. JEWEL FENZI: Well, I had a carefully planned one moment speech But I was going to talk about my oral history life But after listening to these women today, there was no way I was going to talk about what I did compared to what they’re doing today I mean, it’s a different Foreign Service, and I take my hat off to all of you, really

I did enjoy doing the oral histories because when my husband retired and I got tired of sanding floors and things after 10 years of tenants in our house, I went over to the Library of Congress one day to look up all that I expected to find about Foreign Service wives There was virtually nothing The most interesting thing was a little play written by someone from the Oil Press in I think it was Wyoming, and it described Abigail Adams’ gown when she was presented when John was the minister to– I thought, you know, we had to do something about updating that And right after that, I met Don Ritchie Don, where are you? You’re here today OK, there you– well, Don, stand up because you pay– without Don, this would never have happened He also happened to be the head of the oral history association of America at that time And he just took my hand and led me through oral history Don, I have all your notes and I have all your letters If you ever get another client, I’ll be happy to share them with you because– and then I have to thank all of you too because Judy Ikels was one of the interviews And [INAUDIBLE],, you must have been an interview Yes, yes And– who? DR. OWEN: Patty– Patricia Ryan? MS. FENZI: Oh yes, yes, and Sheila too, yes, or many others DR. OWEN: [INAUDIBLE] MS. FENZI: Yes, so you’re here today And we just interviewed these wives We had to find money And fortunately, Mrs Jefferson Patterson had formed the MARPAT Foundation, and she was most generous with us And she made it really possible for us to do what we did I’m sorry she is not here today to– I’m also sorry that my husband Guido isn’t here today because as I did in the book say, thank you for taking me along because I couldn’t have done it without you And now my two darling children have taken his place, Ruth Reader and my son, Camillo Fenzi Several months ago, I said, you know, Camillo, the fact that you grew up the way you did– I mean, you went to 13 schools in I don’t know how many continents, how many languages And I said, I was just amazed at how American you really are And he said, mom, we saw everybody lived this way So they really did enjoy the Foreign Services I did and I think we all had such a wonderful time And I’m glad you all are having such wonderful, successful time too Thank you [INTERPOSING VOICES] PROGRAM CHAIR SWITZER: I would like you to congratulate also Julia because she is 90 years old MS. FENZI: [INAUDIBLE] DR. OWEN: Well, congratulations– a much deserved award And we hope that the joint effort between AAFSW and ADSD to carry on this idea will take roots, especially when donors will approve the grants that we have written and we can move forward So with this, I would like to conclude the ceremony I would like to thank all of you for being present We are very, very pleased that you are all here for this lovely occasion All of us at the associates of the American Foreign Service Worldwide would like to thank our generous donors, the original [INAUDIBLE] FLOW director Susan Frost, Christina Randolph, and the Family Liason of the staff, the core, our AAFSW social [INAUDIBLE] and the Social Committee and our own members for their continued support of our annual AAFSW awards program As the president, I would like to personally thank Deputy Assistant Secretary Dierman for all her support and for honoring us with her presence as well as [INAUDIBLE] Shiela Switzer, And our AAFSW Office

Manager [INAUDIBLE] for their boundless efforts and relentless determination to perfection All the winners, if it is possible with your certificates, please come up on the stage so we can take a picture with your certificates And thank you all for attending You are most welcome to join us at the reception Enjoy your afternoon and enjoy a lovely cloudy day in Washington DC PROGRAM CHAIR SWITZER: [INAUDIBLE] our next program, December 12 at the State Department We want to have a wonderful concept [INAUDIBLE] piece for the holiday season We look forward to seeing you on the [INAUDIBLE] in the U.S Marshal of [INAUDIBLE] at 11 o’clock Thank you for coming Have a wonderful

CoT&L Symposium 2018 | Keynote Speaker: Cathy N. Davidson | Low Memorial Library, February 22

– – Good afternoon and welcome I’m John Coatsworth, provost of the university And it’s my pleasure to welcome you here this afternoon to the third annual Celebration of Teaching and Learning Symposium Thanks for coming It should be an exciting afternoon This annual event celebrates the innovative efforts of faculty and graduate students in transforming their teaching and brings together Columbia faculty, students, and administrators to celebrate their accomplishments I want to say a word of special thanks to Soulaymane Kachani, who is the vice provost for teaching and learning, and to Catherine Ross, who is the director of the Center for Teaching and Learning at Columbia, which has only been here three years, but seems like it’s been here forever This year we are pleased to have Cathy Davidson, educator and author of the New Education: How to Revolution the University to Prepare Students for a World in Flux, as our keynote speaker Davidson is the founding director of the Futures Initiative, a distinguished professor in the PhD program in English at CUNY’s Graduate Center, and the R.F DeVarney Professor Emerita of Interdisciplinary Studies at Duke University You’ll hear from her later today Today’s events feature presentations by Columbia faculty and graduate student instructors, who will share their experiences working to solve problems and improving learning in their classrooms We are also hosting participatory discussions, involving all of you, around Cathy Davidson’s strategies for engaging students in their learning, as well as a visual showcase of insights from Columbia students We have a table on College Walk It stopped raining for awhile I don’t know if it’s started up again But you’re welcome to visit It’s collecting feedback from students on how they’ve best learned, and we will share their observations with all of you today After the keynote talk, you are invited to a reception, and a faculty and graduate student poster exhibit In addition to events like the symposium, the provost’s office supports teaching innovations through funding opportunities And since 2014, we’ve awarded over 80 grants, and several awardees are participating in today’s events Today is an opportunity to celebrate their successful course design projects The office of the provost recently launched the 2018 request for proposals, for those of you who are looking to integrate new educational methods and technologies into your classrooms and learning environments So we have an exciting afternoon for you We hope you will take advantage of this opportunity today to explore new ideas for your own teaching, and make new connections with a community of inspired teachers and learners at Columbia, and meet our CTL staff, as well Thank you all very much for coming Enjoy the afternoon – Good afternoon, everyone I’m Catherine Ross, the still-new executive director of the Center for Teaching and Learning And I am just so delighted to welcome you here this afternoon for what is my first symposium, Celebration of Teaching and Learning Symposium, but the CTL’s and the provost’s office’s third symposium We are just really excited that you’re all here I’m curious who’s all in the room Do we have any undergrad students joining us today? Woo-hoo Okay, grad students? Yeah And faculty? Yeah Great, great That’s wonderful So I’m here to introduce our speaker Cathy Davidson, as many of you may know, is known for being an educational innovator and a distinguished scholar of the history of technology and higher ed And she is an avid proponent of active learning as a tool that helps students to understand and navigate the radically changed global world in which we now all live and work, and learn Professor Davidson is a distinguished professor of English, the founding director of the Futures Initiative at the Graduate Center at CUNY

And she is the R.F DeVarney Professor Emerita of Interdisciplinary Studies at Duke University, where she served as Duke’s, and the nation’s, first vice provost for interdisciplinary studies She is the co-founding director, now co-director, of HASTAC Some of you may have heard of this This is the Humanities, Arts, Science and Technology Alliance and Collaboratory She is on the board of directors at Mozilla and served on the National Council of the Humanities as an appointee of President Barack Obama She is the 2016 recipient of the Ernest J Boyer Award for Significant Contributions to Higher Education She is a champion of new ideas and methods for learning and professional development; in school, in the workplace, and in everyday life In this talk, Professor Davidson situates the modern research university within its Taylorist origins And I’ll let her explain that to you She asks provocatively what higher education would look like if we were to consider, deeply and thoroughly, the kind of university that students need today to prepare them for the complexities of the world that they have inherited As a former student of Professor Davidson’s 2013 MOOC, the History and Future, parentheses, of Mostly Higher Education, I am especially delighted to present to you our speaker today, distinguished professor Cathy Davidson – Thanks Catherine I believe you were the best student in that class And thanks to everybody at Columbia for welcoming me today I had a wonderful meeting just prior to this with the provost and a number of faculty who are exploring innovative, is this okay? I don’t need that, right? I don’t need the mic? Innovative teaching, and it was very exciting to hear about things that are happening here at Columbia Let’s start with a little bit of history Charles was a young man who thought he had his future taken care of He was one of the lucky ones He had a trust fund He didn’t have to support himself with his own occupation And he loved what he did He’s a theoretical chemist of the kind that didn’t make much money, but maybe could change the world Then his father lost everything in the financial crisis, and suddenly he was faced with what my students call a quarterlife crisis What am I gonna do? What am I gonna do with my life? How am I gonna earn a living? Do I like this job I just got? Am I one of the 94% of new graduates, according to the Katz study, 94% of all new graduates, in new kinds of jobs created in the last decade are gonna be in some form of contingent labor, meaning part-time, work by the job, not benefits, not security WeWork is, I think, one of the fastest growing businesses in, I guess, worldwide right now Quarterlife crisis is a celebration of that, a lament of that, of the what am I gonna do Except the Charles I’m talking about, of course, is Charles Eliot And the situation I’m describing is so parallel to the one today He was a 25-year-old professor of theoretical chemistry at Harvard at a time when you weren’t expected, this voice is very strange Is it okay? Can everyone hear? Okay At a time when it wasn’t expected that you earned your income as a professor Of course not Because your father went to Harvard His father went to Harvard And you had money You earned a very, an honorarium, not a salary His father lost the entire Eliot family fortune in the Panic of 1857, the world’s first general massive financial crisis In Europe, it was thought that the cause of the Panic of 1857 was America’s terrible education system Because Americans were making, and this will sound a little familiar, were making incredible strides in inventions, and in technology, in industry, but still had a system of higher education where the most elite Americans were going to college to train them to be ministers

The college system had changed very much since the puritan colleges originally established in the United States At that time at Harvard, which was still based on the puritan college model, only 10% to 20% of students actually went on to be ministers So what Eliot was thinking was that there was a mismatch shared by pretty much everybody in Europe between the ambitions of this country and the education that prepared people to actually be the professional managerial class, to run the new industries that were being made Eliot lucked out He had another grandfather that passed away and left him enough money to go with himself, his wife, and his two young children to Europe for two years And he went to Europe to study the German system of education that had gone through remarkable changes in the 19th century The Humboldtian university was specifically designed to train a new professional managerial class So Eliot studied that university He went to France and studied the very different French university And he came back and had a job at one of the first new upstart universities based on the German system: a little university called MIT MIT actually paid its faculty a living wage, because it thought of itself as a new, modern university, not just an inheritance While he was at MIT, Charles Eliot wrote an essay called The New Education He stole my title The New Education appeared in 1969, and it appeared in two issues of The Atlantic Monthly magazine and was one of the most read and controversial essays to appear at that time And basically he said their was nothing suitable about the current system of education, and everything needed to be changed Unfortunately, I usually read these slides, and I’m gonna have a little bit of difficulty reading them from here, I’m afraid Maybe Okay, I might have to come down and cuddle with one of these slides It requires courage to quit the beaten paths in which the great majority of well-educated men have walked, and still walk Conservatism is never more respectable than in education, for nowhere are the risks greater We’re educating people’s children The parents of those children went to school in a different system, in an older system It was good enough for me, why isn’t it good enough for you? So you have many cultural constraints telling you why you can’t change higher education, even in the face of something like the Panic of 1857, where you have a worldwide financial crisis that’s being reported on morse code faster than anyone can cope with the challenge Astonishingly, Harvard had gone through three presidents in quick succession, and they called Charles Eliot, 34 years old, and said, how would you like to be our president He said yes And he served as Harvard’s president for an unprecedented 40 years During that time, he, or one of his friends, or one of his students, transformed pretty much everything about higher education His idea was, if K through 12, the new compulsory system of public education, K through 12 compulsory education, was to design factory workers, farmers to be factory workers, and everything about this system of education was to instill the values of the factory in farmers Anyone here remotely come from a farm background? Oh, yay Not very often, right? The key part of being a farmer is you’re constantly making decisions yourself You have to If you have like a mental to-do list that you have to fix the fences that day, I’m from Chicago, so I learned about being a farmer through a marriage to somebody whose family were actually ranchers It was like, so interesting But if you’re a farmer or a rancher, and you have a list that says you’re going to fix the fences that day, and you ride out into the field, and you find that your prized cattle are caught up in the fences and bleeding, you’re an idiot if you take the time to fix the fence rather than to deal with the cow or the horse that’s bleeding You’re constantly making changes If it rains, you do something If it’s sunny, you do something Summer, you do some things And winter, you do other things The factory is about regularity It’s about time It’s about somebody else telling you what to do It’s about hierarchy And it’s about never using your own brain to question the efficacy of the job you’re doing Eliot believed that what America most needed was an infrastructure of a professional managerial class that could train and be at another management level for those kinds of industrial factory

systems He was very, very much influenced by the great labor theorist of the 19th century, Frederick Winslow Taylor, who believed that outputs and productivity should and could and must be measured And let’s look at some of the things that Eliot put into play, Eliot, his colleagues, his friends, or people he influenced, put into higher education during his 40 years Mandatory public secondary schooling, K through 12 curriculum requirements, land grant universities, research universities, majors, minors, electives, divisions, certification, graduate school, collegiate law school, nursing school, graduate school of education, collegiate business school, degree requirements, credit hours, grades, statistics reported to higher education, and actually invented it as a field, standard deviation, spreadsheets, blueprints, return on equity, punch clocks, IQ tests, giftedness, learning disabilities, multiple choice tests, college entrance exams, multiple choice college entrance exams, the SATs are fully in place by 1925, tenure, sabbaticals, faculty pensions, school rankings, donor-named chairs, corporate sponsorship of research, adolescence, and failure I don’t think there’s anything on that list, a list that was fully in place by 1925, that I have to define for anybody here Why? Because it’s the world we live in, right? It’s the educational system we can right now There’s two things in red And I actually did this work for my last book, which was more based on cognitive neuroscience and focused on K through 12, but it’s such a great story, I love telling it, and that’s grades and failure The first college in the United States to deviate from the standard way of grading, which was either by conversation with a professor or long discursive grades, was a women’s college, Mount Holyoke Why a women’s college? Because this was a time when women were thought to finally be educated Barnard is created around the same time And it was thought that you could sell the Industrial Age by convincing women that the Industrial Age was really about labor-saving devices So Mount Holyoke was going to train the modern women and go to this amazing new productivity system, where you took all the complex things students learn and don’t learn in a semester, you reduce them to one letter grade If you go to the archives at Mount Holyoke, you find out the huge debate at Mount Holyoke was, what about an E? A, B, C, D don’t stand for anything E shouldn’t But they were terrified if you gave someone an E that someone would think they were excellent rather than failing So there’s a whole debate about the importance of not giving an E. But using this scientific system of A, B, C, D, non-referential, and F, failure What’s fascinating about that, two things One, within a year of the assuming of the F as a failure, there’s a whole study among the brand new field of psychology and sociology about what is a failure We go not from, you didn’t pass a course to who is a failure What type of person is a failure? Who fails? There’s a whole sociology And out of that comes giftedness and learning disabilities as fields Second interesting thing, the second major organization after Mount Holyoke to say, hey, A, B, C, D, F, that’s kind of an interesting thing, let’s think about adopting that for our field, is the American Meat Packer’s Association And if you go to the archives of the American Meat Packer’s Association, they don’t argue about A, B, C, D, and oh, what happens if we give an E. They’re worried about how you can take something as complex and subtle as the difference between sirloin and chuck and reduce it to something as brainless and simplistic as a letter grade So to this day, actually, my research on this is about a decade old But a decade ago, I actually went to the American Meat Packer’s Association and interviewed people And it turned out that at least 10 years ago, and probably to this day, every piece of meat travels with its own metadata Metadata is all of that stuff behind anything that’s represented For example, who gave the A, B, C, D, F grade? What other grades did that person give?

What were those written comments that resulted in a grade? Meanwhile, all over higher education and K through 12, people abandon discursive grades and go quite quickly, without that kind of debate and discussion, to A, B, C, D, F grading Now, footnote here, and I’m not going to talk about this today, this enraged many people And the whole progressive movement in education, you know some of the names, Montessori and Dewey being the most prominent, but there are many others, is outraged at that And that’s in fact one of the things that causes the progressive movement in education But grades, numbers, reducing the complexity of all the different ways we learn in a classroom, is adopted almost everywhere in higher education The other thing that’s interesting about this time, and I’m not gonna read this, I think you can, I hope everyone can see, same time that the grading changes, and one of my friends, Fred Moten, a great Afrofuturist poet and theorist, said, if you were a martian and came down to America, and looked at American educational system, K through professional school, you’d say, oh, I get it, this thing, this phenomenon I’m looking at, is about people with power telling people with less power how bad they are It’s kind of sad But in fact, I don’t think there’s a website of any university in America that doesn’t say what the average SAT score is We worry about grade inflation There’s all of these kinds of issues that we worry about that are about grading Interestingly, the professions, and Charles Eliot is right in there, developing these professions, are being created at the same time that higher education is going to this output-oriented productivity level So the people who are creating the standards for higher education are also creating the standards by which to judge one another Virtually every major professional association is being created at the same time, including, the standards for accrediting universities are created at the same time that the universities are going through these changes Interestingly, and though there’s a wide range of universities, Harvard, one of those is a picture of one of the first land grant universities, 70% of land grant universities had presidents who came from Harvard or the ivy leagues, many of them students of Charles Eliot, and Joliet Community College, which actually was one of the first places I ever taught at, one of the first junior colleges in America, started by the president of the University of Chicago, in constant consultation with Eliot and other leaders of the time Interestingly, even though each of those institutions has a radically different mission, they’re all being judged by a hierarchy that basically goes back to what’s being established by the professions and what’s being established by Harvard So if we have a system that’s a kind of circular, self-reinforcing, airtight system of outputs, infrastructure, grading, values, are you a failure, aren’t you a failure, are you gifted, or do you have a learning disability, but all of that was specifically, overtly, hundreds of letters about this, created Eliot was also charged head of the Committee of Ten, by the way, which sets up national standards for high school So we’re talking about a pervasive influence in change But if you’re setting that up for a world of the telegraph, the Model T, the new industrial world, what happens if you live in a world of contingent labor that we’re living in now, and a world that I like to think changed on this date, April 22, 1993 This was the date that a number of professors who taught at the University of Illinois Champaign-Urbana at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications came out to the world with one piece of paper and said, we are about to give you an unimaginable gift What’s on this piece of paper is a list of every website in the world There were about 20 And the gift they gave us on that day was the Mosaic 1.0 browser, a very simple browser that they defined as giving you the ability, if you had an internet connection, that you could interact with anybody else with an internet connection You could go to any of those incredible whole page of websites around the world Without an editor, without a publisher, you could contribute, not just receive, but contribute to that world It’s a very, very different model of productivity from the Taylorist model of one person telling

you what to do, when to do, and how to do it, and measuring an output as a thing, as something that could be reduced to an A, B, C, D, F grade There have been a lot of, I think, really heinous ideas about higher education that supposedly are gonna prepare us for the world we live in now, this world where anybody with an internet connection can interact without a censor, or a publisher, with anybody else with an internet connection One of the ones that was going around for at least a decade, and still is the operating theory behind the defunding of public education, the public defunding, theory behind the public defunding of publication, public education all over the United States, is something that was called unbundling, that the university had all these frills, and we really don’t need any of those anymore All we really need are skills And so there was an emphasis on getting rid of the women’s studies program, no ideology involved in that, or the black studies program, again, no ideology involved in that, or humanities, or even social science In Japan, for example, the Ministry of Education decided that they were gonna shut down 26 humanities and social studies departments in the public educations in Japan And actually, there was a lot of pushback, and it didn’t happen, but that’s the thinking And the idea is you just focus on skills, ’cause that’s where the jobs are Two important studies, one, Project Oxygen, and one, Project Aristotle, done by, by Google itself, right, god, Google, showed that, in fact, the people who are promoted at Google, who rise up the ranks at Google, these are the largest human resources data-crunching studies ever undertaken, all hiring, promotion, rejection, all data from Google, from its beginning to the present, just to see what words came up, what things came up, turns out technical skills were the last of the eight qualities on the list that came out The things that got managers promoted at Google were collaboration, critical thinking, creative thinking, an ability to synthesize information from complex sources and apply those Project management, ability to get along well with others That was the second study The followup study, Project Aristotle, was about teamwork Google famously has teams that are sometimes called A teams They’re not official, but they’re the smart people at Google, the people at Google X And those teas are always put together where the smartest person in each subfield is basically set to fight against each other for the best ideas That’s competition Turns out almost none of the major discoveries at Google have come out of the so-called A teams They come out of the other project teams that are put together by affinity, not necessarily affinity of field, but affinity of people And the number one thing that came up with the most successful, most productive, most profitable, and the longest, and then interestingly, those are overlapped, teams at Google was no bulling It’s not being the smartest person in the room that counts, it’s being able to hear the person who’s voice may not be the loudest, but who may have the most important idea Nothing about A, B, C, D, F quantified productivity, output-oriented education It’s about hearing every voice in the room, including the quiet voice, the suppressed voice, the minority voice, the cognitively different voice But it turned out that’s what was winning at Google Google has changed its hiring algorithms from both studies, to their credit, they’re still, I’m not gonna be a defender of Google But interestingly, they did make changes in their hiring algorithm So you can at least get past the first sword At Georgetown University, there’s something called The Red House, and it literally is a little red house, where they’re thinking about the university not as something that you unbundle, not where you get rid of frills, not where you get rid of skills, but in fact you get rid of the whole idea that some things are frills and some things are skills, and you use all of the incredible resources we have at our universities to rethink problems in complex new ways for the world we’re in now That means all of those things I listed for Eliot, majors, minors, credit hours, all those things are being rethought, literally And Randy Bass, who’s the head of The Red House, likes to ask not just what forms of higher education are possible now, but what forms of higher education are only possible now It’s a challenge Anyone can propose something new at The Red House Anyone can come up with something different And the university supports it It’s basically a think tank for innovation that’s set apart from all of Georgetown, but

in fact, pervades many parts of Georgetown In fact, all of it, all the professional schools, the departments, everything What I’m going to talk about now are various rebundling programs that are happening around the country And my argument is, one, we have incredibly inspiring models everywhere I love to talk at diverse institutions So last week, there was a morning I was at Borough of Manhattan Community College, and I was at Middlebury that afternoon And then I was at Georgia Tech, and then I was at Agnes Scott College Today I’m here, I’m going to Yale in a few days, I’m going to the university of, so in other words, these are vastly different universities, vastly different audiences, and interesting things are happening everywhere How we go, though, from that idea of small, innovative, exceptional opportunities to remaking the university with that whole kind of restructure that we saw with Eliot, and all of those parts together again now is the challenge But for now I’m gonna talk about some inspirations And you all have pencils and paper at your table In part three of this talk, it’ll be your turn That’s not just swag, you’re actually gonna be doing something But that comes later Now some models Randy Bass likes to say that for all universities that looking to innovation, these are the kinds of questions, not the only ones, but the kinds we should be asking What if curriculums were redesigned around problems or issues, not disciplines? What if digital literacy, or what’s being called by the New York city council ethical tech, were taught as foundational? What if grades and test scores were not the chief measures for success? What if classrooms were active, student-led, beyond the lecture or the seminar? What if teaching and curriculums were not tied to credit hours or academic calendars? What if students could work on bachelor’s and master’s degrees at the same time? What if universities created partnerships across diverse institutions? What if purpose was not just workforce ready, but world readiness? When I was at Georgia tech, all the students I was talking to were aerospace engineers, computer science engineers, and I was in a meeting with about 70 undergraduates and several administrators And I said to students, write down on your card, and then we’re gonna have you read it, we’re gonna do the same exercise here, but their question, I said, what thing do you really think is important for you to learn at Georgia Tech that will make a huge difference in your life beyond Georgia Tech? Not one person said jobs Not one student said money They asked questions like, how do I figure out out what I wanna do with my life? How do I figure out how to have a purpose? I’m an aerospace engineer How do I figure out how that can contribute to society? What if I don’t want the biggest salary, but the most meaningful work? How do I do that? The administrators were floored In a million years, they didn’t think that this group of sort of hand-selected, super-smart students were going to go to really deep questions about, meaning of my life But I think, I don’t think Columbia students are any different I think the whole idea of the quarterlife crisis is sometimes you get the job you really want, the perfect job you’ve trained your whole life for, and you’re like, wow, this is not what I want Right? In the model institutions that are asking those kinds of big questions, this one I found out after I finished my book, and I’m gonna be talking the them at late, later on this semester, but in some ways it surprises me most, because Yale didn’t have to change a thing about its history department It produces more professors of history than any other university in the country by four times the next placement in history But Yale U’s history major used to be the number one major at Yale; it hasn’t been since 2000 Economics is now, was, I’m giving away my punchline, was the, had become the number one major Historians at Yale said, what if we remake our program? Because we believe history’s important What if we remake it so that there’s one major you can take if you’re planning to go on to graduate school, a pre-professional degree, going on to graduate school to be a history professor, like your professors at Yale? And what if we make another history major for anybody, in any field, who thinks it might be useful to have a complex, comparative, historical perspective on really, really difficult problems? So they did that Now, any historians here? Oh, wow Okay The two gods of history are periodization and nation

You’re a historian, what do you do? Oh, I work on the American Civil War, 1865, you know, right? That’s what a historian does They got rid of those And they said every course in this non-professional major had to talk about phenomena within a global context, and had to talk about the causes leading into it and leading out of it beyond periodization What that meant was conversation Every history professor had to talk to other history professors They also adopted the cohort model I’m not gonna get into this unless you want me to in the Q and A. Not the core model, a cohort model And cohort model means you define a cohort, and people within that cohort share certain kinds of knowledge that’s different from people in another cohort So if you’re in the class of 2020, you take a class with every history major in the class of 2020, your freshman year, your sophomore year, your junior year But the subject matter changes, and it’s different than the subject matter learned by the class of 2021 What I’m talking to people at Yale about is they’re are even thinking of having some kind of a competition where students who graduate from the program help come up with the syllabus for the next year’s cohort That’s pretty cool That’s a pretty interesting model And we’ve got lots of work from study groups at Harvard to intercity kids in Chicago on how cohorts help with retention, motivation, interest, setting the bar even higher, all kinds of things Cohort models work Interestingly, the same historians that redid the non-professional major got bored with their professional major, and they said, well, since we’re number one, let’s change it So they’ve actually gone back and now are changing the pre-professional major as well And punchline, history is now the number one major at Yale again Pretty interesting I would not have guessed Oh, it’s also part of something by the American Historical Society called Tuning the History Discipline that 123 history departments have taken part in, many, much smaller things, but they’re all thinking in those terms Another one That internet that got invented that got made available to us in 1993 is a little problematic these days And if Googled the name David Hogg two days ago, the first thing that came up in it, he’s the young man who was in, the shooting victim in Florida who has been so eloquent, two days ago, if you Googled him, the first thing that came up was a fake thing that said he was an actor, not a student That was the first thing in the Google search terms That got reported in the news It was the number one clicked-through item on YouTube That’s how fake news gets reported Now if you Google David Hogg, you’ll find a correction He is not, but for 24 hours, a lot of people were believing that the horrible shooting in Florida and this one young man who’s been so eloquent were all fake Literally, that is was all a fake thing by George Soros One of my favorite critics of the internet, Zeynep Tufekci, says Web 1.0 was, it’s all about information Yay, we have information at our disposal Then, let’s go social Now we’re kind of in this third world, weaponized/monetized fraud, bots and trolls, organized attention manipulation, Uberized unregulated labor, algorithmic unaccountability, end of net neutrality, Internet of Fake Things And she says, I love this line, we’re building a dystopia just to make people click on ads Wow, that’s depressing This cartoon, by the way, I found, I still haven’t found out who did it The original cartoon appeared in the New Yorker in 1993 And the original caption was, on the internet, nobody knows you’re a dog And it was a celebration of anonymity You can do anything on the internet Nobody knows who you are And so, here’s this dog saying, hey, on the internet, nobody knows you’re a dog This one, on the internet, nobody knows you’re a democracy We’re in a much more dire situation now than we were in 1993 One of my favorite programs, model programs, that addresses these kinds of issues is the digital sociology program run by Tressie McMilan Cottom at Virginia Commonwealth University, a public university, where people who are full professionals in jobs that are stressed by internet changes take a master’s degree where they learn key, important concepts of sociology and apply those to their stressed lives And they’re learning code And they’re learning what’s in an algorithm And they’re learning about the working conditions of their own company as they’re still working in those fields that are going through stresses

To me, that’s a really brilliant program Another one is at Arizona State, a program in Arts, Media, and Engineering, where students take complex general education requirements around not the smorgasbord distribution, but around a problem that requires them to think across many disciplines And they pose a question each year to the incoming students that’s really hard for any one discipline to understand My favorite is, what will life be like in Phoenix when there’s no more water? Needless to say, you’ve probably all read, Capetown’s about to run out of water And people say Phoenix is number two on the list as a major city about to run out We run out of water, no problem, we’ll buy it What if you’re too poor to buy it? Hmm, that’s an ethics and a social justice issue, not an hydrology issue, right? So, a complex that requires you to use your learning, all your learning, rebundled to think about current and urgent problems And in a deep way How have other people talked about resource distribution? How has that happened historically? What are the philosophical issues involved in that, as well as the scientific ones? Interestingly, should I move on? Another one, the tyranny of testing Hampshire College, which is known for being inventive, and funky, and interesting decided, why are we collecting SAT scores? We’re not gonna do it anymore That may not sound so brave, but it means they can never be in rankings And they spent years talking to accreditors about, could they still be accredited if they didn’t collect, didn’t collect, literally, do not have any record of ACT or SAT scores They found that it has improved the kind of students they want to recruit, as well as their recruitment rate and their selectivity And then one more, and then I’m gonna turn this over to you The lecture and the seminar, what we know from educational sociologists is that faculty tend to think everybody contributes, when 20% of students talk in a class The people who talk in class tend to most replicate the characteristics of their professor So this interesting Samuel Delany went to Bronx School of Science He was gay, and as soon as he graduated from high school, he ran to the West Village And he published his first novel at age 20, and never went to college In the 1970s, he had an opportunity to teach at Wesleyan, and had this fantasy of what college was gonna be like Many people say he is the greatest autodidact in America His library is like Lowell Library I mean, it’s an astonishing, he’s an astonishingly learned human being He asked a question and was shocked when those three smarties raised their hand We’re usually happy if we ask a question and three smart kids raise hand, right? Three smart students He was appalled Like, that’s not his idea of this utopia, of higher education So he said, don’t you realize that every time you don’t answer a question, you’re learning something? You’re learning how to make due with what you’ve got, and you’re learning how not to ask for a raise You’re learning how to take it That’s not good So, from now on, whenever I ask a question, everybody’s gotta put their hand up I don’t care whether you know the answer or not You have to put your hand up I’m gonna call on you, and if you don’t know the answer, I want you to say nice and clear: I don’t the answer to that, Professor Delany, but I would like to hear what that person has to say, and we’ll pass it on I don’t care whether you know or not You need to teach people they’re important enough to say what they have to say In the same video, he says not knowing should be the goal of higher education We’re not aiming high enough if people know We should be testing people so they don’t know and want to learn how they know So for about the last 10 or 15 years, I have remade all my classrooms so my students make the class My students create syllabi I’m happy to talk about this in many different ways They set the requirements for the class In both of these classes, and one of the students who was in one of those classes, new director of digital projects at Columbia University, this group of students said, we don’t wanna write wanna dorky term papers We wanna write a book about active learning Now, if you don’t think that’s ambitious for students to collectively write a book, it’s

also had about 30,000 visitors in its various forms Most academic books do not have 30,000 readers And the Graduate Center, a year and a half ago, I had another group of students who said, we wanna do it, we wanna update that book We’ve got some other things to put in that book And they wrote a book In both cases, the bar I set was, hi, I’m Cathy Davidson, I’m your professor, I’m gonna leave now And when I come back, I want you to have designed a class that’s gonna change all of our lives I’ve been doing this for about 15 years And everyone says, oh, they’re gonna get away with, but I’ve never had the students set the bar lower than I would have set In fact, if there’s any problem with this kind of teaching, it’s saying dial it back, you’re taking four classes You can’t fail the other classes Come on, let’s be reasonable here We’ve gotta do some project management But if you let students do something meaningful, you don’t have to worry about banning laptops and banning cellphones They’re going to be engaged And in fact, we’re gonna do something now that will illustrate the most basic, most basic technique of all It’s gonna take very little time The first part, it’s a three part exercise, the first part is 90 seconds I’m gonna set a timer And that’s everybody, please, 90 seconds to take a card and a pencil, if you ran Columbia University, it was yours, and you could change three things right now, and you could make a magic wand and it would happen, what would you do to revolutionize Columbia University? 90 seconds, it’s totally low stakes Although, make it legible, because you may not be the last person reading this 90 seconds, go for it So this is an exercise I learned from a second grade teacher But it’s also the basis of some practices in medical school The way medical is, the way you learned surgeries, oh, this is really old school: see one, do one, teach one It’s the basic, basic, basic lesson of active learning I never have a class, it’s also called an inventory method, because unlike selectivity, where people raise, people, three people ask questions, everybody gets to be involved Also, another figure that haunts me is we have, again, educational sociologists saying about 20, according to this study that’s been replicated in various versions, between 20% and 25% of students say, when they leave college, they’ve never answered a question unless they’ve been specifically asked it So they’ve never heard their voice in a classroom So the pair part of this is I want you now, I want you to do a little bit, this is a big group, do a little bit of a variation here Two things, I want you to work in pairs Very structured One person reads, don’t extrapolate, just reads the three things on your card, and the other person listens very quietly, no interruption, then switch So what that does is everybody gets an opportunity to listen, also underrated, most people listen to their lecture, to the professor, don’t ever know what’s happening among their peers There’s also figures that are very depressing, I don’t have the exact number, of people being in even classes with 10 or 12 students and graduating without ever knowing the name of anybody else in the class So you’re not really paying attention to all the talent in a room You’re paying attention to what’s happening here, and your grade, right? I don’t think that’s a big surprise So 90 seconds, find a partner, one person reads the three things, the other person listens, then you switch Then we’re going to do a little variation on share So you’re gonna do, every table is gonna do two things Pair a person, one reads, one listens, one listens, one reads Then come up with a question that your table can ask the whole group So first it’s a pair, and then you’re gonna collaborate and tell each other, and you only have 90 seconds to do it Super low stakes, go for it And you should be now writing down something that you’re gonna, someone from your table’s gonna read to the whole group Okay, does everyone have, every table has something they’re ready to share with the

group? Does everyone have something they’re gonna share with the group? Can I have your attention, please? Excuse me, could I have your attention, please? Excuse me, please That’s my favorite moment in every talk, where I have to fight for your attention Because with active learning, you have something far more important and urgent to say than what I’m talking up here And we’ve got lots of research on this A year from now, if somebody says, that Davidson, you went to a Davidson talk, what did you learn there, what did you talk about that day, the thing you’re most likely to say is the thing you wrote on your card, or the thing you came up with in your group It involves all of it You get to, for the shy person, there’s some magic that happens when you can wite something on the card and read it, as opposed to talking extempt People in the field of public speaking say, the oldest saw in the field of public speaking is that most people, a majority of people, would rather be in the coffin rather than giving the eulogy at a funeral Public speaking is terrifying to most people If you write something on, have somebody write, take the time in a quiet environment to write something, and then just read it, somehow it depersonalizes it, makes it possible so everybody can contribute Sharing with somebody else is a hearing exercise that helps you improve your own thinking And then synthesizing it into something you’re gonna share with the group is an incredibly important collaborative skill These are all meta skills that we do in college, but we rarely talk about them They’re probably the most important thing you can learn in the university But also, we know that meta level, the synthesis level, is where learning happens, not just when you hear something We’ve had the Ebbinghaus experiments that go all the way back to 1888, the so-called forgetting curve If you have a major exam you’re studying for, within a week after that exam, you’re likely to have forgotten up to 75% of the material you studied for that exam So either my friend Fred Moten is right, that our whole educational apparatus is about how you do, how you’re graded, or we have to think about better ways of learning that last beyond the week, one week A very famous, elite, $75,000 a year private prep school that I’m no longer allowed to name by name did a study, a great study about five years ago, where they had every student, in September, take the same exact exams they had taken in May The average grade, best, one of the top five schools on every list, fanciest schools in the, every list, average grade in May, 88, average grade in September, same students, same exams, 55 That’s what attention is That’s what learning is And what you remember is what’s meaningful to you What you synthesize, what you talk about, what you discuss with somebody else, what you work through, those are the things that matter to us, and that’s what learning is But it’s a choice And we’re about to go around the room with microphones so you can tell us what you’d revolutionize about the university But tomorrow, these inventory techniques are techniques that you can use in any classroom I also use them at the business meetings for my group of fellows and apprentice teachers who are learning these methods I had a graduate student at a totally failed department meeting raise her hand and say to the professor, a new chair, who was utterly despondent, because nobody would contribute anything meaningful in this department meeting of maybe 85 people, a graduate student, one of our fellows, said, what if we just turned to somebody and workshopped an idea, and then you went around the room and saw? Suddenly the room was alive with ideas He thought people were hostile It’s just the paralysis that happens in a group when you don’t have a method for finding out what real ideas are, and those two or three noisy people monopolize the conversation We all know who they are, right? You go to a meeting, you know who’s gonna ask a long question That usually begins like, I don’t know if this is really a question Maybe I’m the only one who’s been in that audience What we’re gonna do now is, we’ve got two microphones, we’re just rapid fire, gonna go around to each table, and have you shout out what you would revolutionize first about the institution – Try to tackle the issue of siloed thinking between departments and schools

– [Cathy] We have a terrible echo in here Can you say that again? – Yes, to try to tackle the problem of siloed thinking creating a structure that would work, facilitating students to cross over more effectively – Thank you, silos, wow I mean, that’s really a hard one Many universities are trying to tackle that It’s a hard one And we have to, we have to The world is not silos anymore Those silos were invented for a reason, and a purpose, and a time period Yes? Next one – How can we foster online collaborative learning across disciplines, schools, and national borders? – Fabulous, thank you Everyone can hear these, right? Great Someone from the table better take that mic Great, thank you – [Man] Incentivize slash not punish collaboration among teachers – I just was in an hour-long meeting with your provost and a committee that was talking about how you do that, how you incentivize that Huge, clearly a matter that we’re all concerned about Thank you – Provide new types of physical space for interaction, collaboration, and other needs to be defined – [Cathy] Ah, built environments, thank you – Figure out a way to have teaching across disciplines, where the core is finding problems – [Cathy] Ah, excellent This is exactly what the provost meeting I was in just an hour ago was about, fascinating – That was sort of our question How can we build interdisciplinarity without departments So I guess we now know – [Cathy] I think we’ve got a thing goin’ on here, right? It’s good Just read on the card – We talked, I think we had a common element in the idea of stimulating student agency – [Cathy] Again, I’m sorry, I’m in a particularly– – Stimulating student agency, how this could be done – Student, yes, great, thank you – Probably a bit wishful, but also thinking, how do we rethink how we assess learning without numerical grades? – Again, I couldn’t hear the last part – [Woman] Rethink assessing learning without using numerical grading -Yeah That’s a project You know, it’s interesting, we can assess and evaluate everything in our society Tinder does a better job than we do I don’t know what that is, I don’t know what that, Yelp does a better job You know, we’re using a system, multiple choice exam, the first one was invented in 1914, because there was a teacher shortage, and this was going to help lower, test lower order thinking for, quote, unquote, it’s not a term I would use, the lower orders And now, that test, if I put that test up on a screen, you would think it was written for the SATs yesterday Weird, we’ve got all these ways of testing for multiple complex qualities, and we still are using this system that was invented a long time ago Yes? – How do we facilitate interdepartment, interschool communication across faculty and students? – Excellent Silos and assessment, student agency, these are really deep key issues – I have a somewhat unfair advantage, because I have designed a university from scratch, and the key point was, go to the one class at a time block system, where you take four courses in a row instead of four courses simultaneously – Yeah, excellent – [Man] Change our grade insistence so we’re more like Hampshire college – So we’re more like? I didn’t hear the last word – [Man] Hampshire College – [Man] Recognition of the Graduate Workers Union – Excellent I was at a school that, oh, I’m not gonna even say it I’m at a unionized school now, and I’m a very happy person But I know that that’s not a beloved point of view – [Man] How do we revamp the curriculum so students take only two multidisciplinary courses per semester? – Ah, that’s great – So, a common theme on our table was communication As a student here, a lot of the departments work compartmentalized And just basic communication would be quite helpful and less arduous for students – And I hope that by going back and looking at the history, you realize it’s not some capriciousness of Columbia This is a system, it’s an infrastructure

It was designed My pet peeve is people say, you can’t change higher education, because higher education hasn’t changed since Socrates walked the floor of the academy over 2,000 years ago Actually, not Education was carefully, structurally, systematically, block-by-block redesigned in order to make a professional managerial class for the age of the Model T and the telegraph Also came worker rights, labor regulation I keep saying, do you all know what the book The Jungle is, published in 1906, that created a huge movement, where people started thinking about all the different related points of technology and what was happening with industrialization? We desperately need The Jungle for now, where labor, attention, silos, assessment, selectivity, I’m trying to think of some of the other things, credit hours, imposed structures that might not have anything to do with actual knowledge production I mean, how, we don’t learn outside of school, if you have to really learn something challenging outside of school, you never, my nine-month-old, hmm, B-minus on walking today We don’t do that, right? External, summative measures do not work All that work for is to do better on that external summative measure But we have a whole system that was based on a world that has changed radically And what I loved about the comments that you all made is clearly we are all thinking together and now, and deeply about those issues Now we have to go from those places that give us inspiration, and what I tried to do in my book was an ethnography of all kinds of different colleges, universities, community colleges, community organizations that are using these methods and actually making some kinds of change But how we go from that to a systematic, systemic and systematic structural change, I’m afraid we probably don’t have, do we have change for, oh, we have time, we have three minutes Does anyone bravely wanna ask a question in the three minutes we have left? Anyone? If not, ah, okay, yes Thank you – [Man] I really appreciated this And one of the questions I want to ask is the relationship between education and industry a little bit more Because there’s, of course, the feedback loop between the current education system we have optimizing for itself, and I’m curious if you have any thoughts on changes to education that could happen, not just from education, but from practice, or from discipline onto education Because of course, the feedback loop onto education works both ways, right? – The feedback loop starts in New York I think it starts in the cradle I mean, the crazy, crazy system of education we have in this city, and selectivity in this city’s system I think that if I were gonna change something, I actually, it sounds counterintuitive, I would start with assessment Because until you change the way you measure an outcome, everything else flows from that If you get rid of that as an outcome, a typical college student now in America, America tests earlier and more often, gives high-stakes summative tests earlier and more often, than any other country on the planet And a typical student, by the time they get to college, has had 112 of those exams where somebody says, this is gonna go on your permanent record So the feedback loop is not just discipline and institution It’s in your head It’s am I a failure, am I gonna succeed? Is this learning? It’s not learning Is this degree gonna get me a job? Or am I gonna starve to death? A weird bunch of polarities that are deep, deep polarities We now know, for example, we didn’t know this for the last decade, humanities majors get just as many jobs and have just as much job satisfaction as people in STEM Just recently, maybe a month ago, Pew revealed a huge longitudinal study on that There is a difference People in STEM have a higher income level than people in the humanities Maybe I don’t wanna spend money enough to have that huge income Maybe I would like to be a chef In other words, values, reward systems, outputs, disciplines, all of that is, I love your term of feedback loop It’s a constantly self-replenishing feedback loop And how you break that loop and get out of the system, that’s the mandate we all have Thank you, that was a fabulous question to end on Thank you I think we can end there Thank you very, very much for being here Thank you

Volusia County School Virtual Board Meeting 06/09/2020

– [Colon] Chair Wright, we are live, so ready when you are – [Wright] Thank you We’ll give one more minute Good afternoon, it is 3:30, and we’re gonna call it our May 26, 2020 meeting to order at this time We will ask my vice chair woman, Linda Cuthbert, to lead the pledge of allegiance and the rest of us we’ll remain on mute Go right ahead, Mrs. Cuthbert – [Cuthbert] Thank you very much, madam chair I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America and to the Republic for which it stands, one nation under God, indivisible, with Liberty and justice for all – [Wright] Thank you, Mrs.Cuthbert I’d like to welcome those that are tuning in virtually as well as my colleagues, that our on Teams with me to today’s meeting I have Mr. Carl Persis representing district four, Mr. Ruben Colon representing district five Mr. Ted Doran our board attorney, he is actually returning home He was finally able to locate a flight So we do have someone from his office joining us today Welcome on behalf of Mr. Dorin Mrs. Erin Leben, our agency clerk, Mrs. Jamie Haynes representing district one, Mrs. Linda Cuthbert, our vice chairman representing district three Our superintendent, Dr. Scott Fritz, and I’m Ida Wright, representing district two Your chair woman for this year Items for approval on the agenda, are items 1.03, 4.02, 15.01 and 17.01 through 17.04 Public participation There are four times on the consent agenda There are times on the consent agenda We have a 5:00 p.m time certain for anyone who would like to provide information or speak pertaining to the general public education in Volusia County, we’re have up to 15 minutes that will be provided to the public for that Time will be provided for public comments or any action item before a board vote is called Time will be provided at the end of our meeting for public comments for items of general interest pertaining to public education in Volusia County For public comments during the virtual meeting, please call area code (386) 734-7190, extension 20236 Again, that number is (386) 734-7190-7190 extension 20236 The district vision statement And we’re moving on to items 1.01 for district vision statement and board comments At this time, each of our board members are allowed to just talk a little bit about things

that are going on in their district And today I would like to start with district number five, Mr. Ruben Colon – [Colon] Hello everyone Once again, as everybody knows, we are preparing for or finishing up our distance learning as we prepare for the end of the school year And once again lots of families have reached out in support as well as thankful to all the work that our teachers staff has done Special shout out to those that help to clean up over at Pine Ridge that had a little water spill, pretty big water spill So special shout out to facilities and those folks that helped out with that cleanup Today I had the opportunity to participate in the Amazing Shake, where five students who were semi-finalists for Deltona Middle competed, where they had to get in front of a panel of judges And so they all did a really, really great job So shout out to Deltona Middle for that Other than that, thank you – [Wright] Thank you, Mr. Colon Moving on to district four, Mr. Carl Persis – [Carl] Thank you madam chair Yes, I had a good time handing out caps and gowns and whatever else they asked me to hand out last Friday night at Seabreeze High School Just great enthusiasm by the staff out there as they were dancing and shaking hands and music blasting and everyone and just being in a very good frame of mind It was wonderful to see the parents drive up, those they did with their children, grandparents, friends I saw everything, cars decorated, trucks Some students had two or three carloads of people with them So just a good time And I saw a lot of smiling high school soon to be graduating seniors Just made me to feel good So thank you, madam chair – [Wright] Thank you, Mr. Persis District three, Mrs. Linda Cuthbert – [Cuthbert] I too I want to salute our seniors I got to be at Spruce Creek High School as well as New Smyrna to watch the line of seniors That never happens on a regular school day So it was wonderful to see the kids so enthusiastic to be on a campus So salute to them from last week and also this week I’m sure they’re going to be honored by Honors Night when a lot of them received their scholarships and awards from four years of arduous work in high school And also a shout out to our retirees, especially our teacher paraprofessionals, our school way cafe, bus drivers our maintenance workers who are all retiring this year It’s always difficult to retire when there’s nobody really around us to slap you on the back and say, “You lucky dog.” But, thank you for your service It is a service to our children So thank you Thank you, Madam chair – [Wright] Thank you, Mrs Cuthbert, district one – [Jamie] Hi, everyone I also wanna reiterate what Mrs. Cuthbert just said to our retirees, because this is an unusual time and for the first time they’re walking away, but actually not having a chance to say goodbye to the students and the other faculty and staff that they have worked with for all of these years So thank you so very much to all of you that have dedicated your lives to helping us as a team, ensure the academic success of all of our students And we wish you well because there’s nothing better than starting a new chapter in your lives And we thank all of you But I also wanna say, as we’re winding down this week, I wanna thank every single individual in Volusia County Schools From the classroom teachers and paraprofessionals to the school way cafe and the bus drivers who got food out there, but also to the district staff that worked tirelessly to make sure things were up online and they did troubleshooting and got devices out in the hands of kids I wanna thank everyone because in just a moment, we turned around and went into a virtual world that we were not necessarily prepared for

or had practiced even to do that But I also wanna give a big thank you to every parent, guardian, grandparent, neighbors and friends that stepped up also to work with our children and to ensure that learning continued for them and that they had possibly a safe place to be And they had food to eat during this time So thank you everyone And to our seniors, your days coming, where we will all get to celebrate each and every one of you And we’re looking forward to that – [Wright] Thank you, Mrs. Haynes Dr. Fritz, anything? – [Fritz] No, ma’am not at this time Thank you – [Wright] Okay And I too had an opportunity to visit my high schools and went out to Mainland which is always a joy to see those seniors So we had a good time out to Mainland, but I’m gonna have to give a special shout out to Atlantic High School They did wonderful activity for their students from the parade led by the police department, Port Orange Police Department, Sheriff’s department, the horns blowing the music plan, something very similar to that of Seabreeze, Carl, and I believe Deltona, but they really threw a graduation party out at Atlantic So a big kudos out to Atlantic High School, Mr. Hinson, as well as to Mainland High School and the one and only principal out there I can’t say enough about Mr Huth, and the job he’s done stepping in this year, just to help Mainland High School So big shout out to both of them Looking forward to participating with my middle school activities acknowledging their eighth graders, as well as some of the elementary schools that will be acknowledging their fifth graders I too wanna thank all of our retirees This is kind of a bittersweet all the way to be saying goodbye or not just goodbye, but I’ll see you when I have time I don’t have a clock anymore I don’t have to get up at any particular time, but please enjoy your retirement We look forward to you coming back at any time to serve, to volunteer, or just to say hello I’m sure everyone in your respective departments would greatly appreciate that At this time I see Mr. Colon’s hand, Mr. Colon – [Colon] Yes I am almost embarrassed to say that I forgot the car parade at Galaxy, the parade at Deltona High and the pickup parade at University, which I had the pleasure of being a part of too All of these were parties and Pine Ridge Pine Ridge threw a heck of a party for their kids as well So that was amazing Shout out to you guys And like you said, we have lined up from now until the next two weeks So thanks – Thank you We’re moving on to agenda item 1.03, the approval of the minutes from our May 12th virtual meeting, is there a motion? – [Colon] Motion to approve – [Cuthbert] Second – The motion was made by Mr. Colon approved by Mrs. Cuthbert, any other discussion? Hearing none, Mr. Colon – [Colon] Yay – Mrs. Haynes – [Jamie] Yay – Mr. Persis – [Carl] Yay – Thank you Mrs. Cuthbert – [Cuthbert] Yay – And Ida, yay Thank you very much It was unanimous Moving on to items 2.01 agenda changes Superintendent Fritz anyone request a change to the agenda? – [Fritz] No ma’am they did not – Colleagues would any of you like to request a change to today’s agenda? – [Cuthbert] No – Hearing none, we will move on to 2.02 I entertain a motion for approval – [Carl] move approval – [Jamie] Second – Thank you The motion was made by Mr. Persis, second by Mrs. Haynes Any discussion? Not hearing any, Mr. Colon – [Colon] Yay – Mrs. Haynes – [Jamie] Yay – Mr. Persis – [Carl] Yay – Mrs. Cuthbert – [Cuthbert] Yay – And Ida, yay Thank you The vote was unanimous Moving on to items 3.01 Nope We will move on to I think 3.01 is a public participation at 5:00 PM

