SCIENCE with/in/sight: 2013 Image Award Winners

good evening good evening welcome to the Koch Institute those of you who are visiting we have many members of the Koch Institute community here tonight as well including the Image Award winners and congratulations to all of them I’m really looking forward to their presentations to discuss the images that they have provided for the image gallery and I for one think they are terrific I’m really really impressed this is a third round of the image awards and I think they are spectacular the best collection of images that we’ve had to date and I don’t say that with every collection indeed I think this is really really exciting collection of images so I’m Tyler Jack’s I’m the director of the Koch Institute it’s been an eventful day for us here in the Koch Institute when I say that I mean it’s been a day full of events we we hosted the Koch Institute Leadership Council today and many of my leadership council members are sitting in the audience and it’s wonderful to have you here the Leadership Council has been tremendously supportive of the Institute since its inception and helps us do all the things that we do and I’m incredibly indebted to them for today’s advice and all the advice and support they’ve given me over the years I’d also like to thank the judges who have adjudicated the Image Awards this year Alex will give us the statistics about how many submissions we have but we rely on experts to evaluate the art and the science that is represented in these images and they do a wonderful job and we appreciate their efforts some of those are in the audience as well I also want to thank in absentia Charles and Ann Johnson whose gift provided resources to build the space on the east out of our gallery as well as a fund to allow us to change the art on a regular basis to renew and refresh these exhibits which is of course extremely important and so we thank them as well and finally I’d like to thank members of our with insight society benefactor group this series that you’re attending tonight and many of you have attended with insight events previously as well as an ongoing outreach from the Koch Institute to interested parties in our MIT community and our Cambridge community and beyond to teach you a bit about what we do here the science and technology behind it and the impact that we hope to have in the in the fight against cancer and tonight is an example of that it’s a very different style of event will be hearing from young people who generated the images but with insight society is a group of supporters of this of this activity and we thank those of you who are current members and we encourage others who might be interested in joining that group and if you do join you’ll be given a wonderful collection of images from the gallery shown by my assistant Carol Merrill over here they are spectacularly beautiful priceless images one-of-a-kind images and I think provide some incentive to to become a member of that society but but of course the the work that you’re supporting is also extremely important so I’m going to turn things over to Alex in one second but let me just say from my perspective how excited I am that we do this that we feature the science and technology that we perform in our laboratories in the way that we do out in the public gallery it’s actually quite unusual to show off the the wonderful science and technology and discovery an invention that takes place behind the walls to be honest the reason that we first conceived of having a gal lurie space is that the city of Cambridge which had to permit this building Steve Mahler who’s sitting somewhere in the audience is one of the architects can attest to this and the city said you know we don’t want just the blank face of your building and we don’t want to just look into laboratories we want it to be animated and so working with designers we came up with this concept of a gallery that would include these wonderful images and also other educational parts and frankly the more we thought about it the more we liked the idea and invested in the idea

partly because we can tell the story of what’s happening inside these walls in a really dramatic and exciting way that captures the attention of the people who are in the building and also are walking by and we find people stopping and staring and that’s exactly what we wanted to do we wanted to be arresting they would stop them in their tracks and they would ask the question what’s behind that image and they are strikingly beautiful but the science behind them is even more interesting and more exciting and that’s what we really want to capture so they can come in and read about the work they can go on the web and see a video from one of these guys describing their work and in that way learn and hopefully get excited to perhaps get involved in this in this quest that we have to do something important about cancer so congratulations to all of you that image happens to come from my laboratory Lenny good shaiva will be telling you about it but I want you to know that I had nothing to do with the choices of the images that one in this round but congratulations to all of you and I think it’s it’s wonderful that we’re representing your work in a way that we are so I’ll turn things over to Alex fiorentino who’s our public outreach coordinator and organizes all of that and much more including school tours to see what we do here and also take this opportunity to thank Alex for what is now years of service to the Koch Institute I say it that way because I can’t remember how many years but alex has been in this role for a while now and he’s done a terrific job and Alex will be leaving us in June I guess to go off to medical school Tufts and we’re very proud of him I consider him surrogates son of mine very proud of him and I just want to thank you for all that you’ve done Alex thank you so much Tyler a