So we will come back to that We will move on to item 4.01, removal of items from the consent agenda Superintendent Fritz, any items to be removed from the consent agenda? – [Fritz] Yes, ma’am I’m requesting that we pull item 12.01 that is regarding the MOU with the County regarding shelters And that meeting is set with the County for June 4th, like the bill to bring that back to the June 9th school board meeting – Okay And what item numbers that again, 12 point I’m sorry? – [Fritz] 12.01 – Thank you Board members, Were there any items on the consent agenda that you’d want to discuss or have polled? Hearing none We’ll move to item 4.02 To accept the consent agenda as printed with the one correction removal of 12.01 I entertain a motion – [Cuthbert] Madam chair, I move that we approve the amended consent agenda – [Carl] Second – Thank you The motion was made by Mrs Cuthbert second by Mr. Persis Any discussion? Hearing none, Mr. Ruben Colon – [Colon] Yay – Mrs. Jamie Haynes – [Jamie] Yay – Mr. Carl Persis – [Carl] Yay – [Wright] Mrs. Linda Cuthbert – [Cuthbert] Yay – And Ida Wright, yay The vote was unanimous Thank you very much I would like to just take a moment to acknowledge item 12.02 on the consent agenda, which is the recognition of Volusia County Schools purchasing department for winning the Florida Association of Public Procurement Officials Award for excellence in procurement for 2020, for the fifth consecutive year So congratulations to that department Five years, so we’re looking for a year six, so continue with the great work And we’re really appreciative of all that you do in that department And, procurement is where we can actually save money, or we can lose money But evidently we are doing well and we’re saving And so we thank you for your negotiation and is that as we stated for your procuring skills for winning this award for the fifth year in a row Any comments colleagues? – [Cuthbert] Madam chair, congratulations to them It’s not an easy award to obtain Purchasing could make or break us and we certainly appreciate it And I think the finance department appreciates that as well So congratulations to that We can’t blow some horns – I agree with you, Mrs Cuthbert, thank you Moving on to items 13.01, superintendents announcements Superintendent Fritz – [Fritz] Yes, ma’am This is gonna be very short this week We have a lot on our agenda that we’ll be going through this evening But the one announcement I did wanna make was for the next school board meeting, which will be June 9th It’ll be virtually and it will be at 3:30 p.m And that’s it ma’am – [Wright] Thank you, sir We’ll move on to this is, I’m sorry, this was the public participation for the 5:00 p.m time certain For the other public participation related to the consent agenda Did we have any guests that want to speak to that? – [Schulz] No, we do not – [Wright] Thank you so much Moving on to 15.01, superintendent Fritz, administrative appointment and human resources update – [Fritz] Yes I’d like to start off by asking miss Brandy Hogue to come forward, because she’s gonna share with you a little bit about our exciting new principal internship cadre that we have, Mrs. Hogue – Hello, good afternoon Brandy Hogue, coordinator of Leadership Development Good afternoon, chairwoman Wright, members of the school board and superintendent Fritz It is my honor to announce the names of administrators selected for the 2020- 2022 principal intern cohort The principal interns were selected by a committee based on their application, a behavioral writing assessment an interview, and an in depth presentation with an emphasis on data and curriculum At this time, I’d like to present the following recommendations for the 2020-2022 principal intern cohort Jennifer Dietz, assistant principal at Champion Elementary,

Danielle Leffler, assistant principal at Mainland High School Kimberly Matthews assistant principal at Mainland High School, Timothy Merrick administrator on assignment New Smyrna Beach High School And finally, last but not least Dr. Jennifer, Susie Peterson and administrator of Volusia Online Learning Congratulations to our newest principal intern cohort – [Fritz] Yes ma’am Thank you very much, Mrs. Hogue Board members and community were extremely proud of these people entering this principal internship program It is a very rigorous effort and we want it to be so because we want the very best in our schools These individuals went through a grueling process, to be part of that internship opportunity And we will be looking at them as future principals in the near future I’d also like to go forward with appointments madam chair, whenever you’re ready – Before you do that Dr Fritz let me ask my colleagues if they have any questions about the principal internship program and in any of that So I see Mr. Persis hands raised Go ahead, Mr. Persis – [Carl] Thank you, Madam chair And Brandy, thank you for the presentation I did wanna ask a little bit about the categories if you will, the levels from which the principal interns came I noticed, I believe there was one elementary, three high school and one virtual school And perhaps you can elaborate on how you select those levels for the listening audience – Sure, no problem Thank you for asking We do not have a particular number from each level that we select It is just based on the performance of that particular individual coming forward There’s not a magic number So as far as our principal intern application process goes, it’s a multi metric application process and it consists of the individuals completing an application They also have a writing assessment, a behavioral writing assessment There is an interview that is conducted and they also do a formal presentation that aligns with the school improvement plan And it that’s all about data and curriculum And we have a committee that scores the performance with a rubric, and then we have the final results at the end And we look at those results and we determine the next group of our candidates based on those scores – [Carl] Yeah, I Perhaps I didn’t ask my question correctly I noticed there was not a middle school person in that group And was that because you don’t see a need in the near future for that category or were there other factors? – We did have a middle school candidate apply Mr. Persis, but the numbers, there were fewer middle school candidates that applied than the other levels – [Carl] Gotcha Thank you so much – You’re welcome – [Carl] Well, thank you, madam chair – [Wright] Mrs. Cuthbert – Hello Thank you Mrs. Hogue, this is a really fantastic group Can you tell me, I know two are Volusia County veterans and graduated from high school here in the County Tim Merrick and Jennifer Dietz, and for Jen I had her in the ninth grade and she has not changed one bit Bless her heart But what about the other three? Dan, Kim and Dr. Peterson, are they from Volusia County – Off the top of my head, I’m not sure if they’re products of Volusia County Schools Is that what you’re asking products of Volusia County Schools? – Yes – I’d have to go back and dig a little further I wouldn’t wanna give you misinformation off the top of my head on that – But it’s always nice to see who stays here, who has And that’s what we do at graduations We always tell the seniors, please stay here, raise your children here Be well employed here

And it’s always nice to have home grown kids – I still always say it’s a great day to be a hawk cause I am a product of Volusia County Schools – Well, good That still goes on and it’s also a good day to be a Cuda Alright, so for the orange and the red, here we go So congratulations to these five This is tremendous So thank you for all your hard work Thank you – Thank you – [Wright] Are you finished Mrs. Cuthbert – [Cuthbert] Yes, ma’am, I’m sorry Thank you – [Wright] Oh, not a problem I have a question for you And my question is probably more geared towards Dr. Fritz As we start our new process for principals, will the six candidates or the five candidates, will they be able to rotate where they will actually get experienced at all three levels and then get experience, well, four of them, experience in not just elementary, middle, and high, but will they get a chance to look at master schedules, discipline, every aspect of being a principal? – [Fritz] Yes Part of the internship program will certainly be to review various components that all principals have to have So if one happens to be a data AP now, for example, we want them to learn the roles of the the other assistant principals that are out there as well And the idea of learning multiple levels is very sound I do believe it it’s to everybody’s benefit to at least know two levels, if not all three, all three is a tall order And I would love to have all of our administrators be able to do elementary, middle, and high But one of the things that Mrs. Hogue and I have talked about is making sure that we give them vast experiences so that we broadened their pool If you look at our last board meeting, we appointed a new principal at Deltona High School And he had been at the elementary level at one point and had done a work as an intern at the high school level, and was ready to take on that role as a high school principal So we see the value in that and the merit of that And to answer your question, yes, we will – So will that require us to have additional AP so the four of them will have the real experience of not only just moving from grade levels, but looking at different positions? – [Fritz] Our goal is to be budget neutral as much as possible When we have the opportunity to transfer employees around to give them those experiences, I would prefer to start off with that way particularly where we’re at with our budget right now and in the state But as we go forward, that might absolutely require us to have additional allocations if we wanna make sure that they get those experiences – Okay And so I’m gonna throw this out to my colleagues as we talk about the budget moving forward, and we start next year, as you have conversations about the budget I would strongly recommend that we build that in, so that they really do get the number one to two experience And then they too kinda find out where they are best suited and better fit I think one of our concerns previously, Dr. Fritz was that they do all of the principal internship at one level or at one school, and then we have them in elementary Then we move them into high school or vice versa or middle school And so therefore it becomes somewhat a struggle or a learning curve And that’s kinda unfair to a new principal to have such a major learning curve because they just have not had that experience So I’m just saying that to my colleagues And as we talk about the budget in 21, 22 I see Mr. Colon and then Mr. Persis – So Dr. Fritz, I recall when you first came on, there was a conversation of what the future of identifying leaders would be And so for the benefit of the public and any educational leader that may be on here, do you recall, we said that each principal would identify certain leaders in their school and we’d begin to help get them where they need to be If you can, if not- – [Fritz] Sure – Bring back into the conversation – [Fritz] And I will tell you Mrs. Hogue was instrumental in putting together our leadership fair We were going to do a leadership fair We had asked each one of our principals to identify at least five people that we felt they would have the opportunity to learn more about leadership opportunities in Volusia County

That was supposed to be in April, and we all know what happened But that is still on the plan And in fact, it’s part of your strategic plan as we move forward under talent management That we ask our principals to help grow and to help tap people on the shoulder, if you will, so that we can get them to be a part of our aspiring leaders program You can be a teacher and be a part of that program You can be a guidance counselor You can basically do any job that’s instructional at a school campus or at the district level And if you choose to learn more about leadership In Volusia County, we’re gonna give you an opportunity four times a year to learn about that Your first orientation will be at a leadership fair that we will do in March or April Depending on the situation, we may shift that to the fall this year If we get back in, we plan to do it in April We may shift up to the fall and start that in October But that’s something that Mrs. Hogue will be in charge of The idea for that is if we bring together 150 people and they learn about the opportunities for leadership, even if only 30 or 40 people decide they wanna proceed forward That gives us a good start to pass the baton forward Because I tell our principals all the time that they’re 85 very special people, because nobody comes out of school ready to lead a school You don’t come out and graduate from UCF to be a principal when you’re 22, you have to learn that along the way And we pass the baton So hope that answers your question, Mr. Colon – Great It does And so then with that being said, the individuals that applied for the principal internship program and were not selected, is there a path where we can begin to work with those folks and say- – [Fritz] Absolutely I’m gonna share with you, everyone that did not get in we will coach them The goal is to get them in We will help them get ready for that because I like to say when we’re hiring assistant principals, that we’re not hiring assistant principals, we’re hiring future principals And so we can’t afford to have the pipeline clogged in any way Mrs.Hogue has heard me say many times that we’ll work with them to get them into the program and get the skills they need – Awesome And so the one thing I’ll say is that and I’ve said this before, is I’d like to see the process be more objective than subjective And so realizing that they have to go through interviews and do the NSA and all of that But I think that we’ve got folks that are out there that have prepared themselves to serve in our community And simply haven’t been given the opportunity to, so I’m excited about where we’re going and I’m excited that there will be a path where folks will be able to say, “Hey, I wanna step up, help me get there.” So thank you – [Wright] Mr. Persis – [Carl] Madam chair, if my virtual hand is up, I don’t know why (laughing) So, and I know not how to put it down So anyway no, I do not wish to speak again Thank you, Madam chair – [Wright] Not a problem Yes, your hand is up and I don’t know how to move them- (Carl laughing) Cuthbert help us with that, both of yours and Ruben’s is still out – [Carl] I wonder if I click on it on the second time- – [Colon] Yes Click on it a second time it goes away – [Carl] Is it now? Lower your hand Okay – [Wright] Thank you You’re okay now Thank you I want to make sure So Mrs. Cuthbert or Mrs. Haynes, any comments before we move forward? – [Cuthbert] No, ma’am, thank you – [Wright] Thank you Alrighty, I’ll go ahead I’m sorry, Mrs. Haynes, go ahead – [Jamie] I was just gonna ask what were the number of applicants that did apply to join this group? – We had 11 during this application cycle – So you had 11 apply and five were accepted? – Correct – Okay, thank you – [Wright] Is that it Mrs. Haynes? – Yes, ma’am That’s it, thank you – [Wright] Okay, thank you Dr. Fritz, is it possible and maybe later (indistinct) you and Mrs. Hogue can actually give us a full overview of how someone from a teacher actually get on the path to become an administrator or into a leadership role – [Fritz] Absolutely We would love to do that – Okay, thank you So Dr. Fritz it’s back to you – [Fritz] Okay Madam chair, I do have three appointment recommendations

to bring forward to the board this evening I’d like to start with the principal position at New Smyrna Beach High School I’m recommending Tim Merrick as the New Smyrna High School principal Mr. Merrick has been the assistant principal at New Smyrna High for the past 15 years I will tell you that personally, as a superintendent, I’m very, very grateful for Mr. Merrick and all the work that he’s done since we tragically lost Matt a few months ago and Mr. Merrick has really stepped up and made sure that that school continues to run and that the Cudas are taken care of That’s my recommendation, Mr. Merrick be the next principal for New Smyrna Beach, with the effective date of June 1st – [Wright] Thank you, Dr. Fritz You’ve heard the superintendent recommendation Is there a motion? – [Cuthbert] Madam chair I create a motion order that I accept the recommendation of the superintendent Thank you – [Wright] Thank you, Mrs Cuthbert, is there a second? – [Carl] Second – [Wright] The motion has been made by Mrs. Cuthbert, second by Mr. Persis, any discussion? – Madam chair I’d like to speak if I could – [Wright] You sure, may – Mr. Merrick is a graduate of (whir sound drowns out speaker) He has always lived in Southwest Georgia If anyone knows the family of New Smyrna Beach High School, it is certainly Mr. Merrick His children attend there, participate Mr. Merrick has had his hand in just about everything between physical ed and discipline and curriculum He has his fingers on the pulse of New Smyrna Beach High School I have never received so many emails from a diverse group of people in support of this gentleman So it’s quite a wonderful day in Cuda Nation They have Tim at the helm So thank you very much, Mr. Merrick You’re gonna be a great one So thank you – [Wright] Thank you, Mrs Cuthbert, anyone else? I ditto your sentiments, Mrs. Cuthbert I’ve heard nothing but great things about Mr. Merrick I too have been in a date and I think all of us have been receiving emails from Cuda Nation So congratulations, Mr. Merrick No other questions I’ll call for the vote, Mr. Ruben Colon – [Colon] Yay – Mrs. Jamie Haynes – [Jamie] Yay – Mr. Carl Persis – [Carl] Yay – Mrs. Linda Cuthbert – [Cuthbert] Yes – And Ida, Wright, yay And it was a unanimous vote Congratulations, Mr. Merrick Just welcome home You’re a Volusian and New Smyrna Beach person So welcome home And I’m sure Cuda Nation’s excited about having you there Superintendent Fritz – [Fritz] Yes Next is will be the principal recommendation for Pathways Elementary School I’m recommending Holly Bailey as the principal for Pathways Elementary Miss Bailey’s worked in Volusia County for 21 years and has been an assistant principal for the last six years Currently, is that Southwest Middle Mrs. Bailey would have an effective start date of June 1st – [Wright] You’ve heard the recommendation of the superintendent Is there- – [Carl] Move approval – [Wright] Is that you Mr. Persis? – [Carl] Yes, it is – [Wright] Okay, thank you – [Colon] Second – [Cuthbert] I second the motion – The motion was made by Mr. Persis, second by Mr. Colon Any discussion? – [Carl] Yes, madam chair – [Wright] Go right ahead – [Carl] Thank you, Madam chair I just want to say congratulations to Holly Bailey You are one lucky woman because you are going to a super school It’s called a Patriot Paradise and I look forward to meeting you and helping you in any way that I can And I know the faculty staff and Pathway community will be there to welcome you as well So just wanted to offer my congratulations to you, Holly – [Wright] Thank you, Mr. Persis Anyone else? – [Cuthbert] Yes, madam chair I do not know this young lady, but I look forward to meeting her and that’s what’s so sad about us meeting virtually, that we don’t get to congratulate everyone in person because this and they don’t even get to say anything

But hopefully soon we will hear from all of them And I look forward to visiting this young person at Pathways So congratulations – [Wright] That is correct, Mrs. Cuthbert I agree with you That is the downside of virtual meetings, but Mrs. Bailey, congratulations We look forward to meeting you and let’s success Actually, my sons actually went to Pathway And so again, congratulations Any other comments? – [Jamie] Madam chair This is Jamie I’d like to take a moment to congratulate Holly I’ve known her since she was a teacher at Orange City Elementary, when I met her there And then she became the academic coach and I had the opportunity to work with her And so I’d like to congratulate her on this new appointment and I wish her the best, and I to miss the part where we don’t get to see everyone in person And it will be nice when we can go back to that But thank you – Not a problem Any other comments? Hearing none I’ll call for the vote Mr. Ruben Colon – [Colon] Yay – Mrs. Jamie Haynes – [Jamie] Yay – Mr. Carl Persis – [Carl] Yay – Mrs.Linda Cuthbert – [Cuthbert] Yes – And Ida Wright, yes The vote was unanimous Dr Fritz – [Fritz] Yes, ma’am, our last appointment for this evening, board, you know how important CTE is to all of us It’s an area that we feel like that we can do very, very great things for students to give them a beacon for once they leave our high schools I am pleased to recommend a Bree Castelli as the CTE coordinator Mrs. Castelli comes to us from Hillsborough County Schools where she’s been the CTE supervisor for the last five years One of her primary responsibilities has been to oversee that develop and to enrich NAF academies Mrs. Castelli has an effective start date of July 1st – Thank you, Dr. Fritz You’ve heard the superintendent’s recommendation Is there a motion? – [Carl] move approval? – Is there a second? – [Cuthbert] Yes, ma’am, there is a second – Thank you The motion was made by Mr. Carl Persis, second by Mrs. Linda Cuthbert Is there any discussion? No one raised their hand Okay No discussion – [Cuthbert] Wait, I’m sorry, Mrs. Wright CTE is such an important part as Dr. Fritz said in our county She comes to us we’re looking for strong leadership in a direction that will work with career source as well as our community economic development institutions And it’s wonderful to have someone with I guess school-based experience in CTE, Career Technical Education So I welcome this young lady also to our county And I wish her the very best she has some great fabulous specialists who can ease her transition to the very best So congratulations to her Thank you, Madam chair – [Wright] You’re welcome Mrs. Haynes, Mr. Colon, Mr. Persis, any comments? Hearing none, go right ahead Mr. Colon – [Colon] I said I have none – Oh, you have none Okay I’ll call for the vote Mr. Colon – [Colon] Yay – Mrs. Jamie Haynes – [Jamie] Yay – Mr. Carl Persis – [Carl] Yay – Mrs.Linda Cuthbert – [Cuthbert] Yes – And Ida Wright, yes And the vote is unanimous Dr. Fritz, did you have another or It was just three – [Fritz] It’s just three today ma’am – okay Thank you Moving on to items a 16.01, but again, we wanna thank all of our new appointees for our two that were promoted Congratulations and our new CTE congratulations And we look forward to meeting you 16.01 FADSS human resource study, superintendent Fritz – [Fritz] Thanks, madam chair Board members you’ll remember six months ago when I started we had lots and lots of conversations about how to improve our human resource department and our delivery to our schools And in December, we actually sent out a survey

being prompted by FADSS to make sure that we could collect that information, that input from our end users on how to improve our human resources department I’m very happy and grateful that we have folks here from FADDS with Dr. Vogel’s team and our own Mark West, is our chief of HR, they’re gonna walk through a PowerPoint, highlighting those recommendations from this FADDS study for the human resources department and our services And then Mr. West is also gonna share with you some of the things that we’ve already started to do So Dr. Vogel, I turn it over to you and Mr. West or Mr. Reichert, if it’s gonna be you – Yes Dr. Fritz, can you hear me and see me okay? – [Fritz] Yes, sir we can – Very good Thank you I apologize, Dr. Vogel will not be able to be with us today We had an unexpected change in another schedule So he is covering that meeting And I do have Steve Bouzianis, who’s also was part of our study team He is with us and we’ll be kind of alternating our coverage They have the different topics So I don’t know if you would like for maybe Mr. West to do a intro, would you like me to get into the presentation? – [Fritz] I’d just like to say, I really appreciate John and Steve being here today Erin is gonna walk us through the the PowerPoint and I’ll kinda wrap up at the end of each slide and let you know So Erin, go on to the next slide and John I’ll let you get it – [Wright] Excuse me for just a moment, Superintendent Fritz can John and his guests, just introduce themselves and tell a little bit please – [Fritz] Absolutely John and Steve – Yes Madam chair and members of the board. I’m John Reichert And I had about 41 years with Seminole County Public Schools And I wanna kind of start off by saying it’s good to be back with the Volusia County School Board and doing their presentation this afternoon during our previous superintendent search over there We just had some great experiences and our superintendent search team met a lot of really wonderful dedicated people So it’s really an honor to be back talking with the board today A quick review of my years in Seminole, I began, of course, as a classroom teacher had about five years as a dean after that And then about 10 years as an assistant principal at the high school level Following that, I moved into HR around 1985 in state supporting the HR and overseeing the HR department professional standards in payroll until I retired in 2013 And subsequent to that we’ve been conducting along with Steve and Dr. Vogel, some HR departments studies across the state I think as of this year we’ve been at about 25 districts and that’s been some wonderful experiences in doing those studies And also I worked some as you know, with Andrew Messina doing superintendent searches across the state of Florida So that’s a quick summary Mr. Bouzianis – [Bouzianis] Okay Can you hear me? – [Fritz] Yes, we can hear you – [Bouzianis] All right Good afternoon board members, superintendent Fritz, and Mr. West, my name is Steve Bouzianis I’ve worked in Florida for 38 years, even though I still have the Massachusets accent, I consider myself a true Floridian I’ve spent, like I said, 38 total years in Florida education right down the middle I spent 19 years in St. Lucie County I started as the teacher of middle school math went on to teach language arts, social studies gifted became a guidance counselor at the middle school, high school level, then a guidance director at the high school level, and then moved over to personnel In 1995 I had an opportunity to move up to Seminole and work with Mr. Reichert And I started there as a human resources administrator working in certification, later became director of employee relations And my last position in Seminole was director of HR for staffing personnel systems, service and operations So I retired after my 35 years in the drop program, got called back after my year and was asked, “Steve, would you like to come in and work in the fingerprint department, help us get the school year started?” And I said, “Sure, they’d just be a couple of months.” Well, a couple of months turned into three years, so I was happy and really learned a great deal about fingerprint processing badges, contractors,

and vendors So the braided degree from Pittsburgh So I continued in that capacity until the fall of 2015 since then, I’ve had the great pleasure of working on these consulting teams, working with many, many school districts as, as John mentioned, I think he mentioned 24 I think that’s what we’re up to So we’ve had the great opportunity to share kind of the best practices with other school districts And we were able to do some of that here in Volusia So it’s a great honor and pleasure to be here today I’m gonna turn it back over to John to get started, and we’re gonna go through, excuse me, the PowerPoint presentation and give you the best of our recommendations Thank you – Thank you, Steve Members of the board superintendent Fritz, and Mr. West, basically our study it follows the methodology and supports the work of Betsy Arons Betsy is the chief executive officer of the Urban Schools, HR Academy and former CPO in New York city in Montgomery County Maryland She has trained FADSS superintendents now for a number of years through the FADSS association And I know that Mr. West is familiar with her work and also members of your FADSS team has participated in Mrs. Arons presentations and trainings over the last few years And a lot of her work drives what we do in our HR studies Mrs. Arons believes that principals are the primary customers of the HR department HR needs to kind of go beyond just transactional processing of work and proceed into customer through transformational services that will help improve the education outcomes for students in our school districts We did conduct a survey prior to our three days of being onsite and preparation for this study There were 69 principals who participated in that study Part of this errands belief is that 90% of principals in a school district should or should be supportive and positive with the output that comes from their HR departments We did not have any areas that rose to that 90% level based on the input that we received from principals who answered a total of 17 questions as a part of that survey And there were some high areas such as about 60% of the principals believed that the district handles misconduct in a positive way And about 44% indicated that the standard of conduct expected in Volusia who has upheld as incidents rose, which they had to respond to There was some very positive notes on the strengths of the job fairs and some of the recruitment efforts that were going on And we’ll certainly we’ll touch on that a little later So that’s kind of a quick overview of the philosophy behind our stern studies and the primary one is that principals are the primary customer for HR, and then we jump into the employees and recruiting and services So that’s a real quick overview At this point, what I would like to do Steve and I are gonna kind of break up topics as we move through the slide presentation So at this point Mr Bouzianis Will jump in and start addressing the items on slide number three – [Bouzianis] Okay Thank you very much The first recommendation was an obvious one to improve customer service procedures It was very rewarding to talk to the entire staff And as a group, they recognize that positive customer service experiences is a necessary priority, especially to the school sites And that’s gonna lend itself into the second recommendation I’m gonna talk about There seem to be a lack of cross training within the department However, numerous employees expressed a strong willingness to be trained in other areas There was a sense that there was an excessive maybe separation of duties within the department The next thing that we saw that really needed to be implemented that would really help everybody was the who to call list There was a who to call list in terms of an organizational chart that listed the duties and responsibilities for each EHR staff member, but they did not appear to be any public access to that document with telephone numbers Here’s what Steve does Here’s what John does those So a detailed current who to call lists could be created

and disseminated to all HR customers The next thing was, in terms of customer service was to kinda fine tune the communication process We just did (jumbled speech) And again, it’s pie into what our second recommendation is We are recommending that you be an annual meeting of HR school contacts and the applicable HR staff could be held to discuss HR procedures and the ways they could be modified or improved In terms of customer service Again, just to share an idea that we actually did in Seminole, that was recommended by our superintendent prior to Dr. Vogel, Paul Haggerty He started off and asked administrators to update the voicemail on a daily basis Give you an example My name is Steve Bouzianis I’m the director of HR, today is May 26th, and I will be unavailable from 3:30 to 5:30 due to a meeting with the school board That way, if a person called me, they could find out, well, Steve’s not gonna be here So I don’t expect him to call back at this point He’ll probably call me back in the morning, or you could even take that one step further to say, “If you need a meeting, you may contact John Reichert at XYZ number So this is something that helped us tremendously And it was amazing The accolades that we got as an HR department, simply by just taking the time to change that voicemail on a daily basis And Mr. Reichert in turn, took it one step further and not only had the administration (jumbled speech) Oh, am I still there? – [Fritz] Yes We can hear you – [Bouzianis] I’m sorry I have to update their voicemail on a daily basis as well So there is school contacts Will know , “Well, Steve is gonna be available, ask John, to get an answer to this question.” The next item is to restructure the HR department We felt that in order to receive better service with schools sites that a possible reorganization could take place And what we mean by that would be a realignment of the job responsibilities, and to assign at least five HRS assistants, to handle all the schools and departments They could be divided up elementary, middle, high school Usually the way that it’s been done, that someone would have a couple of elementary schools, the middle school, high school, that type of thing So the EHR assistant would have departments and schools They will be the point of contact for a school, contact them and work with them one-on-one to help them with their HR needs This in essence would replace the current three team setup It’s set up I know with applications, hiring and job records So what happens is I guess the way it was working for Mo, we were saying is that it will eventually would travel between the three teams This would replace that And basically the HR assistant would take the school site for their new hires, if this was a new hire situation It would take them from point A to point Z and they would work one on one with their schools However, taking that one step further, there are specialized areas, such as certification, public records, school board agenda, family medical leave We are recommending that if such a reconstruction took place, that there would be those unique items that would still be handed out to an individual rather than having everyone, for example Not everyone could be trained in certification You would have a certification point of contact Also in terms of the restructuring, we felt like an HR procedural manual should be created as soon as possible But a very positive aspect was that some of the HR staff had already on their own kind of created their own individual, a digital manual So part of the work is already done and it would really kinda kick start that process And if such a reorganization took place, all of the people in the HR department could participate in putting together this team Next recommendation is the application hiring and onboarding Probably, for principals, the onboarding issue

was probably a paramount interest to them What they felt like they needed to get their people on board as quickly as possible And they felt like sometimes the process took too long, but we really look at depth at this particular area What we are recommending is that maybe a committee consisting of HR staff and principals and hiring managers should be formed to review the application, hiring onboarding process And important goal should be to make the overall hiring process as customer friendly, as possible As part of that process, we are encouraging Mr. West and staff to possibly establish a definitive closing date for all posted vacancies What we found is when vacancies were poking, they all had an until field closing date So it was difficult to tell, well, does a position ever close? Is it filled with a substitute? Position still available? So we were not sure of exactly what the status was And I know as board members, you would like to know how many vacancies do we have and you particular point in time So what this process would involve possibly would be that a position would be advertised could be three days, could be five days, could 10 days, whatever the process is going to be But then at the closing date the position, if the principal is not found a satisfactory candidate for the position, the principal would then based on an email, a phone call again, to their HR specialist, their HR assistant, they could simply request to have that position re advertised online The position would be identified as a re advertisement with possibly a little disclaimer next to that, that would say, pre applicants are still being considered, you need not apply a second time This I think was an issue of some of the principals They felt like people applying for positions multiple times, which again, cause their workload to increase ‘Cause they’d have to go through the resumes a second time So this is again, just a simplistic way of doing it and allowing the position to be re advertised And then go ahead and look at those people a second time Also, we felt like a resume should be a required part of the application process It helps screen those individuals who might not be qualified whatsoever Principals said they spent a lot of time reviewing candidates who were not even eligible for the position – So if I can just jump in here, Steve, thank you for that Just to kinda wrap up on this particular slide and guys, I’m gonna say, I’ve spoken to each of the board members and about this and I think you guys can share how excited I am about what John and Steve have said up to this point I’ll go back just for a minute to what John said about it being based on Betsy Arons and the work that she has done with a number of districts across the district That’s why it’s so totally lines up with and how excited I was in coming in and being able to see what they’re presenting here Just to go back and her comment about the principal is the customer in this particular case And when I first got here and kind of put that presentation to my HR staff they were excited about that opportunity So what you’ll see as they started working on that customer service improvement right away And meeting with a number of the principals and the HR team to get what their input was on establishing procedures that we could streamline hiring, kind of was the impetus to get all of this in place We’ve already assigned our current HR personnel, those five, our HR assistants, we call them HR reps now And, I think you all are aware that they actually are assigned to individual schools and to take them, as Steve said from A to Z the entire hiring process And so every principal knows exactly who they’re going to go to It’s the HR rep that they need to find out what they need to do to get that employee hired And I will tell you, I was really excited that and Steve mentioned this also, the HR reps actually, they were the ones who revamped the onboarding process and wrote their own manual

So it’s really exciting some of the things that we’ve been able to put in place based on these recommendations So I’m gonna move on to the next slide And I think John, or I’m sorry Yeah, I think on the next slide there Steve, you’re starting off with that with onboarding [Bouzianis] On the onboarding, we had three procedures that we were potentially recommending And I know (indistinct) has jumped right on this already But we thought that the district might consider the possibility of completing the fingerprint process in house With the fees that are associated with processing the prints, will help offset the cost of implementation That was a process that we used in Seminole where basically the funds we use to hire, I came in and worked in fingerprint for time That part of the position was paid or from the funds that were generated from fingerprinting Second, we felt the certification clearance should occur prior to the formal request to hire from the school It was going, the certification clearance was happening on the backend After the principal had recommended the person and that person without a field while we felt like, well, that should be identified on the front end rather than the backend And I know this is something that Mr. West has already started pursuing The third item, as you can see, is to consider a payroll deduction, to pay for fingerprints and drug testing We know, especially with younger teachers that are getting into their first teaching position, they don’t have a lot of money to put forward, especially when they haven’t started the job yet So you might wanna consider a payroll deduction that would be taken out of their first paycheck that could cover the fingerprints and drug testing Using items like this, and also the quick process I’m gonna outline, could cut down the onboarding process We felt to maybe a three to five day working clearance window The principal would contact the certification office with certification clearance If the person happened to be out of field, then approval would be received from the applicable director or area superintendent prior to the job offer The principal would then contact the candidate and offer the position, touch based with the HR contact, find out if there’s anything lacking to complete their application, and give them a date for the new employee orientation, their fingerprints to be done, and the drug test to be done And then lastly, the principal would submit the request to hire for the HR contact when the fingerprints and drug test results come back and are cleared, then HR would contact the principal to determine the effective start date I know it sounds cumbersome as far as the four step process, but it could happen very quickly and get within that three to five day working window, Mr. West – Actually, I’m gonna let John go ahead and finish with the rest of the bullets and I’ll wrap up at the end – [John] Okay Very good Mr. West, if I could, at this point, I just have to say that your FADSS team really has to command the HR staff They were very open and honest with their input while we’re there on site And as you know, we interviewed every HR staff member They were very positive with their attitudes and moving forward under the leadership of Mr. West And they were excited about some of the things that they thought were coming forward and made some strong recommendations of how to improve the processes their in HR So I think it’s a great staff who really is gonna move forward with their efforts in supporting some of the changes that the district may want to include Moving on to my section on board policies for personnel, we did review all the HR personnel policies that were in the – I’m sorry Go back Erin, I’m sorry He’s on the middle of the screen There you go Keep on going John – [John] Good We did review the 22 policies that existed in the HR section of your board policy book They cover things like the application process, certification, academic degrees, part of personnel, a variety of issues We did notice though that some of the language in certain policies was outdated, when compared to some of the procedures that were established within the HR department while we were there on site For example, the policy that looked at charges for copying public records, the policy had a different charge than what the procedures were set up for currently in the HR department There was some reference to paying staff members,

instructional and administrators for advanced degrees And as you know, that statute did change around July of 2011 to where they have to have those degrees certified as a certification area on their certificate and has to be paid in the form of a supplement So there were some policies that we found that really were somewhat outdated And we also noticed that some of the statutory reference numbers, there were the old reference numbers that ran the two hundreds When you look at HR policies or statute statutes that cover HR policies, and of course now that personnel chapter has been renumbered to 10 12 So there is a recommendation that we kind of undertake, or the HR departments undertakes a systematic plan process by which they will review their HR policies, make sure that they have policies that cover some of these statutes that require policies And we will say this to them that this is a monumental task policies are not easy to get everyone’s input and update on So we recognize it’s a major task There may be a need to expand the policy updates to other departments But if it’s kind of a plan systematic approach, you kinda take a piece at a time start with a standard of policy format for all of your policies Have maybe each department looking updating, you’ll probably need to get legal counsel to review those policies, and then eventually they would come for board approval So that’s some of our input and recommendations on the board policies With regard to employment history checks, a number of years ago, the state approved the Education and Equity Act, which required school districts to do three things with regard to reference checks They required districts to make sure they check the references for the last employers of a new hire They also indicated that every school district must check the certification database to see if there’s any pending issues from any kind of background concerns And also districts are required to check the PPS educator misconduct site Basically Volusia County is doing and they are doing, and we’re doing all of those things So there’s not really any concerns there with them not meeting the requirements of these employment history reference checks The only thing I would kind of add on that is that there were some concerns from principals that are we to check employees with only who were employed for the last 10 years, or is there any work that the HR department is doing? So I think they’re really making sure that all principals and your hiring managers kinda know what the district’s policy is going to be on reference checks And of course the statutory requirements address instructional staff and administrative staff And so what is the requirement for reference checks on your non-instructional staff who were being hired? I think some clarification would be helpful for building principals and hiring managers – Yes, sir So just to let, I’m sorry, are you done Mr. Reichert? – [John] Yes – Okay I just wanna let kinda the update some of the board members, we, kinda going back earlier with the fingerprinting particularly, we have requested a bid for a fingerprint machine for purchase So we’re in the process of looking because we recognize using those third party vendors, that’s a lot of the time what the delays were with getting those clearances done But we actually, I met with both the fingerprinting vendors and the drug testing vendors And we’ve reduced that down to three days right now for both of those So that’s a positive, and that’s why we’re able to actually get within that five day working clearance window We also have met with legal regarding some of the board policies as Mr. Reichert said, it an elephant that we’re gonna have to eat one bite at a time, but we’ve already had one meeting with legal We’re gonna be bringing some of the very, I’m gonna say very obvious policy changes to you all And at the late June meeting So we’ll be bringing those forward as well And so next slide, Erin There we go – [Bouzianis] Okay I was going to take that HR and budget We felt that HR needs regular access to the school staff

and reports to help monitor vacancies The way we understood it right now that HR has to request from the budget office, school by school listings for staff and budget office It’s our experience that HR and budgets should work together to balance that staff portion of the district’s budget I didn’t realize it until my very last year Dr. Vogel was the one that brought it to my attention one day He said, “Steve, you realize, you’re doing all this work with staffing Staffing is usually 85% of the school districts budget.” I said, “Oh my goodness, Dr. Vogel I didn’t know that before I retired, otherwise I would have retired earlier That’s a huge responsibility.” But it really is when you look at it, making sure that you keep those vacancies filled, making sure that you can account for the personnel budget It’s extreme, a lot of responsibility So we felt like I said that the two departments work in tandem And lastly, efforts need to be made to advertise vacancies earlier Again, compliments go to Mr. West staff, they have jumped on this one very, very quickly And I know he’s gonna update you with some figures I believe later, as far as where you stand right now on vacancies But and I just wanted to echo what Mr. Reichert said, the enthusiasm of the superintendent and Mr. West and the HR staff I haven’t talked to Mr. Reichert specifically about this, but I think he would agree, from the time that we submitted our report That was April, and here it is really the end of May and they have implemented, they have really gone gangbusters on this and getting things in place for the future So kudos to Mr. West and staff, and again, the superintendent for kick-starting this process – Thank you, Steve Moving quickly into the supplements, a section that is up on the slide Supplements are currently evidently in the fall, the HR sends out a list and principals kind of update on who they want to receive supplements We would recommend that if at all possible that during the annual reappointment cycle where you start making your recommendations for the reappointment of annual contract staff or the subsequent year, that if at all possible that principals receive an automated supplement list as kind of to a company that staff recommendations for a supplemented positions that principals know they’re gonna have for the next year, they can go ahead and make those recommendations It would give HR staff a little more time to process and kind of let the supplement reappointment process run alongside of your annual reappointment process And we know that there may be spring and winter sports, where the principal would not know, and those recommendations can come at a later date Also it was our understanding that principals are given a dollar amount, or a funding cap to appoint supplements, and some supplements may be appointed differently at each school It was a little concern that would you be able to make sure that you’re applying your coaching supplements equitable with regard to gender equity with a boys teams and girls teams? So there might be a need for the district to look at Should there be some kind of standard staffing allocation for coaching different sports For tennis, do you need a boys and girls head coach? Yes Do you need an assistant coach? Well, maybe depending on the size of the team, would you need an assistant coach? So there are some ways to kind of come up with a staffing matrix that you would staff each sport to kinda get a handle on the budget that is being used each year, and also assuring that you’re addressing the gender equity issue the on an equal basis The other thing was that the appointment of supplements evidently annually, each appointment has to come in to the HR department That appointment is accompanied by three or four written documents I think it’s a requisition supplement performance order And then the other one is called a performance standards document So, and these documents and this reappointment process for supplements are really repeated year after year after year So, and we know as you do that, there are some outstanding coaches or other supplemented individuals in the district who have held these positions for a number of years, and some automated system

to simply say at reappointment time, if the principal recommends your course director to receive that supplement for another year, that it’s a roll forward for the next year And so we encourage the IT department to work with the HR department, to really come up with some automated system where supplements, unless a principal makes an exception to these, his supplement, listing to terminate or transfer a supplement, then those supplements are or move forward And you don’t really have this redundant year after year keeping the same stuff once for the same people and, and getting the same three, four hard copy documents that has to be scanned and filed for those coaches, and or the other supplemented positions With regard to the substitute teachers Of course the district uses the SIM system And I will say that I think there were some very good organization in establishing the process to support subs in the district to hire subs I think there was an indication that they have about 75 new substitutes that go through the application process that they go through kind of the new employees sub process each month And they have about 75 for each session, which is good Their fill rate was 85 to 95% which again is, a very good fill rate for substitute teachers The only thing we would maybe consider, the district consider is that currently, if you’re a retired teacher say, you have teachers retired this year And based on the return for employment guidelines FRS has, if that teacher is ready to return to maybe substitute teach, the prior process requires that substitute or that retired teacher to really go through the whole application process Our thought would be that there needs to kind of be a fast track version for any retired teacher or other retired employee who may wanna come back and be a substitute teacher Certainly fingerprinting, because they may be out for a period of time, but fingerprinting the drug testing, but a lot of the paperwork and other documents should be maintained in the current HR system So if they do wanna come back that they don’t really have to go through that whole process again So there’s just a couple of quick comments about substitute teachers – What I was gonna say about that slide, John, is that, and then we just to let the board members know, and I think you all know Deb and I were attached to the hip for almost three weeks doing the allocation process and not only just Deb from finance, but also Carmen with teaching and learning the assistant superintendent We were all meeting together with that process when we actually collaborated with the principals on that Because we recognize how important what an important part the personnel part is of the district’s budget As Steve said, it’s 85% usually or more of our district budget So we worked really hard on that And Deb and I are continuing to work on the supplement and substitute piece to bring that equity lens of what John was talking about and making sure that every school is consistent and we have what we need our school for kids So that’s really important for what we have in that And that’s where we are there So Erin, next slide Okay, John – Is that slide up, Mr.West? – Yeah, John, it is, it’s an instructional administrative company – Okay It’s kinda frozen on my end, but I’ll go ahead With regard to the contracts upon our review, it appears that the district has used a contract for instructional staff for public schools for a first year teacher And as you know, that we had some changes in statutory language a number of years ago that referred to probationary status for imploringly employees newly hired to a school district And we just think that it would be beneficial if the district would consider establishing a specific probationary contract to be used specifically for probationary teachers That would certainly have a specific start and ending date It would have the terms and conditions of employment as you would for your annual contract,

but as you know, probationary teachers can be released without cause or may resign or that a breach of contract So we think it has some clearer(jumbled speech) probationary contract and your annual contract So we’re recommending that the district work to really establish a specific probationary contract and a specific annual contract With regards to some of the board agenda and personnel items We did review multiple board action agendas with regard to personnel They do contain the required things with regard to appointment transfers, terminations, appropriate leaves and things of that nature However, for some of the newly hired appointments, the board was approving the person, let’s say the recommendation was for an annual, for a contract of employment It wasn’t specific to, is this a probationary contract or is it an annual contract? So we would recommend that those contracts for appointments were instructional staff be probationary status specific or annual contract status specific As you know, there is no more opportunities for PSE contracts So each instructional appointment should really be probationary if they’re new to the district, and re-appointments have annual contracts or probationary staff should move in the arena of annual contract as well The other issue on contracts is, it was our understanding that annually, the HR department takes all instructional staff members to the board for the appointment As you know, the district still has some professional services, contract employees instructional staff There are some instructional language that talks about professional services contract employees that they have an expectation of continuing employment, unless they’re signed with some of the issues that can cause for that contract to be terminated So we would suggest that maybe the legal counsel for the district look at the real need to carry forward all PSE persons to the board for reappointment, because the lack of any action to terminate a professional services contract, will more or less mean that there is entitlement to it But again, that may be something that legal services would like to review with the district leadership to determine if that is a necessary to continue as well Mark my screen is still frozen, but- – Yes, sir Just the personnel files and job description, and those are kind of just procedural things that we had talked about – With regard to personnel files Of course, as you know, that the HR department is moving toward electronic retention of personnel files, which I think is a very good thing You do have to kind of start somewhere So you may have the department with some electronic files on an employee with regard to maybe evaluations and other documents that they’re maintaining electronically And then the HR department also has a hard copy file for these employees So I think there has to be a low attention to making sure that we’re not missing documents and eventually those hard copy files that are maintained for each employee could be merged into the electronic files as well The other we’ll comment on personnel files would be that, I think some of those schools staff we’re not quite sure of, let’s say if an employee is been there at their school for 10 years they’re now transferring to another school What do they do with the school personnel file? Do they send that to HR? Do they send it forward to where the employee is transferring to? And or they just simply keep it there at their school for a number of years So I think there was some uncertainty on the part of school staff in really how to process the personnel file when the employee leaves that school So I think just some clarification there, because you don’t want to have a public record request, you provide them everything you have at the district office and the current school that maybe the employees but they still have a file left at a previous school So I think just some clarification there would certainly be helpful Under job descriptions

When we first started to look at job descriptions, we tried to find kind of a master list of job descriptions that are approved by the board and the district And there was not a singular master list You really had to kinda go to the application page, the application for a job page, and kind of look for job descriptions there So it would be I think appropriate to consider having a master list for your principals to access, if they wanna clarify the job duties of a certain position, if they need to perform some assessment on that employee So in kind of looking at all the job descriptions a kind of clean procedure would be to have a standard job description format Some of the job descriptions were in different formats and contain some different information Again, create that master list and update that master list and the jobs as needed And to really look at some process that if a job description needs to be updated, that it initially begins in the HR department It kinda moves through the superintendent’s leadership team to make sure it’s appropriate, be revised or approved, and certainly new job descriptions before new job descriptions are established There really needs to be some level at the superintendents leadership team to approve that before we move forward with that So just some procedures on how to create new jobs, update job descriptions, and also potentially eliminate a certain position So some procedures in that arena would be appropriate Kind of moving along to recruitment and retention on seven I will say that I think the district’s coordinator recruitment and retention is really doing a very good job and a very intense job of recruitment Some of the materials that she provided me to kinda look at recruitment and retention I mean, it was a stack of materials, very good materials It wasn’t just paper There were recruitment schedules were developed in advance The job fairs, they were well planned out the Volusia County Job Fair, people or administrators who attended that job fair, they had package prepared There were some communication with deans of colleges where they were looking to recruit from the internship Senior intern orientation program was a very good program with a lot of good materials I really think that the efforts there have already improved under Dr. Fritz and Mr. West I know that allocations were authorized a lot earlier this year than in years past, because from what we found with years past, you were having recruitment fairs and the allocations for staffing of school for the next year weren’t really out yet So it was difficult for principals to say, “Yes, I would like to hire you, but I don’t have my allocations yet.” So I think there’s already a lot of movement on the part of the Mr West and the HR department to kinda get those allocations set with the finance budget department in advance of these recruitment fairs So principals can actually hire on the spot Volusia is doing a very good job with offering contracts of employment And if those contracts or of employment are offered to a Volusia intern, or if they’re offered to a critical needs area, such as advanced placement chemistry teacher, that means that we’re hiring you based on that principal’s recommendation So there are some very good things I think to really support those efforts, we’d recommend that maybe the district consider just creating a formal recruitment and retention plan booklet or document, where you kind of put all these things together to really see what you’re doing, what’s been effective, what has worked well And it also can be shared with interns It can be shared with the deans of colleges and universities, and they really are saying Volusia is serious about these recruitment efforts So there were some recommendations that we had in our large HR study, focused study report, that will kind of outline some of the things that would be in that booklet and not to go through all of those at this point But there were some good things that are happening in recruitment and retention in Volusia Steve – Thank you I’m not hearing anything, is he coming through?

John, if you don’t mind wrapping up succession planning and then we’ll just – Okay – Working towards it, even professional standards – Okay Well, let me just talk briefly on succession planning Succession planning is really it’s kind of a process that really is gonna be district specific There’s no two districts that are alike No two district has the same positions across the board So succession planning is driven a lot by the importance you put on it by the staff that you have, where they are in their careers It’s an area where you really try to give say assistant principals that you were talking about earlier in your preparation program, some mixed experiences, some with budget, some with facilities, some with instruction, you give them a variety of ways to get them ready to become the next principal So Steve’s has section on that in the large report, goes into some details and give some recommendations But there is no singular glove that’s gonna fit every district with regard to succession plans So hopefully some of the staff we put into that recommendation, what would be helpful – [Bouzianis] John, I’m back now, I guess I might (faintly speaking) back I just want to say that a lot of what was done already, when you appointed your administrative interns in the discussion that a board member Colon, the superintendent had, that’s actually part of the succession planning process What we provided in our report is some best practices that we’ve picked up in terms of trying to help in terms of preparing a succession plan Thanks, John – Okay With regard to the professional standards area – Yeah, last slide Erin – With regard to professional standards And I think this is kind of a statewide issue or a statewide concern until you really kinda get down and try to nail it down That one of the problems across the state is an incident that occurs at a school And the first question is, who should kind of address this issue? Is it the school administrative staff, or is it a certain district staff person that’s been identified? So I think in looking at some recommendations kind of the general recommendations, to kind of shore up that area of professional standards is to really kind of get a team of people that consists of the appropriate people from the superintendents cabinet Some principals and department heads to say, from the principal department head standpoint, this is what I need clarification on, it’s what I need guidance on And you really kinda start breaking down what issues are gonna be addressed at the school level And what issues are gonna be addressed from the HR level You wanna clearly define the roles of principals and department heads when conducting investigations again, as we mentioned, what level of conduct or misconduct is gonna be addressed at the district level, from the district level and or at the school level Make sure there’s a good, clear process for addressing some performance concerns with low performing employees in any area And at some point you have to determine this issue of misconduct may require involvement by the board’s attorney, the district attorney So these are some of the things that you will look at But really once you will move in that direction, the key thing to kind of making sure is to say, here are some standards that have been set in place by the Volusia County School Board, the Volusia County superintendent, and we’re going to adhere to those standards And if there are any violations of those standards, we’re gonna apply a quick, we’re gonna apply consistent action in response to any levels of misconduct And in doing that, there certainly should be some clear policies on kind of general expectations You can’t really identify a policy that’s gonna address every issue, but some clear expectations with regard to professional standard levels And then also make sure that your principals and your department heads and supervisors have some good training in the areas of expectations regarding professional standards They have training in how to conduct investigations If a certain investigation is gonna fall in the lap of school administrators or department heads,

some training on just cause, some training on documentation and what you need to support your position if you wanna move forward with any kind of discipline So it’s a good overview of how will certain issues be addressed in Volusia and who will address them and make sure that we have some clear policies and training that will support the principals and department heads and for the investigations that they’re responsible for So that was just a few of our thoughts and comments Mr. West on professional standards area – Thanks you I appreciate that So we’re on our last line and that is questions So I’ve been very excited about the things that have presented by John and and Steve And obviously I’ve been working on this now for about three to four months So I know you guys are just getting, receiving it now, and it’s kind of a whole lot of information that you’re overwhelmed with But we’ve kinda gone a long ways, but we also have a ways to go And we’re still working on things So I’m just excited to be able to have these recommendations, to work towards, particularly with our strategic plan, because that’s gonna be an important part our part of the strategic plan So thank you, John, and thank you, Steve, for the hard work that you’ve done – And we’ll be glad to respond to any questions if you have a Mr. West – Thank you Board members – Thank you, John and Steve At this time, I’m gonna open up with my colleagues Mr. Colon, I see your hand raised, is your hand actually raised? – Sure it is – Both of them – There you go – I’ll start with you followed by Mrs. Haynes, and then I moved to Mr Persis and then Mrs. Cuthbert Go ahead – So, first of all, gentlemen, I’d like to thank you for coming out to our County We knew early on that this was something that we definitely needed to look at And so I truly appreciate the feedback I realized that from the perspective that FADSS is bringing these recommendations, there is no way of knowing the history And so I’m looking at slide three, where we talked about establishing definitive closing dates for all vacancies And so it’s more for Mr. West, was our experience February 3rd, last year I’ll (jumbled speech) date, where we were down to three We had three vacancies posted because it was incumbent on the principal to continuously have to repost the position Now, in looking at this presentation, I kinda see the mix of the paradigm shift of centralization and decentralization that has happened in education And so I have always been verbal about the thought that we really need to have centralized hiring, where you all in HR can tell us, we have this many vacancies And it was our what’s being described here was sort of where we were, where, okay, if HR wanted to figure out how many vacancies we had, they had to contact 73 principals, I remembered Suzy You have to get 73 principals together and call them and all of that So I personally, that made me cringe a little bit because that’s part of the reason why we’re here I think that if it’s up to a school to repost and continuously repost the position, what ended up happening in our situation was, substitute teachers were put into those positions And so they stopped advertising to keep their favorites up, which has served us wonderfully in our time of need There’s no doubt about it But then that posting wasn’t on the HR website So folks couldn’t there was no math teacher opening, so they moved on to another County And so that’s my feedback on that piece of it Another thing that we talked about was the onboarding And so the one comment I have on that is let’s think about it more than the procedures, as much as we think about it What is the experience like? What is the experience like when somebody comes to our HR department, is looking for a job, would like to come serve our students What is that experience like? And I appreciate the fact that we are looking at cutting out the third party, because I can tell you when I went to get my fingerprints,

it was quite the adventure – Me too – In the back of it’s like, okay – I know – And so I’m glad that we are looking at centralizing that Here it talks about our policies I am not the least bit surprised that our policies may have some room for improvement I think that creating a process and I’m a process person, creating a process that keeps these updated on a regular reviewed and updated So yes, the job that is on the table right now is very difficult because you’re undoing however many years of good intention I will put it that way, of good intention Everybody does the best they know how Nobody comes to our district and decides they don’t wanna do the best And so they’re doing the best they know how And so I think that bringing those back regular updates and making sure that we keep up on them statutorily, which, that again makes me cringe a little bit, but we’ll get there There was mention of manuals And so that has sort of been something that I have said for a very long time Is everybody comes here to do the best job they know how, however, there are no instructions You sort of had to make it up as you went And so how do we ensure that, so first of all, the creation of a manual of procedures that if we miss procedure number three, “Hey, you missed number three.” But it also helps set that expectancy for all of the members of our team, as it relates to human resources Right now, again, all we have is a lot of really, really, really amazing people with good intention And so how do we turn that into a guide that long after we’re gone, somebody can come in and be able to do the job and know what is expected of them And so that was that piece There was a part about the employment history And I’ll bring this up because I’ll never forget when a Dr. John Hill said it, when he was on the board, we were talking about a substitute teacher that he was a contracted teacher probation at the end of the year they decided not to renew his contract because of whatever reason, but then he came back and applied as a sub And so the department of the substitutes doesn’t touch the principal And so nobody went to that principal to say, “Hey, Mr. Principal, what was the story over here?” And so, how do we connect those parts? Because if I remember correctly, it was a very tragic actually I think it was Mr. Persis actually, it was a very tragic event And we never really I’ve never seen anything brought forth to address that disconnect Let’s see what else Hold on So policies, substitute teachers So we talked about the subs Personnel files, the same thing They’re just, again, like you described there’s an unintended disconnect And so how do we centralize those files? I know you mentioned us going electronic, so that’s exciting for me And then we talked about, so we’ve already talked about succession planning Professional standard Months ago we had a conversation about professional standards prior to you being here And we realized that there really were no policies and procedures Again, we had a lot of great folks who are doing the best they know how Okay? With no structure, I’ll put it that way And I won’t forget that night I went home and started looking up other school districts and said, “Hey, how hard is it to find professional standards, policies, procedures, et cetera?” And it wasn’t very hard And so I think that’s probably, for me, that’s one of these areas that we really, really need to do a lot of work on maybe potentially really fast Because I think that that’s where we have huge weakness right now And I would like to see us have policies, procedures, record keeping I understand, a lot of that gets written on paper And so, nobody’s writing anything on paper and notebooks anymore Reports have to be in a computer somehow where if somebody wanted to look up, Ruben Colon, they could do that and have everything at their disposal Other than that again, I just wanna thank you for this presentation And I’m excited Mr. West, that we’re already halfway there

But I think that I gave you a halfway – No, I appreciate you Hey, we are working towards the end I’m telling you, we have work to do no doubt about it – We are certainly getting there and I appreciate you, I’m looking forward to (indistinct) also helping with some of this and learning some of this, because I think that we’re definitely on the road to the right path Thank you – Thank you, Mr. Colon Mrs. Haynes – Hi gentlemen I first wanna thank you for coming and doing the HR study Because we all knew how much it was needed, and I appreciate the time and effort you put into it Ruben has covered a lot, but I’d like to start with this There part where once someone retires streamlining the process for them to come back, I appreciate that that was one of the topics that came up Because, we have individuals that retire and then decide that they’ll come back on a part time basis A lot of teachers will come back and do intervention or tutoring with students And so I appreciate that you’re looking at that piece in streamlining it so that they don’t have to go back through the entire process So thank you for that On page 17 of actually the report that you sent us, it talks about the adjunct teaching certificates And so I think Mr. West, I’d like to probably have some further conversation with you at a later time about, actually that was one of the findings that we had, about how that is being addressed And I’d like to know, Ruben kinda hit it We haven’t had a manual or a process or something in place that says, this is what we do So I’d like to know how we’re going to move forward with that piece and what our process is So that it’s very clear and up front, because I have questions in regards to that area I also would like to ask so on the area of professional standards, you stated that you did not do a deep dive You stated that in the report and everything And so is there something more that needs to be looked at in the area of professional standards that Dr. Vogel and them can come back and do a deeper dive to give us more information? Because I’m with Mr. Colon on this, we don’t seem to have policies and procedures And that is the one area that seems to get us in the most trouble or it’s the most concerning, is that sometimes individuals are treated differently even if there’s been a similar incident And one individual may be treated more harshly than what another individual is And so, I feel like there needs to be some equity in the area of professional standards And I really feel that there needs to be additional training in that area, not only for in the HR, in your world, but also for the people that are having to make the phone calls or – I agree – I mean, and what happens, and I can say this as having been a teacher formerly, is you get some great training and then we just kind of make this assumption everyone knows it, and there’s not like a refresher, or we don’t catch the new people coming in, or people that have changed job roles to make sure that they are prepared and ready to handle that And, that’s the one area that the union also gets involved in Sometimes we have lawsuits and things like that, or people lose their position And I think we need to be very clear and upfront, what expectations are, and what the process is that we follow I too will agree Everybody’s been working hard, but it was a little disheartening to learn that we just didn’t have a guidebook or a manual And even when I read the part about how you couldn’t like locate all the job descriptions in one area And I know you and the team, now that we have this report are addressing those things, because really job descriptions, that that should be a simple one, that they all be located in one area And very clearly, like this is the job description with the expectations for this job role Even down to, this is how many days?

That’s 180 day employee, or a 250 day employee – Absolutely – And that should just be open, transparent information I struggled too, when I read a lot of the principals feelings on the hiring process, it was a struggle anytime I had to put a position out there to be advertised, that you had all these people that applied, that weren’t qualified I mean, and you spent hours reading documents that they had uploaded to find out they don’t even have the degree Or what it States on here And sometimes I wonder if we could do a better job on our part to say upfront, if you don’t have a master’s degree in this, don’t apply for this position Or if you don’t have five years experience in this, don’t apply for this position Because that does take a lot of administrators time when they’re trying to find people and they’re turning their wheels and come to find out that the person have the qualifications But I know that everybody else has some things they wanna say I just, once again, wanna say thank you very much to FADSS for coming in, taking the time, listening to all of us, asking questions and putting together this comprehensive report for us And Mr. West, I wanna thank you for jumping right into this and you and your team starting to make inroads in correcting the things that they found that we needed to change And I felt the recommendations were really well thought out, but I just would like to talk about that adjunct teaching piece at a later date And I’d like to see if we can maybe dive into the professional standards a little bit more deeply if possible, but thank you everyone – [Wright] Thank you Mr. Persis – [Carl] Hello? – [Wright] Go ahead Mr.Persis – [Carl] Okay Thank you Hello, I wanna thank you all as well I think Mrs. Haynes and Mr Colon said it beautifully There’s really not too much to add I just would like to say as a former principal, I greatly appreciate the efforts that have been made to streamline the process of the hire That’s what just drove principals crazy and apparently still does And so whatever we can do from the time that principal says, “I want Mrs. Smith.” From the time the district can say, “You can offer the position to Mrs. Smith.” Whatever can be done to streamline that process down, because that is the most frustrating thing from the principal side of thing And the only other comment that I had was I think Mr. Colon alluded to it was we have situations where a teacher, let’s say a first year teacher, is not doing well And the principal lets that teacher go Say three months into the year or six weeks or whatever the timeframe is And then that teacher applies for a substitute position and begin substituting Now what’s happened is that as a substitute, that teacher who had problems with let’s say classroom management was let go, and now this person is substituting And guess what? They’re having the same classroom management problems, but because they’re only at a school for one day, no one really pays too much attention and they go to a different school and another day and a different school and with 70 schools, they can bounce around quite a lot until something and too often something bad happens And then we trace it back and find out, “I recognize that when I hired that teacher and that happened six months ago.” So that communication Mark, if that could somehow we need to tight tighten that loophole, if you will So that a principal that chooses the hire, I’m not saying you shouldn’t hire maybe someone that was let go, but principals- – Be aware of it – [Carl] Should know the reason why And if you wanna take a chance and hire as a substitute,

okay Her or him So that’s it But you guys did great Nice to see you, John and Steve Hope you had a good time here in Volusia County, always nice to meet someone from Massachusetts I have lost my accent, but I can get it back right away Steve So if you ever wanna go toss down a few we can do that (laughing) (jumbled speech) You sound like great guy too So, that’s even better So yeah Nice to meet you, Steve – [Bouzianis] Thank you, sir – Thank you, Mr. Persis Mrs. Cuthbert – Yes So gentlemen I wanna say thank you for addressing a lot of the questions that I have in my interview with Dr. Vogel It was, it was nice to hear, one of my first questions was a who to call list And that was one of the first things you mentioned to create And a lot of what you suggested helps us with time management And it also, when you organize, when you assign you reduce the time And so, and I think that’s what all of us were very grateful for to look at the time and to organize And that’s every issue I’ve always talked to retired teachers Because when I came back, I was the first retired teacher to come back in Volusia County And I had to go through the whole process again And of course there was no procedure when a retired teacher comes back The retired teacher of course, has to have the 12 months and a day And that 3% is not taken out of the salary – Right – And so, and that’s always very nice And also the review and the professional standards We should have the same procedure, no matter who was head of that department So it becomes more objective and less subjective So I thank you for the time suggestions, the assigning, the organization of who does what, because only when that happens, are we going to stream streamline it So thank you very much I’m very happy with what you said So thank you And plus my comments are duplicated with the other ladies and gentlemen So thank you – You’re welcome – Thank you, Mrs. Cuthbert So I do have a couple of questions I’m gonna only limit to two because some of them were addressed, some were not But we can do that at a later time I think I wanna go back to something Mrs. Haynes said which actually brings about a little concern So what we were talking about potentially people applying for a district And principals having to look through their credentials My hope was and read the report was that became the process of human resources, where it became a one stop shop So as a principal, I would only receive the names of those candidates that actually met that criteria That I am not the person or someone on my immediate staff would not be the person to go through the applicants to decipher if they were the appropriate candidate In my world, business human resources was part of my track That was something of the human resource officer And our role is to hear the candidates that actually meet the criteria for this position So you select from that So we’re saying now that one of the staff people that will be assigned to a group of schools that will be his or her responsibility, whose responsibility will be to go through and just to give that principal or any administrator the applicants that actually qualify for the position Based on the criteria that we’ve set for? – John, you want me to jump in on this? ‘Cause that wasn’t one of the recommendations, but I’ll tell you what we’ve done If you’d like me to – Okay – But I don’t wanna steal any thunder from what you wanna say, go ahead – Well, just let me say real quick And Steve I think maybe in the report, there’s some reference to this, but our principals based on our experiences, a lot of them weren’t to see more was better So what we developed was a code for each applicant So if somebody applied for the job, we coded them cleared for interview You can interview him, but there were some issues or clear for hire

So we kind of tried to meet the middle because we had a lot of principals that said, “I’m not only looking for that middle school teacher, but I also need someone who can support the band program.” Or a high school principal saying, “I’m not only looking for the biology teacher I’m looking for a biology teacher, who may be able to sponsor the senior class and, or coach a sport.” So we kinda took that big box that was here, is everyone down to the boxes Now there’s two boxes There’s a cleared for an interview And you know when they’re declared for an interview, there may be a pending issue with regard to certification Or there may be a pending issue with some reference letters or still not in yet But our principals wanted to see a lot of folks And then we had a cleared for our hire, which was pretty much I think what madam chair was talking about, this person is ready to be hired as your biology teacher So that just quick input – Okay – Yeah, so- – Go ahead, Mr. West – What I was gonna say is that recognize we’ve tried to put in a process now based on what John and Steve had come in and said, and also based on what the principals have told us, that first of all, they, they do want us to give them an applicant pool of viable candidates I’ll put it that way So what we’ve done is we’ve gone through and we screened and done exactly what John said, vetted those candidates But what principals also wanna have is a selection So I’m thinking specifically of our ESC vacancies, right now We may only have five ESC applicants for the entire district But if we have applicants that are subject certified a principal might wanna talk to a social studies teacher who will come in and agree to sign an agreement around for an ESC position, if they feel like that’s something that they can do So it’s kind of one of those things we’ve got to strike a balance where yes, we absolutely want to show we have all these vetted applicants, and we have an applications team now who does that That is their primary job As Steve mentioned earlier in the report And what that’s done is that’s taken the pressure off the principals to have to worry about checking every reference because we do that HR does that now And then we don’t necessarily say this is the only thing that they can teach, because of their certification We do have a certification expert who will say, this is what their certification is, but if the principal wants to say, “Well, maybe I want to look at that social studies teacher who might want to sign an agreement or ESC.” We wanna give them the flexibility to do that So that’s been a little shift in what we’ve done Yes ma’am – Okay Alright And the only reason I brought that up, for me, again, it’s just a little concerning because we’ve seen where certain schools, they have to be certified in ESC depending on their title, correct? – Right – And so we have people that we hire that may not be where we need them, but you know, it is the hopes that they will get there and potentially get, or do whatever they need to do But three years later, they’re still where they were when they applied or when we hired them So that’s concern That is consenting, but okay That’s fine I just wanna talk through it And then quite naturally, for me, it is always, how do we play in? And so you got recommendation that we started with little of applicants that are in drop or return The next will be retiring next year, 2021, or in the drop that will retire in the next four or five years I think my concern with that is as we move forward, looking at that data and that information, and we talk about succession planning and we already have somewhat of a weak bench How do we plan to potentially offset any issues that could arise in the next year or two? When I was looking at the recommendation for a succession planning, I was hoping that you all based on your professional roles could give some advice or some recommendation on where do we move forward As we look at our bench in the next two years to prevent such I mean, we’ve promoted people, I’ll use this year, we’ve promoted some really great principles,

which has now given someone a vacuum and we just hired some but we still don’t have a bench So again, where we were last year is not a little worse because we’re gonna have more novice, and their novice principals in our pool that really will need some real support And so I don’t think we address how do we support all of our first year principals or first and second year principals and our district We’re kinda heavy on that, having first and second year principals And so that’s a concern for me And that’s probably not HR, but it should be a function of when we start looking at our strategic plan And as we’re looking at our organizational chart Some of the moves we’ve made have called a major gap in leadership And so what is the plan to address that? And how will HR start and working with our professional development team, really preparing the next generation of leaders? – [Bouzianis] Madam chair this is Steve You hit the nail right on the head I was just getting ready to say PDs involvement in providing opportunities for leadership development and activities that would be tied to specific positions or duties The idea of coaching and mentoring programs, all of those things can be built of course, into your succession plan – Okay – And I will say Mrs Wright that we actually have Christie Mahaney from professional development on our working on goal two of our strategic plan, which is that talent management piece So Christie and Brandy are definitely they’re working collaboratively And you’ll see when we present our goals for a strategic plan, you’re gonna see those intertwined and working on that progression plan and putting something, a succession plan in place so that we can do that And I see Dr. Fritz’s hand is up also, so I’m sure he probably wants to comment on that – Go ahead, Dr. Fritz – [Fritz] Yeah, I was just gonna say I’m looking forward when Brady and we’ll add Christie to that mix and, and Carmen and Mark, and I can sit down with the board and go over the leadership plan that we are putting into play It’ll go back to that leadership fair That’ll be the first ring because if you’re going to have leaders along the way, you’ve got to start with those principals tapping five people and saying, “Hey, you might be interested in leadership Let’s go to this fair.” And then we build that aspiring leaders program four times a year to get people hooked But your point is well made about those first year principals too And I wanted to say that we’ve already talked a little bit about a principal like an induction program for our first year principals We have that now Brandy meets with them several times a year in a PLC And they talk about issues that they’re having in supports but where I wanna expand a little more is like a mentoring type program for those first year principals So if I’ve been a principal for seven or eight years, I’m assigned to work with someone and help them through their first year experiences, so that we can build that So I look forward to sitting down and sharing it out with the board It will be deeply embedded in talent management goal two for our strategic plan But it’s one of those areas, as you’ve said, we can’t leave it alone Nobody graduates from University of Central Florida or Stetson or anywhere else ready to be a principal They have to go through a long internship process to learn the steps of the way And we hear you loud and clear – And thank you, Dr.Fritz for that And my last comment would be based on the survey we saw where unfortunately we didn’t get a 90 anywhere And, I guess all of us probably knew that we had challenges But I would like to see maybe even the questionnaire being administered next year, to see if we grow in the areas – Definitely, I agree – And if not, then what can we do? Because we can’t continue not performing well For me, you’re only as good as your HR department If your HR department is not the heartbeat, because that’s where you get all of your capital assets and you’re not the nucleus where your faculty and staff believe they could come to get help direction and they feel appreciated, we’re gonna be here having this conversation So your role is very vital The principal’s roles are vital,

but HR is definitely vital because you’re supposed to be the employee safe haven Alright, thank you Any more comments? Mr. Colon. I see your hand up – [Colon] Oh no, sorry, I found it – Okay – He found it out – Okay If no other comments, thank you, gentlemen – Thank you John – Thank you, Steve – Thank you – [Bouzianis] Thank you – And it is 5:43 What we will do colleagues We’ll go ahead We have some folks that are waiting to speak with us We have three, and after that public participation, we’ll take a 10 or 15 minute break So you can chill for a few minutes So can we start with Elizabeth Albert please? – [Elizabeth] Good afternoon – Good afternoon Mrs. Albert, can you just state your name and you know the routine you have three minutes ma’am – [Elizabeth] Yes ma’am This is Albert proud president of Volusia United Educators I’d like to start by just pointing out a couple of things First of all, I want to applaud you in the work that you are doing or preparing to do to produce clear and concise job descriptions Thank you very much That’s something that we’ve been asking for for quite a while So I appreciate that Quickly, I’d like to remind you, when we talk about supplements, article 28 and the instructional contract page 65, clearly sets out the contractual language about supplements They are not automatic, and we need to follow that language So I know you guys will do that and I appreciate it So what I wanna talk about today, most importantly are the end of year procedures We have met several times with the assistant superintendents and Mr. West, and we’ve created a mechanism that was focused on efficiency and the essential items that needed to be completed to close out the year during post-planning However, what we’re finding is that there are vast differences and inconsistencies about the messages that our teachers and staff are receiving from the school sites And so this is very troubling as we don’t need any additional stress, confusion or disarray in this moment, what we need is a clear message And what I believe we all agree with is the need to prioritize health and safety With that being said, I’d like to remind everyone that although the world is starting to reopen our community as well, the problem with COVID-19 has not been eliminated And as we continue to discuss the process of bringing our folks back, I have to ask about our supply of PPE Do all sites have masks? Do all sites have gloves? Do all sites have hand sanitizer and an ample amount of soap? And if not, what are the expectations for educational professionals if these items are not available? Please remember that an action is not considered insubordinate if the directive given is considered to be unsafe And so we know that you care as much about our educational professionals as we do So I wanted to ask you today to examine your process and policy for the return of our folks, to our sites And please consider the following questions Is the return absolutely necessary? Is there a clearly defined process? Do we have the necessary equipment? And is what we are doing reasonable and equitable for all? So thank you for your consideration and for prioritizing the health and safety of all of our individuals – Thank you, Mrs. Albert – [Elizabeth] You’re welcome – We have Mrs. Amy Hawkins – [Amy] Good afternoon board And this is Amy Hawkins I teach over in Deltona I just wanted to touch base about the end of your procedures Some of you may be aware, but probably not, that I am immunocompromised I have an auto immunity and am on an immunosuppressant on a regular basis Walk on Florida Healthcare covers my $8,500 a day medication And I am now being asked to return to my classroom for two days of post-planning Normally I wouldn’t have a concern about this, but just two weeks before spring break, this board met to discuss whether we should discontinue our contract with our cleaning company, because they weren’t meeting our expectations We were told that over spring break our classrooms would be cleaned, and were asked to come back on campus immediately following spring break to get our materials for distance learning I chose not to do that for fear for my health and safety And two weeks later, I went in to retreat my 3D printer so that I could print mass straps for some of our local health care professionals

That time on April 6th, my room hadn’t even been wiped down And now here we are with a potentially fatal global pandemic that my doctor has made very clear to me, If I catch I will die And I’m supposed to go back into my classroom to take down the bulletin boards, in a room that I can’t trust is clean Because the five of you sat around and said, we should probably look into this contract with this company because they’re not doing a good job And I’m scared I’m gonna go in because I’ve been told by my employer that I need to go in, and I’m gonna do the things that I’m contractually obligated to do So I will tell you right now I have Tyvec suit and an N95 mask that I will be wearing to go into my classroom Do you think that really at the end of the day, and probably late until August Because we’ve already started summer cleaning The materials that were left in the classrooms have been shoved in cubbies and cabinet and filing cabinets so that cleaning can begin I have a teacher who has spent five days looking for curriculum materials, because she’s moving to another school There’s no way this is gonna be a streamlined process And there’s no way that these things take priority over the potential that I may catch something that will ultimately kill me and take me away from my children So if it’s really that important that I need to go into my classroom to take down my bulletin boards, I wanna know which one of you is gonna watch my kids I die – Mrs. Hawkins – [Amy] Yes ma’am – Oh, okay I don’t know if you were finished – [Amy] Yeah, I don’t think there’s a lot more to say about it – Okay, thank you It is duly noted And thank you Thank you for calling We have a Mrs. Rebecca Sorry – [Rebecca] Sorry – Mrs. Rebecca Sorry? – Okay Hi, if you state your name and you have three minutes – [Rebecca] Can you hear me okay? – Yes, I can hear you – [Rebecca] Hey, I’m Rebecca Sorry, and I’m a parent of two elementary schoolers I listened in today This is the first board meeting I’ve ever listened in on And I didn’t know if it would be part of your agenda today to talk about like the survey that went out and about school openings and parent preferences Is that something that’s coming up on one of your future agendas? – Yes. Ma’am it is But If you want to offer some feedback, you have three minutes as you can discuss whatever you so choose – [Rebecca] All right Thank you I actually, all of the members have received a letter from me, so you might have recognized my name But I was just just calling in favor of school opening in August We felt very comfortable with that I know that was an option on this survey But I thought maybe if they do a survey (indistinct) future, I was recommending that they have another option just for parents to state their concerns about the guidelines and things As I know, there’s a, probably a pretty big dichotomy in parents that are okay with sending their children back without any kind of strengthened rules or restrictions in place where other people may have those concerns And may also just prefer to do online learning if they do have those concerns As I thought that might be a good distinction to make with where parents are at, whether they’re concerned or not concerned And I know a lot of parents are very concerned about having their kids wear masks I know I’m not in favor of that myself and I’m a nurse and my husband’s a paramedic, we’re health professionals We do not support them masking So that was just something that I too maybe put on for discussion or even in the future surveys, that might be a good distinction to make to see where parents are at with that and their comfort level with sending the kids back to school So I think they would see that there’s a lot of parents that are comfortable sending them back just as it was previously So it might be something to consider on the future surveys – Okay, Mrs. Sorry Thank you so much for that We appreciate it – [Rebecca] Thank you – Have a good evening – [Rebecca] You too – Mrs. Schulz,

do I only see three names that we have anyone else come in for this part of participation? – [Schulz] That’s right No, just those three at this point – Okay Colleagues, it is now 5:53 If we can be back and ready to go at 16:00 I would greatly appreciate it Colleagues, are we all back?

– [Cuthbert] Yes, I’m here

– [Jamie] Yes, I’m here – Here

– [Fritz] Yes, ma’am – Mr. Persis – [Carl] I’m here – Alrighty, thank you – [Carl] Yes ma’am – All right, Mrs. Leben, we will continue We’ll move on to item 6.02 ABM update, Dr. Fritz – [Fritz] Yes, ma’am Thank you very much It is my pleasure to ask Mr. Akin to come forward And as he comes forward board, I’m gonna share with you that when I started, I believe the very next week, there was a board work session on November 19th, where you were receiving information regarding our progress with ABM I heard very quickly from all board members asking me to look into level of service and the quality of the work that we’re doing And through that process, the board had asked us to look at different options and different scenarios And that’s what we have for you today We’re going to start working at different grounds areas, and then we’ll move over to the custodial Our team has included the financials, so that you’ll have a picture of those I know that our team has reviewed them with you So we’ll move through them rather quickly today because as you know, we have other presentations for this evening But we’ll certainly be happy to take any questions you have at the end So Mr. Akin, you and your team may proceed – [Akin] Alright Madam chair, board members, Dr. Fritz, thank you for this opportunity I have with me tonight, the Mr. David Biletto Mr. Ron Young and Mrs. Nicole Miller So I’m going to turn over this to Mr. Young He’s gonna start with the grounds maintenance first, and I’ll put him on right now – [Young] Madam chair, Mrs. Cuthbert, Mrs. Haynes, Mr. Persis, Mr. Colon, Dr. Fritz, it’s a great day to be a bulldog And thank you for allowing us the time to share some information with you as it relates to grounds athletics and custodial I will be presenting ground and athletics Then I will social distance and bring in Dave Biletto to discuss custodial So Erin, if it’s okay with you, I’ll just say next, and let’s go to the next slide The picture you see there is Mainland High School Last summer, we needed to replace that field, and that’s just a picture of the new field at Mainland High School Next Step we’re going to discuss today, we’re gonna provide information on structure, equipment, materials, schedules, program costs, and return on investment Next please Thank you So for ground structure, next The grounds maintenance teams would looK like eight-three man teams, eight vehicle packages, two packages per quadrant, two mower operators, one edger blower operator, and these positions would rotate functions

so that any one employee is not overburdened Next We would also like to include with the grounds and athletics, a specialty crew, a four man team they would serve as floaters for grounds They would also we would be able to allocate those resources for some pressure washing that’s needed around the campuses and clean carpets and miscellaneous other tasks that principals would like done Next The grounds equipment required for this operation Next As I said, it would be a I think we skipped one As I said, it would be a three man team, one truck, one trailer, two 60 inch mowers, edger’s, blowers, weed eaters, gas cans, shovels pole saws, chainsaws, pressure washers And that would add up to $70,000 in change, for eight crews it would be about 566,000 and change for those eight crews Next Ground’s budget materials Next It looks like in district travel, minor maintenance, repairs, major maintenance and repairs, cell phone service, energy services, supplies, vehicle, and equipment oil, and grease, dues and fees, uniforms And that would roll up to 92,000 and change Next The ground schedule Next Would look like one mowing per week, edging and blowing, blowing out sidewalk driveways, et cetera Once a month, monthly irrigation inspections And one time a year for grounds would be weed control pest treatment and as needed mulching, weeding inspecting fences for vegetation and growth removal, and pressure washing Next for athletics Next We have 55 total Lakers in the district that are used for athletics And this is a breakdown of that acreage And as you can see on the bottom Atlantic High school, their total would be 6.722 acres, and you can see the other high schools they add up to that all adds up to 55 acres Next Athletic fields and the athletic structure It would look like two-four man teams, two vehicle packages, one for the East, one for the West that would include three mower operators and one on an edger and blower again, rotating functions as to not overburden any one employee Athletic field equipment Next Thank you Athletic field equipment, a four-man vehicle, one truck, one trailer, two 60 inch mowers, a toro grounds master, a tractor, edger’s, blowers, weed eaters, gas cans, shovels rakes, pole saw chainsaw and for athletic fields that totals 154,000, almost 155,000 for two crews, 309, almost 310,000 Next The athletic field budget for minor maintenance and repairs would be 7,500 major maintenance and repairs, cellular phone, energy services, energy service for diesel, some general supplies, vehicle and equipment oil and grease field maintenance supplies, 225,000 That’s for fertilization and pest control Uniforms, it all adds up to 270,000 and change And I realized that change is real money, but in the interest of time Next Now what you’re seeing is a table that proposes

the frequency for fertilization, herbicide, pesticide application, and so on And this all totals up to 205,000 and change Next Athletic fields schedules During the growing season, we would be proposing two mowings per week also edging and blowing for safety reasons inspect the field fences and gates Irrigation systems Also during the growing season two times per year, we control over seeding, aeration, top dressing And the off season, it would look like one mowing, one edge and blow per week and fertilizer and grading during the off seasons Program cost Sorry, next For grounds maintenance, the program costs is 566,000 change athletic field maintenance it’s almost 310,000, and that totals 876,000 and change The personnel costs for coordinator a 70,000 and change small engine mechanics, two of them, 80,000 and change 28 utility mechanics, 920,000 and change, eight utility mechanics for athletics, 263,000 for a total of 1.334, almost 1.335 million Supplies, annual budget for grounds 92,475 annual budget for athletics, 270, 625 for a total of 363, 100 Currently the ABM contract is 1.447 million ABM proposed a $600,000 addition to take over athletic fields That would be $2, 047,356 and change VCS is proposing 1.69 million, with a total annual savings of 349,000 Equipment startup cost will be 876,000 and change Next The Return On Investment really comes from the pride of our communities, our staff, and our students, in provide them a safe environment in which to play their sports Next This is grounds only, and as you can see, the estimated 10 year savings without capital is 2,805,000 Next Grounds and athletics The estimated 10 years savings without capital is 4.274 million And I will entertain your questions at this point Thank you – I’ll start with Mr. Persis – [Carl] Thank you, madam chair I have been made aware of this presentation and I do not have any questions – Thank you, Mr. Persis – Thank you, Madam chair Mr. Young, I appreciate all the time that you and Mr. Akin took previous to this meeting to go over all of this with you I just thought that when we discussed this we talked about, could we look at not needing like the coordinator or as many upper level positions to start with, or if you already had somebody in that position, ’cause I see that that’s still a cost factor in here under the personnel piece – Right And I remember that conversation but we have to have someone to carry the pesticide and the fertilization licenses That’s why we need that position – Okay All right, then I have no further questions at this time because you did a very thorough job of answering my questions previously

Thank you – Thank you, Mrs. Haynes – [Wright] Mr. Colon – So I too wanna thank you for this presentation As I sit here and listen to it, I kind of put my community member hat on and wonder, “Okay, why does this matter right now?” And in my community, I can tell you that at my schools the fields are lacking In fact, some of the fields really, really need some attention And so it’s not just about the aesthetic of the field, as much as it is the health and safety of our athletes that are playing on these fields and ensuring that they are safe And it’s for that reason I believe that this is a good thing that we are considering doing for the health and safety of our athletes Thank you I have no further questions – Thank you, Mr. Colon – [Wright] Go ahead, Mrs. Cuthbert – Hi there, Mr. Young Nice to see you again Would the athletic directors at each of the schools have input on when they would like to have their fields treated? For example, I believe Deltona and Pine Ridge and Spruce Creek all have football games on Friday night, many times on their fields Will they, and the athletic directors tend to cut at that particular time, right before a game to make sure everything is fine or even a baseball game Will the schedules of the schools be considered, or is it just going to be a schedule from your point of view, not when the schools need the grounds cut – Thank you, Mrs. Cuthbert No, we would absolutely have to talk to the athletic directors and bring them in to the scheduling process I have witnessed what you’re talking about We’ve had where they pull the plugs out of the turf, what’s that called? I’m losing my thought process, but we’ve had those pulled out right before a game So we’ve had to run out there and mow them really quick because obviously they would be in the way of of the game But I know absolutely we would have to include them in the process – Okay And are the schools still in charge of lining the fields? – They are – Okay So the lining of the fields would have to go after the attention given by our athletic people, correct? Our mowing people – Yes ma’am – Okay And then also it’s not just our athletes, but it’s our marching bands Some marching bands are out on those fields as well So when you talked to the athletic directors, you might have talked to the band directors, to see when they’re out on those fields as well And I do know that that number one enemy is red ants So will we treat it pesticide as well, like for red ants? – Yes ma’am – Okay So that’ll be okay then – Yes That’s why I said we would do it once or twice a year, but we would also come back and do sport treatments as needed – Okay Will you, with your coordinator, will you have a system set up so that there is a one central person that the people in charge of those, the school-based people in charge of the fields can contact to let that individual know what’s going on a clear communication line? – Absolutely The coordinator would be that POC, that point of contact – Okay So, and all the people at each of the campuses would know that And these athletic fields, is it just primarily high school or is it also middle school? – Well, currently we don’t have any middle schools that have Bermuda They are just a Bahia and what they call it, pasture Bermuda, where it’s a different strain of Bermuda So currently we don’t have any of those types of fields, but as part of grounds, what we’re proposing is that those fields would have their irrigation inspections – Okay So the grounds crew is taking care of the middle and the elementary, the athletic crew are taking care of the high school – The athletic crew would take care of the athletic fields at the high school And the grounds crew would take care of the other grounds at the high school

– Yeah Thank you For transparency and for the public’s information, I just wanted to make sure that was clarified, but thank you very much And the presentation was very well done And thank you for the total cost savings That was good to hear Thank you so much – Thank you, Mrs. Cuthbert – Thank you, Madam chair – You’re welcome Thank you I too, at this time, I don’t have any questions We were able to discuss this and get a chance to review it So I’ll turn it back over to you, Dr. Fritz Thank you, Ron – Well, I’m going to do you wanna do custodial now? – [Akin] Yes – [Fritz] Yes – [Akin] So move on to the custodian next So David Biletto, will be doing custodian and then we’ll open that up for questions after that, and then we’ll get onto the next presentation – Thank you – Thank you, Mr. Akin Thank you madam chair, vice chair, board members, and superintendent of schools, Dr. Fritz So we were asked to do a study and a cost analysis on an in house custodial program and the potential I’m just waiting for the slides to catch up There we go Okay next Okay So as part of the analysis we were asked to also consider an implementation plan So this is part of that cost and implementation So 70 leads would be considered to bring on first, and that would be in the first year of implementation to get a comparison cost We asked the current vendor if they were to supply 70 leads, what would the cost be? And you can see it’s $2.259 million and change And the direct hire process would cost the district 2.599 million and change, with a difference of a little over 339,000 Next So moving on to what the staff would look like at all levels, high schools, middle schools elementary schools and ancillary facilities This would represent the high school’s staffing structure Our recommendation through our study would be a total of I’m sorry, I have to move – [Erin] I’m sorry I have to reload the PowerPoint Can I I’m just gonna disconnect and reconnect I’m sorry about that – [Akin] Board members while she’s reloading that if you have any questions or more, we can kinda run through this fairly quick If you want to kind of get to the end of this and show, the dollar amounts at the end of the slides and then answer any questions you may have, but the madam chair, it’s up to you – [Wright] What I would like to do, Greg and colleagues feel free to chime in so that the public can actually see this It’s easy for us to talk through it because we have actually seen the presentation But I think that when we do reload, if we can get to the meet with everybody on what will this cost, that would be great – [Akin] Okay That’s where we’ll go So Erin, if you don’t mind going back down a few slides almost to the end there, and we’ll start showing you the comparison between the two – [Wright] Just a minute I see Mr. Persis hands Go ahead, Mr. Persis – [Carl] Madam chair I was just going to say just what you said, so, yeah Because we’ve already heard it and seen it If we can just get right to the end, that’d be great And thank you, Madam chair – [Wright] No problem Thank you – [Akin] Yeah, go ahead and keep going there Erin, we’ll go almost to the end Keep going – That’s it right there – [Akin] She was quick – Okay, can everybody hear me?

– [Akin] Yes, Dave, go for it – Okay So let’s get to the meat and potatoes of the analysis So those first three rows up top represent the first three years And they would be the three years of implementation of phase one and phase two and a phase three, which is outlined on the right hand side As you can see, the first three years represent our investment years And then year after year down lower represents our costs moving forward So the bottom line is for this in house custodial program, it would cost the district, It would be an increased cost of an average over 10 years of $136,243 And then of course, on the left hand side, there is a capital investment of $1,382,724 – [Wright] Thank you Is that the last slide? – That should be the last slide talking about costs There is a strategic cost analysis next, and I won’t beat this up too much So this is what the custodial program would cost that top section So the middle section represents the grounds and the athletic field costs And then if the district, at some point in time decided to bring the three programs in house that is the bottom section and the related costs If they did all three – [Wright] Okay, thank you – Oh, you’re very welcome – [Wright] Colleagues, do you have any questions, comments, I’ll start with you, Mrs. Haynes – [Jamie] I don’t have any real questions because when I did meet with them, I asked them a lot of questions I think we still just have to weigh, where we’re at right now, how we got here and what we need to do to move forward Because I think my biggest concerns right now, and I shared that with them is what I’ve been hearing coming out of our schools, even prior to the pandemic, we weren’t pleased with the cleanliness in our classrooms and our schools And then my concern now has been that since we moved into the pandemic and guidelines were set out that we would get all of the rooms thoroughly cleaned and everything There’s just been some very poor decision making with lack of communication and lack of thought of teachers and students walking out of their classrooms and in their classrooms, we’re being left with just the thought they were returning for spring break And when they didn’t, I do appreciate that ABM stepped up to clean, but I don’t appreciate the way things have been handled But I think budget wise, we’ve got to be good stewards of financially the money that we receive And so, it’s a little difficult to look at what the cost is going to be up front And I ask questions about that because we sold all of our equipment, so that upfront cost is going to be a lot And I’d have to refer back to Dr. Fritz and Deb Muller, and I’d need to see that we actually have the money to move forward with doing this without it impacting us district-wise in a negative way But thank you I do wanna say thank you to all of you for taking so much time and meeting with me and answering all the questions that I had prior to tonight’s presentation – You’re welcome And thank you – [Wright] Thank you, Mrs. Haynes Mr. Colon – And so I have no questions, just the statement And just like I said before, this is gonna come down to the health and safety of our students, employees And I think Mrs. Hawkins definitely pulled the heart of the importance of this So again, thank you for the presentation and I have no further questions – Thank you, Mr. Colon – [Wright] Thank you Mr. Persis – [Carl] Thank you, madam chair No, I asked a lot of questions when I first heard this information I have no further questions Thank you, Madam chair – Thank you, Mr. Persis

– [Wright] Mrs. Cuthbert – Good evening, Mr. Biletto Thank you for all the detail, the comparisons It takes an awful lot to assemble all that information and as well as it takes us a lot of time to digest what you’ve so carefully put together So thank you for that I would, I think as we go forward, I would like to, because this is going to have this will come out of capital funds or come out of our general operating? – [Akin] It’d be both – So a little bit of each – [Akin] So equipment comes out of capital and then the employees would be out of general fund – Okay Can you tell me how much would be coming out of general fund? Just an estimate – So the capital cost is a little over $1.3 million, that initial capital cost And the staffing would make up the rest So the staffing levels, the entire program is at 14.9 million And that does not include of course the capital investment on the equipment So the total staffing for the program is 14.946 million – Okay And what is our contract with ABM? – A Constable $14 million for ABM – Okay I would like, since so much of this would be coming out of our general fund and our re-investment, I would like to hear what our teachers say, because this could affect our ability with the pay raise or benefits, it would be taking money I would just like to know what their priority is I would like if and when we make this decision either to go one way or the other, I would like to know what they want, what’s their priority Because they’re gonna be in it too They have to live this agreement with us on a daily basis So as we go forward, I would like Elizabeth Albert to survey her group as well So we have another viewpoint of what it means to them, for us to move in this direction It’s a monumental change, just like it was back in 2012 It’s a huge change And thank you for investigating this for us This too is a very large, important, significant decision, something for us to chew on for a little bit, but I would like to know what the teachers think – I agree, thank you – And also, we still have a lot of employees who were custodians eight years ago If we still have employees who are still working with ABM what’s their viewpoint So I just wanna make sure when we do this, we’re going to have happy group And that is the worker, the one who gets to benefit from the work, as well as administrators Because administrators on campuses are the ones who have been burdened Because I remember the discussion was that administrators would not have to worry about what was going on in their schools But I think what’s happened as a result, administrators have like triple the time invested in what happens in the operations of the grounds and in the classroom cleaning So very nice to get a little more feedback, but thank you gentlemen, very much Otherwise it was very well explained before as well as now So thank you Have a good evening – You as well – Thank you, Madam chair – You’re welcome, Mrs. Cuthbert Thank you I too currently do not have any questions You did explain thoroughly I wanted to get to the bottom cause everybody wants to know financially what it would cost us at this time and looking at the cost, again, I believe that it is a good idea to get feedback from the teachers, but administrators too Cause I think Mr. Persis gave us a snapshot from a slightly different perspective So thank you all so much for the information We know what we have potentially to work with and work from, and make some decisions moving forward But thank you so much for your time