forgetting is going in for kind of things you said about me and and these these scientists who have come to share with all of you what they do so this is one of my my very favorite nights of the year you know we have these images up on the wall year round and I think we try to tell the stories as best we can in fourth on behalf of the scientists but this is the only night when really the scientists are here all together to tell the story themselves and to share with you really what’s behind the pretty picture and so I’m really happy to be able to share that with you tonight and the theme of the evening in a way is condensing condensation I guess although that sounds like weather but each of these scientists each of these projects represents months or years of work and we’ve given them the impossible task of describing it for all of you in three minutes and in fact the ten images or the eight theft you’ll you’ll hear from the scientists tonight represent only a small fraction of all the amazing science that’s submitted to the awards so I encourage you to check out our website i’ll share the link at the end of the night but where you can look at all of the submissions to the contest and see not just the ones that were picked to be the most beautiful and the most interesting but all the ones that didn’t make the cut that are still really amazing science but without further delay I think we’ll dive writing because we got a lot of a lot of talks to get through and a lot of great great science to hear so I’m going to introduce the first speaker for the night oh sure absolutely so we this is a essentially a lightning talk so each presenter will give only the three-minute talk and then at the end of the night if you can hold your questions until then at the end of the series of eight box you’ll have a chance to ask their questions so keep them in mind if you can and you’ll have a chance to ask at the end okay so our first speaker is Michael wells Michael comes to us from just across the street in the department of brain and cognitive sciences where he works in the fang laboratory and His image is entitled patch of light trying to understand a newly discovered autism linked G fade the light so we can see hey everybody uh guess yummy can you guys see me I’m very short I don’t think this auditorium was built for Hobbit’s peaches so I hope this works so let me tell you know something about this picture here these are mature Mouse glial cells so for those of you who don’t know what glial cells are they are the support cells of the brain so typically when people think brain cell I mean I think with brain I think a brain

cells to think of neurons and neurons are the cells that transmit information from one brain region to the next they would not be able to do that work not for these cells so if you have unhealthy glia cells you have unhealthy neurons you have an unhealthy brain ok so this image was actually taken as part of a large autism study in which I was studying a protein called patch d1 that’s the title of this image one of the first things you do so actually one should say is a approaching a gene that’s been linked to autism in human beings so one of the first things you want to do when you’re studying a new gene is to find out where it’s expressed so we’re talking what brain region we’re talking what kind of cell what cell types express this gene so this is what this was essentially we do that is we throw antibodies directed against patch d1 on to these glia cells and we also throw antibodies directed against glial proteins and if they overlap which as you can see in this next image which was not selected when they overlap you can see the two colors from each from each antibody you can see the overlap and so this theta would indicate that patch c1 is expressed in glial cells we’re still trying to iron out these details as to whether or not this is true but if it is true it’s interesting because there are not many known autism-related genes that are expressed exclusively in glial cells so the reason I picked the black and white image for submission if you go ahead go back to it um I don’t know how else to put this but I kind of fell in love with with the darkness and I know that sounds like I’m praising Satan right now but it’s not my intention I really like the contrast and how this two-dimensional image kind of took on a three-dimensional character because of the shading and the the yeah the shading fruit look pretty much does it I can’t take a lot of credit for this image because I feel like all I really did was used a one-million-dollar microscope to take a picture of something that’s already quite beautiful so I love this image because it it shows the inherent beauty of these cells that are morphology how they’re kind of out of control and they’ll take over things if given the chance so it’s pretty much it for the science I just want to say a few other things I first want to take all my friends who came out here I have a lot of friends in the audience who took time out of their data like that guy back there I also want to thank my mom and sister who flew out here from Columbus Ohio or I’m from to be here tonight so I on a serious note I just want to say this might just seem like a picture on a wall somewhere but my family we came from pretty much nothing and now we’re on display at the greatest university and face of the earth so thank you for that thank you so much Michael that was that was terrific so we’ll keep things moving and our next speaker is Lenny go Chava who comes from Tyler’s lab here at the Koch Institute and she’ll tell you about her image entitled cancer deconstructed investigating the role of non cancerous cells in a lung tumor thank you Alex thank you all for being here tonight so my main research interest is cancer and particularly the area that I’m focus on is a tumor microenvironment so what do I mean by that for a very