– You’re welcome And thank you, Madam chair – Yes – [Akin] Well that’s all for us, thank you ma’am – Thank you, superintendent Fritz Do you wanna add any comments? – [Fritz] I just want to thank Greg, Ron, Dave and Nicole You guys have been a real pleasure coming into the district for the last six months, you have educated me, spent lots and lots of time with me to get me up to speed I wanna thank you for that And madam chair and board, we will continue to stay on this We will to work with Brandon Clark to ensure that we get good quality service We will certainly put together some information to survey our teachers and our principals and to continue to prioritize how we spend the dollars Thank you – Now we’ll move on to board action items 17.01 policy 701 Superintendent Fritz – [Fritz] Like to ask Mrs. Deb Muller, Chief Financial Officer to come forward – [Deb] Yeah, good evening madam chair, board members and Dr. Fritz This is being brought back to you for permission to advertise the finance policy 701 And the reason why we are requesting to modify it is because of the audit committee language and the internal auditor language that was added to Florida Statutes Those were 218.391 and then 1001.42 And so we did bring this forward to you previously and we’ve just received input from the audit committee and it was reviewed by our team and just bringing it forward to post final form to advertise – Thank you Mrs. Muller Superintendent Fritz, is there a recommendation? – [Fritz] Yes, ma’am there is The superintendent recommends the approval to advertise the amendments to the school board policy 701 for finance – Colleagues you’ve heard the superintendent recommendation Is there a motion? – [Colon] Motion to approve – [Cuthbert] Second, madam chair – The motion has been properly moved and second, any discussion? Hearing none I’ll call for the vote Mr. Rubin Colon – [Colon] Yay – Mrs Jamie Haynes – [Jamie] Yay – Mr. Carl Persis – [Carl] Yay – Mrs. Linda Cuthbert – [Cuthbert] Yes – And Ida Wright, yay The vote was unanimous Thank you, Mrs. Muller, and thank you, superintendent Fritz – Thank you – Moving down to item 17.02 high school athletics fields, superintended Fritz – [Fritz] Like to bring back Mr. Greg Akin, chief operating officer – [Akin] Madam chair, Dr. Fritz board members Thank you for this opportunity We already went through this presentation, so we’re not gonna waste any time there What I’d like to do is if you have any questions, please, at this time or further questions, please let us know I would like to go to slide 15 on this PowerPoint, if you don’t mind, just to highlight just a couple of things on that PowerPoint I don’t know what turn it back over Mr. Young is on as well So he’ll be presenting that slide 15 Erin, can you pull it up? – I think we’re on the wrong presentation or something – [Fritz] Greg, maybe we just take any questions that they have, am not sure the presentation is necessary at this time – [Akin] Yes, sir So we’re good to go Madam chair, any questions for Mr. Young? – I see Mr. Colon So Mr. Colon go right ahead – So the question at hand to negotiate the possibility with ABM of taking these services over – I think what we’re talking about right now

is just athletic fields And while, ABM does supply some mowings for the athletic fields, we don’t have a contract for athletic fields with ABM – [Akin] Well, let me clarify real quick ABM it’s included Their mowing is included in the current contract with them currently right now So really I think what we have is a basic choice here Depends on how the board wants to go and leave it just like it is currently right now We can actually go back with ABM and see if we could basically amend the contract to pull out the mowing of the 55 acres as we presented And then we would take on what we currently proposed with this athletic field maintenance using our internal staff That’s the two choices really have this evening to kind of discuss Did that answer your question, Mr. Colon – So currently ABM is doing our fields, correct? – [Akin] Right One time per week – One time per week And so are we looking to negotiate the contracts to pull that out so that we take it over? Is that the question at hand? – Yes, sir. So what we are looking at is if you want us to move forward to meet with ABM, to discuss the grounds contracts, specifically the athletic part of that grounds contract, that would be the question this evening, which direction you would like us to go – Great Thank you No more question – Thank you, Mr. Colon Mrs. Haynes – [Jamie] I don’t have any additional questions at this time about this Thank you – Thank you Mr. Persis – [Carl] Madam chair, I did not have any additional questions Thank you – Thank you Mrs. Cuthbert – [Cuthbert] I have no further questions Thank you – Thank you Thank you gentlemen Superintendent Fritz is there a recommendation? – [Fritz] Yes, ma’am, there is The superintendent recommends the approval of the high school athletic field maintenance program – [Carl] move approval – Was that you Mr. Persis? – [Carl] Yes, madam chair – Thank you Is there a second? – [Cuthbert] I second, Madam chair – Thank you The motion has been properly moved by Mr. Persis, second by Mrs Cuthbert Any other discussion Hearing none Move forward with calling for the vote Mr. Ruben Colon – [Colon] Yay – Jamie Haynes – [Jamie] Yay – Mr. Carl Persis – [Carl] Yay – Mrs. Linda Cuthbert – [Cuthbert] Yay – And Ida Wright, yay The vote was unanimous Thank you all Thank you gentlemen, for the presentation – [Fritz] Thank you – [Akin] Thank you – We’ll move on to action Item 17.03 The Panic Button with Rave integration – [Fritz] Yes, ma’am. Mr Akin is gonna stay forward, but I’m gonna ask chief Newman to come forward Chief Newman is going to share with you an agreement with Rave Panic Button and a little bit of the plan of us going forward to make sure that we’re getting the most out of that, chief Newman – [Newman] Good evening and thank you, sir Good evening madam chair, board members, Dr. Fritz To that, I’m here with you to provide just a brief overview of a Panic Button app provided through Rave and Mutualink With me also on the call tonight is a representative from Rave Mr. Jhan Frias, and from mutual link, Mr. Joel Jones and Mr. Jeff Kelly I’ve asked them to join us just to address any technical questions that you may have at the end of this presentation Next slide please Erin So as you’ll recall, legislation passed earlier this year as part of companion bills, house bill 23 and Senate bill 70, and also known as Alyssa’s law for Alyssa’s alert named after 14 year old Alyssa Alhadeff, who was tragically killed in the Marjorie Stoneman Douglas school shooting in February of 2018 The unanimous passing of Senate bill 70 requires panic alarms in all Florida Public and charter schools by the 21-22 school year The Panic Button or Alyssa’s Alert, provides an electronic link directly to the local PSAP or public safety answering point more commonly called the local dispatch center,

that will notify law enforcement, other first responders and school staff when an emergency occurs on campus Next slide please So in the Rave/ Mutualink partnership, Rave is the Panic Button app portion that is downloaded on mobile devices and will allow employees of Volusia County Schools activate the system by simply pushing one of five emergency buttons The five buttons are active shooter, police, fire, medical and 911 In addition to the emergency buttons, there’s also a staff assist button that can be used among school faculty and staff in many different non-emergency situations One example of this might be a teacher who falls and needs to request assistance from other staff members without causing commotion or alerting 911 Mutualink is the hardware or gateway that allows interoperability among school staff and first responders, linking radios, phones, and videos for optimum communications The benefits of this app are that 911 is immediately called connecting school staff when emergency call taper at the Sheriff’s communications center, who will then of course, ensure first responders are dispatched to the emergency It provides accurate location of the incident, and this portion is huge The correct location must be provided every time to ensure first responders are not delayed in responding to the accurate location of emergencies Additionally, faculty and staff on campus are notified of emergency so that they too can take appropriate action And the messaging feature allows them to communicate with one another as to what’s going on in their particular location Lastly, it is purpose compliant and only shares video during emergency situations at the direction of the school administrators Next slide please So here we have a diagram of how Rave and Mutualink app actually work So once the app is downloaded on your mobile device an ideal fence is placed around each campus to include football, baseball, soccer fields, and parking lots When any of the Panic Buttons are activated the user’s phone immediately dials 911, connecting them directly with a call taker at the Sheriff’s communication center At the same time, a notification is sent to the guardian or the school resource officer, resource deputy on campus, as well as all staff members who have been pre populated into the system This means that all faculty and staff on campus, will be alerted to the emergency at the same time This ensures rapid lock downs, evacuations or other emergency measures can be taken immediately In closing, the Rave/Mutualink panic alert system provides faster, realtime communication and information sharing with our first responders It further enhances the overall emergency notification process for Volusia County Schools It will ensure emergency incidents reported on our campuses are communicated directly to the Sheriff’s communications center, so that our first responders can be dispatched immediately to the correct location to address the emergency situation Next slide please So that’s all I have That’s the end of my presentation and I’ll stand by for any questions of myself or our guests from Rave and Mutualink – Thank you, Officer Newman I See Linda Cuthbert and Dr Fritz, do you want to interject before I open it to my colleagues? – [Fritz] Sure I was just gonna say this is a good tool, but it’s only a good tool if we train our staff on how to use it and feel comfortable with it So please understand one of the things that we didn’t go through in depth, Chief Newman knows this, that during our pre-planning we will have an investment in training our folks As we go through and do our monthly drills, it’ll be activated from this app, so that our folks feel comfortable with this So that they’re not afraid of it so that they know that it’s there It’ll be part of our district team as well And I just wanted the board to know this is a good tool as long as we use it So the intention for us is to make sure that all of our employees are extremely comfortable with that Thank you ma’am – Thank you, Mrs. Cuthbert – Hi, good evening This is for the Volusia County employees only, not for children? So kids can’t download this on their phones? – Yes, ma’am that’s my understanding It would be for Volusia County staff, faculty, employees

– Okay And it will only work at parking lots, fields, and the school building So once an employee walks off the campus, it’s not available, correct? – Yes ma’am, that’s a very good question It’s only active within the geo fence around the school and the identified areas that we actually have input on where that would be So that would include baseball fields, football fields, soccer fields, but what’s really important is that once you leave those locations, those identified areas, you wouldn’t be located or tracked – Okay I do know we have several inter-local agreements like in the Ormond area, as well as New Smyrna, we use their fields So would not work for example, at a Spruce Creek High School versus New Smyrna Beach High School football game at the New Smyrna Beach Municipal Stadium, that’s owned by the city – I would have to defer to Mr. Akin or somebody else that helped me answer that question My understanding is that if we have students for Volusia County Schools, that we would be able to use it at those locations, but again, I would have to get back to you on and verify that response – Yeah Chief Newman you’re correct We would and miss Cuthbert, we would work with the cities to make sure we’re authorized to do that – Okay And my last question, how safe when you put an app down on a phone, how safe is the owner of the phones, personal information? For example, a person keeps passwords or financial information on the phone, does the company Rave or Mutualink have the access, are they allowed access to what else is on the phone? So I know people will be concerned about their personal information – Of course Very good question And I’m gonna defer if you don’t mind directly to the experts Rave and Mutualink Mr. Kelley, or Mr. Frias – [Kelley] Let me chief this is a Rave question I know the answer, but let’s let Mr. Frias answer that specific question, please Jhan Frias, are you there? Chief Newman Can you hear me? – I can hear you Yes, sir And he was on the line earlier I don’t know if he got off in the meantime, but he was there – [Colon] Well, he looks like he’s muted Jhan Frias you’re muted – [Jhan] Okay Can you hear me? – [Kelley] Yes, Jhan – [Jhan] Okay, great Thank you So the answer to that is we do not access what is on the employee’s phone In other words, every employee would download the Rave application, like people would download any other application We ourselves do not have access to the employees phone or anything else that’s on the phone – Okay So are you able to as an employee, for example, a Chief Newman is on a campus and she has the app, you all can know where she is at all times, correct Can you – [Jhan] No, that is not correct The only way we would know where an employee may be is only under one circumstance And that’s if, and only if, that employee activates panic and in ideal fence location If the employee does not activate Panic Button, then we are not tracking an employee at any given time At the same time, we also understand that there may be employees that I just may not comfortable with the application They have ability to completely turn off our location on their phone Therefore, we will never know where that employee is – Okay Now, Mr. Akin and Chief Newman, would you ask all employees to do this? And would you accept, for example, if Dr. Fritz says, “I don’t have to, I’m the superintendent, I don’t need to do this.” Will we allow, Of course he wouldn’t, but would we allow certain employees feel uncomfortable? Would they be allowed not to download the app? – Me personally, I would wanna talk to those employees just to have a one on one and explain to them that really the safety and security of our students, faculty and staff is it’s incumbent upon all of us and explain to them exactly what Mr. Frias

just explained that, we’re not interested in tracking you throughout your day as your kiddos We’re interested in knowing where you all are, If God forbid an active shooter occurs in your classroom and you being able to push that button and getting me and my team, a law enforcement there to you as quickly as possible And I think for those types of conversations and training and education, I think that we could really go a long way with our union members as well, because I know that that might be a concern for them, but being able to have these conversations and explain that to them – Okay Thank you very much I appreciate all your input Mr. Akin, did you have something – No, I echo of what Chief Newman mentioned, that’s exactly what we would do go to the employee and pretty reiterate why it’s important to have this system in place – Okay Thank you very much Madam chair – Thank you, Mrs. Cuthbert, any other colleague, Mr. Colon? – So this is a statutory requirement, correct? – Yeah It’ll be required in the 21-22 school year, yes sir – Okay And I noticed the funding for it is coming from the half cent Is this something that is not being funded through safety and security? – Well, the funding actually from the half-cent sales tax, we have $2 million set aside for safety and security So some of that money would be used for this The following year we’re anticipating the reoccurring costs would be funded through the state through a grant for the system ‘Cause they’re gonna be selected in the system for us, just like they did for four to five Florida – So, wait a second So you’re saying that next year there’s gonna be a state contract? – Well, that’s what they’re currently working on right now is to state contract and selecting someone and a majority, I’m gonna say many, I don’t know how many exactly are currently using Rave and Mutualink in the state of Florida (faintly speaking) setting, including higher ed as well (murmuring) It’s a cat And so my question is then, so this is, though it is a requirement for the upcoming school year There has not been funding allocated for it? – Not at this time You’re correct, sir Not at this time – I guess that’d be a question for them Are we anticipating this to come eventually from the safety and security funds so that we don’t have to pull it out of half cent? I guess Yeah, that could be a followup question But it’s statutory and we’ve got to get this going So I understand that I just wanna make sure that if we need to let our colleagues know in our state government that, “Hey, we’ve got this requirement and this is what it’s costing us That’s unfunded We can certainly share that So thank you – Yeah They kinda answer your question Currently this year, as we started with the guardian program, there were grants set aside for the weapons we have, the training, all of those things I anticipate the state will do the same thing for the system that we currently have, or that we’re getting hopefully – Great Thank you – Thank you, Mr. Colon, Mrs. Haynes – I apologize Tiger decided to wake up early today, and join the conversation Okay So my first question is, is this replacing the VOLO that we’ve been using? – Yes, ma’am it is – All right So to piggyback on what Mr. Colon said, we would be starting this a year earlier than what we’re being mandated to start it? – That’s correct – Okay And then my other question is, has the companies that we’re gonna deal with that are going to install this, have they already had an opportunity to look at our infrastructure and maybe Clint knows the answer to this, if you don’t to ‘Cause when I was looking at the prices and everything and what this is gonna cost, I saw that, there’s a piece on us too, for what they’ve got to install So do we have the infrastructure that’s ready to make this work if we move forward with it, technology-wise? – [Clint] Yeah, thank you Mrs Haynes I can speak a little bit on that I think for the most part, the only infrastructure piece that is gonna be required is wireless throughout our schools And it will work with LTE for the cell phone data as well I know some of the inside schools or inside of schools doesn’t have very good signal

for the LTE or the cellular access So that would be where the wifi would come in and then if they leave the wifi coverage, the cell phone activity could still work We will look into that, but our goal is definitely to have wifi coverage in all of our campuses inside of all of the buildings, no matter where you’re at any way So this would coincide with that – Okay So you will work together with them to ensure if we’re moving forward on this So one final thing about VOLO is, if this is going to replace VOLO , is our contract with them up or is that contract still are we going to be basically double paying for two services and only utilizing one? – So currently we do not pay anything to VOLO Right now it’s a zero cost We help them basically last two years try to develop their product to make it marketable Obviously there were some issues that we currently have Remember two years ago, we looked at a Mutualink and that we put on hold to try to work with VOLO For that reason VOLO would be charging us next year if we would go with them And so we’re at this point right now to make a decision what we would go with, and this is the best product out there today – Okay Thank you for answering that And Clint, thank you for letting us know about the infrastructure I appreciate the fact that you’re already thinking about the training for the teachers, because we do wanna keep everyone on our campuses safe And I like the fact that this company has developed something that appears to be simple, enough that if in the event that there is an incident, you have easy access to be able to reach someone So I appreciate that And thank you for taking the time to walk us through this this evening – [Wright] Thank you Mrs. Haynes, Mr. Persis – [Carl] Thank you madam chair I took the opportunity earlier today to speak with Greg about this item And so I do not have any further questions I’m looking forward to working with the company Thank you – Thank you And I too was able to actually see the presentation and equipment So thank you all for the information And do you all have any questions for us? Any comments? Okay if not superintendent Fritz, what’s your recommendation – [Fritz] Superintendent recommends the approval of the purchase of Mutualink Panic Button system with Rave integration for our schools that are admin sites – Thank you You heard the superintendent recomendation Is there a motion? – [Colon] So moved – [Jamie] Second – The motion was made by Mr. Ruben Colon second by Mrs. Jamie Haynes Any other discussion? Hearing none, I’ll call for the vote Mr. Rubin Colon – [Colon] Yay – Mrs. Jamie Haynes – [Jamie] Yay – Mr Carl Persis – [Carl] Yay – Mrs. Linda Cuthbert – [Cuthbert] Yes – And Ida Wright, Yes The vote was unanimous Thank you, colleagues Thank you, chief and Mr. Akin Yes Mrs. Schulz – [Schulz] I just wanted to let you know, we do have some public comment for 17.04 Once we get to that – Thank you. Ma’am Yeah, I saw that one Moving along to item 17.04, the consolidation of Ortona elementary and Osceola Elementary Schools – [Fritz] Yes. Ma’am I’d like to call up Mr. Steve Grube, director for planning design and construction And Mr. Greg Akin – Madam chair, board members, Dr. Fritz, thank you for this opportunity As you know, we had done several board presentations over the last couple of months talking about Osceola and Ortana This evening we’re looking for direction from the board is requested tonight to make sure that we can look at the consolidation of those two schools BRPH the architects on April 14th, we presented the information We looked at the K-5, K-8 We even did, a neighborhood survey was conducted We presented all that information to you on April 28th board meeting There were several site visits to Orange County looking at their K-8 So we’re asking the board tonight to decide on two basic things, a K-8 or K-5, and whether we build on Osceola or Ortona

So I’m gonna turn it over to you a Mrs. Wright For a discussion Steve, do you have anything else to add on that currently? – [Steve] No, not at this point That’s summarizes everything very well – Thank you Mr. Akin and Mr. Grube So colleagues this is the time for the discussion, but I do want to stay that I did go on Friday, the school was beautiful I had parents to join me I believe you received emails from both parents from both schools that actually like the K-8 model But doing our discussion at the school, along with the firm as it relates to the site, we were told, and I did ask the question if we going to consolidate, if we going to go K-5, a K-8, if we looked at the K-8 model, how will we know which site would be best? And it was then said they would take back If we went with the K-8 model, to kinda lay that out on both, but it really would depend on programming And so I’m concerned that if I say one site versus the other, that really wouldn’t be fair because we don’t know the programming I don’t mind us making a decision on if we’re gonna consolidate If we’re going to go with a K-8 K-5 model, I am concerned I am little leery for me to say which site, because we don’t know what the programming will look like So Mr. Colon, I see your hand and then I’ll open it up for discussion – So thank you all for being here I also had to go back to the April presentation So just to better understand exactly what we’re talking about, aside from what seemingly simple of deciding what school, what site Have there been any changes architecturally to that presentation that we’ve learned since then, since everyone’s had the opportunity to go out, I think again, we’ve had lots of positive feedback, but I don’t know that the presentation from April as to where we are today, is still accurate So I guess my question is, have there been any changes to that presentation or other things we can consider? I know there was an issue with a pipe, which we’ve resolved with the city of Ormond, but what other things, as you all have gone on, what’s changed since April? – I’m not aware that there’ve been any changes since April We’ve had some ongoing discussions about program and it’s understood and I’ve had these discussions with the architect that decision to go K-8 is made, we can get into programming and that the program would fit on either site It would obviously be configured differently, but neither site would restrict us from moving forward with the program – So what you’re saying was there is no one site that is better than the other currently? – well, there are advantages and disadvantages to both sides, so that I think that’s been laid out in terms of size and configuration But we’ve looked at them both individually and collectively and determined that either site could accommodate the building and accommodate the programs – Great Thank you That was it, madam chair – Thank you, Mr. Colon I see Mr. Persis hand Go ahead, Mr. Persis – [Carl] Thank you, Madam chair I didn’t know whether I’m trying to help you out with this man I’m chair I didn’t know whether you want a decision on the K-5 K-8, or do you want to listen to the public first? I just wanna help whatever it is that you would like to see accomplished tonight I don’t know which order you think Could you hear me? – I’m on mute, I’m sorry Yes, I did hear you I was gonna allow us to have conversation and then before a vote actually takes place, I was gonna let our constituents join us in the conversation But just wanted to let everybody know, I finally did get a chance to visit the school (indistinct) the two principals of both schools and three parents

And so all of them, and like I said, all of you received the email from both parents from each of the schools that like the K-8 model, the conversation that we had actually dealt with, which site would be the best site based on several configuration And then I think where the comment was made to us, it would kind of depend on the programming And so I just wanted to hear everybody’s feedback So thank you, Mr. Colon And if you had some feedback Mr. Persis, you could go ahead and then lend the comfort – [Carl] Okay I have a lot of comments regarding the location why I believe the Osceola location is the better location However I’m also in favor of the K-8 And when you are ready to have the conversation about which location, then I would like to be able to speak to that issue – Okay, Mrs. Cuthbert – Okay I have three basic questions And Mr. Glover, first one is for you, if that’s okay If we stick with the K-5, we have that covered in our $100 million bond, correct? The $24 million per K-5 – This is Jay Glover Can y’all hear me okay? – Yes, Jay I was gonna say you’re on So Jay Glover’s on (laughing drowns out speaker) on as well for any technical questions Go ahead, Jay – All right Madam chair, school board members, Dr. Francis, this is Jay Glover from PFM financial advisors, the district’s financial advisor And I’m pretty sure, and maybe one of the people at the district can confirm that yes, they initial K-5 was included as part of the Sales Pack Flash Pop’s transaction we did last year – Okay, and that’s 24 million If the board decides to go to a K-8, it could very easily add another 15 to 20 million depending on the programming and the way we have to have the 20% ground permeability So where would that money come from? Can the district afford that extra cost, without putting undue financial pressure on the school district, especially in these times of less sales tax revenue – So I can try to help answer part of that I think We don’t prepare the districts capital budget, but I can tell you how we would potentially structure a financing and how it might impact your debt service payments over the next couple years, and then out a little bit longer, if that’s part of the answer, that would be helpful to you – Okay So Mrs. Muller, could you help with that? – Yeah Well, I guess what we would wanna talk about right now is we don’t have between the additional 15 to $20 million in the budget Because we are in the middle of preparing the 2021 capital plan and the five year plan So we would have to look at how we would want to pay for that Obviously Mr. Glover has one proposal It’s not the only financing option or whether we decided to use the money that we have coming in annually from our sales tax And then that would mean we would have to look at the other projects and possibly push something out a little farther or possible use another funding source So clearly, that’s what we’re in the middle of working on And on the ninth, we would present that tentative budget and this decision would have an effect on what we present on the ninth, but, I mean, clearly right now in the middle of this pandemic, we’re anticipating that we’ll see some revenue loss from the sales tax, but we also have asked Mr. Glover and PFM

to provide us with a projection of the revenue based on economic analysis and other factors So we anticipate that will help us determine what the decrease in funding maybe moving forward And we’ll factor that in So I don’t know that I’ve given you a clear answer, but there are options and we have considered to push out (faintly speaking) funded them based on what the (faintly speaking) – Okay I just wanted to make sure that everyone understood the K-5 we’ve already programmed It’s already been budgeted, but if we go to a K-8, it’s not, and we’d have to find additional funding sources So question to my colleagues would be, do you wanna go into further debt? Where do you go to find that source? Do you wanna do another bond, which we already have two? What other program, or what other renovation or rebuild you wanna push back in order to put in a K-8 So those are questions I think we need to think about tonight before we make our decision So Mr. Glover, thank you very much It’s nice to know that you’re there to help us with that in and Mrs Muller thank you for answering that question Now one other thing I think that should be discussed tonight, is the programming Because Mr. Phillips and Megan White would have to decide, do we wanna put in a culinary lab or do we want STEM? So what is, and maybe Mr. Persis can know this cause it’s his district, what is the general consensus of the community? What kind of programming do they want? Because middle school kids should not be short changed on a band or on drama, or at least have a field which they can go out and pick a soccer ball Our elementary primary should have a recess area as well as intermediate have a separate recess area So you’re thinking of three separate areas in which kids are gonna go out to play And also wanna make sure, we may not want to culinary lab or we want one at all I’m not sure, but that needs to be decided because that has a huge effect on the money And at least it needs to be discussed tonight And one other thing I have that needs to be discussed, is if the board decides to go a K-8, we have a new program, all this new information, new programming an excellent architectural ideas I’m going for this new school, whether it’s on the Osceola or Ortona site, let’s not forget Holly Hill K-8 We need to address their programming as well Let’s not leave them behind We would probably need, that’s why I asked, Dr. Fritz said he understands K-8, he’s experienced K-8 But if we’re going to do a K-8 for Beach Side School, let’s also help and support the Holly Hill K-8 So I don’t wanna put one out there and leave the other behind So thank you all very much I appreciate And I’m sure my colleagues have other questions So I did leave questions that I might’ve had for them to ask, but I wanted to especially address the financial issue, the programming as well as Holly Hill So thank you all very much Thank you madam chair – [Wright] Thank you One thing I want to, and I think Mr. Persis and I will both agree, programming is not something we can address tonight Because that is not just up to us We have to talk to the parents we have to and especially the teachers and the principals So that’s the conversation I’m not willing to engage in tonight And that is why I said we kind of need to decide which way we’re gonna go If we’re gonna go K-5 or K-8 first, because I do believe there are other entities that really would have to chime in on the part about what programming we want at the school Mr. Persis, I’ll let you jump in on that one – [Carl] Okay, thank you madam chair and Mrs. Cuthbert raised some excellent points Let me just say before today’s meeting, I did have a conversation with with Deb Muller

about the whole funding issue Mrs.Cuthbert And she did explain to me as she just did to the board some of the options I did ask her point point blank do we have the money to fund this school? And she said, the bottom line is, yes, we do have the money The good news is, that we have collected over five and a half million dollars from our sales tax revenue, 5.6 million more than we budgeted for since its inception in January of 2017 So that’s all good news And that will help I think more than offset the shortcomings that we are likely to experience from the sales tax collections that occurred in March and April and will likely occur in May and June until things start to open In regard to the programming, I agree with Mrs. Wright Certainly we could not tonight decide on program as much as our architects would love us to That is certainly something that is gonna demand a lot more input from the district staff, but in regard to Mrs Cuthbert’s comment, Mrs. Cuthbert, I believe if it was a perfect world, what we would love to see is the Osceola if you will, Ortona K-8 school, have a middle school program that directly ties into the Seabreeze program as much as possible And so to get that input from the Sea Breeze staff, as well as our district staff with Patty Ford and as you said including all of the teachers and of course parents too, to make this an absolute quality program I would also be very interested in seeing if we could, and again, it all depends on size and space, but if we could get the gifted program Mrs Cuthbert into the Osceola or Ortona combination, we are currently sending between 50 and 60 students, I would guess to Tomoka Elementary now to their gifted program And these are students that live on the beach side, that we are busing over the bridge to go to Tomoka I would also suggest that we are losing some of our gifted and talented students to the two private schools, that are also within shouting distance of Ortona and Osceola We have two private schools, Lourdes Academy, which is a 0.4 miles away from Ortona, which is pre K-8 school And then we have st Brendan’s Catholic School, which is about two miles North of Osceola, which is also K through eight grade school And coincidentally, both of these schools have around 265 students each So I suspect that there are some students that are attending those schools that if we had the gifted program, and if we had a middle school program at our combination Ortona Osceola school, we would be certainly getting some of those students through our public school So I think this is a wonderful- (baby crying) So I will turn it back to you – [Wright] Thank you Can everyone mute their phone, please Thank you At this time, I see we have some guests in our room

and I would like to hear from our public And so Mrs. Schulz I’m trying to pull back up my list Give me a second – [Schulz] The public participant is Rachel Rostov – Yes, Mrs. Rostov and she was one of the parents that joined me Go ahead, Mrs. Rostov, – [Rachel] Are you there? – Hello? – [Rachel] Hello Can you hear me? – Yes, we can hear you If you could just state your name, and you have three minutes – [Rachel] All right Good evening madam chair, members of the board and Dr. Fritz, this is Rachel Rostov, and I’m calling regarding the Ortona Osceola consolidation And I wanna reiterate what I’ve already communicated through email to the school board It has been made clear that taxpayers are wanting schools to be built for maximum capacity As we’ve seen with the presentations, neither the, Ortona or Osceola site gives us that option relative to the acreage and space available Instead of instant gratification of knowing that we built a school for maximum occupants, we have a chance to put that school in an area that is in the process of revitalization, creating value within our community Putting a new school in Ormond Beach, doesn’t add as much value because it is already an attractive area By putting a new school in Daytona Beach, the Ortona site, we are investing in a growing and changing Ortona by creating an enticing school that families would migrate to Families will have fewer transitions and will be given a stronger sense of community, which is what beach-side living is all about for us When we are given the choice on whether we would prefer a K-5 versus a K-8, I believe the decision goes beyond the simplicity of what we want It becomes a matter of what we don’t have, which is a middle school on the beach side In a perfect world, we would see ourselves having a K-5 on one site and the middle on the other It has been portrayed that this is not an option Therefore, when given the choice, we find ourselves neighboring a K-8 for several reasons Greater sense of community, fewer transitions, and being able to go to middle school in our neighborhood and community By offering the K-8, we are alleviating long bus routes to either of the currently zoned middle schools A K-8 program might not be perfect for everyone, but that does not mean we should ignore the need for a middle school option on the beach side and majority of the school population I continue to hear the argument that Osceola is the larger site compared to Ortona But after seeing what Audubon Park School managed to fit on 13 acres, and being made aware that Volusia County wouldn’t be offering some of the same items such as a track, I don’t see why it wouldn’t be possible to fit the modified K-8 model on the Ortona site We also know that the Ortona site is more favorable relative to storm search, which is something that should play a crucial role in decision making I thank you for your time and consideration, and I hope that my involvement shows the Ortona community support for this project – Thank you We have another caller Mrs. Nancy Redmond Mrs. Redmond Mrs. Redmond Did we lose Mrs. Redmond, Mrs. Schulz? – [Schulz] It looks like she disconnected – Okay If she comes back, we will grab her – [Schulz] Okay – Okay. Thank you So, Dr. Fritz did you have one recommendation? What was your ask, Dr. Fritz? – [Fritz] I’m sorry Ma’am are you asking me to weigh in on K-5 or K-8? – Well, based on, did you have a recommendation? – [Fritz] Well it’s a double edged sword I think K-8s are wonderful educational model for our schools because the transition is less for students You’re able to keep them together and their families together for nine years in school And I think that’s wonderful And if you plan it correctly, in other words you know what the community wants, whether it’s a performing arts school, a STEM school, a culinary school an IB school, Renee school then you can see or World Language Academy, then I think it can be powerful And so I say that to you, I also am concerned about the money And I’ll tell you why that the money concerns me a little bit, because there are projects that if we do this and we pay twice as much

then we’re gonna maybe have to say no to down the road Because you can always spend a dollar once And it’s one of those outages you can have anything you want, you can have everything you want So I’m in support of either options I know that’s a very political answer But I will share with you that I certainly have seen the benefits of the K-8 in a community That’s all I have ma’am – Okay, thank you So colleagues I’d like to hear from you all Let’s start with, do we wanna stay with the K-5 or K-8? Mrs. Haynes, go ahead – So I had the opportunity years ago to intern in a K-8 model, and I have seen a K-8 model work I appreciated the opportunity to go to Audubon Park and view what they built there and hear from the administrators, how it’s working and the community piece I went back and reviewed the survey results that we had from both communities along with the letters we’ve received And I believe our beach side deserves the opportunity, if the parents so choose for the middle students to stay on the beach side So I’m in supportive a K-8 – Thank you Mrs. Cuthbert – This is very difficult for me Since I’m on the selection committee for the rebuilds, and I’ve been doing this for almost five years, I wanted a K-5 two weeks ago, and Mr. Persis encouraged you and I madam chair to go visit And I was so glad BRPH was there I brought mayor Henry and the vice mayor of Ormond Beach City Commission Mr. Troy had come along and they to are APS at a middle school And of course, the honorable Mr. Derek Henry is an AP at Holly Hill And through his eyes, I saw what Holly Hill could be like So I don’t mind a K-8 if the community specifies this particular kind of school at once And some of those kids may wanna go to Mainland, not just Seabreeze So we have to provide them a school in which they can flourish and not be short changed Those sixth, seventh, and eighth graders have to have the same availability to them that other middle school students would have throughout the County I would love to give that to them much like everyone else does My only reserve is, are we going to tell Mclinnis, “Sorry, next year.” we’ve already told Tomoka they would be on the first five Again, they might be pushed aside I think as this comes back to us, we need to decide, first of all, the programming And I didn’t wanna make a decision on the program I just wanted it discussed Like I was glad Mr. Persis brought up the gifted program It’s an excellent idea And what Mrs Rostov said about, we do lose middle school students to the private schools that surround that area We do have an opportunity I hate to see it wasted, but I’m very concerned about the money I really am because we just don’t know what’s gonna happen in the fall I hate to say other schools go by the wayside again Like they went by the wayside the last time we had the half cent sales tax So my heart says K-8 My head says K-5 So you could put me in half if you’d like, (laughing) I do know the practicality, the budget person that I am, I wanna make sure the money’s there and we don’t penalize somebody else And I certainly don’t want to leave Holly Hill K-8 behind So if the superintendent and his staff can say,

“Yes, we will pay particular attention to Holly Hill and help bring up their programming centralized and give them the support that they need to make it an effective So they can compete with a K-8 on the Beach Side.” Then it’s fine with me And we’re not telling Tomoka Elementary or Mclinnis or who else haven’t we touched that we should be touching? (jumbled speech) What’s the other school that we talked about? Spruce Elementary We tell them, “sorry, you’re behind once again.” Because I know what that feeling is because we just got money set aside for New Smyrna Beach Middle School, long time incoming never been touched in 40 years So I think it’s very important that we weigh the pros with the cons But my heart says K-8 Ortona Thank you, Madam chair – Thank you And right now, again, I don’t want us to discuss a site I just want us to really just focus if we wanna do K-8 K-5 right now – Oh, I know I just wanted it This is the only time we can talk So I just thought it was a good idea for us to get our views out there so they can be discussed so we can think about it So I know there’s no decisions – We’ll come back to the site Persis so right now I want us to let’s decide, do we want to move with a K-8 or K-5 first? Let’s deal with that – [Carl] K-8 – Okay, K-8 So as it stands, it sounds like we’re all okay moving forward with the K-8 In my concerned, I didn’t wanna move forward at last meeting Cause I did want the parents from both schools and after the Osceola parents had their representative who was very thorough Well, it was a very detailed email And she was supportive of the K-8 understood And I think again, when we start talking about planning and that’s why I said to you, Mrs. Cuthbert, again, I would like take parents from both and teachers from both, to go over so they can see it It is a world of difference when you can visually see the schools and understand the programming And then they can talk to the PTAs and the teachers themselves I entertain a motion if there’s one – [Carl] Madam chair, I’d like to move that we consolidate the Ortona and the Osceola schools into a K-8 school – There’s a motion on the table – Second – The motion has been properly moved by Carl persis, seconded by Ruben Colon, to consolidate Orona and Osceola Elementary Schools into a K-8 Any more discussion? Go ahead – Madam chair Is there a way to have like a little escape shoot that as we go along with more information, as we get information sales revenue, and as we talk about programming and discussion, if it doesn’t look really good as we investigate a K-8 and if it looks like a K-5 is something in reality we have to do can we revisit this – I think we could always revisit Mrs. Cuthbert, because I think after we go through all of this, I think the reality we’re going to have to really talk about what will K-12 education look like period, because I believe we’ll move to a whole new paradigm that none of us really understand And at the end of my closing comments, you’ll understand why I’m saying that So we’re saying that this is what we want, but in actuality it may not even happen for another three four years We may have to change our mind This is what we’re committed to, but we’re not committed if we understand it could be financial decimate to the district because we don’t And we know that we’re gonna lose revenue from sell tax this year We don’t know how it’s gonna impact us next year So everything is hinged upon where we are financially And I don’t think any of my members, any of our colleagues would disagree, Mrs. Haynes, Mr. Persis, Mr. Colon, are we all on the same page with that? – Yes ma’am – Okay, thank you I just wanted to clarify – No, no problem – But also for the public Because in a year or two, we have to revert, we have to come back to this and say this is what we really wanna do This is what we wanna do for the community and for kids and families,

however reality comes in and says it just isn’t possible Or who knows what we’re gonna find at the sites So- – Correct – Okay Thank you very much I appreciate the discretion – Not a problem Any other discussion? Mrs. Muller, did you wanna interject before we cast a vote? – [Deb] Yes, Mrs. Wright Actually what I wanted to ask was if we could allow Jay Glover to address somewhat of the plans and our coverage that we have for our debt service I thought that we were gonna talk about that when Mrs. Cuthbert was speaking So I think that may be helpful to hear his perspective before a vote – Go ahead, Mr. Glover, – Can y’all hear me again, Jay Glover from PFM – Yes, we can hear you – Okay, great So just to kinda recap where we are in terms of your existing debt, as you mentioned before, there were two transactions that were previously done One of them has about 3.3 million of annual debt service through 2031, which is when the sales tax expires And you recall most recently we did a five year transaction It was about a hundred million dollars worth of projects So the debt service on that is about $21 million through 2024 So really through 2024, you have about 24.4 million of annual debt service And that compares to about $44 million of sales tax revenue collections as of FY 2019 So obviously we don’t know what FY 2020 sales tax revenues are gonna be So, as you can see, you have about $20 million of excess sales tax revenues above and beyond your debt service, which goes to fund projects on a page you go basis So the way we would anticipate financing this potential increase of 15, and I ran the numbers at $20 million just to be conservative would actually be to pay the principle off and years 2025 and 2026 So the principle would layer on immediately after we pay off your most recent transactions So by doing that, the actual debt service impact for the next four years through 2024 is only about $300,000 of annual debt service ‘Cause you’d be paying interest only on the financing And then you would have about $10 million of debt service in 2025 and 2026 And again, this is based on a $20 million financing So those numbers would be slightly less than a $15 million financing So from a cashflow perspective, we would try to structure this if you wanted to move forward to have a minimal impact in the next three to four years, obviously with most of the debt service being paid back shortly after that So as Deb and her team continued to refine the capital budget, we would build that debt service in and be able to kinda tell what projects might need to be deferred or pushed back to fit all of this in But if you’re talking about pure debt service over the next four years, we could structure this so it would have a minimal impact your debt service And really from a sales tax revenue projections, it’s not an issue as to whether you’ll have enough sales tax revenues to make your debt service payments ‘Cause you could withstand a pretty significant decline and still have revenues to make debt service payments The issue is as revenues decline, it’s gonna impact your ability to fund pay as you go projects in addition to your debt service So I don’t know if that’s helpful in kinda framing how we would potentially look at financing this, but that does help minimize your impact over the next few years while hopefully sales tax revenues would rebound and start to grow again at some point, once this pandemic has passed us So that’s at least one option we looked at and I’m happy to kind of address any questions you all might have about that – Colleagues, do you have any questions? – No, Madam chair He was extremely thorough And based on what he said before, and based on what Mrs. Muller said, it’s just a risk we have to take, but the fund pay as you go projects , are those like re roofs air conditioning, hyping that bursts, emergency, HVAC, canopies that are ripped off Is that correct Mr. Akin? – [Akin] Yes. Ma’am any plan that we would

have coming forward We would have to look at that if we have less money to be able to spend more or five year would be totally different than what we’re gonna present a June 5th or ninth – Okay Thank you, Mr. Akin – Thank you Go ahead, Mr. Persis – [Carl] Yeah Thank you madam chair I think this is all positive news It’s just great And I think on June 9th, if Mrs. Muller could just be presented us with a few options and there are always options, always options about how we can finance this And just as you’ve done in the past Mrs. Muller, I’m sure you’ll give the board at least three different ways that we can go about this And as with any five year plan, it’s only as good as the first year of the plan And then the second year we have a different five year plan, because that’s the way this business goes But yeah, I’ll look forward to seeing what you can come up with on June 9th Thank you, Madam chair – You’re welcome We have a motion on the floor Any more discussion? Hearing, none I’ll call for the vote I’ll start at the top Let me start with Linda Cuthbert – You know, this vote is just as difficult as the one I had to discover about dress code (laughing) So I will vote yes As with the caveat That Holly Hills involved with this because they have the expertise Dr. Fritz is on board with guidance and we can afford it I’ll vote yes – Thank you, Mrs. Cuthbert, Mr. Persis Mr. Persis – I’m mute There I am, Mrs. Cuthbert you know that Holly Hill is in my district as well And you know, Derek Henry is a good friend of mine and you know, Jason Watson is a good friend of mine And if you don’t think they have been in my ear about all of this stuff, you are mistaken Yes, we’re going to make sure Holly Hill is the best right there And they are not going to be second fiddle to any other K-8 school You can guarantee that So yes I appreciate your comments and watching out for the good people at Holly Hill school, where my daughter in law works too And she is in my ear too So yes I am all in on Holly Hill – We’re not voting on Holly Hill, Mr.Persis, with bulldog – I am And, but my answer is of course, yes – Thank you We’ll come back to Holly Hill Mrs. Haynes – Yes – Mr. Colon – Yay – And yay for Ida So the vote is unanimous So we know Mr. Grube, at least we’ve got to that juncture that we’re looking at a K-8 So you and our design team Now moving forward, our next conversation will be the location And I have one question Mr Grube, and you can answer, or if we have the design team standing by, they could join the conversation But do we need to make a decision tonight? If my colleagues wanna make a decision tonight, I’m fine with that Or should we actually have this conversation about programming first? And so, I don’t know if you wanna answer, or if we have the design architect on the call, who would best answer that question? – [Steve] I think Jeff was on the call Maybe I don’t know if he’s still there or not – Yeah Megan and I are still on the call, Steve – [Steve] Okay Well, I think that the answer is it’s great news to hear some direction I think that’s very good And we can certainly get the BRPH to the next level and start programming It would be ideal if we had a site tonight, but if we had to wait till tomorrow morning that wouldn’t hurt us either – It wouldn’t be tomorrow morning So I guess you do need us to make a decision tonight Okay So now colleagues, so here we go Let’s talk about the site So, Mrs. Cuthbert, you stated what you are interested in, Mrs. Haynes, Mr. Colon quite naturally I’m gonna let Mr. Persis speak for himself and then I’ll speak last I think, you know where we both stand because one is in Daytona and one isn’t in Ormond But Mrs. Haynes, Mr. Colon, you may say it don’t matter either way, and that’s fine

I don’t wanna put you on the spot if it doesn’t matter either way to you – I’m happy to speak – I want to speak – Go right ahead – Alright So simply because of what I previously did with the district, I had the opportunity many times to be on both of their school campuses and to visit those schools, deal with traffic going in and out of them and everything And so, as I said, I went back and I reviewed all of the survey data I Looked at the comments that were written by both of the schools I paid very close attention, when Mr. Grube and the architects talked about the stormwater piece, the water and soil samples, things such as that And I’m prepared here tonight to make a decision on which site I think we should build it I am pleased to hear that at this time, we’re in agreement to move forward with a K-8, even with the caveats that Mrs. Cuthbert has put in And, and I understand this And my head kinda tells me a little bit of the same thing So if you’d like to know, I’m happy to tell you which site I think we should build on – Okay, go right ahead – I believe we should build at the Ortona Elementary site If you want other information for me to back up why I feel that way I can share additional facts if needed Okay, Mr. Colon – District two comes next So I have been on both school sites just for the sake of seeing the sites I paid particular attention to the stormwater part because that does matter In fact a lot of the water intrusion is why we’re having this conversation It’s why Tomoka and correct me if I’m wrong, cause I don’t have all the history, but Osceola was deemed to be these beach side schools were deemed to be more of a priority than Tomoka at the time because of the water intrusion I went back and looked at the April presentation where they showed sort of how it would sit on the property And it looked like the Ortona of property put the school together, all in one place where that L shape in Osceola was kind of weird, again not to say it can’t work But that’s what I considered Then we had the input from the community and I’ll tell you both communities were very engaged The community and Ormond even offering to help relocate a pipe And so having heard that there is really no difference, first I thought, okay, well the larger site would be better naturally, but to hear that this can be done on both sites successfully sort of made my mind then wander So it’s a really thing because this is a guaranteed decision that a group of people are not gonna be happy with But after going to the school in Orlando, and I’ve never had the pleasure of being at Holly Hill But after going to school to Orlando to see, even though it was outside of Winter Park, I think that there were characteristics to the beach side that also were seen in that school It’s not the same as a school on the mainland There’s a culture with being on the beach or as they call it the salt life And so as, as I considered all of that, I went back and forth in my head and my original belief when I visited both sites, just for the sake of seeing the construction was that Ortona would be the best site And so that is where I am leaning tonight Thank you – Thank you Mr. Persis – [Carl] Well, I have some new information and I hope you all will just hear me out and cause I respect all of you and but this is a decision This is an area that I know very, very well

I grew up on the beach side here I’ve lived here since 1956 I want you to know back in from 58 to 62, Ortona and Osceola were K-8 schools They were K-8 schools and 58 to 62 Osceola changed in 62 when Ormond Beach Junior High opened and then, Ortona changed to a K-6 school when Seabreeze Junior High opened in 63 So these schools have been around for a long time They have been K-8 schools My wife went to Ortona, we have so many friends that their children went to Ortona And as you all know, I was the principal at Tomoka Elementary for 13 years and I got many students from Osceola and Ortona So I as a graduate to Seabreeze High School too, I am just so familiar with this area and I wanna start my comments tonight madam chair if I don’t know whether Stephanie (indistinct) is on the line Is she here tonight Mrs. Stephanie? Here Madam chair (mumbling) – I don’t see her name – [Carl] Stephanie and I had a conversation today and it was interesting if you can kinda draw a map in your head on the beach side from Seabreeze Boulevard, which is the Southern boundary of Ortona, Seabreeze Boulevard going North to the Flagler County line That’s what we’re talking about now Ortona and Osceola as a merged school withdraw from Seabreeze Boulevard to the Flagler County line, it’s a distance of a little over 14 miles The Northern most three miles is conservation area So in effect really from Seabreeze to where the residential areas and is about 11 miles And if you were to draw on a map, a midway point of 11 miles, that’s 5.5 miles either way, you would be about a mile and a half north of the Osceola site That’s the midway point of this school school’s zone The midway point of the school zone is a mile and a half North of the Osceola site, which puts it about five miles north of the Ortona site The distance between Ortona and Osceola is about three and a half miles So the mid point again is a mile and a half north of Osceola The private schools that I mentioned earlier One of them is located about two miles north of Osceola And the other one is located about a half a mile south of Ortona If we were to locate the only school from Seabreeze Boulevard to a Flagler County line, at approximately a mile in four tenths a mile and a half North of Seabreeze, you would have one school, a mile and a half from the southern boundary of the zone And then you would have the other eight and a half miles If you will, of a distance for students to have to drive Parents would have to drive, buses would have to drive to get the students to the school My point in all this is that Osceola is clearly

the most centralized location for this school boundary site And I think that is important and should not be deemphasized because we are always in favor of less busing, community school, parents being able to get close to their school I think these are factors for us to consider In addition, if you put the K-8 school at Ortona, you would have another K-8 school 0.4 miles away from it And that is Lourdes Academy Which is a very good school So you’d have two K-8 schools within a half a mile of each other If you moved it to Osceola, you would have one K-8 school, 2.2 miles away And then the other K-8 school would be four miles away So you’d have Osceola a K-8 school 2.2 miles away, and another K-8 school, four miles away, which makes it again, so centrally located The other point that I would like to make is that all of us had the opportunity to visit Audubon Park And that was just great The principal emphasized to me that he could not imagine doing it on any thing less than 13 acres We do not know what the programs are going to be, but one thing we can all say, and that is that with more acreage, you give our architects more flexibility There is a building on the Ortona side that would have to stay there Unlike the Osceola side, which would be completely cleared The Ortona side has that 2004 Administrative Building that would have to stay on site This further reduces the acreage that could be allotted to the new school The architects have said, and they can speak for themselves that they did not see a purpose for that Administration Building in their K-8 school It just doesn’t fit It just doesn’t work That takes another half to three quarters of an acre out of the already smaller 11 acre lot So now you’re talking about 10 acres, 10 and a quarter 10 and a half at the most that could be going for this K-8 school When we look at the in involvement in partnership with the cities, there is no question that the city of Ormond Beach has reached out to our district folks and our architects and said to them that they would move the pipe at the city’s expense, and do other unnecessary things to work with the school district, to ensure that nothing that the city has on that property would interfere with what the architects and what we as the board want to build on that site Another major issue where Osceola was site is clearly in favor, and that is the parent drop-off and pick up Seminole Avenue runs adjacent to the site It borders, the Osceola site Seminole Avenue runs East and West and connects Halifax Drive with A1A It’s a wide street, and it’s just perfect for handling the traffic that we would be generated by a K-8 school

The Ortona site is woefully inadequate when it comes to parking They cannot even handle the parking that they have now It is horrible They do not have a street that borders the site, East and West goes from to Halifax to A1A The closest street to that is Gulf Boulevard, which is another block further away from that school The traffic would just be a nightmare going I can’t even imagine that school being increased to 400 students, much less 900 to a thousand students, because we’re not gonna be able to add another street to Ortona We’re gonna have to use the existing roadways, and you’re gonna have to wiggle your way through the residential areas And in addition to that, 80% of the students or more will be accessing the school from the north heading south which means the traffic on Halifax, which is the road that they would take cause most parents don’t take A1A, they would have to be stacked up on one way Halifax Avenue is one is one lane each way, and they would have to stack up and make a left hand turn to get into Golf Boulevard, stopping traffic behind them It would just be very inconvenient Let me just put that word out there Inconvenient and time consuming for all those parents heading to the Ortona site I would again, I’m gonna have the architects jump in with me here to confirm or if I’m not correct they can say so I also believe that closing a school is a very difficult thing This school district has not done it successfully very well ever, ever When this issue started the Ortona families, they had no idea that we were considering closing their school And I really feel for them on this issue, that they were being consolidated, and I attended all six of those meetings And by the end of them, I got the sentence that the Ortona families were thinking, this is really happening now And Osceola is the bigger school with the bigger site They have twice as many students So obviously we’re going to gonna the Osceola site I mean, it was just kind of a feeling that the parents had The site was bigger and the enrollment is twice the size So I think they latched onto the fact that, ” Well if they’re gonna close our school, then let’s at the very least let’s get a K-8 out of this.” They had been wanting a middle school on the beach side for as long as well, since what I what did I tell you? Since it stopped being a K-8 in 1963 They have wanted a middle school to replace the Seabreeze Junior High School And this is their great opportunity to have a middle school program on the beach side And we as a board agreed with them That this is our opportunity to help the Ortona families get what they want But ladies and gentlemen, I ask you, do we do that at the expense of the Osceola community? The Osceola family, who is twice as strong,

typically Osceola had 600 students at their school And when we come to moving children around, are we really wanting to disrupt 400 families and more as opposed to 200? I just can’t imagine in good conscious when we know how upsetting this is This is upsetting for families And we’re gonna choose to upset 400 families over 200 families When you think about it, to win-win on this is you’re giving the Ortona families what they want in a K-8, well, let’s give Osceola something Let’s build a school on the Osceola side, which is centrally located, which handles the traffic so much better And let’s put to rest once and for all this notion about a storm surge I went and I checked with Steve Grube, with Rob Brinson, with city officials of Ormond Beach, in the history of Volusia County, the neighborhoods in Ortona, in Osceola have never, ever had a storm surge, never, ever had a storm surge I can’t say it enough because they keep getting thrown out there They may as well have had a snow storm as they have had a storm surge it’s never happened And we have had many, many hurricanes since 1951, and they have never, either location has never had a storm surge So please don’t consider storm surge as one site is better than the other site Neither one has that issue Neither one has had flooding Flooding was not the issue with Osceola, that was brought up Flooding was not the issue with Ortona Both schools have suffered roof damage from time to time, salt water issues, just like Seabreeze High School Salt air, corrosion of factors, but nothing to do with storm surge and nothing to do with flooding So I want to make sure that isn’t anything that helps influence you on here decision Madam chair, if I could get the architects to weigh in for just a second – Yes, because we do have some hands up Weigh in and- – [Carl] I don’t know, is that Jeffrey there? Jeffrey? – [Jeffrey] Yeah, I’m on the call and I believe Megan’s on a call as well We’re here to support with any questions the board has – [Carl] Okay I would like to ask you first of all my comment just on the storm storm surge, are you aware of anything any different than what I just said? – [Jeffrey] Well we had in the study that we did there were some data given to us that identified potential storm as the sea level rises If that happens and the actual Ortona site came in a little bit more favorable than the Osceola- – [Carl] Isn’t the question is if it ever happens and since it has never happened, isn’t it rather odd to say if it ever happens? – [Jeffrey] Well, yeah I mean, if Steve Grube, Rob Brinson gave you the historical of Volusia County that it’s never happened and that’s a fact – [Carl] Yeah, they did And it was also backed up by the city officials of Ormond Beach It has never, ever happened Is it true that the city of Ormond Beach has reached out to you and you have not heard any part partnership with the city of Daytona Beach? Is that correct? – [Jeffrey] Initially, we set up meetings with both the city of Daytona and the city of Orman Beach

We held two meetings with each of the municipalities that was in the beginning phases of the actual project and looking at the studies Since then the city of Ormond has come forward with some suggestions and wanting to show how they were gonna work with the project and do things Technically, we have not heard anything from the city of Daytona on that – Where are you going Mr. Persis, I wanna make sure we set the record straight One reason you probably haven’t heard from Daytona because we didn’t have an issue with the soil We didn’t have a concern with the water intrusion and Ormond had to relocate Am I correct? – [Carl] They didn’t have to madam chair (jumbled speech) They just thought that if that was something that was considered a drawback That they wanted the board to know that they would be willing to incur all those costs and do whatever is unnecessary You know why I love the city of Daytona Beach and I love their mayor I’m not trying to fight the city against the city – I’m just saying, but right now, when it came to an issue, the Osceola site had an issue that Ortona just didn’t have – [Carl] Right I do believe that we have all heard from the city commission and the mayor of Ormond Beach They have taken a city stance and asking us to locate the school Please locate the school at the Osceola site I’m not aware of the city of Daytona Beach taking an official action and a commission meeting to do the same at the Ortona site If I’m in incorrect on that, just helped me out But I don’t think they have taken that kind of official action The other thing that I would like to ask the architects, when you were laid out site, your conceptual plan on the Osceola site, could you talk a little bit about traffic and stacking and parking? This is an area where I think the Osceola site clearly stands out Can you comment on that Jeffery or Megan? – [Jeffrey] Yeah, I’m gonna let Megan have an opportunity to answer that – [Megan] Can you guys hear me? – Yes – [Megan] Okay, fantastic So thank you, Mr. Persis for giving us the opportunity to talk about this As you mentioned we showed in our report that the Osceola site does have as currently laid out a little bit more parking and stocking capacity than the Ortola site does at this current point But I, again, (indistinct) stress to all of you in all of our different meetings, we have not yet programmed the building So we know for a fact that the conceptual layout will adjust and will change based on what comes out of programming meetings So, but as of as what we currently have laid out yes, Ortona does have a more favorable parking and docking ability – [Carl] I think you said, Ortona Did you- – [Megan] I’m sorry, Osceola I’m so sorry Osceola has a more favorable parking stacking capacity – [Carl] Yes And I think to that point is I think once members of the board, once we get into really programming and designing the site, you will see, and I know the architects could show you, whish they could show us right now That they would have the opportunity on the 13 acre site to say, because the board wants to put a certain program here or make the gym larger, or make the media center lot larger, or put a computer lab or whatever kind of building that we want to expand it They could maybe carve back some of that parking They have the flexibility to do that because the site is just so much larger You’re talking two and a half acres now larger That isn’t anything just to say, “It’s the same.” Two and a half acres is two and a half acres when you’re trying to put 900 to a thousand students

on the site I’d like the architects to just talk a little bit about that, what the 13 acres provides, as compared to the 10 and a half acres you have on the Ortona site The flexibility that you would gain Jeffery, Megan – [Jeffrey] Yeah So I’ll speak to that So some of what you’re saying is true Carl, the bigger site you have will give you a little bit more flexibility We understand what the Osceola site we’re probably gonna have to do the storm water aspects of it Which is what Audubon Park was 100% underground stormwater storage So that’s probably going to be true on definitely both of these sites So, we’re gonna be looking at a lot of different things to conserve as much surface area for the playgrounds and other things that we have to have for the school – [Carl] If I could just interrupt you on that point, because this point gets misstated a lot Storm water drainage wise, it’s a draw, it’s the same You have to do it the same way on both sides – [Jeffrey] As far as the surface collection, we have to collect it and treat it in both both sites So with the soil sampling, we got to be truthful and transparent The soils drain a lot better Well, I say a lot better They drain better, tons better, but they do drain better at the Ortona site And there’s a little bit more depth that we have to work with for double stacking of these storage water storage units that we would be proposing Osceola site doesn’t have as much depth So we can only get a single layer which is gonna have us have more area to put into water storage So this the drawback, I mean, we’re gonna have to deal with it at either site The key is, looking at the overall program, understanding what athletic opportunities need to be offered, and then deciding, how these things fit on the site That’s what we really have to look at – [Carl] And again, getting back to the flexibility that you’d have with the additional acreage, can you speak to that? – [Jeffrey] Well, the building that’s on Ortona site and is the the administration building It’s got some potential uses that could be assigned to that building Something like ESC offices or something like that We could push out there, but they wouldn’t be part of the school We would have to we have to work on what could actually go out there and not affect the program of the mainstream students Is preferred to have all the school users and students and administration in one building for safety and security reasons But trying to incorporate the existing administration building either into the program or having it outside of the program, that is something that is a drawback on the Ortona site that we do not have on the Osceola site – [Carl] Is Megan still there? I’m not sure – [Megan] Yeah- – [Carl] You were talking about the parking, as it relates to Osceola The conceptual plan, if I recall had three parking lots at the Osceola site, there was a huge, huge parking lot It seemed like for parent drop-off and for staff and then you also had a little parking lot coming off of Osceola Avenue for the visitors or parents wanna drop off something at the school just quickly like visit the office And then you had the bus parking lot on the other side, is that correct? – [Megan] That’s correct sir So in Osceola concept, we had three separate parking lots We had one to the south that would be used for a majority of the parking along with a majority of the stacking during drop off times We had as much smaller parking lot I believe it held about 30 visitor spaces that was off of Osceola Avenue, which would be able to be one that we could keep open all day So as visitors came to the school, they would utilize that parking lot

rather than the other two And then we had one to the north, well, that was within the bus loop, which again, I believe it was smaller somewhere around 30 or 40 spaces in that area, which again, could be used for for staff But that wouldn’t be necessarily your main point of access for any visitors or for students other than your bus riders – [Carl] Right And I think you were saying to me that again, depending on what the board wants and the design, the final design program influences design, and design influences square footage and that’s cost And so all of those kinds of things, but I’m just saying that given these three parking lots, you could take away from some of these parking lots to enhance either the facilities structurally, or to add more recreational areas, be it outside basketball courts or other things like that Is that true? – [Megan] That is that’s correct As we go through programming and as we start to really nail down the needs for this facility I believe that we’ll be able to tighten up those areas and be able to utilize space efficiently, but that goes not only for, for Osceola site, but that also goes for Ortona site as well – [Carl] Could you talk about the traffic situation at the Ortona site, the way you see that laying out? – [Megan] So I’m not a traffic engineer but I will speak to it in high level terms in that Osceola site, with its ability to have the three separate parking lot and parents coming in from a different roadways, I think that you have the ability to have less traffic backup in those sorts of areas, because you’ll be able to access the site from three different areas, three different roads Whereas on, Ortona site, you’re pretty much on that layout, both parents and buses and visitors, everybody would be accessing the site from Grandview Avenue So that roadway does, I believe, have more potential to see some traffic impact and some backup – [Carl] Thank you, Megan And just one last thing on the Audubon Park site, they seem to have just nice outside facilities, basketball courts, soccer, baseball Would that be available on the Osceola site? Could you do those kinds of things? – [Megan] So again, not to sound like a broken record, but as it goes through and we really fine-tune all of the programming and really hone down the size of the school that we need to accommodate, we’ll be able to better understand exactly what will be able to be accommodated in terms of exterior and athletic amenities So I will say that based on what we saw at Audubon Park, a track is not gonna be feasible on either one of our sites, but we all understand that a track isn’t really something that Volusia County typically puts in a middle school program So that’s not really a huge issue We do have shown in both of those conceptual layout an overall play field space So we do believe that we’re gonna work really hard to be able to get you the playfield space you need And that, that square footage of that place could be double-duty to use the possible softball or baseball field as well – [Carl] Thank you – [Megan] I think we’ll be able to fit sorry, sorry, Mr. Persis I don’t think we’ll be able to fit a separate ball field in addition to a large play field – [Carl] Yes, and just finally Stephanie or Jeff, I’m not an architect and but doesn’t the Ortona site have a deep grade

to it from Halifax to Grandview? It seems like it’s a Hill I mean, it not Mrs. Haynes, it isn’t quite George Marks, but it does seem to be steep I’m my mistaken or? – [Jeffrey] Others are There’s an incline like right off the road of about four and a half feet But in the process of grading that site to make it Somewhat level, we would be taking most of that off and reshaping that entire site as much as possible – [Carl] So you would make it, I guess, more flat That’s the way I can- – [Jeffrey] Yeah – [Carl] Okay, great – [Jeffrey] So there’d be some more earthwork costs in doing that, but that’s if you look back in the study, we did the cost comparisons for the K-8s, and there’s a lot of things that went into those cost comparisons So there’s a lot of reference data you could look at that went into that – [Carl] Yes, sir Madam chair, I appreciate you and the board in indulging me in this, if I could just close with, just saying closing a school is disappointing So disappointing for teachers, students their parents and the alumni The thousands who have attended their school I think providing a K-8 school would give the 200 Ortona families what they want I think building the new K-8 school at the Osceola site would please those teachers, their staff, and the 400 families that attend there now On the other hand, if we build the K-8 site on the Ortona site, it’s gonna be perceived by the Osceola family and their alumni that the board gave everything to what the, Ortona families want They got their K-8 school and they got it on their site I just hope that the board would consider the additional acreage on the Osceola site would give the architects more flexibility They have outdoor recess areas as Mrs. Cuthbert said, those separate areas for you need one for kindergarten, you need one for elementary, and then you need your one for a middle school It would give you the opportunity to have sports fields and athletic courts I think the board needs to make this decision based on which site is the best location, the central location, in which side disrupts the fewest number of students and their families Osceola is both and the parcel is 20% larger in the, Ortona location Thank you, Madam chair – You’re welcome, Mr. Persis, Mr. Colon, and then Mrs. Haynes – And so I think Carl brought up some good points, which is why I asked my initial question of would nothing have changed now that we’re going with the K-8 as compared to the plans from, or the presentation from April? And so, he mentioned the traffic, well, that’s arguably something I would have liked to have heard And one of the things, and I’ll go back to what you said, Mrs. Chair, is I personally believe that this is a very premature decision only because we don’t know And so now that we’ve given them some direction, maybe they, and I hate to kick the can down the road, but he did say it could go another little bit to figure out, okay, now that we know that we’re going with a K-8, are there any other things to consider? Now that we’re talking about six to 800 kids versus 600, a lot less kids, is there an impact on the community? Is there an impact on now we’ve made that decision Otherwise it just seems premature

And I’m not even going as far as programming And so again, I’ll ask the architects, is there a different, can this be accomplished the same on both sites? Because the first answer I received was yes And so I wanna make sure that that answer is still yes, that this can be accomplished on both sides equally And if they don’t know that information right now, now that we’ve given some direction, then we may have another decision to make that’s my 2 cents – Okay Mrs. Haynes, and then we’ll come back to the architects Mrs. Haynes – [Jamie] So I wanna address a few things that Mr. Persis said So Mr. Persis, you started talking about taking you started talking about taking the school away from Osceola When this topic first came up, you were actually the person that recommended we go with combining both schools and you threw out the idea of a K-8 I don’t believe any of the rest of us sitting on the board had even given that a thought, but that is something that you tossed out there and you were the first person to bring it up And furthermore, I, as a board member, I wasn’t invited to attend any of the community, teachers and staff, meetings to even hear what the input was or what their thoughts were, or even to hear what we said to them None of that was shared with us as a board member We found out after the fact And so, I hear what you’re saying and I hear what you’re trying to do, and I understand that’s your community, but, Ruben and I lately have been faced with some tough decisions At the last board meeting, I had two of my schools in DeLand rezoned with kids that got shifted from George Marks over to Citrus Grove to turned around now and they’re being shifted back from Citrus Grove over to George Marks And, I listened to the facts and everything, but I made the best decision and had to move forward with it And the same thing between Dewberry and Enterprise, and I have a heart for Enterprise Elementary That’s the first place I taught 30 some years ago So I kind of tonight have to say that at times we all have to agree to disagree, but I’m just a little frustrated and a little disappointed that you’re trying to lay a guilt trip And this is my own personal opinion You’re trying to lay a guilt trip on me right now about making this decision When, you know, I said I’ll back it up with facts and everything ‘Cause if you didn’t want me to make a decision, then we shouldn’t have been here and you shouldn’t have made the suggestion to start off with that, “Hey, let’s combine Ortona and Osceola and turn it into a K-8.” So, we’re all adults we’ve listened to the presentations, we’ve asked questions I thoroughly enjoyed my visit to Audubon Park I’ve read all the survey responses and I don’t think its and I don’t like the number thing of playing like 200 families versus 400 families Well, first of all, not every child is a single family But I just thank you for the additional things that you brought up tonight, but looking down the road, when we’re gonna make a decision like this, as a board we should all be included in every aspect of it Not just a carrot dangled in front of us and then we’re not included at all And then boom, it comes before us to vote, when you were actively involved in every step of it while the rest of us weren’t But that’s just my feelings tonight And I’m ready to make a recommendation madam chair and move on – [Carl] Madam chair- – Mr.Persis has his hand up And I would love to say something If I could get opportunity, but go ahead Mr. Persis – [Carl] No, I appreciate that Jamie, and I wanted to just set the record straight It was not my idea to combine the schools If you recall, It was Sarah Lee’s idea that when we started It was my idea, When I brought up the when we were all informed of the extensive amount of money that was gonna be spent on Osceola School to renovate it I said, well, it sounds like we are gonna build a brand new school Why don’t we just build a brand new school there?

And then that’s when Sarah Lee said, “Well, only 400 students go there We build brand new schools for 750 Operationally speaking, If you’re gonna do that, you should consider combining Ortona and Osceola cause even combined enrollment, you have less than 750.” And it was from that point when she started to mention about combining the schools, that’s a Mrs. Haynes, you are correct When I said, “Well, if we’re gonna combine the schools, we should consider building a K-8 school That would be the most efficient model ever, rather than build a separate elementary school and a separate middle school.” So that’s that part As far as the six meetings go and Mrs. Wright, you can confirm this, it’s not that I was in invited to attend any of those I saw those on the calendar and I just went to those It wasn’t like we got some kind of an invite or I got the only invite I didn’t get invited to any of them, I think Mrs. Right and I just were aware that these were on the calendar and if we wanted to attend, we could attend It just happened to work out for me with my schedule that I was able to attend So I don’t mean in any way to think that I was attending something or that nobody else was or anything like that That was not it Thank you madam chair I just wanted to set the record correctly on that – Yes And Mr. Persis is correct It was on a calendar And moving forward, we’ve learned that if we are going to build another school, have these type of conversations that we will make sure that invite is sent to all the board members But we were not sent invites out No, normally it was always on a Wednesday And so Wednesdays are really tough for me because of my obligations with Bethune Cookman But we did not get a special notice So I’m not going to belabor this I am gonna echo one thing that Mr. Colon said, and that was the reason why I said, do we really want to consider a location? Because program will pay a major part But when we were with the parents on Friday, when I was with the parents, as well as the two principals, that was one of the questions I did ask Mr.Colon Would Osceola would be a better fit than Ortona And they said they probably both, it would fit on either location and both of them had their pros and cons And for me, it’s not about the city of Daytona or the city of Ormond My concern quite naturally, is the soil just looking at the test as it relates to the soil, as I won’t even talk about water intrusion, but because of the condition that Osceola and they’re both pretty much the same age, but Osceola is in far worse condition than that of Ortona Ortona has one new building But when we look at the structure of the schools it’s not as favorable condition as Ortona So with that said, I think Mr. Persis has said enough for both of us, in the sense that I felt like he had to sell it that hard, then that makes Ortona the best school and the best choice actually So if we wanna move forward and decide on the site tonight, that’s fine with me Or if we want to look at the programming piece, I’m fine either way, but if we wanna move forward, go ahead, if one of you wanna make a motion, I’m ready to put this to rest If all my colleagues are ready to do that So is there a motion? – [Carl] Madam chair – Yes, sir – [Carl] I would like to make a motion then just being practical, because from what I was told this morning from Mr. Grube and Mr. Grube can weigh in, but he said that this school would not open until August of 2023 anyway And so we do have time

And I think we have, as a board invested so much of our time already in this project and the architect’s time, and the architects have said quite clearly to all of us program, program, program program, they really wanna know what the program’s gonna be so that they can it out for us to see And I just think we’ve gone this far I would love to give the architects a chance to meet with our district staff and some folks, and get some kind of an understanding of what the program’s gonna be, and then show that conceptual plan back to the board And so then we can really say when we vote, Oh yeah, this looks great on the Ortona site, or this looks great on the Osceola site, or it looks great on both sides, but at least we’ll know what we’re voting on Right now we really don’t And so since we have the luxury of time and we’ve given them the direction of a K-8, which is what they really wanted, to me another month or whatever they would need, I think it would be time well spent for us It’s a big decision and I just wanna make sure we get our program right And it looks great – Okay, thank you I see Mrs. Haynes, and then Mr. Colon, go ahead Mrs. Haynes – Ruben was ahead of me if he wants to speak first, cause I’d like to make a motion, but he may wanna say something before I make a motion – Go ahead Mr. Colon – And so again, this is a big deal and again, Mrs. Wright, you said that earlier, as far as the programming goes, because if, to tell one school or the other only to have to come back and say, ” Okay, you know what, we’ve talked about the programming, this isn’t gonna work here, this will work better there Then Carl has brought up a lot of points and I appreciate it, but I don’t wanna hear them from Carl I don’t wanna hear it as the sales pitch, as much as and sorry, Carl, I didn’t mean that you were making a sales pitch, but I’d love to hear this information from our district staff, from the architect saying, “Okay, parking, this is a consideration, this is an issue, this is not an issue Maybe we get an idea of what programming would look like And again, I don’t know exactly what that means and what that entails too far, other than, what’s gonna be offered at that school But to go ahead and say, okay, we want this kind of programming and we’ll do it on the Ortona site, for them to come back and then say, well, that’s gonna fit better in Osceola Well, now you’ve just upset two group of families either way And so I don’t know if the architects wanna weigh in I mean, and I’ll ask the question to the architects Is it exactly the same as are we still considering the same exact things that were presented in April? Because that’s the last presentation that we have? Is it still the same consideration? Meaning both sites are equal? – [Megan] Yeah, I’d like to respond to that Mr. Colon, if you don’t mind, this is Megan White I am not comfortable right now saying to you that I think one site is more advantageous than the other site And I’ve said it a few times that once we go through programming and really understand exactly what the district staff wants, exactly what the community members want Exactly what everybody wants integrated into to this school I think then once we can conceptually lay it out again for you, then we’ll be able to make more of a concrete recommendation over which site can be better than the other site – That point as normal, the superintendent would make a recommendation based on, and we’d have the information And again, Carl brought up a lot of good points like traffic Well, when I went there, I didn’t even look I mean, I’ve only been to both schools for the sake of just seeing the lay of the land there, but I didn’t think about traffic I’ve never visited these schools during school time, so I don’t know what that looks like And so again, I just think that as we move forward, I think there was a little bit of work that needs to be done to ensure that the school site that we pick is going to be able to meet the needs If it’s not apples for apples And if the presentation we received in April is not necessarily accurate at right now,

now that we’ve made a decision for a K-8 and they have a little better direction I just think that it’s a little premature That’s just my thought – [Megan] So if I could interject one more time The presentation you received in April was basically BRPH putting down a prototype that we had already investigated that fit about the student stations that we were told that this school would be interested in getting to and saying, will this fit on the site? And if so, what would it look like? So that was specifically putting down a prototype that already existed That wasn’t that’s why I continue to say that once we get through programming and we really look at how all the pieces fit together, more specifically on each of the site, we might be able to have a better understanding on if one site has a particular pro that we didn’t see already – Thank you – Go ahead Mrs. Haynes – So I have a question for Megan White, before she leaves us So Megan, is there additional cost involved for you to draw up architectural plans for both sites? If we don’t make a decision tonight? – [Megan] Yes We don’t necessarily need to go to the whole extent of drawing up complete architectural plan We can still look at everything conceptually But once we get through programming, we’ll understand more about relationships, about sizes and about stuff like that, that weren’t necessarily previously discussed – [Steve] Mrs. Haynes, this is Steve We’d have to look at their contract more closely to see what they’re obligated to right now and see if there are additional services required to do this, but we can certainly do that – Okay, thank you Because the thing is, we just keep drawing this out And I’m sorry, but I’m typically decision-maker and a problem solver, and that’s how I live my life And so madam chair, if you don’t mind, I’d like to go ahead and make a recommendation tonight I know it will take a second and it will take a vote And if that’s not the will of the rest of the board members, then it will fail But I just think we’re dragging this out and we’re dragging all these people along Parents, teachers and instructional staff, community members, the architects, Steve, who’s new to his position, and it doesn’t look like we’re being very decisive, but that all on that right now So with all due respect, I’d like to make a recommendation that we’ve already approved tonight, unanimously that we build a K-8 or that we pursue building a K-8, as long as we can meet all the caveats that Mrs Cuthbert talked about And I’d like to make a recommendation that we build the K-8 on the Ortona site – The motion has been made by Mrs. Haynes to move forward and selecting the Ortona site Is there a second? – [Cuthbert] I’ll second the motion – The motion has been properly moved and second, any more discussion – Madam chair – Go right ahead Mr. Colon I am challenged tonight with making this decision only because of the fact that I just heard an architect tell us we don’t have all of the information And it just feels a little bit premature for me And I just hate to drag two groups of families out there Not knowing if tomorrow they’ll come back and say this was a better site I just don’t think we have enough information right now And it’s part of partially our fault because we are making the decision today of K-8 or K-5 And so that’s just why concern Thank you – Thank you Any other discussion? – [Carl] Madam chair? – Yes, go ahead, Mr.Persis – [Carl] Yeah, thank you madam chair And I certainly feel Mrs. Haynes’ pain and I get it about we’ve been talking

about this for a long time But let’s look at it this way We did make a major decision tonight We did I mean let’s think about that We made a major decision tonight We made a major decision to build a K-8 school Volusia County hasn’t done that in a long, this’ll be our first K-8 school from the bottom up, first time ever And we, as a board are gonna have to take ownership of that And I, gosh, I just wanna do it correctly And I wanna give the architects a chance as they really have been begging for, for a long time They won’t probably say it publicly, but they have been wanting to know what the program concept is So rather than have the site, dictate the program, it should be the other way around The program that we want should dictate the site So please let’s give our architects a chance to get input from our staff, from our parents, from our teachers, and let’s get the program that we want program that they want And then I think it will become probably crystal clear to the board Whether it’s a draw or whether one site clearly has the edge Thank you, Madam chair – Thank you And I said that at the very beginning of the meeting – [Carl] You did – And so then we went through this hour and 10 minutes of why we should go with one school versus another, to come back to say, let’s go back That was my whole point I didn’t have enough information to make a sound decision – [Carl] You did – Okay There’s a motion on the floor Moved by Mrs. Haynes, second by Mrs. Cuthbert I call for any discussion? – Mrs. Cuthbert has her hand up – Oh, go a head Mrs. Cuthbert, I’m sorry – [Cuthbert] Madam chair Have you spoken to what you want, or would you prefer not to say anything? We’ve heard a lot from Mr. Persis and from us, but I don’t think I’ve heard directly from you – No, I was not given the opportunity to speak – [Cuthbert] Would you speak right now? – Well, I spoke earlier because again, just when we went on Friday and I was with the parents and I was with the the principals, the one thing that I believe the principal of the school told us, programming will play a role As Megan clearly said that I know we’re not gonna look at a soccer field, because that’s not what we have for any of our middle schools So we’re not gonna come to this K-8 and do something drastically different than we’ve done for any of our middle schools But it will play a major role if we’re looking at two feeder schools Because some of the school children there will go to Mainland and others will go to Seabreeze I mean, both of them have a culinary program So it may make sense for us to have a culinary program I’m just saying that I believe that we spend a lot of time and you all know who I am I don’t like wasting time, but we spent a whole lot of time When I said, we don’t know the programming and that will kinda dictate which way we go And I still say that I really do believe we need to look at the programming and the programming will come from both our teachers, the two administrators and the parents, and quite naturally hearing input from both high schools I want us to remove Osceola or Ortona or 400 or 200, because all families are important to me And at the end of the day, what is going to be the best programming and just from our conversation in Orlando, I believe both sides, both wash one another away Both have, plus both have minuses And if I put them together, I could go with either school site It will come down to what will the programming look like and how they’ll be able to lay that out on either of the campuses So that’s it And so we have a motion and I’m ready to take the vote Erin, can you pull it up for me please? Mrs. Leben – [Erin] Sorry I thought I was sharing my screen I’ll share it right now – Thank you

– [Erin] Sorry about that – Thank you, Mr. Colon – I am a nay at this point – Thank you, Mrs. Haynes – [Jamie] Yay – Mr. Persis? – [Carl] No, I would rather wait – Mrs. Cuthbert – [Cuthbert] I like to wait – Nay, okay Thank you And Ida, nay And I really do thank you all And so if I’m hearing correctly, our directive to our to our team is let’s go ahead and schedule a time with some of the two principals the PTAs in both schools or their SAC committee to look at what the programming will look like And they can meet with the architect We may have to arrange for another meeting for some of the parents, as well as the teachers and more so the teachers, the administrator, and a few parents to go over there, and really look at that and hopefully contact maybe their PTA president or their SAC president to meet them And just talk about this and come back together Is that something, a superintendent Fritz and Mr. Grube that you all can handle? – [Fritz] Yes, ma’am we can – Okay – [Steve] Yes ma’am – Colleagues, is that a direction we want to move in? – [Cuthbert] Madam chair? – Yes – [Cuthbert] This is a very expensive permanent decision we have to make that affects a large part of our population And we have to make sure we make the right decision for everyone, or at least the best decision So further investigation Even though I too agree with Mrs. Haynes, that we’ve been talking about this for so long, but still we need to make the best decision And it’s not just our opinion It has a lot to do with, we have to talk to our experts and rely on their advice as well Give us all the pros and cons And then based on that, then we can make our decision, but we don’t have enough research yet So we can’t write a good essay if you don’t have enough research done So thank you – So colleagues, so it’s a direction that we want to give our staff is to go ahead and have the principals, teachers, and parents of both schools, potentially maybe making another arrangement to go back over there, to visit so that they can have some dialogue and then bring back forth a rendering of both schools based on the information the architect received from that meeting and maybe come up with some rendering Is that our directive? – [Carl] Madam chair – Yes – [Carl] We should have just listened to you right from the get go and saved an hour, I guess, but next time I will I just wanted to say thank you to members of the board for really listening to our chair here, but I believe that I’m chair, as far as you’re asking, where do we go from here? And I think we really need to charge our superintendent with this task to put together the people that he thinks need to be involved with the program Whether that is the assistant superintendent for a middle schools and assistant superintendent for elementary schools, there’s a lot of district staff, senior staff that they know what the programs are that we are offering and all of our schools And then combine their talents with as you said whether it be Seabreeze, Mainland both high schools and then maybe be able to present something to the parents And in other words, we’ve gotta be able to show the parents, these are the programs that we are thinking about offering at this K-8 school I kind of would like to get their side of it first, because we can’t offer everything to everybody We just don’t have that We’re not gonna have that kind of size to offer multiple programs at this middle school If you remember the Audubon Park, the principal was pretty clear that you gotta kinda

zero in on a few things Because you only can get a number of what was it? Madam chair, like 350 students to 400 at the middle school level and that number drives the number of staff that you can have there And you remember how we talked about you do not have a chorus teacher and a band teacher, but you have a chorus teacher who is your band teacher It’s one person doing two things So it’s gonna be those kinds of considerations that I think staff, senior staff can tell our architects because we don’t wanna over promise and then under deliver – And I thank you for that, Mr. Persis, and I humbly disagree again, we’re talking about parents transitioning and already a difficult transition They have to have some say in this, they have to be at the table I don’t mind that our senior staff goes along, but I think those two principals, I believe the principals and their teams can select three or four parents from their schools along with senior staff to go together I think it makes a world of difference when you’re there and everybody can have the conversation versus us or us directing our staff to go there to come and do a presentation I wouldn’t want that I’ve already learned tonight, we are going to have a K-8, so we’re gonna have a K-8 And I said this to the parents and both principals can agree, because they want to have some say And I said, “I want you to have some say.” However, it is going to be important that the teachers of both schools at both levels actually come in with you because they understand programming a little better quite naturally I would like for either thought about (indistinct) or Mrs. Clayton or Mrs Corr or both of them, Patty Corr to go with them But I do believe when we go, we have to send a team representative of both schools, both principals, teachers, and parents, along with district staff Because once we just send district staff and that’s why it was so important for me to go with the parents and the teachers, because again, this impact them the greatest And if they’re involved and like the parent from Osceola, when she was able to come and see that she was able to relay the information back to the parents And so having her again, and some parents, I believe if we just come deliver something to them, I think that’s a slap in their face And then we don’t really need to do this – [Carl] I totally agree with you, but I’m also talking about things like gifted program For instance, parents might say, “That’d be great, let’s have a gifted program.” But staff might come back and say, well, you know, there’s only X amount of students and we gotta have more students in order to have that program here It’s just little things like that That’s all – I agree with you And that’s why I say they go together because we had that conversation actually, because one parent was asking about gifted and I said I don’t know if this school could sustain a gifted program And so again, they can throw out ideas, but that’s when you have the district staff and you have the specialist saying, “That is great.” But having the conversation with them there, and then again, the parents able to have that electronic communication cause they were texting parents, receiving questions, asking questions They can actually have that conversation without us in a fear of someone coming back just to say, they’re all they’re engaged And that’s why I would like for them to go as a group So it can be an engaged conversation – [Carl] Yeah, that sounds good to me That sounds good – Dr Fritz go ahead, Mr. Colon – So this is your community where you all live and all of that For me, it’s more, once that community has decided that what are the architectural considerations, the land considerations, the parking, all of that Because I sitting here in Deltona, I can’t even pretend to understand what matters in Daytona or in Ormond I’ve only been there just a few times And so those are the things that I’m looking for is that architectural consideration of which property is better and better suited Thank you – Thank you, Mrs Cuthbert, I saw your hand – [Cuthbert] I would like to be parked I wouldn’t not contribute, but I just wanna hear the parents speak

I wanna hear the teacher speak I wanna hear the urgency in their voices, the tone, the questions that they may ask To sit in the back and watch the dynamics Who shows up, who’s not there Because it’s very important that we get the feel, the feel of the neighborhood and the feel of the programs Because us talking about it or relaying it isn’t as near as the impact is actually being there and being a part of it So as those are planned, please put it out to all board members so we can visit or at least listen in virtually – Okay And I will do that Or Dr. Fritz, I was hoping that they could go and really for us to kinda stay back and maybe listen virtually because again, we wanna practice social distancing And so if we have a group of 10 or 12, then you’re looking at two schools, you’re looking at district staff, you’re looking at two principals So you’re looking at possibly five there, only leaving maybe three or four parents And we haven’t included the teachers So we may have to do two, I was hoping they can do one and then, or maybe have two groups, but come in at staggered times during the day So they could really then go and maybe a larger facility and have a conversation Because you’ll hear parents, like Carl said, I know they want a gifted program I don’t know if we’ll gonna be able to accommodate that They may want another program for ESC children I don’t know what we can accomodate They may want a digital technology I don’t know I’m just saying that quite naturally parents want the best for their children, but the reality is we won’t be able to offer all of that – [Carl] That’s it – And then parents, then the teachers can say, no, we’re not even equipped to do XYZ And so we wouldn’t be able to do that So now you’ve got the teachers involved, you have the parents involved and you have district staff, as well as our architect, kinda she’s hearing and they’re helping to navigate what would best work based on what they know about the schools and the future programs So Dr. Fritz, we’re turning that over to you and your team to get that going And if possible I know late June, we were pushing it We do have a meeting late June, but if it’s not late June, can we definitely have something back in our July meeting? – [Fritz] Yes, ma’am – Thank you Anything else colleagues we wanna add to that discussion? If not, okay Thank you very much We will move right on to 18.01 Do we have any public comments? – [Schulz] Nope, we do not – Okay Thank you 19.01 items from the board and I’ll start with Mr Colon then Mrs. Haynes – And so I really have nothing other than you all, believe it or not, I have nothing Jamie I did see you turn your head We’re excited about all the celebrations that we’re gonna do to celebrate our students this week Of course, make sure you tune into the news in a little while ‘Cause Pine Ridge will be on all the news stations today I didn’t catch the five o’clock news, but we will be on tonight And other than that, you all have a good night and again, thank you to all the parents, teachers, district staff, you guys have been amazing Thank you – Mrs. Haynes – Thank you, Mrs. Wright I wanna reiterate what Mr. Colon said, thank you to everyone And I had one question for Dr. Fritz, but I just wondered if we’ve made any final decisions yet on the high school graduations and if not, that’s okay I’m sure we will be soon – [Fritz] Our date for that is June 15th We will decide on June 15th the venue so that our families have enough time June 15th is a Monday We’re looking at we still have the Ocean Center We’re looking at whether or not social distancing, which we believe will be in effect, that (indistinct) will be able to have their two guests or will we go with a virtual option? – Okay Thank you for that update on that And I too, it’s really the final week of school, so thank you to everyone out there And I’m looking forward to some of the celebrations this week, and I’m also looking forward to some of the unique things that the high schools are doing to honor our seniors who are entering the military and may not be with us in July But thank you, Madam chair – Thank you, Mr. Persis

– [Carl] Thank you, Madam chair I’m sure you all are tired of hearing my voice this evening But I think tomorrow is a super day You you alluded to it Mr. Colon did with our NASA astronauts, Robert Behnken and Douglas Hurley flying up on that Space X ship I mean, it’s been nine years since we have sent an astronaut up And it’s the first time ever that, normally we as a country send our astronauts up, but this is not we as a country This is a private corporation doing it And this evening I guess I was listening to the CEO of the company, and he actually called each astronaut and said, “If you don’t wanna go tell me and we’ll scrub it now.” Can you imagine, I mean my goodness? I just can’t imagine how they’re feeling, but a tomorrow’s gonna be an exciting day I hope the weather works out for them and they can get this launch off My understanding if it doesn’t launch tomorrow it’ll be going off on Saturday I think is the next opportunity But I wished them well Godspeed And thank you board members for putting up with me tonight Thank you, Madam chair – You’re welcome Mr. Persis That’s okay Mrs. Cuthbert – I’ll be as brief as I can As we are opening, I guess our community, our county, and as our teachers are beginning to move about, is the district working? I’m sure you are, but when will we kinda start to find out about if we find someone who’s ill what is the messaging? What is the line of communication to whom do we report our illnesses? Now, if I became ill, I would certainly I would contact the superintendent, but if a teacher discovers her husband is ill, If we have a child, one of our children ill, what is the message to parents to whom did they report it? And I just wanted to start to at least let the public know we’re working on a plan That we do have plans We are working on plans for the fall I don’t know how much the public is aware, not aware I know our teachers are getting antsy, cause this is the last week they will probably have their computers with them I know they’re sick of them right now So we will lose contact after probably June 1st So I just wanna make sure if we’re going to communicate with our staff, this is a good time to make some of those announcements or at least preliminary announcements I know we’re overloading, everybody’s overloaded, but just some kind of idea of some simple procedures as we move through the summer I just wanna brag, I have two graduating grandchildren, New Smyrna high this year Looking forward to Honors Night on Thursday And yeah, it’s really exciting, especially when they’re cousins six months apart and graduating from the same high school So I challenge you all Can you beat that? So thank you very much It’s been a very long, but very fruitful meeting and I apologize to our staff who’s all listening in It’s been a very, very long night I think we ought to vote to let everybody sleep in tomorrow morning forcefully But I like our discussions We discuss, we don’t shout at each other, we beg and plead, I think Carl’s knees are a bit scraped right now (laughing) But he did put- – [Carl] They are – I must admit that as a former English language AP teacher, he presented his argument very well, had good reasons He was able to turn the tide just a wee bit So but it was realistic and it was fact-based A little bit So we’re willing to open it up, not so much for him, but for his community and for your community as well madam chair So, and that’s who we serve, we serve our communities So thank you all have And if for those who live near the beach or even me,

I’m not that far myself, if it does go, you have to watch it This is one you cannot say, Oh, my nap is more important Or this meeting is more important Everything should stop We should walk out our front doors and watch it go up It is so exciting So thank you And we do have a lot of new people in our County right now who are listening in, who haven’t seen one from this distance before It is well worth it Something you will just go, Oh my goodness So thank you and good night, everybody – Can we come to your house and watch it since you’re so close? – Absolutely you can, anytime I’m 7.5 miles South of New Smyrna High, So to let me know, I heard Mr. Persis is eight mile trek (laughing) – It looks like you ran a hundred miles tonight He’s tired (laughing) – And I like these virtual meetings because the meeting’s over and I do not have a 15 minute drive home I’m just telling it’s nice – Dr Fritz, anything you would like to add? – [Fritz] No, ma’am thank you very much – Okay Colleagues again, thank you for the discussion And the one thing I wanna leave on this note, I’ve been asked to serve on an ad hoc committee As we talk about school boards, teachers, students response to this pandemic And as we talk about returning to school and coming up with a reference guide that all the schools in the state of Florida will be able to use But one of the things that we’ve kind of heard is how will this really impact K-12 And so, as we talk about schools and we talk about what we like to do, I want you to keep this in the back of your mind We probably would not do business the way we have, again This is now a turning point, if not probably 180 degree shift, you will begin to see And one of the reasons that this was so important that I’m sure that the governor and others thought that we need to have this conversation So I was called and asked what I serve on this committee, is because they are States that are really looking at, should we have grade levels, or should we allow kids to matriculate at their own pace And when they go back to Dewey’s time when education was first introduced, they didn’t have great levels, children matriculated according to their skillset And there are States that are planning to look at this starting in the fall we’ll have no testing Should we allow children to matriculate at their own pace and not have the stigma of you are five years old and still in kindergarten, or you are seven years old, still in first grade And part of that discussion came back to the digital divide And so as we talk about children and we want children to go at their own pace and we like assessment, but nothing punitive to school districts there are States that are getting rid of grading systems as an AB district or C district And the whole purpose is that, do we need to go back to the root of what public education was created for And going back to the root and then a digital age, there are three things we gotta look at Number one, to make sure that all children have technology And so as we talk about building schools and brick and mortar, one of the things, superintendent Fritz and Mrs. Cuthbert, because I think you serve as our liaison on the half cent sales tax committee We really need to be discussing, can we speed up really purchasing those devices versus brick and mortar And then as we have that conversation to make sure that all of our children in Volusia County, maybe in the fall should have digital access Now we gotta make sure all of our teachers And one of the things that I shared with representative Lee, was that part of my conversation to him, and I think I maybe share it with some of you, that I was hoping we would have ended the school year earlier so that the teachers in Volusia County would have had opportunities to use that time, to really get trained on technology

Teaching online is an art And the reason, and I’m gonna go back, And I know Dr. Fritz was on the call, when we were on the futures call one of our futures representatives asked why didn’t we start using college professors to help with teaching online And so I had to explain to them that many higher educational institutions have been teaching online for years I’ve actually personally taught online for 10 plus years And it is an art But a teacher that is totally a novice, that is nothing that he or she can learn overnight They really do need some extensive training So one of the conversations that we’re gonna have, I don’t know, we don’t know where it’s gonna go, but this is gonna be running recommendations Is that the state, or we find out something like cares money, that we can offer teachers who want to be trained on digital learning and how to teach online And it would be a four, six week course So that those teachers, in the event, we have to move back to a digital environment, are ready and equipped And I would urge every teacher in Volusia County It would be wonderful if that came to fruition, if all our teachers would take advantage Because we’re asking that they pay them their salary while they’re going through this four to six week training But the reason it would be great to say, “Boy! We have 75% of our teachers trained.” Because if we have to go back, then they know how to deliver online instruction in a manner where it is just as good as face to face And that’s the challenge that everybody’s having because most people have never taught online And they really don’t understand that the instruction online is totally different than it is face to face But once you master that, you could deliver just as engaging, if not more using digital technology as you can face to face And so as I sit on this committee and as we start planning Mrs. Cuthbert those are some of the things we were planning to address How do we make sure that children and we’ve heard from parents, they’re comfortable with their children coming back, not wearing mask, but the reality is all parents are not like that And we should not tell parents if you are not comfortable, your children have to go online That’s not fair to those parents We have teachers who are not comfortable We just heard from a teacher who’s not comfortable And so, as we look at all of these moving pieces, I think we are gonna read, you will see a major shift in public education, like major shift And the shift will be, I can tell you just looking at the two States that are looking and planning with different grade levels We may be having a totally different conversation come August or October, honestly So stay tuned keep you informed It is exciting And sometime it makes you a little fearful, but it’s not a bad fear It’s like, “Boy, we’re reimagining education.” And what was the original intent? And then how can we make sure that we’re servicing all of our children, where they are So with that, if we don’t have any more comments, we wanna wish our teachers and our children enjoy the summer We know that this summer will be like none other because of all the moving parts and everything that we are experiencing And so I know what you could potentially be experiencing, but get some rest and get prepared because I think 2020 fall will be like none other And goodnight colleagues have a good week – Have a good night, good night – Good night – Good night