long time cancer research has focused primarily on the tumor cells and tomorrow genesis was seen as a process where a tumor is a homogeneous mass of cancer cells that proliferate invade and my grade into the surrounding normal tissue and that was really the whole story however what pathologists have known for many many years that when they look at a section of a tumor they see an image that’s quite different from this picture so they see something more similar to this where there is a wide variety of normal cells that are present within the tumor so then the tumor microenvironment field is curious in knowing what are these other normal cells doing there so 11 possibilities that they’re just innocent bystanders and they’re just there as a tumor developed but as more and more research in this area has has come out it turns out that they can be very active players in the tumor joining process so for my research I’m focusing on one of these cell types and that’s the fibroblast and what I’ve done for this image is isolate two cell types so these are the tumor cells here in red and the fiberglass in green and I’ve

isolated these cells from a mouse lung tumor from a mouse model that we have in the jacks lab that very closely recapitulates the human tumors and what I what I’m aiming to figure out is how are these cells interacting so the normal role of fiber ross is very important they are secreting a lot of factors that are building the scaffold of many of your organs and they have a very important function during wound healing so when you cut yourself on these cells in green become activated then they sense the stress and they start secreting factors that stimulate all the surrounding epithelial cells to divide in order to fill out the wound now cancer cancer cells are very smart and they’ve figured out that these factors can be very beneficial for them to help out tomorrow so the figured out a way to trick the fibroblast into believing that they’re healing a wound when what they’re actually doing is helping you tomorrow so using such system in a culture dish what we’re trying to understand is this interaction and now we’re we’re we know that this is more of a dialogue so the tumor cells can talk to the fire glass and fire glass in turn respond by secreting different factors and what we’re trying to do is listen in on their conversations and try to figure out what they’re saying but the first thing we need to do is actually learn that language so it’s really complicated but systems like this allow us to gain more more insight into what actually happens in a tumor and the idea is that if we understand how these cells are interacting we can come up with better cancer therapies where we’re targeting not only the tumor cells but we’re also targeting their whole supportive network so that this gives us a better therapy for cancer Thank You Lenny our next image comes from Eric Williams who works in the door NT laboratory at the MIT department of biology and it’s also one of our extramural lab so its affiliated with the Koch Institute and His image is entitled on the scent investigating an anti-aging gene inside the nose so this is an embryo that is three days old at one point everybody in this room looked like this embryo whether you can believe it or not this embryo has about between 30 and 50 cells and one interesting feature of these cells is that they haven’t made any decisions yet and what I mean by that is as these cells divide and grow and the embryo develops into an adult organism these cells have to make choices about whether they’ll become different cell types such as brain cells or skin cells lungs or stomach muscle or bone or a myriad other number of types of cells and I’m interested in how these cells make these decisions so this is the experiment so I took an embryo and I made an embryo that had both half red cells and half green cells and I had this hypothesis that the certain gene might be involved in making some of these decisions so the green cells lacked this sirtuin gene and the red cells had this or two in G so I let this embryo developed and the idea is that as it develops into different tissue types I can look and see if there’s an equal contribution of red and green cells to that tissue such as muscle grain bone or whatever and if I see that there’s a lot more red cells or a lot more green cells as opposed to a 50-50 mixture then perhaps this or two and gene is involved in making some of these decisions so I did that and I’ve looked at a lot of different tissues i looked at lung brain muscle and this is a picture of one of the tissues that looked at which is the mouse olfactory system so I’ll use my nose as a way of showing what this is so if I’m looking straight at you guys and you took a slice straight down here you would see the inside of my nose it would look different because this is a mouse the mouse olfactory system is actually really quite beautiful compared to our olfactory system but this is the center this is would be your septum and these little spaces are where the odorants come in through the nose and bind to the neurons the neurons are here outside and you can see there on both sides and what I found is that on average there were more green cells than red cells so my take-home message was that you need to turn off 31 if you want to become an olfactory neuron I really like this image because it has both symmetry and