Acute Infectious Diseases in Space and Time with Bryan Grenfell

and it’s pledged today to introduce Brian Granville who is a professor of ecology and evolutionary biology and public affairs at Princeton University Brian began his research career as a PhD student at the University of York in England where he was trained in population biology and he actually worked on the population biology of whales so in terms of scale of organism he’s changed quite radically over the past few years he then did moved on to his postdoctoral work where he began working on the dynamics of affects diseases again from an ecological perspective he after his postdoc went up to several faculty positions firstly at Imperial then at Sheffield is that right and then Cambridge Penn State and then most recently he moved to Princeton last year Brian holds a number of accolades including he’s a fellow of the American Academy for the Advancement of science he also holds a medal from the Zoological Society London and he’s also I noticed an order of the British Empire my first met Paul when he was an undergraduate in Cambridge and I can tell you all the stories later on thanks very much for the invite it’s always great to come here so what I’m not going to talk about is environmental change in particular but I am going to talk about non-stationarity I’m going to talk about the dynamics of particularly highly immunizing infections like measles and to some extent influenza and measles as a particular case study is is the kind of c.elegans of epidemiological dynamics if you like in terms of its historical data and but I’m also going to talk about measles currently in the Sahel in Asia in particular where it’s still a major killer my texture really is going to be looking at the effect of external forcing shortened season or forcing longer term demographic forcing on the dynamics of these oscillators as a first step and I’m gonna argue that this forcing is quite a quite a handy model if we’re thinking about are there not other kinds of non-stationary effects in populations and ecosystems and so on and then also gonna talk about more complex infections particularly like influenza where an immune escape that is we saw recently with the influenza pandemic immunity isn’t always that strong how did these demographic influences interact with an immune escape and what are the mechanisms that really drive that so I’m gonna I’m gonna go across quite a wide range of things and there’s a large cast of characters Cambridge Penn State our colleagues at NIH who’ve been involved in this and and also a number of funding organizations on both sides of the Atlantic so what I want to do to start with is to talk about the population dynamics of measles and I apologize to some people in the audience who have seen bits and pieces of this several times I suspect though some people won’t have done so measles is is a kind of paradigmatic post natural enemy oscillator in ecological terms we see these lovely biennial epidemics in the UK data these are just notifications of infection they notified about 60% of infections which isn’t really bad for an ecological system slightly more annual dynamics post-world War two and these these epidemics are driven by what we buy by a number of and the first of them is Israeli population immunity and is what one can call the epidemic clockwork by that I mean and we can summarize the dynamics of something like measles and we don’t care in this case how many viral particles you’ve got we care about whether you’re susceptible or infected or recovered after maternal immunity is waned susceptible individuals who’ve

never seen the infection become infected it’s a respiratory virus it’s very infectious and then after a short infection they moved through to a recovered class and their immune then to reinfection for life and the reason for the strength of the immunity is not really well understood and it’s very interesting why it’s so strong most infections aren’t this strong then vaccination with an attenuated virus but this isn’t an immunity that’s that’s also really very very strong and seemingly pretty long-lived so if we think about an infection now spreading through a population then if we think about a pandemic like situation where you introduce one individual into a big population of susceptible individuals one infected individual will infect this kind of magical number in my neck of the woods r0 which is the number of secondary cases that you might cause on average in a a totally susceptible population and this number was kind of bandied about a lot for pandemic flu maybe for pandemic flu it was some of the historic pandemics it was maybe two or three or more for this recent one it’s probably one point not very much not very transmissible for measles it was about twenty so you would you could cause on average maybe twenty secondary cases there are cases of outbreaks in the Faroe Islands where someone went to a dance and had not been infection for 40 years and they infected hundred and twenty people in a night so it’s extremely infectious what happens then though is that in a kind of predator-prey sense this rapid increase in the number of cases depletes the susceptibles really quickly and the births can’t really keep up with that because that’s a kind of linear thing and therefore you get a rapid depletion and this is this in direct effect of herd immunity so the epidemic turns over at a kind of critical proportion of susceptibles and there’s a lot of there’s a lot of mathematics that that can be expressed but essentially that picture captures that so this is the first component of the dynamics which is really the epidemic clockwork but then there’s a bunch of other effects which influence the dynamics of measles and these are the dynamics of measles again in Wales here similar to what we saw before onset of vaccination and we see much more irregular dynamics and a gradual trend downwards as the authorities gradually got their act together and increased rates of vaccination but before telling you what the other components which drive the dynamics of this ecological oscillator are I wanted to just show you some observed data because the other nice thing about these systems is that there are a really great data these are cyst or achill data Finland and Wales the areas of the circles proportion to cases London is in yellow and then smaller places are in shades of orange and yet London’s yellow here and it’s scaled on to zero one year so that we can see it compared to the rest of the country there’s a kind of annual period at the start and then there are these lovely at least to the eyes of the dynamicists biennial oscillations so very very synchronized biennial oscillations and you see that there are big epidemics there’s a big epidemic every other year in terms of our threshold our clockwork it took about two years almost exactly two years for the birth rate to top the susceptibles up to a threshold where there could be another epidemic but then you see in between the big epidemics there are small epidemics as well and I’m going to come back to that seasonality so now and yet the other thing that we see here is the spatial temporal dynamics and we’ve done we and a lot of other people that a bunch of work on this not going to focus on spatial temporal dynamics today but there are strong waves of infection moving away from the big places to the small places and the infection kind of winks out in the small places due to demographic stochasticity small numbers of cases in drops means that you know you might the crucial three people might not go to the supermarket and therefore the affection like the chains of transmission might break and therefore has to be started from big places so that that’s kind of forest fire dynamics that drives those oscillations those observations oscillations in space then when we move through to the vaccine ER things get much more D synchronized and that’s about to get another story and much more irregular in their dynamics but you see that another reason why people have looked at this stuff a lot apart remits public health importance which I’ll come back to later is that the data are really great simple so anyway there’s a bunch of other effects and I’m not gonna and there’s and again and there’s again a lot of work on this but it’s published and I can put you other papers if you’re interested that influence the dynamics so the recurrent epidemics but that I mean the epidemic clockwork that we talked about this topping up of susceptibles and then using them up very quickly by the epidemic and there’s demographic

stochasticity that is the epidemic disappears in small places in the troughs between epidemics doesn’t disappear in big places that threshold was about a quarter of a million in these UK data so in cities above that size the infection always kind of tottered along in the troughs between epidemics the other effect is seasonality and what we’ll come back to this but that’s effectively the seasonal aggregation of kids in schools which acted like two people pushing a swing with feather for the mathematicians in the audience that this is like a damped pendulum in its dynamics and if you push it at either end across the biennial cycle then you’ll force the the oscillations to be sustained and then there are long-term secular changes which are vaccinations obviously but there are also changes in the cyclicity which I’ll come back to and explain in a minute so there’s a bunch of if you think of a kind of a dynamic analysis of variance there’s a bunch of drivers that push the dynamics to different extents and there’s also a big complicated story about those waves and spatial temporal dynamics but that’s not germane here and just to say and I’m not going to go into the details of this because I want to get to the more applied questions we can use time-series analysis to look at the non-stationary dynamics here your the dynamics of measles in London just on just on a log scale to make them a bit more sinusoidal and we can use wavelets spectra so we look at power as a function of time as well as frequency and we can see that by the strong Biennial dynamics there and then a gradual change in period in the vaccination irit so there’s a massive kind of time series analysis that we can do on these sorts of data so that’s kind of frequency domain time series analysis looking for patterns so then you have to do process and to do that you have to fit those SI R models to the data it’s effectively to estimate are not and the seasonality and we can do that with States based models so we can fit two step ahead predictions of the model and the step ahead predictions this is of the the number of cases next generation which is about two weeks is a function of the susceptibles now in the cases now depending on the seasonality of transmission and we can fit we can fit models to capture that seasonality of transmission and to cut a long story short they’re quite successful at capturing this is for London the the the the the biennial bit dynamics through much of the pre vaccination era and the annual dynamics earlier on and the annual dynamics the other ingredient of this model is birth rate so that’s the fuel that’s driving this oscillator that’s pushing it back and forth Annie well in the baby boom post of post-world War two at high birth rates you tend to get annual dynamics so that’s that’s that the non stationarity and this is kind of like reverse vaccination if you like it’s increasing the birth rate which pushes the dynamics and means that the threshold is hit more frequently so that’s how we get it the kind of mechanisms here by fitting these models so what about the dynamic impact of vaccination finally vaccination acts like a reduction in birth rate effectively and this is just to illustrate and I think it’s a great illustration for for Public Health people actually if you and then this is that this is not our work particularly and it’s a bunch of work by a previous people particularly do dash Ensler and Joan Aaron and then we did some work with David earn on it if we just take our our seasonally forced measles model and we vaccinate and these are two different runs and and and this red case is vaccinating in the epidemic trough we get sort of slightly longer period slightly complicated dynamics if we vaccinate in a peak year as the epidemics going down we’ll get will get completely different dynamics so there is the possibility of exotic dynamics you have coexisting attractors for example depending when you vaccinate when you perturb the system you might get well get different behaviors this happens incidentally because if you vaccinate in a high year it’s about to be followed by a deep trough so you’re really exacerbating that trough trough effect and pushing it into a different regime and if we fit the dynamics with our time series versions of those si R models we see that these relatively irregular dynamics so you fit to the pre vaccination era and you kind of project forward it’s still messy and you have to allow for kind of extra vaccinations that happened in 1968 they did some kind of catch-up vaccination when they started vaccinating of older kids and if you were low for that you get a reasonable picture of qualitatively what happened but it’s very hard to predict

the irregularities because of those coexisting attractors because of the effects of stroke hasta city so prediction even in this seemingly very predictable system is actually pretty tough read so really what we’re trying to do is project what the dynamics are going to do so one final ingredient so far I’ve talked about the forcing of the dynamics relatively gently relatively low seasonal amplitude there was tremendous excitement in some parts of the ecological community about 20 years ago particularly bill Shafer which is a tremendously stimulating incursion into this area looking at some of the irregularities in in the dynamics of things like measles and and interpret them in interpreting them in this way so this is a bifurcation diagram and it and what what we essentially do in each column of this figure is we pick a seasonality and we just run into two monistic version of something like the model that I showed you and we look with the number of troughs that is we look at the period of the cycles and the richness of the dynamics so it’s very low seasonality you get annual dynamics there’s only one sort of trough at moderate levels of seasonality there are biennial dynamics so there are deep troughs and shallow troughs and deep troughs and shallow troughs and so on but crank the seasonality up a little bit more this is a forced oscillator and you get chaotic dynamics and very very irregular and a lot of people got very excited about this but a bunch of us and I was one of these miserable people pointed out that this is 50 million people in this simulation and this is rather a deep trough okay you can’t you can’t simp simple chaotic dynamics in this system really won’t explain what we see and it’s much more variations like these limit cycle behaviors and changes in cyclicity because of birth rates and so on so it seemed that these exotic dynamics were irrelevant then is that really true so to explore that I’m going to talk about a collaboration and this is a lot of this work was by Matt Ferrari who’s now on the faculty of Penn State who talked about a piece of this a couple of years ago up the School of Public Health and this is with our great collaborators that adds episode which is the kind of research arm of medicine on frontier who of grit links with Nisha so we wanted to look at dynamics and vaccination and measles in the Sahel measles still kills some hundreds of thousands of children a year a lot of them in this Sahelian region so we’d like to now apply our models from developed countries and try and look at optimal vaccination strategies here because it’s not possible to get the very high levels of vaccination that would allow one just to interrupt transmission for kind of health system reasons first thing we need to do though is we need to understand in general what we might expect from the previous work about epidemiological dynamics at high birth rates so Nisha has very diverse most of the populations along the southern edge of the country northern Nigeria is down here and very very high reported birth rate 50 per thousand like triple the birth rate that we saw in those historical measles data for the UK a relatively low vaccination coverage so what’s our expectation just from taking the simple models that I talked about cranking up the birth rate of this echo is a bunch of work that was done about 20 years ago by Angela McLean and Roy Anderson and what they pointed out was that if you crank down the birth rate you get rather irregular dynamic sidled that is if you vaccinate for example as I discussed but what I want to focus on you is if you crank up the birth rate for the models that we developed and fitted reasonably well for the UK for example or the US you get very very regular annual dynamics and you see the troughs here are very very very very shallow so that you would get strong persistence the population would no persist measles was no persistent in a population of 100,000 not a quarter of a million as I said before so that’s the prediction very irregular dynamics if in fact we look at the seasonal dynamics in in of measles in Asia where there are absolutely magnificent data then the there are indeed annual patterns nationally but of course one needs to disaggregate and if we disaggregate by district and let’s focus on on Nia May the capital then in fact we get nothing like what we expect in the model so the models wrong we get irregular dynamics very very spiky epidemics lots and lots of fade-outs lots and lots of missing epidemics so very very different from what we see very erratic epidemics very variable around the country and the

reason is this is a longer time series for Nia May and Nia May has a population of 700,000 so it should persist easily measles should persist easily it disappears after all these major epidemics in fact and it’s because if we fit those models that I talked about those si are models to the data to the time series we find that this thick line this is transmission rate this thick line is the seasonal swing of transmission rate for those old UK data and this is the seasonal swing for near me and it’s much much more seasonal and and that seasonality is focused that most of the transmission is focused in the dry season and the supposition here is that as far as we can tell so far and I’ll come back to this it’s it’s this isn’t to do with schooling at all because the median infection age is about 2 or 1 it’s to do with families moving in and out of the cities associated with our annual agricultural migrations we’ve not got the seasonal disaggregation of birth rate yet but so it could also be birth rate variations associated without the seasonality and birth rate could also be a driver so it forces very strong local extinction so let’s use the models to look at that a bit more systematically and this is another bifurcation diagram and this is how you read it as before I’m looking at the dynamics as a function of the strength of seasonality but I’m adding an axis of birthrate now and I’m color coding so you run us we run our simulations and we look at the cyclicity that we see in the simulations as a function of birth rate and strength of seasonality so these are the data for the seasonality the low seasonality amplitude for London that we saw and you see that all we see there are annual and biennial epidemics it’s very strongly locked to annual and biennial patterns and that baby boom effect would for example be as you crank up the birthrate you might move from biennial to annual epidemics if you crank the seasonality up to the level of Nia may you in fact get much more in general irregular dynamics and over much of the of the range you get chaotic tone because you get extremely irregular dynamics and that’s because there’s this incredibly strong seasonality now one shouldn’t get excited to your about that about chaos rearing its head here really because these troughs are very deep it’s and this isn’t simple deterministic chaos the the measles would go extinct at near Mays population size in this hatched region so what we’re really talking about this kind of determinist somewhat deterministic instabilities in the dynamics leading to these very very irregular patterns so what are the implications for vaccination and for the uncertainty of the system so yeah so by uncertainty I mean if we now think about cranking up vaccination rates which remembers a bit like dropping birth rates okay cranking up vaccination rates in near me then you’re moving down in this direction and then at some point the infection will wink out because you’ll hit the herd immunity threshold then it’s gonna stay irregular right down to the edge of extinction of infection so what’s gonna happen is the dynamics are currently like this so you might have irregular epidemics every few years with fade-outs what you’ll get what you would have got in the old you in the in the current UK case where vaccination rates are not really fantastic in some some groups you’ve got a low grumbling infection because it’s weakly seasonal what you would get in in in these regions is nothing very much then an extremely violent epidemic and the more violent it is the higher case fatality rates tend to be for example then a long gap and then an extremely violent epidemics so we’re currently interested in at least as a theoretical exercise the way that you the way that you give vaccin the extra vaccinations that’s needed in these regions is by supplementary immunization so you you go in and you as well as routine vaccinations you go in with a supplementary campaign every few years in theory if one could pulse those campaigns of vaccination maybe we can in train these dynamics I think that’s a theoretical exercise because really what one needs to do is grab up the background vaccination and and the key point here in an applied sense actually is you know this is a great vaccine and it’s cheap and we really should be rap keeping the vaccination ramped up in these regions and that’s really the issue but things will be deterministically unpredictable so in fact Lygia population are kind of

about 20 million is is probably not at all the regional driver here because measles probably if Nisha was kind of isolated measles will probably go extinct for long periods completely across the country their driver is northern Nigeria where we’re just beginning to collect data and it’s this oscillator that you really need to understand and it’s probably regional coordination of vaccinations that’s going to help us quite a lot there but for measles and for a lot of systems and we’re particularly interested in this and I’m in particular my postdoc Nita Bharti is interested in this it’s the population movements there for trans boundary population movements that we’re really interested in and I think cell phone data as cell phone usage spreads in this region and it’s still not that high and it’s going to be very useful there but another thing that Nita and Annie Tatum that you know at University of Florida is looking at is night lights now night lights are surprisingly effective these days if you correct for less night’s clothes and so on at spotting fires and so on so that we can capture crudely roughly what the population movements into a note of the cities are regionally sorry seasonally and what we tend to see is that there’s there are density changes that are consistent with our population movement things so in the dry season trying to correct for everything else from the images so far then you see stronger night lights in these red regions than in then in the wet season and that seems to indicate an increase in density but what we really need to do now is get more data on the seasonality of birth rates look grown truth more specifically how people move so that we can get it why this seasonal oscillator is so strong and then also transboundary movements and if you talk to the people who work on malaria or many many other infections movement patterns are really key and I think you know it’s very interesting and a cross-disciplinary problem and then finally you know for many regions won’t have good data as good as there are Phoenicia so it’s interesting to wonder if one can then take patterns of movements and patterns of seasonal aggregation of people across Africa for example across this belt and think about how you know measles Co varies with the with the agricultural season and try and make larger metapopulation models and that’s you know that’s an aspiration for the future but you’ve really got to get at the movements first big interest currently and again this is a mostly map Ferraris work is that the local dynamics of access to care in an applied sense is absolutely key by that I mean it’s all very well improving the supply chain or even getting better vaccines and getting the vaccines to clinics for example but you’ve also got a you’ve also got to think about how easy it is for people to access those clinics so a bunch of work that we’ve been interested in recently is how in rural areas vaccination rates are much lower and how because people just can’t get at the vaccine and thinking of in future about how one might optimize that access in these regions is going to be very important because again it’s a way of fighting this seasonality so just to summarize the measles part then we’ve seen the epidemic oscillator we can we’re going to played in that Sun sandpit of nonlinear dynamics in ecology there are seasonal and demographic forcing these nonlinear these are non-stationary effects particularly demographic changes and vaccination changes I wonder if the main impact of environmental change if we want to think of that in terms of cholera or we want to think about it in terms of malaria then there might be direct sea drivers environmentally and there may be climatic drivers of measles dynamics seasonally but it doesn’t seem that that’s the case currently and but I wonder if the major effect on these directly transmitted infections is going to be by things like trends of urbanization trends of population movement as environmental drivers change and I think I think trends of nutrition perhaps and I think that’s going to be an interesting area for future work and growth in this area so what I want to do now is confess that measles is it’s up is in fact the exception a fear of these childhood infections have extraordinarily strong immunity and most infections are in quotes much smarter than that immunity is much more imperfect TB is a classic example HIV is in a different sense much more chronic infections but even acute infections like influenza there’s considerable patterns of immune escape I just want to illustrate roughly what I mean by that

so if we compare measles and flu they’re both RNA viruses they both have quite a large error rate in the polymerase so there’s a lot of variability generated there’s a lot of basis for immune evasion in terms of variation but if we think about the susceptible to infected to recovered class for measles then each of these is supposed to be a strain of the virus but so far it seems that cross immunity is incredibly strong any straight vaccinating or having natural infection and any strain of measles will protect you against any other there are even quite strong cross-species effects for the other vaccines for other more below viruses in the Middle’s group like canine distemper for example very strong very strong cross immunity that means that all these within host intricacies that would produce variations in the virus don’t matter because you can check them away because it’s the same recovered flus okay so that means you get a simple oscillator you get these multi-annual predator-prey type dynamics and you get rather a boring phylogeny for the service molecules with just some spatial variations on this and thanks to any homes for these for these viral phylogenies for flu as we know then just to cartoon eyes it there’s a progressive change every year or in many years at least so therefore we get a kind of ladder like phylogeny rather uncertain population patterns complicated population patterns whole immunities our other slippery things of flu because the virus is changing all the time but but all the patterning is really in the in the in the phylogeny so very very different patterns and now I’m going to think about how and another and there’s a and there’s a bunch of theoretical work trying to explain how patterns of influenza changed through time and how the dynamics and the evolution are related and maybe the h1n1 pandemic will tell us more about that but what I want to do is step back from that and think about how our analysis of demographic drivers and how they push measles dynamics are affected if we think about the dynamics of these imperfectly immunizing infections now we can think of influenza as really an S IRS infection so very crudely you’re now susceptible you’re infected you’re recovered from infection you remain but then you go back into the susceptible class very crudely ok so how is that going to affect our coupling of birth rate to dynamics that we saw for measles well we know that the dynamics of these very strongly immunizing infections like measles and promptly track the the dynamics of the infection so if you change the birth rate you will change the dynamics and we saw that very clearly in practice and in theory if we think about this snow as a kind of environmental oscillator and we think about this big flow so there’s a small birthrate they’re relatively there’s a big big Fleur if immunity only lasted a year or two for example there’s a huge flow of individuals back into the susceptible class so that’s like a big averaged birth rate okay so if we think of this as a kind of oscillator of some sort driving the system then this is a much more powerful oscillator kind of swamping it so if I simulate that here’s a here’s a simulated baby boom here’s the effect on measles dynamics and we see that there’s a a nice tracking of the dynamics in terms of the epidemics if I now assume and this is just an analytical interpretation of this which I won’t go into here if I just assume that same model but the immunity only lasts a few years then the same baby boom has no effect so this is a kind of demographic buffering effectively if infections don’t track birth rate then it’s an implication that there’s very strong imperfectness in the immunity and I’m not gonna go into details you but if we look at the dynamics of the simple models here then this is really very much like if we look at the the susceptibles that is the prey against the the cases that is the the Predators this is very much like the lockable terror model for predator prey dynamics this is for the population dynamics folks in the audience and vaccination and the tracking of birth rate and a vaccination is very much like the paradox of enrichment so if you vaccinate or you reduce birth rate then

you’ll reduce the number of cases of equilibrium but you won’t reduce the proportion of susceptibles and that tracking of birth rate of popular of the dynamics as you change the recruitment rid of susceptibles is very much like the paradox of enrichment in predator prey dynamics talk about that in more detail if people are interested later on but if we look at si RS infections then at different birth rates or vaccination rates there’s no change so the equilibrium which is the intersection of these narc lines really really sits there because effectively if you you vaccinate or you reduce the birth rate you’d still get a lot of people coming back into the susceptible class so there’s much much more buffering of the dynamics so if we’re thinking about now demographic change or environmental change the same thing applies and we’re thinking about perfectly immunizing infection should track that really strongly imperfectly immunizing infections shouldn’t track it and here’s a possible instance which is respiratory syncytial virus in the US and against plotted on the same axis serous as another imperfectly immunizing infection parainfluenza virus and there’s a trend associated with birth rate in this case but not in this case so this may be an instance of that but we’ve not got a conclusive example and one possible example a very immunizing infection is rotavirus here which is a major human diarrhea virus and jinney pizza who’s used to be in harvard and is now in my group and give a talk a couple of weeks ago about this indeed this does track the birth rate very strongly route of iris so but for example influenza does so I think much more rather more weakly so imperfectly immunizing infections should really track birth rate changes and environmental influences much more gently than than imperfectly immunizing infections the theory tells us so corollary of this demographic TRUCKING is that if we look at the theory transmission must be at least partly density dependent if you increase the density of susceptibles which effectively what you’re doing by increasing birth rates that translates through via this kind of paradox of enrichment thing into it it translates through into more predators that into others into more cases very very promptly very strongly immunizing infection so there must be a density effect so but therefore that r0 the transmission rate must kind of track host density to some extent now certainly true in in a in a complicated way which I can come back to if you want to discuss it the childhood infections certainly to have smallpox towards the end of the smallpox eradication high-density countries they had to reach higher levels of vaccination uptake but it’s not always the case and this is just to give an advert for a piece of work with our collaborators at the Marine Mammal Center so this is an animal disease example and this is our wonderful collaborator francis garland this collected data from these glamorous beasts Californian sea lions of leptospirosis which is a major human zoonotic infection over since the 1980s and the laser art these are whole outs of infected animals and you’ll see that there are these fluctuations and it seems to be that it seems that it’s an endemic infection but all I’m all I’m going to say about this is this is that this is a different example because in this case there are massive changes in the population this is pup recruitment which is shot up the population had recovered since the 1970s it been have been threatened then and and population size has changed similarly an El Nino particularly this El Nino had a very very strong effect on pup recruitment but if we look at our naught as a function of population size then there’s no trend this is frequency dependent transmission it looks as though densities of populations local density stay pretty constant across a wide range of recruitments and population dynamics and therefore in this case that the dynamics kind of carry on regardless of the disease as a function of population size now that doesn’t matter in any applied sense here because this is a very healthy population but I don’t know if you know but a wonderful example of a very exotic infectious disease recently which is a transmissible cancer in Tasmanian devils wonderful work by Hamish McCallum that’s a frequency dependent transmission it turns out probably because it’s somewhat sexually transmitted aggressive contacts an associated sexual transmission and in that case the populates that can reverse

of this the population the transmission rate and the death of these animals from the cancer will stay high even as densities decline so it’s a doomed population unless they take they take major effects so this this this effect of frequency versus density dependent transmission is a very important modulator of all that I’ve talked about and I should say that’s a paper just about to be submitted by Jamie Lloyd Smith and Kim Pepin and a bunch of other people and one of these folks would be great to come and talk about this it’s a lovely story so finally I just want to drill down into some detail just to explore just that a bunch of people have got in this audience and and and I’m interested in it as well ultimately if we’re going to understand these infectious diseases we despite what I say for infections like flu certainly we’ve got a drill down and look at mechanism or we’ve got to get down to to some extent that within hosts dynamics and look much more mechanistically at the evolution of immune escape no that’s a complicated business here’s the flu virus with the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase which are the other are the ant are the antigenic surface proteins and in particular that the hemagglutinin gets you into cells roughly speaking neuraminidase gets you out of cells if you’re a virus and both of them vary and the hemagglutinin is the one that varies over time as i described and that’s that’s the thing that drives the pandemic changes and and the seasonal influenza changes in particular but if we think about how if we really wanted to understand this what data would we need data or the key thing here we need data across scales of the dynamics that the the dynamics of mutation of viral shedding and in immunity and individual animals transmission the epidemic dynamics and in particular Thunder effects in epidemic troughs regional dynamics and kind of global phylogenies now this is a key night audience and you’ll have spotted that these are not humans you can’t do this in human systems you have to have animal systems and the horse is by no means an ideal it until animal but it’s useful and in this case because it does have a global phylogeny because it’s it’s it’s harbors an endemic infection of h3n8 influenza in fact recently jumped to dogs in the US and the UK interesting Lee and and because horses thoroughbred horses are much more looked after than humans they’re extremely valuable there’s a lot of work testing vaccines and looking at this level so I want to look at the the the the calibration between immune escape and determinants of transmission just to give an illustration of the sorts of data that we need at these different scales and this is me standing next to this pony it wouldn’t let me get any closer than that actually so these are welsh mountain ponies at the Animal Health Trust in Newmarket in the UK these are our these are my collaborators this is a model horse and these animals the nice thing is they could definitely guarantee from sort of isolated farms and they would see illogically test them before the experiments you could get naive animals so you could actually have controls to some extent when you did infection experiments and the infection experiments were actually testing vaccines so the way that they tested the vaccines was to immunize naive animals with a with a with a vaccine and then challenge the horse with the same vaccine or a different vaccine added at a given distance in terms of number of number of amino acids in the viral hemagglutinin so you a challenge to you let the antibodies drop off a bit which islands with the same virus or with a slightly different or a very different virus and then you see how determinants of transmission very weak or at least we did that when we reanalyze these data and no animals were hurt in this course of this experiment these are two of the animals usually experiment experimental animals are killed but these were given to small children I think it’s it’s it was a kind of unusual exception of the usual rules and what we see if we look at amino acid changes between the challenged virus and the immunization so this is the same virus more or less and this is the control which this would be like a pandemic virus this would be at a kind of infinite distance so this is if you if you if you just have a naive animal at the start then these are various correlates of r0 so the probability that you get infected that you cero convert the probability that if you cero convert you excrete the virus and the period for which you excrete it and you see they all increase so that if that so that are that these components of transmission rate are increasing however it’s

important to stress here that they didn’t directly measure transmission you didn’t take the horse and put it with six other horses and see how many it infected okay that would have been the kind of Holy Grail experiment and I think people are doing this now with guinea pig models and so on in ferret models to get at this a little bit more explicitly so if you put that into a population model you see that it takes about four amino acids in the app in the active sites of the of the hemagglutinin to allo the effective reproduction ratio to go both one and that means each case course is more than one case and then you would get a big epidemic so um these are qualitative results and and it’s it’s a it’s an animal model or not the human infection so you wouldn’t make specific extrapolations here but it’s it’s a point that to move to the next generation of epidemic models and to think about you know the long-term effects and control of epidemics we’re going to need to drill down into these kind of immunological depths and to think about women on dig’ microbiology virology so overall conclusion I’ve looked at demographic drivers human movements thought about measles there’s a there’s a whole other spatial temporal story that I’ve not talked about and the big challenge is combining evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics so rotavirus which Ginni talked about a few weeks ago to some of you and flu should probably show similar individual level dynamics of immune escape kind of this immune escape this heterologous and homologous immunity but incredibly different epidemic patterns and understanding the kind of zoo of patterns and of viruses at the population level and how those relate to the kind of within the kind of cross scale dynamics is a kind of really interesting I think okay thanks thanks Brian so we have some time for questions Scott oh sorry it’s got huge man actually stepping up so like there you want to record for posterity i I was just wandering in the flute in the flu example at the end whether you saw any interacts any evidence for interactions among mutations in other words you sort of had a count of genetic distance between the vaccine but is there any synergistic effects of mutations it’s a great question we looked and we couldn’t this is mainly I should say might work by my colleague University of Georgia now we looked and the design wasn’t kind of balanced you know so we didn’t really see those effects this is just this was just published in science and the next paper in the in this in the issue was a wonderful paper by Hinsley at I’ll by folks from NIH where they looked at immune escape in making a mouse model for flu in night in chains of naive and and partially immune animals and looked at how that Co varied with a vidit e of the hemagglutinin for the cell and you know that’s exactly what you’re talking about but there’s probably all kinds of compensator imitations and all kinds of stuff going on you’re right it’s a good question I have a question sort of fungal on a little bit from scotts which is to what extent do you think there is ability if we you know you talked about probing into the depths of mechanism that in some sense by doing that you will ultimately be able to say something about the either the predictability or the unpredictability of there being an outbreak sometime in the for example you know in terms of the evolutionary process how much is it gradual evolution versus punctuated equilibrium tight dynamics what I was supposed to give a pessimistic answer until he came to the last sentence there actually because I think predictability is really hard to you but I mean and if you know if you could if you could in seasonal flu case a lot of people are working on this if you did know enough to predict where it was going to evolve next year or in the next few years and could tailor the vaccines this is not a transmissible virus so that would be a very powerful to literally but in terms of punctuated versus gradual wicked flu is kind of the classic example where we do know that right so gradual is seasonal flu we don’t quite understand it works but we have a rough idea punctuate it is is is recombination is reassortment and is something jumping out of birds or pigs and so on you know so we have a qualitative idea of that understanding when you’re predicting when pandemics are going to happen you know good luck

Black History Month Girls and Gigabytes Event

Kalisha Dessources: Good afternoon, everyone Audience Members: Good afternoon Kalisha Dessources: We’re excited to have you here during Black History Month We’re excited to have you here during a time where this President and this White House thinks that it is so important for young people to be involved in science, and in math, and in engineering, and in technology And it is a really great thing — you guys should all be proud of yourselves that you guys are here today, that you guys are going to be trying cool things, and maybe slightly difficult things, and maybe taking yourself out of your norm for just a little bit So, you guys should be very excited I am so — I am a former science teacher, so I am so, so happy to have you guys here I do not get to interact with kids on a daily basis, and children are — and children and kids and youth are, to me, a lot more fun than adults are sometimes So, I am — I’m very happy to have you guys here I am going to now introduce Waikinya, who would like to welcome you guys as well (applause) Waikinya Clanton: Good afternoon, everyone Audience Members: Good afternoon Waikinya Clanton: Okay, we’ve been together all day, so I feel like we’re a family Good afternoon, everyone Audience Members: Good afternoon Waikinya Clanton: Very good I am — as Kalisha mentioned, Waikinya Clanton I’m the National Executive Director of the National Organization of Black Elected Legislative Women, NOBEL Women in short I have the honor of serving these wonderful ladies seated right here on the front row, beginning with our illustrious National President, our second Vice President, Treasurer, Parliamentarian, and our National Director of Regional Coordinators, a second Vice President, and our chaplain, are all here to be here with you all today It is, indeed, an honor and a privilege to be here, at the invitation of the President and the First Lady We are extremely grateful to Ms. Stephanie Young, and Ms. Kalisha Dessources for inviting us here today I hope you realize how much we take pride in investing in your futures, and I hope you take the full advantages of what we all have at play for you here today Without further ado, I’m going to invite our National President, President Laura Hall, of the great state of Alabama, to formally give you opening remarks (applause) Laura Hall: Thank you, Waikinya Good afternoon Audience Members: Good afternoon Laura Hall: So, you know, I heard some little rumblings a few minutes ago about, “Oh, this isn’t the White House.” I said, “Oh, yes, it is.” Now, it may not be where the President is living, if that’s what you thought you were going to see, where the President lives, I haven’t even had an opportunity to see that But believe me, you are at the White House, and you are in a great — you have an excellent opportunity by being here today So, I want you to know how much we appreciate you and your parents, and your sponsors, and the volunteers Thank you, thank you, thank you (applause) So, as was stated, I’m the National President of NOBEL Women, and I want to, first, thank President Obama and First Lady Obama for this gracious invitation And so, before I begin talking about NOBEL Women in a 3G program, please allow me to recognize the members of our board of directors All members of NOBEL, would you please stand? These ladies are responsible for you being here, so please give them a round of applause (applause) We even have one of the charter members of NOBEL, who is seated in the back That’s Senator Diana Bajoie, from Los Angeles, and thank you, Senator Bajoie (applause) What did I say? Louisiana? Okay All right So, we began NOBEL Women — Girls Gigabytes and Gadgets at the beginning of last year, and presently have trained more than 400 girls This is an innovative series of workshops and discussions that are designed to expose young women and girls, particularly African American women and girls, from at risk immunities The idea is to have them be engaged in careers about science, technology, engineering, arts, agriculture, mathematics, all of those things that throughout the United States The idea of Girls Gigabytes and Gadgets was created to magnify one powerful message Women and girls aren’t just to be users of technology, but creators, designers, influencers, and decision makers as well And this type of innovation we hope will expose young girls to a variety of things Today, you will have a variety of workshops, ranging from app ideation, coding, DNA simulation, aerospace technology, molecular design,

social media mastery, a host of other activity — these are some of the activities that we held over the last year, and you will experience some of those today Collectively, participants are asked to take a social media safety and responsibility pledge, which will be offered to you a little later So, what I want to do at this time is to invite our Vice President and national Vice President, Senator Arthenia Joyner of Florida to come to the podium to administer NOBEL Women’s internet safety and responsibility pledge Senator Joyner (applause) Arthenia Joyner: Would all of the young ladies who are here today at our summit please stand? The internet is a space for knowledge, innovation, and discovery It is known as a window to the world, and can offer what seems like unlimited possibility and wonder But it also must always be used with caution and great understanding As a NOBEL Women 3G Girl, I am — please state your name, understand the proper function of the internet, and pledge to use it responsibility Furthermore, in partnership with NOBEL Women, I agree to the following: safe and responsible internet, and social media pledge I will not engage in distractive driving And I will explain, you will not engage in destructive activities while operating a motor vehicle These activities include texting, taking pictures, applying makeup, and any other activities that may take attention from preserving the safety of others Repeat after me: I will use the internet safely and responsibly I will elaborate You will not use the internet as a tool to impose harm on anyone else — to hurt someone else’s feelings, or to make someone feel inferior I will think critically — you will, about sites you frequent, and how much information that you share with others Now, repeat after me: I will not engage in inappropriate behavior when using a mobile or smart device I will explain to you what that means You are not to use any of your devices to engage in inappropriate or otherwise compromising activities that may place you or others in harm’s way Repeat after me: I will always help others That means that you will help your classmates, friends, and family members understand the use of technology and the internet, and why it’s important, so that knowledge is spread throughout your entire community, and so that you can grow together And finally, repeat after me: I will keep learning This means that you will keep learning about technology, and discover ways that it can improve your community, whether through responsible social media participation, app development, or digital innovation Girls, young ladies, you have taken this pledge, and we will hold you to it, for you are our future, and you are the future of the world Thank you (applause) Kalisha Dessources: So, it is now my pleasure to

introduce our panelists up here today So, we wanted to put in front of you some women who are leading the way within STEM fields throughout our government, and also, throughout the private sector, who can talk to you a little bit about their careers in STEM And you guys have the opportunity to ask them any questions that you have So, I’d to introduce, first and foremostly, our moderator, Ms. Loni Love (applause) You sit right in the middle Actress, comedian, and talk show host I’d like to introduce one of my colleagues, who I work very closely with on a lot of our STEM initiatives, Director Dot Harris, from the U.S. Department of Energy (applause) Hannah Clark, from I.T Computer Whiz Kids (applause) Yolanda Seabrooks, from Robertson Memorial Solar Scholars Funds (applause) And La’Shanda Holmes from NASA (applause) Loni Love: Hi, everybody Okay, you all having a good time so far? How did you all like the pledge? You all going to do it? You better do it (laughter) Don’t take your pictures, okay? — driving You all aren’t driving yet, but some of you all will be so, you know So, let’s get this started How did we want to do this, Stephanie? Okay Let’s get started with everybody maybe giving a quick introduction to themselves again, and the importance of STEM in their lives La’Shanda Holmes: Can you hear me, all the way in the back, everyone? All right My name is La’Shanda Holmes I’m a coast guard search and rescue and air intercept pilot by trade I’m actually a White House Fellow this year There are 16 of us We’re all placed at different places, different agencies, in the federal government, and this year, I’m placed at NASA, working for the director, Charles Bolden, who has been to space four times, 34 years in the Marine Corps Amazing guy I’m a graduate of Spellman College I don’t have a background in STEM, although my first two years, I was a biochemistry major, and then I decided to become a psychology major, but again, being in aviation and flying kind of brought me back to the STEM field So, thank you for allowing me to be here Loni Love: All right (applause) Ms. Dot? LaDoris Harris: I always have to start out with a quote, and it’s one of my favorite quotes my team knows I love, and it’s by Dr. Martin Luther King And it says, “Intelligence plus character is the true goal of education.” And that is why these amazing young ladies are here today And so, on the behalf of the Secretary of Energy, Dr. Ernest Moniz, I bring you greetings from the U.S Department of Energy My name is Dot Harris I’m the director of the office of economic impact and diversity Have been in the administration; I was nominated by the President in 2012 I was confirmed by the United States Senate, and I’ve been in the department for that time And my office focuses very closely on minorities, and underrepresented communities, and women We focus very heavily on minorities when it comes to education, businesses, community outreach I’m also head of diverse inclusion for the agency, civil rights for the agency, as well as EEO So, I wear a couple of hats I’m actually an engineer, electrical engineer Matter of fact, Loni and I have something in common — we both are electric engineers And we also have something else in common; we both are members of the sorority, delta — (applause) LaDoris Harris: AKAs — but I’ve had the pleasure of working — you know, first of all, it’s an honor to be in this administration, as part of the Obama administration But I have had the pleasure working in the private sector, so I’ve been an engineer, working for Fortune 500 companies, resting house,

ABB, General Electric I’ve also been a corporate officer I’ve been out — I’ve actually owned my own company, and then now working for government So, I’ve had the pleasure of both being in the public and private sector, and understanding how that fits — but more importantly, understand what I need to do and what we should do in promoting and supporting amazing young women like yourselves Thank you Loni Love: Hey, you look good in purple, too, girl You look good (applause) Hannah Clark: Hi My name is Hannah M. Clark I’m a junior computer science major at Howard University, and my STEM background is actually more fine arts based, and that’s one of the things I love about STEM is that it has an application in just about every field, and interdisciplinarianism is something that you can apply to your interest I’m also the co-found of a startup called Swipe Shark, and I founded a makers organization on campus called the Shaw Renaissance club Loni Love: All right (applause) Yolanda Seabrooks: Hi My name is Yolanda Seabrooks I am the program director with an organization called the solar foundation that’s based here in Washington, D.C And I lead a project called the Brian Robertson Memorial Solar Schools Fund We put solar on schools around the country We focus on solar for education for students — for K through 12 schools My background, prior to being on the non-profit side of things, is that I was with a commercial solar company for about 10 years I happened to fall into STEM, fall back into STEM fields, having been an English major and American Studies major in college, but came back to an industry that I came to love, and became very interested in because of the science background I had prior to college So, I’m really happy to see all of you, and I can’t wait to hear all of your questions Loni Love: All right So, get your questions ready, but I’ll start off with the first question, and anyone can just jump in Let’s just have a conversation — and that includes you guys So, if you feel something, please, you know, get your questions ready What is the best advice you can give to these young ladies in getting into the field of STEM? Any advice? LaDoris Harris: Well, you know, I would say, first of all, strive to be excellent at what you do It’s all — and it’s — you know, it — when you take all the difficult courses in high school and elementary school, middle school, and you allow yourself to have options Because that was my story I was planning on being an English teacher through school, and I had a lot of siblings that are teachers and principals And I wanted to be like my sisters and brothers And I took this trip, and I was introduced to engineering But fortunately, I had taken all the math and chemistry and physics and all So, for all of you, take the tough courses, so you can have that option if you wish to be an engineer Loni Love: All right Thank you Hannah Clark: I definitely kind of echo what she was saying is just like — just try it I meet a lot of freshmen — Female Speaker: Yes Hannah Clark: — I meet a lot of freshmen, who say, “Oh, I’ve been thinking about computer science, ” or “I always like computers.” And the first thing I say to them is, “Well, just take Into to Computer Science, you know?” You’ll still — it will count toward whatever degree you take But also, if you’re able to do something in high school, like I was able to I.T Computer Whiz Kids, you can know, even before you get to college, “Hey, this is something I like.” So — Loni Love: All right La’Shanda Holmes : I’d like to echo kind of the same When I made the decision to go to flight, I’d never looked at a plane or a — I fly helicopters I never looked at an aircraft and thought I could fly anything It never even crossed my mind And so, I joined the Coast Guard when I was in college, and after I had graduated, I had some time before becoming an officer And I was on a boat I loved being — we were under way for about three months, and someone came and stopped and said, “Hey, have you ever thought about flying?” I’m like, “No Don’t you have to be really smart to do that? Or go to the academy, or have a, you know, a technical background?” He’s like, “No, I’ve seen you working hard.” And so, fast forward I get to flight school I’m the only black person in my class I think there’s two females in there, but I’m the only black one And they were talking about Newton’s Law, and Bernoulli’s principle, and viscosity of fluid, and all this stuff that’s like, what? And I’m sitting in class with a straight face, trying to, you know, not let on to my other counterparts that I really — I had no clue, honestly I had no clue what they were talking about But what I did know is that I wanted it bad enough, and that I knew I deserved to be there, or they wouldn’t have allowed me to get that far So, I would get home at night and get on YouTube and look up people working — watching people work out equations, explaining why it made sense until I got it And that’s kind of how I got myself through flight school So, my advice is, like she said, just try it You never really know how smart you are, so don’t tell yourself “I can’t do it This is too hard.” Everything that’s worth anything is a little tough in the beginning, but look at where you could on the

other side of it if you just stayed focused and consistent, and keep with it Female Speaker: Yep Yolanda? Yolanda Seabrooks: And I would say, find something you can be really interested in, and really passionate about Because I think every lady up here has gotten where they are through a lot of hard work, and that means some sleepless nights and sacrifices that you have to make But find something that you really love, so that it’s not hard to stay up late to do it And whatever that is — and you may see a career that you say, “Oh, I heard about this career, but I kind of want to do it differently, but I’ve never seen anyone do it.” Do it anyway Make what you want Create the career that you want There aren’t any rules anymore that if you have — if you want to do a certain career, you have to go down a certain path Do — create what you want If you want to be a teacher and you want to write books and you want to fly planes, you can do it all All you have to do is — if that’s what you love to do, figure it out — like the other panelist was saying, go on YouTube, the internet — all of you, I’m sure, know how to find anything on YouTube, right? There’s a video for everything Even how to make — how to make a doll poop out pie if you want, right? (laughter) Right? There’s a video I have a seven year old, so I know, because she watched it the other day (laughter) So — but go out, find the resources There’s information everywhere Just find out for yourself, and you can create the future you want for yourself Loni Love: And don’t let money distract you Because, you know, a lot of people think, “Oh, I can’t find the money.” I grew up in the Brewster projects I had no money And I went and I got job at General Motors right after I graduated high school, and I had one semester’s worth of money And I found me a school — Prairie View University that graduated the most black engineers Because at first, I tried to go to a predominantly white college, and that didn’t work out for me It just didn’t I had to find someplace that fit me — and that’s another thing Find your college that will fit you I had that one semester’s worth of money, and I remember going down there, and I was telling my counselor, “I want to be an engineer.” And he tried to tell me all, “Oh, that’s a lot of math and science.” I said, “I don’t care if that’s a lot of math and science Get me my classes.” And so, that was the first time that I really applied myself, and I ended up getting all As and one B But then, the end of the semester came, and I realized, “I don’t have any money.” This same counselor that was questioning me called me right into the office right before the semester was about to end He said, “I looked at your grades and I applied you for a scholarship, and you got the scholarship.” And it paid for the rest of my college career, so believe me, there’s ways to get money out there (applause) Don’t let that hold you back, seriously So, we just did for this show — two weeks ago, we interviewed the First Lady of the United States She was — she has her new initiative called Better Make Room, and it’s really an initiative for you guys to go to college There’s funds out there that is out there that’s free, and you know, work with your parents to make sure that you guys fill out your FAFSA form, and get the money if you need the money And there’s also scholarships And for all you ladies that’s in junior high school and things, start working on that now, so that when you do graduate, there are funds available So, with that said, now, you have a wealth of experience up here You can ask any questions that you want, and this is your opportunity So, you can’t say we didn’t give you an opportunity So, who has the first question? Yes, ma’am Stand up Tell us your name Hi, Renee Female Speaker: Hey Female Speaker: Hey (laughter) — but I want to know, how did you like, change your career? Like, you say you were the — had all As and everything, and you always wanted to be an engineer So, how could you get into, like, tv and stuff — Loni Love: Well, the reason why I did take engineering — and Ms. Dot knows this, with engineering, it teaches you how to problem solve And if you want to go any direction, with electrical engineering especially, you can go So, I thought that I actually wanted to become an attorney So, I was going to get — I got my engineering degree based on the fact that oh, well, whatever direction — because I didn’t really know where I wanted to go, at least I had an engineering degree But I was also broke in college, that first semester And so, what I did to make extra money — one day, I was at, you know, this contest They had a contest at our little local hang out And they said, “We’ll give $50 for the person that has the best story.” And I needed the money because I needed to buy an English book And so, I just made up a story I don’t know what the story was about, but I won that $50 You’d be surprised what you’d do when you need some money But that introduced me to stand up So, I ended up getting my degree, but at the time, it was like, deaf comedy jam,

and I didn’t want to do that type of comedy So, I said, I’m going to have a backup, and I’m going to get my degree Because you know, black mamma is like, “No, you stay in college.” And so, I got my degree I got a job in Los Angeles, and I was an engineer for Xerox for eight years And then, during that time, I decided to make my transition, and I became a comic at night, and I was an engineer during the day And then, eventually, you know, I was able to transition when we had a layoff — I went to my boss and said, “Save a job, and lay me off, and I’ll try comedy.” But the reason why I was able to try it is because I had backup as an engineer Female Speaker: Thank you (applause) Loni Love: You’re welcome Questions? Yes? Oh You just got a lot of hair You’re just putting your hair around Okay, well — go ahead Hannah Clark: I would just like to kind of piggyback off of her life story basically, and say, you don’t have to do one thing in life You can major in something technical and love something creative Because she was able to choose, hey, I’m going to let go of this job But she had a job to let go of, versus you know, being desperate for something So, that’s always something I think is so important to remember Loni Love: And because I had the money, you know, I was able to pursue my other career But see, there are a lot of people that want to do creative things, and they don’t have the money to like — because it’s expensive to stay in Los Angeles So, you know, if — a lot of my friends who started out as comedians, they’re not — you’ve never heard of them, because they had to leave because they didn’t have jobs They didn’t have money to support their second career But you can always change LaDoris Harris: And I just — from a career standpoint; listen, I mean, when you guys come out of high school, you come out of college as an engineering — and engineering is still the highest paying — Loni Love: Yep LaDoris Harris: — career path you can take right out of college It still is And I had the pleasure, when having work during the summer as an intern, at one of our national labs, and I had the pleasure of having 13 job offers when I got out of college So, it made it really fun determining which job I wanted to take Loni Love: You had more than me I had seven (laughter) LaDoris Harris: So, it was fun, coming out with that And you — and what it also positioned on my first job — I was a field engineer with Westing House Electric in the nuclear industry — a lot of women, period So, you had a lot of visibility when you go out on these jobs And that’s the other thing You will probably want to take some risk in determining what you ladies want to do I mean, don’t be conservative, and just take a risk, and take a chance because it could pay off in the long run And the other thing I wanted to mention is just be who you are Remember to bring who you are to your jobs Don’t go to try to be like someone else because the — your bosses in the industry want that beautiful individual exactly who you are So, bring that — and that’s the diversity of the work force that they’re looking for now So, don’t just be — your bring your smarts, you bring that intelligence, plus character, like I mentioned, and you bring that, it’s going to be on, for the teachers and for the industry you go into Loni Love: I have a question How do you ladies handle being a black female in your fields? Have you experienced discrimination? How do you handle it? There’s some advice to give to the young ladies La’Shanda Holmes: It’s tough And I think, to — not to — I don’t want to say, you know, you should expect it But I think if you go into whatever your career or whatever kind of environment, just kind of keep that at — in the back of your mind, that you could be discriminated against It could be because you’re black, because you’re female, because you’re cute Whatever the case may be, it happens Loni Love: I had that all the time (laughter) La’Shanda Holmes: So, you just have to really have good — a good support system, and good mentors in your life who — so, if — for example, if something happens, and you feel you’re discriminated against, maybe take a step back in that moment Don’t really respond right then, and then you go and you strategize with your — you know, your support system, your mentors, your team, and then you come back the next day like, this is how I’m going to handle it, without being overly emotional about it, and you can still be professional But things like that happen It sucks; it shouldn’t, but you know, that’s kind of the world that we live in And if you kind of keep that in the back of your mind, and I think you’ll always to respond in an appropriate way Loni Love: Anybody else? Yolanda Seabrooks: Like — I guess for — I guess we’ll go around the table For me, listen, I was in the nuclear industry and all of — you know, there aren’t many women, period, whether black, white, or whatever And if you bring your confidence with it, and look, I’m from the south I’m a girl raised in the south, and down there, we say hello to everybody, so no one’s a stranger to me So — and it’s almost, when you work with different people, you have to make them as comfortable — maybe

you shouldn’t have to, but you typically have to — so, when people do work with people they know they’re comfortable with So, if you’re relaxed and cool-minded, and rolling with it, you won’t — you can ward off a lot of that wall of defense of people not being comfortable around you But yes, we — you have the discrimination You — having to prove yourself, and that’s what I dealt with a lot in the industry And one quick story I was heading onto a project, and I was — they assumed I was a guy My name was — my maiden name was Guess, and they said — and in the nuclear industry, power plants go down, they lose millions of dollars a day So, they literally put us on corporate jets to get to places We can’t wait for the regular airlines So, they said, “Mr Guess is on the plane Mr. Guess is coming to the site.” And then, I show up, and they said — and I open up the door in this war room and all these white males, and they said, “You’re here until Mr. Guess shows up?” And I looked like someone’s teenager back then And I gave them a big smile and said, “You’re looking at him.” And you know, it was that whole reaction and — (laughter) — you know, get on the phone, “I know you didn’t send this little girl here to start up my power plant.” And you know, and it was those kind of situations, but I proved myself, and ended up being the youngest manager in the history of that Westing House division because of the risk and the — (applause) Female Speaker: She has a question Female Speaker: (inaudible) Loni Love: Good question Thank you What influenced you to become what you are today? Yolanda Seabrooks: That side of the room Loni Love: Don’t get quiet, Yolanda Female Speaker: That was a hard question, right? (laughter) That was a good question I think there’s a number of things Definitely my mom, growing up I was raised in a single parent home I’m the oldest of three girls, and so, I was raised, you know, you have no choice but to be successful, because you have two little sisters that are looking at you Anybody older? Anybody a older sister? Do you hear that? You know your little sisters are looking at you You have to be great, because they’re going to be behind you They’re looking at everything you’re doing And if you do wrong, they’re going to want to do wrong So, I definitely took that seriously because I loved my sisters, and I wanted them to be successful And so, I knew I had to do well with everything I did And also, because I had a mom that sacrificed my mom I saw my mom work really hard Work long hours Come home late at night, leave early in the morning And so, I knew that everything I did, I — when I was in high school, my goal was to get a scholarship to college because I knew that I wasn’t go school, or it was going to be really hard if I didn’t get the scholarship, and I didn’t want to make it harder on my mom And so, I just knew — I said — I didn’t know what I wanted to do, but I just knew I had to get really good grades, and do a lot of stuff Play sports, everything I could, so that I could get a scholarship to college so my mom didn’t have to worry about it And so, that was the proudest day of my life when I came down to here, to school, to the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, and I had a full ride to school And my mom didn’t have to worry about me And all she had to do was send me food once in a while Female Speaker: All right (applause) Hannah? Hannah Clark: I definitely have to say, my parents, to a great extent And then, also, being encouraged to think very critically about what I want to do as an adult And when I say, think about what I want to do, I don’t mean like — a lot of times, adults will say, kids will be like, “Hey, what do you want to do? You want to be a doctor? You want to be a lawyer?” And it’s just like, “Well, maybe that doesn’t fit who I am as a person.” And you can’t allow that pressure to make you only consider certain options for yourself And so, for a year, I thought I wanted to be architecture major And then, I was able to have experiences with programming, with I.T. Computer Whiz Kids, taking apart computers, and I was able to say, “Hey, this is something I’m curious about This is something I’m interested in.” And then, I learned all the applications of computer science But I think one of the most important things is just to explore what you’re interested in, and to be honest with yourself Because you don’t want to get into a situation where you’re pursuing something, and then you don’t know why you’re pursuing it So, you have to be honest You can’t allow your relatives, or somebody else, to say, “Oh, I think this is a good field for you.” Because it’s really about where your passion is, and where you’re willing to work the most hard So — Female Speaker: What are some of your passions out there? You had a question? Female Speaker: Yes Female Speaker: What’s your passion, sweetie? Yeah Do you have a passion Female Speaker: Zoology Female Speaker: Zoology? That’s really cool! (applause) Female Speaker: Architect Okay What else? Yes, ma’am? Female Speaker: Art Female Speaker: Art? All right (applause) Female Speaker: Me? I had a question