asymmetry if you look at the left side if you look at the structure of the left side and you look at the structure of the right side the structure of the muscle factory system is symmetrical on both sides you can see the same features but what’s a symmetrical is the the green and red signal and that’s a has to do with the nature of the experiment injecting non-random population of red and green cells into different regions though that’s why there’s a difference between red and green but the opposing symmetry and asymmetry is what thank you Eric our next image comes from the languor and Anderson labs up on the sixth floor of this building and the scientists who created it were omid vissa Joshua dola minglin ma allen chu and Arturo Vegas Omid is going to act as the representative that group for the evening and their image is entitled sushi implant seaweed encapsulated cells for treating diabetes this is what it looks like thank you out thank you Alex and thank you all for coming tonight yeah we have a quite expansive team upstairs and we’re doing some cool stuff that I wanted to share with you today so one of the technologies that we’re trying to develop is we’re trying to develop an artificial pancreas and the reason why we want to do this is as a way to treat juvenile diabetes so for those in the audience that may not know juvenile diabetes is that actually an autoimmune disease meaning the body’s own immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells for reasons that are not quite well understood yet so we have this idea that perhaps we can take these health cells from healthy patients that normally produce insulin or from perhaps a stem cell source and protect them in a plastic type matrix and the challenge with this project is what type of matrix do we use what type of plastic so we have a lot a big team and a robotic system where we’re experimenting and evaluating hundreds of thousands perhaps of different types of plastics that we put these cells in and the reason why it’s called a sushi implant is because the basis of this plastic material that we use comes from seaweed and it’s a unique type of sugar plastic type molecule in that it can form spheres very well which is the right type of format for this application spheres are good because they allow good exchange of nutrients so insulin and can get out and nutrients can get in and and this is actually what it looks like with these cells protected in this matrix and what we have here is actually a prototype device that we’re actually put in a mouse and we’ve taken it out after several weeks and we’ve evaluated what types of cells are actually covering this matrix and by doing these type of studies we actually want to get to the point where we don’t see any immune system cells on here and those are all the beautiful blue and red that you see on the capsule so this helps us understand what type of response we’re getting and by knowing that we can address it and hopefully come up with better materials and a better device which will ultimately hopefully be included in a clinical trial where we develop the technology so thank you as an added note about amides image I actually had a group of 6th graders from Norway main here today and they were dropping this same material into a solution and making balls that looked exactly like this so that’s another cool thing about this type of experiments you can replicate it at home using kind of off-the-shelf materials anyway beyond that aside we’ll move on to our next image which comes from tal de Nino Jeff hasty and Sangeeta Bhatia from Sangeeta’s lab up on the fourth floor here at the Koch Institute and also Geoff Hastings from the University of California at San Diego and their image is entitled bacterial supernova programming ecoli to release drugs into a tumor okay so there’s a really exciting and emerging field science called synthetic biology and what synthetic biology tries to do is engineered new biological systems with DNA so as you guys know DNA is language that encodes our genes and life of all biological rhythms planet and for a while now to understand biological systems what we’ve done is add a gene take out a gene and see how this biological system behaves we’re now at a point where DNA technology is so cheap and it’s easy it’s really easy to construct large pieces of DNA that we can manipulate

entire bacterial systems all at once and even create entirely artificial bacteria so the goal of this field is to create bacteria that produce fuels for us cents and clean up environmental toxins or treat disease now to work with this amount of DNA we literally have machines that printout DNA and whatever sequence we want requires an abstract language so it’s like if you wanted to work with a computer to work with the hardware you need a computer software so to do that we have an abstraction of this language called genetic circuits or genetic programs that we built these are elements of promoters genes transcription factors that interact with each other we can design these to produce a particular behavior so I’ve been working with these systems in particular to make oscillators which are rhythmic rhythmic devices and we’ve done this in bacteria using green fluorescent protein that we can visualize single-cell oscillators I actually design a circuit that makes bacteria oscillate all together at once and the way that we did this is by harnessing of bacterial system known as quorum sensing where bacteria produce a small molecule that allows it to go through one bacteria and into the nut into another and relay its face so the image that you see out there is actually experiment with that synchronized oscillator and I was really interested in seeing how how this pattern develops a function of space and time and I managed to get a single colony of bacteria stuck to the wall and capture this movie that’s pretty cool right so if you break it down what happens is the back here reach a critical size where they’ve accumulated enough of this quorum sensing molecule at that point they produce a burst you can see that only the bacteria with enough neighbors around them are producing this burst of fluorescent protein and the ones in the center produce at first and every other layers little bit slower that’s this colony grows outward the intermediate layers burst again and again okay so that’s my image and how does this relate to cancer basically