Female Speaker: Okay Female Speaker: My name is Leslie I’m a senior in high school, and I finally found what I really want to do, which is I want to pursue a major in English And — but I haven’t really found like, I don’t really know like, where I want to go, because I’ve heard so many stories about how college is hard, or college is easy And I haven’t decided if I wanted to go or stay home So, right now, I just have decided to stay home for college But what advice would you give someone who’s just — who’s still trying to figure out where they want to go, and who’s in college, and they’re struggling? Yolanda Seabrooks: I can relate to you because I didn’t — I thought I knew what I wanted to do when I went to school, and then I got there and took the class, and I just was like, “I hate this And I never want to do it again.” I thought I wanted to be a political science major And then, so, that didn’t work out And then, so, I was like, maybe I’ll be a history major And then, I took my first history class, and I hated that, too And then, so — I just didn’t know So, I would just say, the purpose of college, the point is — of a degree, is really to teach you how to think and how to learn, more so than anything Not just the subject matter And English is great, because there’s so many things you can do with it So, you don’t have to know right now, and that’s okay Just go to school Take the classes, and as someone else said before, if you see something that interests you, try it out Take a class in — anything Astrophysics, or anything Because you may take that, and then figure out, “Oh, this is something I’m interested in.” I actually wound up finding my major, because I went to a lecture One of the professors was talking about a practice called blockbusting that happened in the ’50s and ’60s where real estate agents would basically make people think that black people ruined the neighborhood You might have heard that, right? And they would sell — it’s a whole complicated thing, but anyway, I went to the lecture, and it was really interesting And the professor said, “I’m an American Studies professor, and this is what I teach.” And I thought, “You mean, I could study this? Like, this part of history? I’ve never heard of this before I thought this was history.” And that’s how I found my major So, it’s just about staying in school to learn — to learn how to think Every major’s going to teach you how to think, how to write critically, how to think critically And it’s just about getting the degree And then, most — there’re so many jobs that they just require a degree It doesn’t matter what the degree is in So, just get the degree And if you have time, you can figure out whether you want to specialize and go to graduate school, and go for a different discipline But I know so many people — I have friends who went to school as English majors, and then decide to go to medical school Or I have friends that went to medical — decided they — thought they wanted to be doctors, went to school, got a science degree, and then decided to go to law school So, there are no rules Just stay in school and try all the things that everything has said Just try until you find something But keep doing well with the things that you’re doing in the meantime LaDoris Harris: Well, like, we — at the Department of Energy, we actually have a way to help you with this, for the girls, since we’re talking about STEM today I have — with a couple of my colleagues here, Trina Bellah, as well as Amanda Quinones with the department And we’re having this amazing book that we’re coming out — the first of its kind, it will be focusing on for — hopefully, having in every middle school in the country, and what it is we’ll be showcasing women in STEM Every kind of — every ethnic background, every age group possibly And what it is, it has probably 500 profiles of women in every area possible — astrophysicists, microbiologists And these are real women at our — at the Department of Energy that we will use to help support and get young girls like yourself interested in seeing women that look like you We got — and they look like — everything from runway models, and they may have a Ph.D in microbiology, and doing work out in the renewable energy space So, this book will be out at — Secretary of Energy and everyone else is waiting for it to come out Matter of fact, the Academy of Science has heard about my book, and asked us to possibly use some of the characters for some blockbuster movies coming up You’ve heard the movie Thor, where it was based on an astrophysicist And so, it’s a book that we would get out, and it’s going to be lesson plans for teachers It will be interactions for the kids, for the students And it’s something — it has avatars, which will also be featured with this release So, it’s something that we will have available here, throughout the country, I would hope, in the next few months So — Female Speaker: All right (applause) Female Speaker: I just wanted to add one thing to your question about school Like I said earlier, my first two years,

I was a biochemistry major because I thought I wanted to be anesthesiologist So, I’d gone through foster care, and I’d gone through just a tough patch before I got to college And so, I just kind of had a conversation with myself Like, would I want to be a doctor, a lawyer? I guess I’ll be a doctor So, I was like, “Okay, I’m going to be a doctor I’m going to be biochem major.” And then, I got to Spellman, and into my sophomore year, I’m like, “I don’t even know if I like sat.” Nothing against — I know this is a STEM thing, but you know, I was like, “Am I, you know, am I really passionate about it?” Like, I was — I was making good grades, but I felt like I was doing it just to do it I didn’t really feel like my heart was there So, I changed my major to psychology because I wanted to open my own group homes, and I wanted to become a doctor, and kind of counsel And so, like she said, it’s okay to make those changes You’re young You have forever to figure it out Do put some thought into — you know, make it a thoughtful one, initially, but know that those things can change, and that that’s okay, as long as you’re open to different opportunities You know, other — as long as you apply yourself, and you study, you educate yourself, you do all those things you should do, there’ll be windows and doors of other opportunities that will open that you could take advantage of So, this is just the beginning Kick butt, you know, with — you said English, right? You’re going to love it And then if not, it’s okay You’ll love the next thing So — Hannah Clark: So, I got to throw something in there, because I just encounter so many college students who are freshmen, and I met a lot of people coming into Howard, is first of all, being practical I think your call to go to the place where you get the most scholarship money, honestly I think that is a sign of where you should go Second of all, a year or so ago, computer — some people from Howard University, we went to the Washington Post, right? There were people from the computer science department, and people from the English department And that was only about a month after the CEO and founder of Amazon bought the Washington Post — Jeff Bezos, right? And so, what did the people at the Washington Post tell us? They said, “We need people who can translate technology to the news format because we have to hit that sweet spot to make sure that we keep our readership up Because people aren’t buying the paper, but people need to consume our content And everybody has an iPad, an iPhone, or a computer.” And you know what they said to the computer science majors? They said, “If you want to work for us, not only we will hire you immediately, but we will send you to journalism school for free, and you come back and work for us, and have a guaranteed position.” So, just to put that out there, there are so many niche areas that are available that are applied to any field So, don’t fit yourself into STEM Fit STEM into what you already are Female Speaker: Oh, that’s a saying right there (applause) Don’t fit into STEM Let STEM fit — okay Yes, baby? Female Speaker: To piggyback off the last question, as a student, a black female student preparing for college, when looking at colleges, I am torn between going to an HBCU, and a PWI And I just wanted — since we have both on this — on the panel, I just wanted to know what your — if how your experiences at the specific college has impacted your life now? Female Speaker: Okay, everybody — (laughter) — okay, this is what I say Okay? Nothing is perfect And you cannot have it both ways So, you have to decide what it is more important to you You know, you have to decide what you’re going to college for Because what degree you want will significantly influence what college you go to So, if you’re applying — if you’re trying to like, study neuroscience, that’s going to put a lot of HBCUs out of consideration for you, just off the bat So, you have to be honest about that And you also have to consider what area you want to live in So, I think it’s more of a individual thing I would always recommend an HBCU — (applause) — because I love my HBCU And almost everybody I know, I’m just like, “Just consider it Just send it in one application You know, just try it!” And they’re just like, “I don’t know.” So — but then again, I realize it’s not for everybody So, you got to decide what’s most important to you And just visit an HCBU once, you know what I mean? Like, just think about it It’s just something about the environment of a HCBU that I just — it can’t be imitated at all Female Speaker: I definitely second that If you don’t know, Spellman’s a all-black women’s college in Atlanta I love Atlanta I love Spellman There is just something magical about that place They’re right across the street from Morehouse, which is all black men — (laughter) — and then, right across the street is Clark, which is co-ed I mean, it’s just amazing I would — and I’m still paying off some of my student loans Let’s just put that in there So, definitely — because I could’ve gone to school for free in North Carolina, but I’m like, you know, I want to get out of — I just had a lot going on, and I’m still happy about the decision that I made But I’m a big supporter of HBCUs Definitely go visit the campus It may not be for you, especially if it doesn’t fit the major that you’re kind of wanting to pursue,

I wouldn’t suggest it, but otherwise, I definitely say, go to an HBCU LaDoris Harris: I guess for me, when I was studying electrical engineering — I’m from South Carolina, and my — a lot of my siblings had gone to an HBCU, and I wanted to, but they didn’t have a four year degree engineering school, so I was really forced to go to the University of South Carolina to get my degree But my son’s a Morehouse graduate, and you know, half my kids are But listen, it depends — the beauty about HBCUs is that they — when I use that term again, intelligence plus character, these HBCUs help build your character Your culture and your character in these schools And it’s an amazing difference when you go into — matter of fact, a lot of the students going to the HBCUs are the ones that feed in and more successful when they go to the majority schools for advanced degrees, for example So, that’s well known But you just got to, you know, check off some of the things that we mentioned Female Speaker: You have a question, right, young lady? Female Speaker: (inaudible) Loni Love: You want — you’re interested in arts? Female Speaker: Liberal arts school? Loni Love: Yeah Yeah, liberal arts school Like, if you Google different liberal arts schools, you can find a list And then, like the lady said, it’s really important to, you know, go on college tours And I think that that will really help you, where you can actually get a feel of the campus, and get a feel of the curriculums, and ask your questions before you make your decision Female Speaker: A lot of the — Female Speaker: Or if you have any — oh, sorry Female Speaker: — yeah, a lot of the HBCUs are liberal arts schools, so — LaShanda Holmes: Or if you have any mentors, or if your parents know anyone who’s kind of into the arts, if you know anyone who’s doing kind of what you’re doing, maybe you could kind of pick their brain about how — what schools they went to, why, and what advice they’d have for you Yolanda Seabrooks: And if you don’t know anyone, maybe if there’s an artist that you like — whether you’re painting or whatever type of art you like, look at what’s out there, and if there’s someone whose art you really like, find out where they went to school Loni Love: Right there Female Speaker: Was it hard for you to work while you were in school? Loni Love: Was it hard for you to work while you were in school? I did a little bit of everything because I just needed the money I was in marching band I was the flag girl I was working in cafeteria I was like, you know, Jamaican I had 15 jobs in college, so — (laughter) La’Shanda Holmes : I worked — I did work study, and I worked at Nine West, and then I joined the Coast Guard, so I was doing some of that work And it’s not work I didn’t have a ton of a social life at times, but I — that was just part of what I was willing to give up Loni Love: I think that keeps you focused, too When you’re working like that, and then you have your studies, it really keeps your focused So, don’t be afraid of work Yolanda Seabrooks: And I’m like Loni I did everything in school I worked anywhere, anybody that would give me a job Because even though I had a scholarship, I really liked to eat And so, I needed pizza money, and so, I worked to make sure that I didn’t have to eat in the cafeteria when I didn’t want to because college food may not be that great LaDoris Harris: I guess I had the — I had worked I had worked as an intern during the summer at the Savannah Railroad Laboratory So, they paid us outrageous monies during the summer that kind of was able to cover me through the school Loni Love: You know, you don’t have to brag, Dot Harris (laughter) Female Speaker: Everybody has it different, I guess Loni Love: Yes, sweetie? Female Speaker: Did you like being in the Coast Guard? Loni Love: Did you like being in the Coast Guard? La’Shanda Holmes : Yeah I’m actually still in the Coast Guard This summer will be 11 years I’m just not flying this year because I have the fellowship But I primarily — I joined the Coast Guard because they offered me a full scholarship The Coast Guard has a great scholarship program plug So, I joined, and at the time, Spellman was about $20, $29,000 a year So, for someone to pick up the full bill and pay me a salary I got paid on the 1st and the 15th as a full time working person, and I only worked five hours a month It just completely made sense to me So, in my mind, I thought I could join the military, join the Coast Guard, which was the furthest thing from my mind at the time But join, do my three year obligation, get out, go to grad school, and go on with my life But the Coast Guard has offered me some amazing opportunities They sent me to flight school to learn how to fly airplanes first, then helicopters I flew out of L.A. for a few — L.A. is amazing — it’s expensive, but amazing And then, flying out of Atlantic City, and then to here in D.C. And now, I have the opportunity to do the fellowship So, I’ve got nothing but great things to say about the Coast Guard Loni Love: All right Wait a minute, I think you were first Female Speaker: Good afternoon My name is Courtney (inaudible) I am the NAF Engineering Academy director at (inaudible) high school (applause) Female Speaker: Say it one more time That was a lot

Female Speaker: The NAF — National Academy’s Foundation, Engineering Academy Director Female Speaker: All right So, I have about 114 students in the academy, and one of our issues, of course, is the interest in the academy So, we’re just trying to bridge that gap between middle and high school students, especially girls, we only have about 30 girls of that 113 in the academy But I think one of our bigger issues is engaging the parents to support the students So, what advice do you have to provide, I guess, information and to receive engagement for parents to motivate their young ladies to stay in the STEM fields? Loni Love: Dot, you could answer that LaDoris Harris: Yes (laughter) Yes, I can I think my office support (inaudible), we actually support your school We have a lot of literature that we have at the Department of Energy We have grants, we have funds, we have — matter of fact, we have the National Science Bowl is coming up for the middle schools and high schools in the D.C. — it’s a national bowl, but we have literature for you We have support, and some funding Yeah, so give us — give us a buzz See those two ladies right over there? Female Speaker: We got to get girls to got to Mars I mean, NASA’s on a journey to Mars We need mission specialists, geologists, mathematicians, aviators You know, we’re going to be sending humans to Mars from U.S. soil in the 2030s, and it’s going to be the women that are your age that are going to be doing those missions So, all the more reason why we need you guys in STEM careers Loni Love: Okay, we have about five minutes left, so real quick You Female Speaker: (inaudible) La’Shanda Holmes : Well, my mom was in the Air Force My dad was a Marine, my little sister’s in the Navy And so, I’ve been able to — well, I — she just — she joined the Navy because she said their uniforms are cuter than the Coast Guard, and so — she’s regretting that now, because she’s been on a boat for about nine months, and I told her she’s not going to like it Female Speaker: Is that boat cute? La’Shanda Holmes: It isn’t cute It isn’t cute So, I wanted to join the Coast Guard because I remember when I was young, my mom, she’d get deployed to — she went to desert storm, and a couple other places, and I’d have to stay with the grandparents And I didn’t know when I was going to have a family I didn’t really want to deploy I knew I didn’t want to be a Marine Some people are into that, but I didn’t want to get shot at And so, the Coast Guard, we do — we’re pretty police of all the waters So, somebody is trying to smuggle drugs or migrants in, we’re the ones that go out there Hurricane Katrina type disasters, we rescue folks out there We’ve done rescues off of cruise ships — women going into labor, or just having a stroke on a boat, or something We do — like, if there’s big oil spills and everything, the aviation side, we kind of do some reconcepts So, the missions of the Coast Guard really excited me, and I knew that I could stay close Like, my dream sheet coming out of the fellowship is Miami, Puerto Rico, Hawaii, Savannah, Houston I was in L.A Like, it’s pretty cool, you know, stations to be at because we’re on the coast, and protecting, you know, domestically around the coast So, those are some of the reasons why I chose the Coast Guard Loni Love: Real quick Yeah? Female Speaker: (inaudible) Hannah Clark: What is your question specifically about Howard? Female Speaker: (inaudible) Hannah Clark: I would just say, their science program is really good There are a lot of research opportunities at Howard University It’s pretty nice because we’re not a big college, but we’re not a small college So, you can kind of fit in where you’re comfortable There are research programs that kind of dip a little bit into engineering, and there’s a nanotechnology lab and engineering building, but there’s also purely science research opportunities And also, we’re directly connected with the Howard University med school as well So, I don’t know if you’re interested in med school or not, but I definitely recommend it Loni Love: Real quick We got you These three, and that’s it Okay, I’m sorry I told you — you all was going to have questions Real quick, sweetie Female Speaker: (inaudible) really easy to get caught up (inaudible) — Loni Love: How did you manage your time in college? One person Not a lot of sleep Female Speaker: She said not a lot of sleep Yolanda Seabrooks: You have to sacrifice sleep sometimes to get your work done Because it is a lot You’re juggling courses, and you do have to make sacrifices sometimes So, you may not be able to do all the social things you want, but you have to remember why you’re there And your goal is to be successful, to get a degree And you stay focused on that, and if you have to do energy drinks or whatever — but you just — you have to, just sometimes, you can’t — there’s just too much to do in a day to get all the eight hours of sleep you want every night Loni Love: Sweetie with the glasses? Female Speaker: How do you — like when school gets harder, how do you keep like your grades up? Because I heard you could get a scholarship if you have good grades, and I want to get into a good school, so I want to keep my grades up — Hannah Clark: You have to respect how you study

Everybody studies differently I have friends that I know, they don’t hardly have to study They all get A’s Me? I spend all day in the library I have to take notes I have to Google things And that’s what it takes for me to get an A So, I have to respect that for me, I need that time in the library, and I can’t try to act like my friend acts Because everybody learns differently And in a history class, it’s very easy When I take physics, I got to go to the physics lab I got to go get tutoring It’s not going to come immediately for me So, you have to realize what it takes for you, and just put that time in there And don’t get discouraged because it will pay off, and you’ll catch up to the people who you think are always ahead of you Female Speaker: Let me give you one technical fact Women’s IQ is at least two or three points higher than that of a male So, just push it, and you’ll get it (laughter) (applause) Female Speaker: They’re going to let me get in these last two Okay, you in the purple Female Speaker: I know I still have a lot of time to think about what I want to do, but one of my passions, I think, is teaching Female Speaker: That was your comment? All right, girl! Good All right, sweetie You’re the last one Female Speaker: Okay So, I just wanted to know, what exactly was your big, like, influence on you guys for your big break? So, like, I know everyone has some type of big impact where they’re thinking, “Oh, this is what I really want to do.” Or “This is exactly where I want to be, you know, for the rest of my life.” So, I want to know what exactly impacted you all on your career? Loni Love: Ladies, quickly La’Shanda Holmes: Real quick So, I got off the boat after the conversation about have I ever thought about aviation? I said no So, we pulled into Seattle I heard that there was another — one black female pilot in the Coast Guard who lived in Clearwater, Florida I flew out to meet her I kind of stalked her online She said I could come meet her And I met here, and from then, I knew that I could pursue flying She was cool Another black woman, cool — we went out dancing She’s from Jamaica She took me to her parents’ house They cook — like, just being around someone that, in my mind, they’re like, oh, so smart, and doing something that I could never do, like this big, intimidating thing And it completely wasn’t that She was — her and I are the best of friends now She lives here in D.C Like, she’s awesome And so, just seeing her, and after going out flying with her, I knew that I could do it, too LaDoris Harris: My 10th grade chemistry teacher influenced me Loni Love: All right Hannah Clark: After being able to participate in a program in high school called I.T Computer Whiz Kids, I had to learn how to program, and then, researching computer science, I really value flexibility And that was really what made one of the biggest impressions on me, aside from enjoying technology Yolanda Holmes: I wouldn’t say I’ve never had one moment that told me what I wanted to do, but I’ve always known that I’m someone that just wants to try everything And so, what’s nice is that we don’t live in a world where you have to — whatever you do out of college, you have to do for the rest of your life So, I started out being a corporate trainer, and that didn’t work And so, I tried something else And then, that didn’t work so well, either, and I tried something else And now, I got in solar, and now I love it So, you can do any number of things that have any number of careers that you have Loni Love: That was excellent Give these ladies a hand clap Thank you (applause)

So You Want to be a Speech Pathologist? Part 1

alright guys we’re going to started definitely appreciate everyone coming today I think most everybody in the room and I obviously see something intended to be cheaper sizes bachelors program students here definitely having to have all you guys here’s a program or workshops they want to be an SLP speech-language pathologists we’re gonna start off with a little bit of the program facts for the master’s degree and there’s a lot of questions for focus moments we actually were able to secure a faculty member here dr. Cathy Cox who participated last year to go to a conference so she was able to help us today she’s traveling today but she did give me some really good information that put in a few slides everyone’s Cherokee behind just their important numbers or numbers you know thinking about well I have to get into a graduate program I have to get through a graduate program in order to be licensed work in this field first thing minimum application requirements assistant be considered for admission to the program and have a 3.0 GPA scoring the 30th percentile quantitative portion of GRE Monica’s back thanks a way to say that you have to score in the 30th percentile on the verbal portion of the GRE and a 3.0 on the analytical writing portion of the GRE now that’s kind of like a separate section where you’re actually doing a couple of writing tasks the scores are now in the new GRE scale are from 130 to 170 perception and the analytical writing portion is a scale of 1 to 6 but you can score a half over two and a half three not four half five now again these are just minimum to be in order so obviously you know we’ll show you a couple slides layers for us or like what and who are the types of students that are getting in but those are just in them across the border and the GRE is pretty similar to the SAT in terms of structure it is a computerized test so there definitely are some differences okay who is applying there are 450 applications this past cycle 250 applications for our DD program that’s for people who are within I want to say it’s 50 miles 50 miles outside of Greenville and further away 100 applications came in or camp for the campus based program you know in terms of the amount of applications amount of people accepted numbers that are involved this program is just as competitive with our to better programs to get into but anyone with less than the GPA or GRE requirements realistically does not need to apply there are some nuances there and they can you see in any interests attack forces well all you guys are wanting to you want to get into the bachelors program you want to start taking the CSD high classes can’t make any C will not be admitted to our program you considered for admission TFS see in any of those courses if you’re doing them at another institution you’re not looking for taking the alternate track into into our crafted program and it’s a communication science quarters in flames pathology class where the same thing those sneezin knows all right one thing that might kind of come as a curveball usually in our advising sessions we’ve been talking to you guys that a minor is not recommended he’s a minor can hurt your GPA right well this is what the graduate program director gave me she said a minor is highly suggestive if a student majors in CS di many students aren’t admitted to grad programs you have to think about alternate paths realistically so you know if you’re in our bachelors of science program and you’ve got say 38 41 hours collect it’s the bills might not be a bad idea to think about a minor but again you always want to balance that I think GPA no you don’t want to sacrifice your kid because you need that again the grad program but at the end of the day if you’re not getting into a grad program having a good concentration of classes another area having other interest might not be a bad thing so again we know we have to get into a grad program the average student is applying anywhere to from 6 to 8 programs and taking the GRE at least twice definitely take eteri twice definitely apply to a number of programs you want to get as many lines out there as possible I mean realistically you’re more likely to catch on somewhere if you put more than just a one or two do you want to give it out that there’s a lot of programs and state as well and there are certain resources that we can kind of point you

guys to Rica start looking into those programs as well and we want you guys to to get it out there because if you did get an EDC use program but you didn’t get into say half state or I got into Carolina great ok so who got in 24 students were accepted into our on-campus program or 15 that were accepted for the DD program so if we want to look at 39 total students that were accepted about 450 that were applied means just under 9 percent of applicants are accepted in the program that’s pretty darn competitive and for the campus program that number again with 24 accepted out of 200 applicants so that’s roughly about one out of eight applicants accepted into our garage program so yeah and it face to face burger which I assume that you guys been doing given that you’re already so again very very competitive so what really is getting in who’s getting it if you look at the overall GPAs it based on the canvas students here you see a 3.72 so that’s a 3.72 average amongst all the people who are not wasted way too secure just accepted straight into the program and at three point nine two and there’s es dir SL e courses so for you guys if you’re getting into our bachelors program or if you’re a minor these would be your you know your core courses for those and the verbal gr you know we said again the thirtieth percentile was the lowest you look at what the average was this is the 62nd percentile we’re about 153 quantitative which ends like the math portion the 56 percentile is was the average there and that score was a 151 and then for the writing portion you know four and up I think is pretty good at your five I heard a very very solid writer but you see the average was above a four and that’s really really important special for you guys who came to the meeting with this big table we have patient which is discussing how important is to be able to write you know in these programs I mean there’s a lot of research involved so yes 68 percent off so again definitely not the minimum it’s definitely not a three in the writing I don’t you know three stock negation writing score if you looked at these numbers based on around where the 30th percentile was last year it would probably be around 1 say it was like a 292 or two in terms of Jerry score so those fours probably just aren’t going to be good enough now they like to go by the percentile our program wants to focus on percent out rather than the score because people that have taken a journey a couple years ago are still using the old that they were maybe that was on the 1600 point scale under perception so it’s still they like to be impaired people just using the percentile but if you look at that average then you know the average was around with 3 or 4 and that’s pretty darn good that’s pretty darn good so and then simply high numbers when you’re looking at the people who are admitted in the DD program and then for some reason in Alaska they have different rules and clear on that but you guys are any questions ok we’re going to go ahead and turn it over to this assembly brewer Emily is our SLD who’s competing leave the workshop today she is a pathologist with Pitt County Schools and I’ll let her bring up her PowerPoint and after and hearing-impaired children typically use an auditory oral approach their teaching listening and spoken language I also do some part-time private therapy after school hours so it’s a great way to make extra money and you can kind of pick and choose your hours when you do it when you’re looking at the kind of therapy as well our name in 2008 I’m just finishing up my fifth year in this school system I was considered a provisional student when I enjoyed their graduate program my first degree I got at unc-wilmington therapeutic recreation and so for my first year I took provisional class there’s some graduate level classes and undergraduate level classes which you always take as your I guess core composite journeyer education I’m going to overview the field but in small group if you guys have questions you know any

questions you have and I love that do it or not wonderful great is that is pretty cute what my friends think I do what my mom thinks I do what society thinks I do what kids think I do what I think I do and what I really do and that is a pretty accurate lesson so there is definitely a paperwork but along the way you certainly get the experience and the whole part of it so how did the big picture of speech-language pathology is optimizing people’s ability to communicate and swallow that’s just kind of the match general statement that athletes say about speech-language pathology some of the different settings that you can work in are the school system because it’s a a really big portion of SLPs work in the school system about 40% and there is an ever-growing demand you hear about school systems having caseloads that are just astronomical but we just need more people we just need more slps out there and say that’s a big portion of the field there’s ofsted of early intervention and the daycare setting which when I do my pride from crowded theater it is a lot of it is early intervention the company that I work for doesn’t totally do early intervention but a lot of what you’ll find in the private therapy world is early intervention or they’ll contract with the school system yes anger health care settings so that’s going to be your hospitals your medical facilities the long-term care facilities if you’re talking about making big bucks that’s where it’s at so long-term care facility home health clinics the neonatal intensive care unit and in the mental health facilities that kind of umbrella that healthcare settings over other offices places the private practice plans have talked about University our University clinics so if you’re looking kind of long-term and you want to you know consider being a professor one day or doing research for the field that’s probably the placement that she would be in and then individuals homes or residents community state federal agencies some current correctional institutions research facilities our corporate and industrial settings so you can see like some of those less common ones make up a very small percentage of do you guys have any questions about that about where you can work I’m a question about the school systems are especially out here in rural Eastern North Carolina are there are there greater needs for SLPs with the school systems or with the hospitals or even home help out here that’s one really appealing thing about perfection you’re just about guaranteed a job there’s it’s an ever growing demand in the school system as well as in the health care industry and you often think about the baby boomers all these you know your parents 19 instead are getting older and that would mean some of the long-term care facility the hospital any kind of the rehabilitative that something happens you know a stroke or something like that and all of that encompasses things that are related to work them invest hope he does but certainly the school system I think since I’ve started in Pitt County schools there has been a vacancy just about you know at least one or two positions that we could we could stay in the field just because of this year in number and you know as we get smarter the need increases so I don’t know if you’ve seen recently about other research about autism and how many more children are being identified as autistic it’s not because there’s more children who have autism it’s that we are smarter and can identify the symptoms earlier and with more accuracy on these kids and so as we get smarter the need also increases for these types of services really frustrating at beginning with Florida’s full and their happy place in the child bands and their child acting

on that tour absolutely it can be very frustrating my first year of that go to seven schools in one day and it was a wild and you know I have to have a realistic conversation with our director and said you’re not utilizing my time to the best of my ability I’m spending 50% of my day in a car and you’re paying the extra Mountain money to be providing therapy so let’s look at some ways that we can rearrange to make this you know work better but certainly and certainly when you’re looking at things like the private practice setting the money is appealing absolutely the money of the feeling I get taken which is twice what I get paid hourly working for the private company than I do this system when you break it down like that but you have you’re going to be traveling to make money or go to school so you have to take those things into account and really weigh the overall quality of life and quality of your job but I will say for the most part bigger school systems like Pitt County Schools or poly Waveland schools really do try and have one SOP per site now the exception of being some of the middle and high school kids are settings and that is because typically with early intervention and with the appropriate intervention in elementary school were hoping to kind of egg the children out of the system by those later stages and so you’re hoping that the numbers are not quite as hot in your middle of high school so now I travel to have one elementary school we moved for my high school and I’m at my elementary school three days a week and then I travel to my middle and high school two days a week so I mean you know that’s to me that’s very reasonable I’m perfectly fine doing that but certainly that’s something you have to consider and definitely consider you’re looking into the product package thing I think more and more the schools are getting in dancing yeah as long as they have the resources that we like you said some of the role or school settings you’re going to have not as many SOPs and they’re going to have to be covering multiple sites that that’s something that you would definitely want to take into account when you were thinking about a job placement sure any other question okay so I’m not sure exactly how you all how familiar you all are with some of the things that an SLP does but another really wonderful thing about this field is the broad scope of practice I always tell people who are living into this field if you feel like you would be bored doing one thing there are ten other things you could be doing within this same field and it’s wonderful because if you ever felt like like I am out of the school system I’m going on doing articulations rail or you know this either you can you can completely change your setting and completely change what it is you’re doing and it’s all within your field which i think is a great quality of our of being an SLP so some of the things are the speech sound production which I was talking about that’s your articulation or your practice speech just the motor planning part of the way with their words the residents when we talk about residents that’s when you’re looking at a lot of a cleft palate type stuff so I don’t know if you all have ever seen the Flyers on that Operation Smile where they go you know across these one care cleft palate there’s always an SLP on the team who do coping with that resonance portion of that voice you’re looking more at your your vocal quality so your bow nation your picture loudness and respiration so anything if you have any traumatic damage to your vocal cord nodules anything like that that’s where the voice fluency is just stuttering and here at this program dr. karnacki did continue to research on the species knee so that was really big in our graduate program learning about that language the comprehension and expression this is a lot of what I do and a lot of what the early intervention does too is just working on language being able what are you what are you able to understand and what are you able to express and in the cognition that comes into play a lot of times with traumatic brain injuries or those longer term care facilities being able to orient being able to communicate your needs understanding what is being asked of you if the doctor says what kind of medicines are you on are you able to understand that question and then is there home and then the feeding and swallowing and that obviously a lot of time to take place in the hospital but as well to take place in some of the

other healthcare type facility any questions about that and that’s just a brief overview but you can see how wide of a range it is and I definitely think that’s a true benefit for this perfection what are some of the things that you would be doing what could your day look like some of the prevention and pre referrals a lot of that early intervention service getting your data to help guide your clinical decision making screening on still in Anthony before and we started during the summer with my private therapy company we do mass screenings at all the head start and so you know very fast pace you’re not going to see the same clients over and over again it is just screaming it’s just saying ok there we need to investigate further or you’re pretty much in line with your typically developing peers the assessment and evaluation part and this is a big part of what I do as well gaining information to help you make further determinations as to where Evers want to go with this particular child or patient client consultation especially in the school system you’re part of the team when you’re afraid of a team approach really in most all of these settings for being able to consult with other people is a big purpose on providing diagnosing the treatment intervention of management health plan collaboration documentation and referral and certainly all of these depending upon your setting are going to come into play in one way or another so any questions about that then I would say the bulk of my time has been in treatment another big chunk of my time is spent in documentation and a portion this has been and evaluation and every free second 1/2 I mean they’re consulting or collaborating with other professionals that work with the same students money how much can I make look at what I’ve provided you here oh right at 77% and the people that they’ve surveyed this is from 2011 we’re making in the range of 40 to 80 thousand dollars so that’s pretty much what you can expect to me somewhere in that range and I did that for the lower stop that limited region and so obviously as you move across the country into different locations that number can change I did right there resource down for you on the references pages if you’re interested more you know you’re from California and you know that’s where you’re going back home if you look at the advanced first feature English pathologists and audiologists you’ll be able to pull that up so breaking it down we talked a little bit about steady as they’ll be then the school studying nurses SOPs in a health care setting so the median salaries for the SOPs and the school setting was 56 up to 63 in the preschool range and then or an SOP and healthcare setting it was about 17 but you can see you know – when you’re talking about a school setting you’re talking about nine or ten months out of the year now talking about twelve months and so you know comparable for a month is about the same and you know you could do something like I’m doing work for the private they are becoming if you’re working in the school system over the summer make some extra money if you’re interested or how this works free as the students would not imagine having to wear Jones Thursday good can some people pick up like extra shifts we’re doing things at the hospital as well we can work absolutely absolutely and just depending on your setting it will be the determining factor in that but yes like in a hospital setting especially I like an acute care or if you’re just doing PRN work my husband’s sister is an SLP as well and she just does PRN for the hospital and so you know she’ll cover a maternity leave or she’ll go in for a shift here in there to make some extra money for their family but she is not there full-time but you know you could also have the full-time position where you’re picking up a shift here and there depending on your setting definitely that learning question I mean that really and truly somewhere 40 to 80

units where you can fall if you’re you know super ambitious and you’re going to start your own company or have SOPs working under I mean you can make as much as you wanted to you know as big as you build your company it’s how much you can make you know if that’s what your desire is but I think you know just kind of standard overall that my you just is where you can expect the fall is it safe to say that someone who wanted to move to Charlotte versus someone who wanted to move to rural camp County in Eastern North Carolina is that where the range kind of differs like are you you know if you move to the Triangle or Charlotte are you kind of more on the higher end of that versus typically has more to do with your setting than it does with your actual location within a region oh and thanks so within the Lower South Atlantic region I think you’ll find pretty consistently within a few thousand dollars that settings are about paying about the same it’s which setting you choose that will help that is more of a determining factor of that okay so other medical professions I know sometimes people are thinking well if I moved to Raleigh or Charlotte I’ll make significantly more than what the average is or I’ll be on the higher end of that so that’s sort of a myth in this field right right and a lot of times this is the opposite of that because in the Royal and the rural areas they’re trying to desperately to give people without they’re willing to pay a little bit more sometimes but I think you’ll find in each region of the country it’s about the same and I mean you can even see across the country it’s you know it doesn’t bring it’s not like you’re making $100,000 on California or making $40,000 over here I mean it is within a pretty you know close range of each other and experience matters too you can see with less experience you have obviously they lower the pay for me private companies have no benefits right right well and it depends on the company and it depends on if you weren’t there full-time versus only chart time on PRN so I I received no benefits through the power of therapy company that I worked for but it’s because I only worked there part-time they do offer benefits if I were to work there full-time but if you’re considering PRN or that type of work certainly the pay is higher but you have to consider doing all your factors you know you’re going to be paying out for your health insurance you’re going to be paying out for other things that you know you know maybe you’re getting a lower salary but it’s covering those things so it’s certainly something to take into consideration I wanted to say it’s hard like I’m not gonna lie it’s hard hearts are and that masters love with a great I mean you have to have it as a minimum requirement so like Anthony said me it’s hard to get in and what you get in is hard work but it’s worth it in the end some of the other things that you have to have our observation hours 25 observation hours I’m not sure if that’s the national thing like we would have to have that at every school and I know it needs to be want to have at least 25 observation hours and once you get into the master’s program you’ll have to get clinical hours in a variety of settings so I think the total always thought was 400 hours total but at least when I was doing it we have that was broken down you had to get a certain number of hours in adult language you had to get a certain number of hours in child language a certain number of hours in adult evaluation certain number of hours in childhood evaluation but it really is helpful to have the experience of working in all those different avenues so that you can really begin to find what fits for you once you graduate with your master’s degree your first year out will be a clinical fellowship here and most places well it’s better clinical fellows it’s not a it’s typically not an issue on issue especially in the school setting or a hospital setting but you do want to think about your last semester is a full-time internship and so really thinking about you know what direction you feel like you’re heading

PrepTalks: Dr. Jarrod Goentzel "Aligning Public and Private Supply Chains for Disaster Response"

[PrepTalks Theme Playing] it’s a privilege today to be able to share with the emergency management community, the professionals at the front line of meeting needs and disasters, some of the things we’ve been learning at MIT. The students and researchers that are in the group in our center Emergency managers work tirelessly before and especially after disasters to identify gaps in communities and identify responses to meet those gaps at all levels of the government. This important role relies a lot on supply chains to deliver the resources to provide the response for those communities. Today I’m going to make the case that these responses should also incorporate and align with the private sector, which has far more capacity to act in these communities and do good. And I’m going to illustrate how analysis can help us better align those supply chains in developing tools and skills in the emergency management community to inform them. I’m going to start by making the point that’s been made by a steady conducted in the mid-atlantic a few years ago that private sector capacity is vastly greater than public sector capacity in the disaster. Well it’s actually both in case of blue sky, the normal operations, and grey sky, after disaster. There’s a documented case that the supply of food into the Washington DC metro area over a year’s period 3 million tons is equivalent to the supply of food over two and a half years into the theater of Afghanistan and Iraq. So significantly more capacity dealing supplying one city then is supplying entire supportive operations in those fields. In gray sky in the week following Hurricane Sandy one distributor was able to distribute 24 million cases, which is 50% more than they normally distributed into that region. They were able to ramp up significantly to meet the needs, but more importantly that’s roughly 18 times the volume that the entire public sector and NGOs were able to provide in a two-week period. And in case you’re not doing the math, two weeks versus one week, that’s actually 36 times the capacity that one distributor has over all of the public sector and NGO community. So how do we tap this capacity, and align with it, and make sure that the response efforts that are identified are not going to get in the way? Well this starts with preparedness and here’s a picture of the warehouse in Florida the Division of Emergency Management. And there’s a lot of water in this warehouse You see racks with pallets and water, after water, in fact there are 300 truckloads of water sitting in this warehouse that can be deployed at a moment’s notice to meet needs. You may as well is that an effective use of government resources to buy water that actually expires in the bottles. You have to rotate this. If there aren’t any hurricanes or big disasters over a number of years, you’ll have to dispose of it or donate it. But by working with the private sector in preparedness work they were able to have a warehouse full of water that is not actually owned by the government, it’s owned by the private sector. A water manufacturer keeps its stock in their warehouse, uses it to satisfy its own customers on an ongoing basis, thus rotating the stock but also making sure that they will on a moment’s notice deliver for Florida to meet needs in a disaster. That coordination ahead of time with the public sector increases Florida’s capacity to respond. FEMA does this in a slightly different way they have warehouses where they own their own stock, but they also have contract inventory at warehouses in the private sector that can be deployed. We did a study a few years ago a master student to look at the capacity. We start by saying, “Well what is the expected demand we would need to meet and how can we meet it?” We looked at historical disasters from a database, tracking and you see the map here that has dots around the U.S., which locate the center of the disaster or where you would locate most of your points of distribution or “PODS”. And the size of the circle is the magnitude or the affected community the number of affected people in each disaster. And if we were to set up stock to anticipate responding to that broad portfolio of risks, how would we best do it and what is the capacity of the stock we have to meet needs? We looked first with though the warehouses that FEMA owns and stock in across the country. And then did a simple measure. This graph shows on the horizontal axis the time to respond up to 72 hours at different points. And this is the ability of taking that stock,

transporting it to those of that broad variety of potential disasters. On the vertical axis it shows, on average across all of those disasters how much of the demand were we able to serve? For some of them you’re serving 100 percent, a small disaster you have enough stock to meet all the need. For some of them you’re serving much less, but on average if you look at the point at 24 hours, the stock that they actually have serves about 31 percent of the effective demand on average for that portfolio of disaster. And it turns out if you were to optimize and move the inventory slightly to better locations you can improve this a little bit, by 2 percent, up to being 33 percent of the of the affected population served within 24 hours. So we can improve on this. This is FEMA’s own stock in their own warehouse. Let’s look at the contract stock, which is available to purchase and to deploy immediately but sitting in a warehouse in the private sector. There’s three vendors that were, at the time looking at these contracts for water, and across those three vendors they added an additional 5 percent at 24 hours, 5 percent more demand can be served with that contingent stock. But what’s interesting is, if you were to redeploy this the contracts among those three vendors in a better way you could increase that to 17 percent, or by better aligning your preparedness with the private sector you have a much bigger impact than what you can do in your own warehouses to better meet needs following a disaster. So we could now move from 36 percent to 50 percent on average across that disaster portfolio primarily by working better with the private sector in preparing our supply chains This of course requires some analysis this isn’t a number we just come up with, and of course I’m from MIT I have to have my requisite slide with a bunch of math, right? But we take these risk portfolios of disasters, and by the way we can take an example of hurricane tracks, we should be using forecasts of the future not just history, any risk portfolio. We look at the inventory and the suppliers that are available. We also are now incorporating carriers, not just what inventory is sitting where, but what kind of contracts and access do you have with the transportation sector to move things quickly. Looking at all of that, and put it into a big stochastic linear program, and we put out metrics Now there’s there’s two things I want to illustrate here is one we can actually help cultivate some of the skills that enable the emergency management community to do this. Not everyone in the community has to do this math, but it’s not that complicated we actually teach this linear programming approach in the first course of an online micro masters that we’ve created at MIT. In fact, the first micro masters offer by MIT is in supply chain management. So there is the ability to build some skill sets, not everyone, but people can enhance their skills. At the same time we can develop models that lead to metrics, because in the end not everyone’s going to be able to run a model or have time to do that and maybe you need to boil it down to something simple. So I’ll show an example of a metric that we developed a few years ago internationally and how that’s played a role. It’s something called the balanced metric and there looking at the sam,e issue the UN depots around the world the UN Humanitarian Response Depots, house stock for various NGOs and nonprofits in order to deploy after a disaster, the preparedness stock. They also every day put a real-time stock report on their website, so we started downloading this and running it through our model and saying how balanced is the supply. If they moved it to different places could they improve the response. And we’ve tracked this over time, over the last three years, and on the vertical axis the number as it goes higher that’s not good that means a number of one-point-six which is what it was to begin with with one of the commodities means that you could improve the response by 60 percent one point zero means you’re as good as you can do, right? So there’s some out of balance, right? They’re not in balance, but over time we’ve been seeing that this allocation of stock across the community again they’re not directly coordinating, but we have a metric to see how well we are prepared as a community, that number has come down for a lot of the commodities. So with a simple numbered we see how well aligned are we to respond to the disasters that are out there. So turning analysis into metrics is something that we in academia would like to do with the emergency management community to make it useful for decision-makers. Now let’s turn to, beyond preparedness, what happens when you have a hurricane approaching? This is the map of Hurricane Irma in 2017 as it approached. This is Thursday morning, it made landfall on the weekend, so by Thursday morning most of the private sector companies were already enacting their plans to continue their operations For a lot of them that meant taking trucks full of supplies and positioning them in Southwest Georgia out of the way of the track, which was projected to go up the East Coast, and ready to roll as soon as the storm passed

That’s a good idea but one issue is, it’s a long ways down into Florida right from Valdosta. To go to Miami one way it’s 450 miles, to Key West it’s 600 miles. Most trucks can’t make the round trip without refueling. So those trucks position with supplies often sat waiting until they had assurance that the truck stops along the way, like this Pilot Flying J, that this tanker truck is able to deliver fuel to make sure I can refuel the truck right next to it, which has all the goods that are flowing into Florida. So to make sure that the private sector can provide for various important goods, food, medicine, water you have to make sure that the fuel trucks, the tanker trucks, can get to the stations. and give that assurance to the private sector that that’s possible. This was an issue in Hurricane Irma. Port Canaveral, one of the places where these tanker trucks fill up, noted that 750 tankers loaded over a 48-hour period And you can see in that picture on the left side of the picture you see these fuel racks where the trucks come up and access the fuel from the big tanks. And you see on the road the line of trucks waiting to get in to that fuel rack And those waiting times could last as long as four hours to access those fuel racks, which meant that tanker trucks that normally make two, three, or four round trips a day to refuel filling stations, could only make one or two, which severely diminishes the capacity to provide fuel through these fueling stations. So what can the public sector do to help with this situation? There’s a bottleneck here. Well one thing that can happen is you could avoid the racks. In fact in Hurricane Maria, right after that, you had normally on the left side you see that trucks filling a racks, but on the right side there’s the capability of pumping directly from barges they are bringing fuel in to trucks. So that’s one capability is avoiding the racks and building special capability. The public sector often has those kinds of unique capabilities Another thing that can happen is providing escorts, well they may wait in line to get to the rack at least when they get filled up they aren’t going to get stuck in traffic, right? They’ll get out they can make more round trips, again continue providing fuel to those stations. Or you could actually start dispensing fuel through your own agreements. FEMA does a lot of work with DLA, Defense Logistics Agency, to provide fuel to emergency responders and in fact they did work with the state of Florida which requested the ability to pump fuel for emergency responders and for the power restoration crews at community colleges. So being able to set up a parallel network so that those emergency responders don’t go to the filling stations and take some of that scarce supply that may be in the private sector But there’s a question with all of these things which is the right approach? In fact we wrote a case study, a teaching case, we had colleagues at Pilot Flying J worked with us to talk about what they’re doing in their emergency operations center, what FEMA is doing, how decisions are made and how can we better align those decisions with better communication? What could we have done better to align the the fuel supply chains that enable all the other supply chains to work better? So you’ve got these parallel networks, we need to align them to increase the overall capacity. And we also need to understand the nature of that fuel supply chain ahead of time, right? I don’t know how many of you are aware of how fuel gets to filling stations but it’s refined mostly in the Gulf Coast and it runs up this pipeline, huge pipeline, up the East Coast. And those terminals or those fuel racks are all along that pipeline distributing fuel throughout the East Coast, but notice Florida not on that pipeline. They receive their fuel through barges that go to ports like Port Canaveral, which we mentioned before There’s a few pipelines to the airports in Orlando and Miami, but mostly it’s that barge, to that truck, and the fuel rack and inland. Understanding how that works ahead of time would enable the emergency management community to better support the private sector in restoring that fuel supply, so that all the other good supply chains can be performing. But you may want to also understanding that whole complex system of fuel may be a too much to take on. So how do we prioritize the analysis we want to do, the data we need to collect? How do we determine the key nodes in this fuel supply chain network, in order to establish relationships with the private sector? Trusted relationships where information can be shared ahead of time, but especially after disaster on a regular basis to be able to monitor what’s going on in those supply chains. Well in this case we can we can learn from the international community a bit. I’m going to take you to Darfur in Sudan This is a project we did in 2012 with the World Food Program. They were doing exactly that, understanding the private

sector capacity in Darfur to deliver food. The private sector in this case are the people sitting at those chairs, these are the local traders that buy through other traders and bring in supply to meet the beneficiaries who are on the other side of the table providing vouchers given by the WFP. The international community has over the years and tried to leverage the private sector more and more in providing that local response, which is more appropriate, and effective, and grows the economy but they have to learn how the private sector works. They develop some tools one of these is EMMA, there’s several others that are out there, but this one’s called the Emergency Market Mapping and Analysis and that’s exactly what I’m talking about here mapping and understanding the private sector, and analyzing what it can do, and designing our responses accordingly. And you see this the three strands in that graphic gaps and responses. That’s what emergency managers are good at identifying gaps, determining responses, but there’s a third strand that’s very important. That’s the markets or the private sector. Understanding their role in this is key and making a more effective overall response. And in doing this they looked at markets but they suddenly realize that this market is not just the local market, there’s a whole lot of other markets that that supply that, and in fact they’ve seen it’s a supply chain, right? This supply chain very complex, but understanding it ahead of time is important so they could identify what’s going on. This is the blue sky, what happens in grey sky? And they’ve got these approaches to try to approximate this right, but it’s very difficult to gather data in a crisis. And again we have to have those relationships. Who are we going to call? If we’re trying to figure out how fuel is getting into Florida, do we call the fuel racks? That seems pretty obvious. Do we call the barge providers who are bringing it in from the Gulf Coast? Do we call a few key fuel stations to see how they’re doing? Who do we talk with, how do we gather data, how do we quickly assess how this capacity is responding in this disaster? That’s a prioritization effort where we’re going to borrow from the public health community. We’re developing some methods now we’re coming up with some approaches in a study sponsored by FEMA conducted with the National Academies of Science and Engineering to look at sentinel surveillance. This is used in public health to monitor the spread of, in this case in Ghana HIV/AIDS Rather than having monitoring at every hospital and clinic they pick a few key ones to see what’s going on overall, because you can’t gather that much data and analyze it, right? So they have methods for picking health facilities to monitor the health of a community. And they realized that they also have to understand relationships of people in spreading diseases, so networks come into play. These are all very useful because we want to look at how we monitor the health of a supply chain, and these are networks. And we to pick these sentinel points in a network. What are the sentinel locations we need to establish relationships and have communication with the private sector, in order to understand how they’re coping with the crisis, what capacities they have, and where they need help This prioritization will enable us to not only help fuel supply chains but all the various supply chains with their tiers of suppliers and tiers of distributors. They’re very complex every commodity has a complex supply chain that we need to identify sentinel indicators in, to establish relationships between emergency management community and the private sector, to together align the efforts in responding to needs. So in conclusion I hope you are convinced as much as I am that the private sector has a lot more capacity to respond, and that there’s a new role that emergency managers can adopt in understanding that private sector capacity, and helping to determine how to help restore those operations that enable the local markets to be filled up, the local stores to be filled up, and the economy to recover quickly. And that we need analysis to do this. And that analysis is a combination of developing new skill sets, but also developing new tools and approaches, and we are in academia ready to work with you to develop the tools that will make your job easier in aligning your capacity with the private sector and meeting more needs after a disaster Thank you [Applause] It’s a good question prioritization is always key. Well you can tell by my talk fuel is a pretty important one. I mean and it’s back to the interdependencies that was mentioned in earlier talk today, that fuel enables power, right? Power with your generators Power enables fuel to get the pumps out of the ground, so there’s a lot of things, but power and fuel I mean supply chains need that. We got to have fuel for the trucks to roll, so I

think fuel is an obvious one, right? And then you look at the priorities that that are really that a community will need in that short time window, because you should really focus on the supply chains that are most urgent, you know so you’re looking at your food, and your water, and your medical, right? And then and diving in, and sometimes diving in more specifically with certain commodities you know might be an issue. And this may be contextual in a certain region where you know things are going to be more critical than other. So I think it comes to aligning with what the priorities are in general in responding, and then identifying those private sector supply chains that provide those critical commodities, and then starting there. But we’re going to hopefully come up with some better tools over the next year in our research to help make that process easier It’s an interesting mix because some of this is you need to understand a national capacity, and a lot of the big providers of food and medical supplies and so forth are national, right? So you understand what their capabilities are nationally and they’ll often design their supply chains so that the national can be a support for the local. But the most important information is how the local supply chain is actually working. So you need to have both levels, and in fact I would argue that the the the best information comes from that local source Having the local emergency managers to be able to have that discussion with the operations locally, then they can run that up nationally, but also then the companies can do the same thing with their local store manager and so forth running it up. But they’re also is a complementary effort, you know not every community can be gathering this kind of data, and they’ll need support and, tools and so forth. And so I think there’s a combination. In fact internationally the cluster system is used to to help coordinate and monitor disasters. And they have a set up where they have the local clusters in a disaster, but they have a global cluster that helps enable capabilities on an ongoing basis, to do training on how to engage with the private sector and understand its capacities and leverage it, but also to help gather data about capacity that may be difficult for any one jurisdiction to do. And I’ll say one other thing too companies don’t look at a community in a disaster the same way as the government does, because the government has its inherent jurisdictions of counties, and states, and regions that may not define what a market would be for a company. And so there’s also a misalignment in terms of jurisdiction and framing the nature of what that community is. So there’s some challenges in aligning our way of thinking, but I think you have to have the local level engaged because they’re going to have the best information, with support at the national level on how to train and do that I’m glad someone asked about the micro masters program. It’s been one of the more surprising and exciting things that’s happened in our Center and I’d say in our University. I mean seeing that there was this desire for learning out there, and that access to it was kind of a challenge, and being able to scale it up and be able to teach thousands of people at a time. We’ve had hundreds of thousands people take our supply chain courses, we wouldn’t have guessed that And I don’t have a number on how many emergency managers are doing it, I hope more do it after this talk. But we definitely are trying to make it so that we’re teaching the supply chain and analytical tools, and the design tools, and the strategies that we teach our students in our graduate programs who become professionals and who are really good at running supply chains. And so it’s a fairly advanced curriculum and you become a real expert in how to do this. Not every emergency manager needs to do that. And in fact so one thing I’m doing, I’ve been teaching a course on humanitarian logistics for a number of years on campus. I’m now working to it’s a lot of work to create these online courses, but I’m putting the effort out because I want to make this kind of information available. And my course is going to be designed more for a broader emergency manager to understand the nature of how a supply chain is managed, not necessarily do all the analysis because if they’re really interested then go on and continue doing the master’s program and develop those skills, but at least be able to map to the approaches that are that a supply chain professional uses to manage a supply chain. But with the context that changes a lot of things from what the private sector normally faces, and how does that context change the way we formulate our problems, and do our analysis? I’m working to develop a course to offer that, so I I hope that that can play a role in in helping to improve the ability for the emergency managers to understand and analyze the private sector Yeah, this an important question. I think Maria helped illustrate this a lot because there’s a lot of critical manufacturing on the island of Puerto