it’s been known for a while that bacteria can actually home into tumor environments and they like to grow within the tumor because they’re sheltered from the immune system immune system is always chasing after them so what we’re trying to do now is take out this fluorescent protein and put a drug that bacteria can make so that they can kill it can’t cancer cells from the inside out and that’s what we’re working on now thank you thank thank you tall for sharing that that story with us so our next image also comes from Tyler’s lab no no nepotism here but this is actually I think this is the first two times this year that that images from Tyler’s lab have one I think it’s completely deserved there they’re both amazing images so the image is entitled switch to its you can see it a dangerous meeting blood vessels and a tumor come together thanks Alex never one for coming out so I’m Thomas and I’m a postdoc in Tyler’s lab and I’m interested in as Lenny explained how the cancer can use surrounding cells in this case cells that make up blood vessels to to reach a bigger size to be able to actually gain nutrients and oxygen so we know that cancers can’t become can grow beyond a very small size without securing their own supply of oxygen and nutrients and you can imagine that choking these this supply would really dramatically choke the tumor I I was interested in when I when I took this image I was interested in how lung cancers do this process and and to do that i injected cancer cells that actually expressed that same green fluorescent protein that’s originally isolated from jellyfish so we can we can tell the cancer cells apart from from the normal lung and allowed the cancer too in this lung and what what we did after that was labeled a blood vessels of the lung with with a red molecule and what you can see here in the normal lung is a very dense vasculature a lot the lung in fact is one of the most densely vascularized organs of the body and even though this is a still image what you can maybe appreciate is that there’s a lot of activity almost movement happening in this picture you can see the cancer cells invading to the right and and the blood vessel is actually invading to the left this area here is actually part of the tumor but doesn’t have any blood vessels so these cancer cells here are suffering from hypoxia

there they don’t have oxygen so that stimulates them to produce growth factors that actually attracts these blood vessels to grow and sprout towards the tumor at the same time the cancer cells are also invading the normal lung which is already more already vascularized now there’s already drugs used in human patients for some types of cancers that block the process here the growth of growth of new blood vessels but it turns out that a lot of cancers actually grow alongside previously pre-existing blood vessels and this process is called vascular co-option so instead of growing their own vascular supply the cancer cells are actually crawling on previously pre-existing blood vessels and this process we don’t know don’t understand that well currently so learning more about this will definitely be a very important step in in management of cancer thanks thank you to him us and actually I don’t think I introduced Hamas at the beginning by name but his name is Tomas tamela he’s a postdoc in tyler’s lab so our next image is presented in absentia because this scientist Fernand federici as you can see he works in a Cambridge University in the UK and actually his image appears here at the Koch Institute as part of a partnership that we’ve set up with the welcome image awards which is based in the UK and so each year will display one of their winners and each year they will also display at least one of our images actually this past year they displayed two of our winners they liked them so much so that’s a great partnership that will continue in the future and it allows us to display fascinating images like this one so I’ll give you just a very brief description similar to tall’s bacterial supernova image that you saw just a few minutes ago Fernan is interested in synthetic biology in kind of dissecting the components of normal biology and then using them as tools for engineering and applying them and combining them in interesting ways unlike tall however fernan here is looking at plant cells instead of bacterial cells so we’re looking at all the intricate components of a plant cub arabe docsis thaliana one of the most commonly studied plants and it’s it’s amazing to me just to see the complexity you think of you think of plants as being stationary and maybe boring but there’s so much complexity and interesting kind of machinery underneath the surface that’s really what stands out to me about this image so our next image comes from the Heinz lab also here at the Koch Institute from quabbin abbado and konsa and actually this is the third image of kwabba nose to win the contest so he’s a very talented researcher and we’ve been lucky to be able to display some of his work here and His image is entitled feel the pulse smooth muscle cells respond to stretching forces thank you Alex so instead of from Havana I work in heinz lab just under four minutes building and half of our lab works in vascular biology while the other half works in cancer biology but one thing that we are all interested to some extent is how the external environment around us sales influence the way to cells behave and what I like about this picture is that the most one of the things that you merely get from it is all of these cells are aligned almost as if they’re responding to something collectively and that’s what’s happening I’ve exerted force on these cells and these cells are aligning as if it’s out of it and so what we have labeled here is we so I died these cells of two chemicals one that binds DNA and so local I those two nuclei one abides a protein coding actin and actin forms long polymers that make up the skeleton of the cell is what we call the actin cytoskeleton these cells are called smooth muscle cells and so to give you an idea of why we’re doing this and how this helps us and you tell you a little bit of what stimulus of snails are so smooth muscle cells are cells that surround large arteries and emanate out of the heart and so as the heart’s beating blood you can appreciate the fact that they as a result of that they’re exposed to varying pressures and changing enforced constantly in all of our bodies as we speak and so that makes them a good model for for looking at how cells respond to changes of clothes because these guys are pretty much pros I’m doing that and and so what we’re specifically interested in is how does the environment around the sales