Rico. And that well we’re focused on bringing things to the island to help the people that are affected, we have to make sure that things can come back out island and that they can they can continue running operations. I would say we convened calls with companies in the private sector who were trying to make sure that they had their operations you know up and running as fast as possible. Power was a big issue there. Looking at that, being able to have the facility up, but as was mentioned by Yossi in the previous talk, people. Making sure their people are taken care of and so you have to have a workforce to run your operations, you have to have power to run your operations and then one of those once those things happen then you can can restore that. But understanding the role of manufacturing in a broader and how it serves broader needs in the U.S. will help us also prioritize which facilities may be more important. Every facility is important, we want to get the private sector running as fast as possible, but some may be more critical than others. And especially if we understand more about those supply chains. You know they may not the obvious ones there might be a second tier supplier that produces something you don’t obviously see. A good example is fuel filters, was something that I discovered was an important commodity. I would prioritize this, why? If you don’t have a fuel filter on a generator the maintenance is much more significant, right? So you if you don’t have fuel filters, then you’ll have a lot more maintenance issues, generators going down, you won’t have power. So little commodities like that, you know identifying which ones in these complex systems, as was mentioned earlier today, being able to assess which commodities are most critical and then identifying that manufacturing footprint and the transportation footprint, there may be unique transformation resources required as well to move the goods, will help that prioritization of that resource allocation So it’s important to think about the response and recovery and there’s not a clear line of how you transition, and what that transition is and it will depend on the context. You know the Hurricanes in 2017 you had different times of response and recovery for each of those, right? And so I think part of the thing is to identify when are we still responding and is it more of a crisis, and when are some things restoring to some extent, and now we can think about how to recover and build back better for the future, right? And part of this is monitoring some of these key supply chains and understanding how well they’re performing, how well our needs being met in the community. And there’s been a lot of indicators developed of community health and looking at that whole community, but the supply chain and I’m specifically looking at how we help restore the supply chain and make it work better, but also help it recover to be more resilient the future And I think by having a better understanding of how the supply chain works in the blue sky, and then being able to pinpoint the most critical points in gray sky will help us determine both the ways to enable the response, but also how to build it back better harden the parts of the supply chain that need that in order to recover and be ready for the future But I’ll also add recovery is a lot about economic recovery and the sooner you get the private sector back in that economic recovery starts happening People can go back to work, kids can go back to, a lot of good things happen if you can get that private sector and those markets working again quickly [PrepTalks Theme Playing]

UDL Rising: Naming, Disrupting, and Dismantling Barriers to Equity

>> We’re kicking off our conference today with a community of people who gather with us knowing that the solutions to today’s problems can’t be named solutions if they’re living in isolation Rather, solution lies within a community, shared understanding and collective knowledge-making Through the leadership of Lizzie Fortin and Dr. Jon Mundorf, educators Dr. Cody Miller, Marian Dingle, Cornelius Minor and Kass Minor have worked to curate a body of knowledge to be shared with all of you One that re-centers David Rose and M. Meier’s powerful declaration that the future is in the margins, clarifying and accentuating UDL’s radical possibilities and widening its scope Please join me in welcoming this amazing group of educators I’m going to stop sharing my screen so that Cornelius can share his >> And it is so exciting to be here with all of you I am with some of my favorite colleagues on the planet right now My name is Cornelius Minor and I am coming to you live from Brooklyn, New York where it is a hot August day Now for those of you who know the heat of New York City or of any other city, you know that miles of concrete amplify heat in awe-inspiring and uncomfortable ways So though it is summer, the time often associated with time off and leisure and fun conferences like this one, there is a discomfort in the city right now that is both familiar and new You probably feel it in your city too There is the familiar discomfort of the heat and of the tropical storms that sweep the continent at this time of year But there is also the articulated discomfort lingering in our collective consciousness As we contend with the impact of a pandemic on our communities and on our schools, as we process the reality that many among us have still not found the humanity to assert that black lives matter, and as we are literally dying of policy that fails to see our LGBTQIA family members Those of us who welcome change know that this discomfort is a necessary catalyst for the kind of social and educational progress that we have championed here at CAST always And it is in this spirit of necessary discomfort that I greet you this morning If we are not bold enough to name a problem in public and creative enough to study a problem, then we can never hope to solve a problem At CAST, we know how to live with and through discomfort At least, we used to There was discomfort as we helped a nation of schools contend with the ableist ideology that was legislated into its very foundation There was discomfort as we turned that reckoning into a global movement to include all learners This kind of radical work is our ethic But the last few years have been relatively good to us Our revolution of the marginalized has become decently mainstream and we have settled into comfort We built whole frameworks and approaches that expressed radical outrage when men in offices demanded an approach to teaching and learning that failed to acknowledge our neurodiversity We knew that this was not just a matter of public sentiment We understood that these were issues of access Yet we are silent on the policy front, when black and brown students with IEP’s are at the center of the school to prison nexus This is an issue of access Yet we are silent on the policy front when our transgender and nonbinary or gay students are underrepresented and pushed out of schools This is an issue of access A crucial read of history teaches us that in order for the radical to become mainstream, it must be robbed of its teeth We now poke at problems that we used to punch directly Lizzie, Marian, Kass, Jon, Cody and I are all here because this pains us We assumed that UDL was for all people All people And we have built our careers on that assumption, that the guidelines that they are lived in far too many places ignore the reality of our work and the lives of our students We realize that UDL is situated in a box that does not truly include all students yet And we are here to start the messy work of climbing out of that box

Exactly 157 years ago, on a sweltering August day just like this one, August 10th, 1863, an angry Frederick Douglass stormed into the office of then-president Abraham Lincoln And to remember the summer of 1863 is to remember the violence that marked that summer The Civil War was raging, riots over drafts targeted specifically black communities And Douglass arrives at Lincoln’s threshold with a simple request: that Lincoln, you have built this box called democracy, but your white male, able-bodied democracy is not big enough or does not include my people And so we come to you today with a similar assertion: that the box that we have built called UDL is still not big enough And I am proud to be here with leaders in our field who have labored intensely for years to make the borders, the margins of that box include every kid in every community and in every school As we engage in this work with you this morning, please know that policies alone will not do this for us That this work requires bold social action and powerful imagination, and a reckoning with the histories of hurt that have happened on our watch We know that white supremacy is not a rational thing, so we will not end it with our intellect alone in spaces like this We know that ableism, patriarchy, heteronormativity, transphobia, classism — we have spent too much time attempting to make sense of the senseless And we have not examined how the senseless has seeped into our organizations, into our schools, into our classrooms and into our communities That we are so excited to engage you in this radical work of reimagining and reconstructing and rethinking today I want to welcome you to this UDL conference, and I want to introduce you to some of my favorite colleagues, the people who have been doing this work in communities all over As we work today, we will be sharing the microphone, passing from one to another So please know that even in this digital space we are inviting you to question, to think with us and also to be angry with us And to take that anger like our UDL forebearers did and to imagine a thing that is more inclusive than the things that existed yesterday, than the things that existed this morning, than the things that exist in far too many of our school communities Welcome to this conference Welcome to the experience We are certainly glad to have you here All right, I’m passing to my colleague now >> Hey, all I’m Cody Miller, he and his pronouns Thank you so much for that beautiful intro, Cornelius I’m coming from Rochester which is the cradle where Frederick Douglass did most of his work So I feel a spirit of everything you said I feel so honored just to be in the city where so much important work that shaped our democracy happened So thank you so much for that beautiful introduction I want to spend a little bit of time today really thinking about, you know, why and what does UDL have to say about movements that have been happening for a long time, right, that the UDL universe has not been part of I have kind of three guiding quotes I want us to anchor and to think about So this first one comes from Chris Mayo who’s a queer education scholar “Where we think any conversation starts sets the terms of how it continues And so thinking about histories with more complexity may help us keep moving towards educative possibilities.” And so with this quote, what I really want us to think about is, where did the UDL conversation begin, right? And who were in those rooms as that conversation was happening? Because if we start there, we can really understand the problems we’re facing now If we assume that somehow the start was this neutral, vague start, it doesn’t allow us to name the systems that were operating when this conversation started, right? So for instance, if at the beginning of that conversation racism, sexism, homophobia,

transphobia, classism, all these forms of oppression were not centered, it’s very hard then to have that conversation today, right? We have to name the genealogies that we come from to say how we got here And so that’s kind of what I want us to talk through a little bit in my segment Because I think it’s really important to think who was in the room when UDL was conceptualized Who wasn’t? And then what are the implications we can draw from that, right? I am always — I have a level of skepticism whenever the word universal is brought up, because often universal is a tool to flatten out all marginalized people, right? So you think like I’m an English teacher So when we say this book is universal, what it typically means is like it was written by cis white men and then we’re going to like universalize that experience onto everyone, right? So I want us to start with this question — I guess I keep saying start with this question and then I give a new question Another question to add is, if in this room when UDL was started singular dominant identities were present, that’s not universal, right? And I think we really have to constantly be problematizing the U in UDL Because I think that U is where a lot of systems of oppression can get replicated And you know, I want to kind of chew on that note — think back to Jennifer’s opening where Jennifer said that this work UDL was groundbreaking at the time And I wrote groundbreaking for who, right? Like who saw this as groundbreaking? The idea that schools exist and then force norms onto people who don’t necessarily want to embody those norms — queer and trans people have been saying that for like decades, right? Like that is nothing new for queer and trans people So again, groundbreaking for who, right? And kind of surfacing these identities that haven’t been talked about explicitly in UDL — I think those are really important keys So to kind of continue with the opening notes, in talking about intersection with disability, Jennifer didn’t name homophobia and transphobia, right? And when we think about disability as a medical model, which is kind of the dominant framework for thinking about disability, it’s important to note that the medical model disability claimed that queer people, you know, were diseased up until 1973, right? And it’s still legal for therapists to use junk science to do conversion therapy against queer and trans people So I think again it’s important that we can’t say, “Oh, we’ve always talked about these We just haven’t talked about it explicitly.” If we’re not being explicit about it, then we’re not talking about it, right? So I really want to surface that in this conversation And then if I could have the next slide Thank you, Lizzie The next thing I want to talk a little bit about is how ideas that are committed to radical politics can get defamed if we don’t really honor those intellectual legacies, right? So this is a quote from an article I love by Cheryl Matias, which is, “Worse yet, some white teachers and teacher educators co-opt and redefine theories first conceptualized by scholars of color who are resisting the hegemonic oppressions of whiteness and using their white ocular to filter out the most radical parts of these theories to fit within white color-blind comforts, the essence of their conception is lost.” I think that’s really important that when we think about a concept like critical race theory or closely relevant teaching, culturally-responsive pedagogy, those are theories that were committed to a politic, a radical politic that called for the restructuring of society, right? It was not just about like offer audiobooks or give multiple ways to like do your assessment, right? These were radical notions to restructure what society meant And so I think it’s just really, really important that especially when white folks in these circles start to drop these theories, they really have a deep understanding of the theories And they reiterate the political commitment of those theories You know, because if we don’t honor the political commitment of those theories, you know, to use a jargony academic term, it is a level of epistemological gentrification, right? Like we are taking these like radical notions from marginalized people, defaming them of the politics to try to sell them to mostly middle- and upper-class cis hetero white people, right? We are selling them to mostly middle- and upper-class cis hetero white people which predominantly make up the teaching force in order to make them feel comfortable to like move an inch, when the theory calls us to like move miles, right? So I think that’s really important whenever we’re dropping these names, let’s make sure we’re not defaming them from the political commitments those theories call for And it also just reminds me of — in thinking about how activists have been, you know,

singing a song of contribution for a long time, I want to point to a book by Jeff Duncan-Andrade and Ernest Morrell called The Art of Critical Pedagogy And in that book, they call for people committed to critical pedagogy to stop looking at academics, right? Stop looking at academics and start looking at activists, right? We can learn so much about how to change schools by looking at activists, not looking at Harvard professors, right? So I really want us to like rechange our scope there too And then the last quote I want to end with is one by Dafina-Lazarus Stewart that I really, really love And it’s about the difference between inclusion, equity, diversity and justice So “Inclusion asks, is this environment safe for everyone to feel like they belong? Justice challenges whose safety is being sacrificed and minimized to allow others to be comfortable, maintaining dehumanizing views.” And so this really gets at the importance of thinking of the language we use And I really want to reiterate again that I fear often in these conversations, you know, folks doing UDL have always thought about these We just haven’t named them And again, if you’re not naming them, you’re not doing them, right? Like if you are not making a political commitment to name these systems of oppressions and challenge them in all parts of your life, then you’re not doing them And I really want to reiterate that we are explicit in naming what we’re doing And I think as we’re moving forward, I also want us to think how UDL has — what has UDL — you know, how and what has UDL benefitted from not naming those systems for so long, right? What have the UDL world gained and benefitted by not naming those systems? Because I think we need to not feel like, “Oh, I do UDL and it’s kind of adjacent to this so now I have a right to be in these conversations,” when activists have been doing this, putting their lives at stake for decades, right? Like we need to really honor that and not just feel like we have a say in it, because of some vague language in the UDL guideline that says all I think that’s really, really important And then the last thing I want to say is thinking back to when I went to UDL IRN back in 2017 — and it was shortly after Donald Trump was elected, despite losing the popular vote And he was in the process of rescinding protections for trans kids that the Obama era — that President Obama enacted And there was lots of keynotes, and there was talks about the harm that Donald Trump was doing to some of our marginalized kids There was lots of talks about revolution and the future and the margins And I just want to end on this note that there’s nothing revolutionary about staying quiet when the most marginalized people are being harmed So I want to end with that note, and then move to our next panelist And oh, there goes my timer The last thing really quickly is I do want to put in a GoFundMe link in the chat box One of the trans Black Lives Matter activists in Rochester who’s a really prominent activist, Sampson, was the victim of a hate crime earlier this week He’s now out of the hospital, however there are piling medical bills and there’s been a GoFundMe started So I’m going to put that link in the chat Please, if you can, please give Sampson does such important work in Rochester So thank you so much I feel such honor to be part of this panel and I’m going to pass it to the next person >> Hello, everyone My name is Marian Dingle and I am both excited to be addressing you today and really honored to be among such esteemed panelists My school year has begun, and as we speak I’m in a district training, hence this video I’d like to begin with a few acknowledgements I acknowledge that the land I am on today called Georgia is the unceded land that once belonged to the Cherokee and Muskogee peoples This land is land that they were forced to leave behind I also acknowledge that my ancestors were stolen from their native lands to work this unceded land I ask a blessing from the native peoples and my enslaved and free ancestors whose native languages I do not know I ask them to bless our time together as it is offered in the spirit of peace and reparation Personally, I acknowledge that although I am a healthy and employed educator, I’m dealing with chronic trauma

My son, a rising college senior, travels back to school tomorrow He’ll resume workouts with his football team as we await a decision on when his season will begin Both my adult children live and/or work in cities that have been in the news as the sites of recent murders and arrests of innocent people My husband occasionally travels for work As a black woman, I’m very aware of anti-blackness that surrounds me and the real dangers that confront my family I begin with these acknowledgements because context matters I think it’s important for us to acknowledge where we are so that we’re aware of the lens through which we act and feel That allows you to receive my comments appropriately I have been teaching for 22 years, all in elementary grades I have taught in different states, in public and private settings, in areas of families with high socioeconomic status and in schools that have received Title I funding I’ve been a teacher of the gifted and I have taught and in co-taught settings And the one thing that continues to persist, the one thing that keeps me up at night is the fact that no matter where I go, the students who look like me are those that are perceived to be at the bottom It is indeed the problem of practice of my career My father instilled a love of mathematics in me at a young age Many nights we would spend at the kitchen table as he revealed its secrets to me I was mesmerized and thought my father was a magician I couldn’t get enough In fact, he and my mother mathematized everything I grew up thinking everyone did this In early childhood we talk a lot about the importance of creating home environments for children that are rich in literacy and text Mine was rich in mathematical ideas and concepts They weren’t contrived, but as natural as breathing I remember my mother periodically dumping the contents of her purse onto her bed to expose the loose change The challenge was if I could count it correctly, I could keep it As I understand now, this was a brilliant pedagogical move because it allowed a conversation about my process She could observe my grouping strategies, how I looked for and made use of structure And of course, I had every motivation to persevere In the book Dare to Lead by Rene Brown, she asks readers to select their core values from which all actions emanate For me, they are love and justice As a mathematical being, this is the lens through which I view the world, as is love and justice In my problem of practice, I’m seeking a pedagogy that is more human and humanizing I believe we can begin with the concept of community The Mayan-inspired poem In Lak’ech, which translates to, “I Am You,” or “You Are Me,” reads, “You are my other me If I do harm you, I do harm to myself If I love and respect you, I love and respect myself.” We are models of community for the children They are of our utmost concern The past few years, I relied upon the daily morning meeting to build community in the classroom All of us sitting in a circle being seen in whichever way we would like, with the invitation to speak During my first year of doing this, I had a student, Gigi, who I had been warned about “She is a selective mute,” they said “She won’t talk to you or anyone.” Gigi, a Latina ELO student had this label at age nine So of course she became my challenge On the first day of school, I went around the circle inviting each student to speak but really expecting each student to speak I made lots of eye contact with Gigi in the hopes that when it was her turn, she would speak I used my wait time and then more wait time, but she did not speak I proceeded to the next student, but all the while she was closely observing In the next period, I had taught the students a math song in a call and response fashion It was a sort of diagnostic to see which materials students knew and how much they retained after some review Along with the song, I would stop and point to different students

and that student would sing the required number in a rhythm The stakes were common: after all, it was their first day But they were fun I got my nerve up and I pointed to Gigi What does she do? Well, she sang the correct number on beat, of course That was the beginning of me realizing her brilliance I was ecstatic, because I thought it was a win for me, that I had pushed through and she had responded But as the year went on, I realized it wasn’t my win at all She would continue to show me the mathematics that already lived inside of her And I would have to catch up to where she was I had to get over myself If I was to teach her, I would need her trust and permission One way that trust was built between us was through journaling I learned that it was not that she didn’t want to communicate, but she preferred writing Through her entries and my response entries, we learned quite a bit about each other I learned to read her facial expressions and her body movements Those eyes, they saw everything It wasn’t long before she began advocating for herself One day, she approached me to say verbally that she just didn’t get division She needed help and she wanted extra work I gave her a lesson on the spot and supported her She began to use her voice more and more, but always purposefully That was her lesson for all of us, that her voice was a gift to us, not to be taken lightly She would use it as she saw fit It made me question quite a bit about my pedagogy, what I considered a good student Why did I require her to use her voice to show that she knew a concept? Why did I require oral reports and presentations? Whose need was I prioritizing? If we want an education that humanizes, then we must enter into experiences with kids that honor who they are Learning should be consensual Colleagues would occasionally comment when they saw her use her voice in class Mouths fell open when it was Gigi who appeared on the school announcements broadcasting the week’s events They thought I had done some magic, that there was something special about our class But that wasn’t it at all We simply allowed and expected Gigi to be herself To me, that is what UDL should aspire to be, where children’s brilliance is assumed and where students can trust that they can be their full selves >> Thank you My name is Kass Minor My pronouns are she and her, and I am sitting here today before you with a group of people I love as a guest on the land of the Lenape in Brooklyn, New York I’m going to take a deep breath I’m going to try to do a lot here in ten minutes So a few years ago I facilitated a presentation called UDL as an Act of Social Justice: Three Ways to Engage, Challenge and Cherish All Your Students before a huge sea of ELA teachers and school administrators at Teachers College in New York City I tell the crowd of people in that crowded space, UDL is an impetus for our communities to get the equity and access they need and experience the inclusivity they deserve Too often, kids who defy norms are left out, labeled and deemed impossible to teach, very much like the story that Marian just shared with us And so I bravely assembled all who gathered in my space and I did my best to complicate normality and reposition teachers as the architects of their curriculum And I ended powerfully, hopeful, encouraged by the teachers and school leaders scribbling notes and chatting around me in the conference space at Teachers College So in a conference space or in academia, theories are made and ideas are wielded and are projected onto the people So the three ways I said to engage, challenge and cherish your students to the folks in front of me were rife with possibility at that time, right? So one, I said that we need to acquire a strength-based view of students Two, create goals that are appropriate and challenging for all students And three, provide multiple pathways for students to reach those goals Very, very UDL-esque, right?

So these ideas and possibilities feel really strong and promising But later, now, I understand that this is way too narrow, and for possibilities we need to understand and we need to do and we need to feel so much more So the possibilities of an idea when your feet are anchored in a school feel less hopeful Conversely, sometimes an idea or a theory, even one like UDL, and maybe especially one like UDL feels hard and it feels soul-wrenching And I’ve been in a lot of conference halls over the past few years and I’ve studied it and I’ve worked for a university But my home remains in classrooms My family resides with teachers and my kin are the school communities I’ve allied with And this is where I know the heart of the work to be So as agents of learning design, we who are immersed in UDL culture and really anybody who strives to reach all learners knows that to create access, one first has to assess And having one conversation with a school leader is not the same as engaging in community listening sessions To assess literally translates to sit beside To reposition oneself at the same level as those who surround you, flattening that hierarchy So with lots of groups of teachers I’ve engaged in deep inquiry, complicating modes of assessment within schools And this spring, one particular period of engagement with teachers and students stands out to me So a school community that Cornelius and I had built a relationship with over the last few years reached out to us and they were deeply concerned about groups of students who were both disconnected and seemingly outraged with school in general and in very specific ways And so there were a lot of things that they named as concerns, rightfully so So I did my thing and I wrote up the site goals as this So it’s named in that gray box on the slide It says in this site goal, teachers will explore conflict in school spaces, working towards mitigating negative conflict by studying behavior as a form of communication and developing a deeper knowledge base around healing-centered practices This work will initially begin with story collecting from staff and students about their individual and shared experiences with the recent and current conflict, as well as visual data collection This sharing informs all areas of study which may include but not be limited to: de-escalation strategies, executive functioning, centering students as co-creators of curriculum, creating consistent meeting space for easily-triggered students and/or growing these sort of practices by experiencing a variety of circle activities I think big when I make site goals for people So fast-forward, we go to the school, Cornelius and me, and we have this really lovely group of teachers who we’ve met in a variety of different ways over the past, and we study together So we always start with our cycles of inquiry in deeply immersive research and we like tackle this report called the Impacts of Trauma on Learning — I’ll drop a link later — published by the Massachusetts Advocates for Children And we start — we start collecting these stories from teachers, from school leaders and also from kids So we’re careful in the way we collect information from kids So along with this group of people in the school, we created a people watching lens So Lizzie, if you could go to the next slide, folks will have a chance to see a little bit of it So I know it’s hard to read So there’s a Bitly on that slide, so you can go to that link and you can see the document more clearly And so we create this document with a group of people in the school and it’s sort of like a twist on Yetta Goodman’s and Gretchen Owocki’s Kid Watching piece that they did, that they created back in the ’80’s And so you’ll see it here And so we’re trying to figure out what’s happening with students and their relationship to school in the space, and also like with the grownups that are surrounding them And now there’s there a lot we can hypothesize about why what’s happening is happening, but anytime that you’re doing deep inquiry with people, you really need to experience real-time school with them And so we visited all of these different spaces: classrooms, hallways, et cetera So this is basically like low-inference — we’re taking low-inference observation notes and we’re pairing it with some deeper wonderings, right? So in the school spaces we’re about to visit like I expect loudness, visible rise in conflicts, you know, all different types of things But that day, instead of all this loudness that we expected or that I expected, I saw a lot of quiet spaces You know, and I’ve seen a lot of stuff happen in many classroom spaces, but that day, like if there was a cricket that lived in New York City, you could have heard it And so we noticed kids in this one particular classroom answering questions

and many times it’s like the same kids over and over We noticed kids doodling on their worksheets We noticed kids resting their head in their hands We noticed the teacher talking about the photos on the projector, asking questions And we noticed another teacher walking around the classroom individually supporting children Now I’m going to rewind what I just said and I’m going to revise it using more specific descriptors And I’m going to use race words as descriptors And the reason I’m doing that is because in American schools and even in the land of UDL, using race words has been taboo It makes people uncomfortable and in our schooling system, when people start to feel discomfort, it’s reinterpreted, “We should stop doing this.” I’m going to do it We can’t change what we don’t name, just like Cody said earlier This is like our mantra that I’m always telling folks So in that classroom, there was approximately 25 kids, about half are white or they present as white A fourth presents as Asian and about an eighth represents as Latinx and an eighth present as black One teacher is a white man, one teacher is a white woman — they present that way at least So three white boys and one Asian girl answer almost all the questions the teacher asks Girls who represent all different types of races doodle on their worksheets while the teacher talks And these girls lead the groups on task when it’s time for groupwork Two black girls are quiet with their heads resting the whole class One Latinx boy I’m supposed to keep an eye out for is absent The white male teacher is the only teacher who addresses the whole class The white female teacher only talks to kids individually or in small groups There are many, many disturbances to name, lots of context to add, but the facial cues are arresting They’re so arresting that most times when I enter into school spaces, what I see is a fractal or a microcosm of what is happening in our society that hardly anybody is naming, especially in school spaces And so we visit multiple classrooms after that and are collecting stories from the eight classrooms we visit alongside teachers Like any strong inquiry could go, it left us with many, many more questions The same questions that are posted on the slide you’ll see Questions teachers come to us and they ask, what do kids bodies look like when they’re feeling affirmed and engaged? What activities can rewrite this kind of body language? Without sleep, without food, what are children physiologically able to do? How do we adjust ourselves thinking about the stratification and separation that exists within our school community? How a school community exists within our larger community These are all questions that are completely valid and if we don’t dig into these questions, we are not going to be able to figure out why students have the types of relationships they have to school, to learning So maybe you’re wondering how those powerful questions arise from like this seemingly simple question or visual story collection So on the next slide, I’m going to show you Here we have — it’s called a framework for praxis of critical inclusivity So powerful questions like the ones I just read to you can only surface when you root everything you do in relationship People can call Cornelius and I up because we have a relationship with them They’re only going to ask us these kinds of questions if we’re truly listening to what they have named their problems to be We have radical presence We are here now with people So for me in the work I forge with Cornelius and many, many friends and teachers and kin and communities, it’s all been rooted in this, this praxis developed by Dr. Celia Oyler, Dr. Tara Schlessinger and Dr. Wanda Watson And these brilliant women posit work in schools is always a negotiation of people, space, structures, time, affect, ideology, cultures, politics, society and self We cannot do UDL alone UDL often lives in this space of ideology and curricular and pedagogical acts Everything surrounding that is what is impacting a child’s feeling connected to a school, to a person, to a peer, to content, curriculum So we cannot ignore those dangerous sociopolitical contexts we work in in schools, universities or anybody who lives in the United States of America is situated in The bold ways are obvious: deportation, shootings, suspensions that leads

to incarceration, COVID-19, special ed statistics, suicides from the LGBTQIA school community The silent ways are also insidious They are the quiet everyday happenings of both schools and spheres of educators that erase culture and personhood as a force of relevance and our shared ideating Youth who keep quiet with their heads in their hands during the history lesson, youth who are absent, families and caregivers who cannot stomach the PTA meeting — The work of including and designing all learners cannot be quiet with only tiny flickers of spaces to name and discuss the applicability of culture relevance, black liberation and indigenous histories to our movement as practitioners of something so boldly entitled “universal design.” So finally, I’m going to leave you with a question that’s on the last slide Who gets to be a knower in the land of universal design? And I can tell you I’ve spent almost my entire teaching career with a foot in both spaces of academia and school communities And almost everything I know about who I am as a pedagogue has been born from my proximity to communities in schools, in neighborhoods with families, their kids and other teachers While I am lucky for my pedagogy to be peppered with knowledge-bearers who wear professorial titles, I am bound to this earth with those who walk in the hallways of schools And so here I pass the baton to one of those people, my loving, brilliant, bold friend, Lizzie Fortin >> Thank you, Kass Thank you, Cody Thank you, Corn Thank you, Jon Hello. I am Lizzie Fortin and I currently use the pronouns she and they I’m a white queer educator currently sitting in a loft inside the renovated hill on Belope Factory in a gentrified section of western Massachusetts which was previously the land of the Nitmuk people who I’m continuing to learn about I live one mile down the road from Laurel Clayton, a historically black neighborhood that was demolished in 1970 and then removed again when I-290 was built I live two miles from the school that I work at in the Wester Public Schools I want to send some love to the people in Beirut after the explosion yesterday, and so much love to educators all over the country and world as they either are in school today or as they prepare for a school year like no other I am an instructional coach at a high school and was previously a visual art educator I am an artist and I’m currently working on my daily collage project, and a timeline project where I contextualize history I want to express an immense amount of gratitude and love for my fellow panelists who have taught me so much about UDL, collective liberation and unending grace Five years ago, when I learned about Universal Design for Learning, my brain exploded I engaged in my first UDL 101 course and I had a giant educator crush on Jon Mundorf who I’m on a panel with right now, who had led me to meet everybody else on this panel UDL finally made all the work I’d been trying to do with my students make sense I finally had a framework and a really clear direction I loved the intentionality within the guidelines, and the vast amount of research helped me make sense of how to make things happen for learners I also began to understand myself as a learner I began to notice though how other people talked about education students much more closely I noticed the specificity of equity and margins, but noticed who’s being left out And it seemed like my students, black and brown students, were being rendered invisible Render as an artist — this word has a particular meaning It’s a tier-three vocabulary word that means to draw accurately It takes particular skill, practice, discipline, focus and time to be able to render well So when I hear the phrase or I use it, rendered invisible, I understand it as an intentional act To render someone or a whole group of people invisible takes particular skill, intention, discipline, focus and time In order to bring those that we as a society and as educators have rendered invisible back to the center as UDL proposes to do, we must be able to see clearly and get proximate Brian Stevenson, who Cody is wearing a fantastic shirt with one of the amazing things Brian Stevenson says — who is the director of the Equal Justice Initiative, the author of Just Mercy and an advocate for those on death row, says that in order to shift the moral arc towards justice, we have to get proximate to those who are suffering

and those who have experienced injustice How often do I look away when I see the man on the side of the road? How often do I ignore the police siren in my neighborhood? How often do I throw my hands up with frustration at my own skills to support learners? How often do I use the phrase, those kids? How often am I silent when others use that language? How often do I prioritize the learning of the students in my classroom that show an eagerness? How often am I part of rendering others invisible? Why is the school I teach at or the one my kids go to predominantly white? Why don’t I send my children to the school I teach at? In order to get proximate, we must name that black learners, queer learners and trans learners are rendered invisible in our classrooms, school spaces and in society I also want to name that indigenous youth have some of the worst outcomes in this country, rivaling black youth I’m still in a learning space around indigeneity in this country, but if I don’t name this here, I’m going to continue to marginalize and invisiblize — I don’t know, I just made that word up — I’m going to render them invisible So based on the human rights campaign data from 2018, only 11% of youth of color surveyed believe that their racial or ethnic group is regarded positively in the US And over 50% of trans and gender-expansive use said they can never use school restrooms that align with their gender identity What’s more, only 26% say they always feel safe in their school classrooms And just 5% say that all of their teachers and school staff are supportive of LGBTQ people Our classrooms are rendering queer youth invisible The phrase “school to prison pipeline” — and I am — I’m not sure if the word is enjoying, but I love the terminology nexus because it’s actually the same Schools and prisons are the same It’s being used all over the place Schools are rendering black queer youth invisible through actions, shuffling students directly into the carceral system or through inaction, allowing 8% of black men and 5% of black women to drop out Monique Morris uses the term push-out, because that is really what we as educators are doing for students at the margins Dropping out seems so passive, as if nothing could be done about it Pushing out is much like the intentional moves of rendering students invisible As an artist and UDL practitioner, I have to center my design around those margins Although I can name the demographics and notice the students within my school who are on the margins, forgotten about, rendered invisible, I have to do some stretching, some imagining, some dreaming in order to design around those margins As a white queer person, I can look at my own experiences within education, but honestly, school is made for someone like me In order to get beyond what I currently have as a frame of understanding of education, I must dream beyond As a group of us planned this talk, we thought of showing what this might look like, what we’re proposing to explicitly name those barriers of racist and oppressive systems and how using UDL to proactively plan for those in the margins But there’s a few barriers within me or us in showing what this idea looks like The first barrier is that if we just take the guideline and just add anti-oppressive language to it — I think it was supposed to slide — oh, there we go Anti-oppressive language to it, it’s just the addition of a ramp It is reactive rather than proactive We need to get to the foundation We must partner with the communities we serve to hear what they need We must know the history of schools and spaces we are working within We can’t be the experts here, but we can be expert listeners The second barrier — we know that there’s not one way that UDL looks or sounds or feels We know it’s not only about captions or beanbag chairs or even graphic organizers That in order to be designing for your learners, you need to be thinking specifically about the context and environments Imagination and dreaming is something that is intentionally taught out of us in traditional schooling It is hard to do as an adult who is stifling under the systems of capitalism and white supremacy So I will help a little bit with this hard work of imagining the expansion of UDL to think more specifically towards those black trans learners in your communities So often when we are dreaming, especially with the use of UDL, we can only name the barriers And we get stuck on those barriers Ask any teacher what the barriers are right now and we and they can talk to you for hours Barriers are what make up teachers’ lounge conversations and parking lot conversations after the meetings So let’s not get stuck on the barriers

We’ve named them here and I implore you to continue to learn and have a full understanding of the barriers, but also to dream beyond the barriers and have your most marginalized students dream beyond the barriers And then listen and put those dreams into place Despite the perceived absence of black trans girls in your schools and educational spaces, we must plan for them in every moment You need to put on your anti-oppression lenses daily, not just when you’re feeling like it Just like when you first learned about UDL, it seems so large, so vast As such, so is working towards a dismantling of racism and oppression Put your new bifocals on, the UDL lens and the anti-racist lenses There are no lines anymore It’s all together That’s how they do those fancy new glasses Put in that same amount of time and energy you did early on with UDL and understanding your learners needs Learning how to get captions on every video — except now this work won’t be as technical It will be human-centered Learn from those at the margins Listen to your learners, read, watch and follow black trans women, black non-binary folks, queer black women, black cis women Who should I start with, is a question I get a lot I can’t answer that question for you, but I can tell you who I am listening to closely Charlene Caruthers, Val Brown, Marian Dingle, Dr. Carol Anderson, Dr. Bettina Love who will be here on Friday only live It will not be recorded Show up for Dr. Love Rev. Angel Kyota Williams, Adrienne Maree Brown, Shay Martin, Octavia Butler, Dr. Monique Morris, Dr. Bell Hooks, Dr. Goldie Mohamed Put in the same discipline, intention and practice as the artists do in rendering so that no longer will we — and I include myself in that we — be rendering people invisible We have to work collectively in order to make this happen So find your people in your schools, your communities, in your lives I’m going to send this over to my first UDL education crush, Dr. Jon Mundorf >> Thank you, Lizzie Thank you, everyone, for being here Good morning I am so thrilled to be with you all today amongst this group of just wonderful humans I’d also like to say happy August 6th to our friends on the other side of the world right now It’s nice knowing that there is a tomorrow ahead of us and it’s something that we get to work toward My name is Jon Mundorf, and my pronouns are he, him, his I’m a middle school teacher on the stolen lands of the Timucua in Gainesville, Florid Last Monday I began my 18th year teaching in Florida Public Schools I first learned about UDL at a Harvard Summer Institute in 2006 My teachers who are right there in front of you on the screen were Grace Mayo who’s on the left, Tom Hehir who’s on the right, and David Rose in the middle This was before I was on social media, so this image doesn’t exist anywhere else besides my computer, and so it’s fun to be able to share this When I attended the institute, I had never heard about universal design for learning, nor had I heard of the three people leading the institute I attended because I was awarded a scholarship for summer learning through Florida Gulf Coast University, and I found this opportunity about something, something design for something with a subtitle of New Direction for Meeting the Needs of Diverse Learners I’d just finished my third year of teaching I was quickly on my way out I was overwhelmed with all that was asked teachers and how we were positioning students as the problem I didn’t have any old direction, so I was keen for a new direction These three wonderful people taught me about UDL, but it was also the first time that I really learned about the idea of asset pedagogy, an approach that focuses on strengths and sees the diversity of students as a positive thing There’s no way I would be the teacher I am today, and certainly no chance I’d be sitting here with this wonderful group of people if I hadn’t learned about universal design for learning A few weeks ago, I read an article in The Atlantic written by Dr. Christopher Emden and in the article he wrote, “The best teachers don’t just keep teaching Instead, they use their pedagogy as protest They disrupt teaching norms that harm vulnerable students.” It made me realize that UDL also taught me about the importance of disrupting teaching norms that harm vulnerable students And that’s why I continue to incorporate UDL into my teaching, and I believe it’s important for all educators to learn about universal design for learning I’ve never once been asked to implement UDL by one of my principals It has never been an initiative at a school or a district I worked in Yet it guides my work because it is the best framework I’ve come across for celebrating and responding to the variability of students It’s good, but it is not perfect And in its current form, universal design for learning is limited Hence, the need for this conversation and this symposium

Today, I want to talk about a few big ideas I learned at Harvard in 2006 from these three teachers and how these ideas inspire my thinking about UDL rising today I’m also going to ask you to consider some questions about UDL Lizzie, would you move to the next slide? I want to talk a little bit about something that Grace Mayo, a founder of CAST taught me She used to always say that the theory behind UDL is so important But what’s more important is where the rubber meets the road Her passion for the application of UDL inspired me in the way I think about UDL in action There’s no doubt that my students have benefited and still benefit from options for perception, physical action and recruiting interest, to name a few But there’s so much more needed in designing limitless learning environments Over the years, as I’ve taught my students about UDL, my eighth-graders, my former fourth-graders, my former fifth-graders, I’ve learned that UDL addresses some of the barriers my students face, but not all of them So this next slide is the first of some questions that I’m going to be asking you Lizzie, if you would go ahead Thank you In the coming days, I’d like you to think about two questions I’d like you to think about where does the rubber actually meet the road with UDL? How do we take the theory and put it into practice? And as you’re contemplating that, I’d like you to be thinking about the students that you serve Do the UDL guidelines address the barriers your students actually face? Does it address some of them? Does it address all of them? I’d like you to be thinking about that as you learn from one another over the next few days So if we move to the next slide, I want to talk a little bit about something that I learned from Dr. Tom Hehir He was a professor at Harvard, a former director of the Office of Special Education Programs at USDOE He was a former director of special education for the Boston and Chicago Public Schools And he always talked about being skeptical of dominant frames by which society addresses its perceived problems He explained that dominant frames hide oppression and inequality And he often would tell a story about a conversation that he had with his boss, Judy Heumann, the American Disability Rights activist, about federal policy related to teaching students with disabilities She said, “Don’t you get it, Tom? It’s ableism They don’t believe we — people with disabilities — are capable.” And Tom shared this story and he talked about how it was an epiphany for him, how it changed his frame, how he saw many of the practices that he and others in the field engaged in actually perpetuated ableism Though well-meaning, educators often focused on deficits and not strengths Too often they ignored their unique gifts that students with disabilities brought with them because of their disabilities Tom’s story is a constant reminder to us that even well-meaning educators can be creating the oppression and inequality in their classrooms because of the frames they rely on for working with students So please, take some time to consider these questions as you learn these next few days What are the dominant frames guiding your work? Is UDL one of those dominant frames? And what oppression and inequality are these frames hiding? So the next pair of questions are inspired by CAST co-founders, Dr. Anne Meyer and Dr. David Rose who was one of my teachers at that Summer Institute And they wrote in the beginning of the 21st century — they wrote about the role of technology and disability in education reform And they framed the work with this phrase: “The future is in the margins.” The notion has always resonated with me and it connects ever so clearly to the words of Dr. Emden that I shared earlier In the text, Meyer and Rose say, “As in any revolution, students in the margins are likely to lead the way, precipitating the shifts in thinking that will open vast opportunities for educational reform They have much to offer in this enterprise and we all have much to gain.” As I said, this idea is always on my mind and it makes me wonder, as I hope you will too, who are the students in the margins? And how are you letting them lead the way? Finally, I’d like to talk about the learning and unlearning we need to do Take some time to think about who you have been learning from As we move forward to name, disrupt and dismantle barriers to equity, think about the gaps in your learning, or even the unlearning you need to do and from whom you will learn as you move forward The answer to the first question is what got us to where we are today, which includes the good and the bad How you answer the second question will determine the future of universal design for learning In the book White Fragility, Robin DiAngelo writes, “Not naming the groups

that face barriers only serves those who already have access The assumption is that the access enjoyed by the controlling group is universal.” I’ve always believed — or maybe I wanted to believe — that even though UDL didn’t specifically address barriers such as racism, sexism, homophobia, transphobia, structural inequity, economic justice, that if you looked closely you could find a connection I really did I tried to convince people of it and I realize now that I was wrong and maybe I was just trying to convince myself Does racism limit learning? Does sexism limit learning? Do homophobia and transphobia limit learning? Does inequity limit learning? Does injustice limit learning? Of course those things do UDL is limited, because it fails to specifically address the barriers of racism, sexism, homophobia, transphobia, inequity and injustice To conclude, as I pass it off to my friend Cornelius Minor, in 2017 there was a tweet in my Twitter feed from a teacher in New York City and it caught my attention It was from an account @MrMinor and it was a Kendrick Lamar quote and image I didn’t know Corn at the time, but the words captured my feelings perfectly The quote was, “I sit and talk to kids all day because I feel like they carry the most wisdom.” I printed it out and have had it on my desk at school ever since And to me it’s a reminder of the importance of the asset pedagogy I mentioned earlier Students come to us as the very best student they can be at this particular moment in time, and it is our job to learn from them and to design for them We’re just a few weeks from you all starting your school years, and I’ve got a whole bunch of eighth-graders that are ready for what I hope will be their best year yet You have students waiting for you too As you embark on this symposium and the upcoming school year, please keep asking yourself, who are the students in the margin, and how are we letting them lead the way? What dominant frames need to be challenged? Where does the rubber meet the road? Grappling with these questions and the other question that arise in the struggle is the only way we are going to design learning without limits >> All right, well thank you so much, Jon And I’m going to take our last 120 seconds because we’ve all got to transition to new panels and to new breakout rooms But I want to take our last 120 seconds to just thank my co-panelists And how do you find words to close out, you know, what Cody has remind us of what CAST has urged us to do? What Jon has envisioned and what Lizzie has designed and what Marian has personified Well, I want to remind you of this: that we know that a belief in normal is damaging It harms the students Similarly, cis-heteronormative, homophobia harms students Similarly, settler-colonialism harms students Similarly, white supremacy harms students I am familiar with all of these things, particularly this: white supremacy turns those who love black children into warriors We are constantly having to disrupt and to subvert and to undermine and to destroy practices that murder young spirits and pilfer futures In this we ourselves are robbed of countless opportunities to co-construct powerful and literate realities for children and for their communities This is true for my parents One thing that you need to know as we close this session today is that if you grew up like me with powerful, loving black parents, black wisdom was wealth And though it is no substitute for living wages or equal pay, the wisdom nurtured the eloquent and enduring rage that would keep us warm when there was no money for heat The real magic is the reality that when denied access to housing, to food, to opportunity, I have seen black and brown mommies, grandmas, daddies, aunties and other caregivers protect our children with wisdom And I am asking us to move forward today in that spirit of wisdom, that these pearls are David’s stones to the American educational Goliath that in 2020 can still not find a way to see black students or gay students or trans students or indigenous students as whole humans Friends, we know that today’s racism does not burn crosses or hurl stones through windows Today’s racial terrorists deny opportunity They horde resources, they broker low expectations, and they are on your school board and in your PTA and on your grade team You don’t identify the racist by the words that they utter or by the kind they are in their relationships Rather, you identify them by the outcomes that they consistently produce Six hours in a school day, white kids’ joy is encouraged; ours is relegated and policed Racism. 180 days of teaching, straight kids learn; gay kids survive

Nine months of instruction, rich kids see themselves in everything; poor kids are erased 12 years of schooling, white kids access opportunity and brown kids compete for the token slots that we have held for them These patterns are not patterns perpetuated by people who love you These are the habits sustained by people who many times unknowingly are participating in some form of your extinction When white extremists use violence to oppose shared opportunity and resources in school, Malcom X reminded black parents that the people who bomb your church should never be the ones who educate your children Only a fool would let an enemy teach their children When I consider the historic legacy of UDL, ableist orthodoxy as our enemy, inflexible rules or rote policies or approaches or beliefs that stifle creativity and drown love, only a fool would let an enemy educate their children We can be the anti-orthodoxy But again, policies alone won’t do it Bold social action, powerful imagination, reckoning with the histories of hurt that have happened on our watch — this will require a level of critical thinking that we hope that you hold onto as you move through this conference That multiple simultaneous truths can exist For Douglass and Lincoln, we knew that the Constitution was a powerful document, but it was also true that people used that Constitution as a weapon to deny humanity of whole communities Working to make the Constitution and a country what it professes to be is not antagonism It is the ultimate form of love For us, the UDL guidelines are revolutionary But it is also true that they are silent when it comes to the groups that are at the margins today Working to make these guidelines more inclusive is not an abandonment of UDL’s original vision It is a loving reconnection So as we move forward today and throughout this conference, may you be similarly lovingly reconnected to justice as we study together during this gathering I’m Cornelius Minor and on behalf of all of my co-panelists, thank you for being here