component environment that we call extracellular matrix change the way these cells behave in general and specifically in this case how it changes the way to respond to the force and to give you an idea what this exercise agents looks like I had this picture which I send it’s the same similar pictures before in a sense we’re looking at smooth muscle cells and in violet where you see a chemical that stains for actin cytoskeleton in red two nuclei but in white is a protein called fibronectin and it’s a component of this extracellular matrix so the questions that we want to answer are what happens if you sever the ability of these cells to communicate with their outside environment in this case with fibronectin or other extracellular matrix proteins how does severing that change the way these cells behave in general how they respond to enforces are applied on them or turn early how it changes the wigs are forced on their environment so pictures like these are really important in helping us thank you thank you qua Bona so we have one more image creator rob mathes who unfortunately is traveling and couldn’t make it tonight he comes from the gupta laboratory which is at the Whitehead Institute and another lab that’s affiliated with the Koch Institute as an extra mural faculty lab and Rob’s image is entitled molecular water color mixing fluorescent proteins to label families of cells so Rob is doing something pretty unique here at least from from what I can tell he’s interested in cancer and interested in how the cells within a tumor can be very heterogeneous some of them are different from each other and he’s interested in identifying the cells within a tumor that are most dangerous most likely to spread to other parts of the body and cause serious health problems but what’s what’s unique is that he’s not trying to identify the most dangerous cells here just by looking at them or characterizing shape or what proteins that express he’s trying to identify the cells that are in different families so there are many colors in this image and each color represents a set of set of cells that descended from the same common ancestor and so he actually can he’s looking at identifying which families which sets of related cells are most dangerous and maybe would be best to target with drugs and what’s particularly interesting to me is the way he achieved all these different colors many more than you would traditionally see in a micrograph and it’s actually the same principle that enables the display we’re looking at right now to display many colors and that is that you can produce a wide spectrum of colors by combining red blue and green in different amounts and so he randomly to assign these colours randomly infected cells with different amounts of a red protein of blue protein and a green protein and that randomness produced a wide spectrum of colors you see here another very cool image okay so moving on to actually our final image and we’re going in the order that they appear in the galleries is the one on the far end of the west end of the gallery and it was captured by Alex shalik who’s here and his colleagues in the in hong kong park slab at harvard university and in the Broad Institute and His image is entitled cellular injections using nano wires to investigate the causes of leukemia thank you very much Alex my name is al shalik from the park group at Harvard University and first I’d like to thank the Koch Institute for agreeing to display our image on the image in and of itself is a scanning electron micrograph of B cells on top of vertical silicon nanowires and just to provide a little context for this this is maybe one of the simpler images you’ll see the night in the park group were interested in using cutting-edge advances in micro and nanotechnology to study biological systems essentially what we’re trying to do is create the doctors toolkit studying cells so if you think about the tools that a doctor would use to study your body you think about things that are maybe a little bigger than you say an operating room two things that are a couple orders of magnitude smaller like a needle by analogy an average cell is about 10 microns in diameter so what you want are things that are tens of microns say a microfluidic device in case you’ve come across turn or things there are tens of nanometers like an ANA needle and that’s what we have here basically we have an ax syringe for injecting things into cells and it turns out that if you optimize this surface and you play with the surface chemistry you can penetrate the membranes of these cells in a

minimally invasive fashion and deliver just about anything you want into these cells and so what we’ve been doing in the park group over the past few years is using this technique to study the molecular circuits that drive cellular function and dysfunction in healthy and diseased States and to try and figure out better therapeutic avenues for studying these cells and this in particular is one representative image of our work with immune cells of which we’ve done a lot and if you have interest I’d be happy to tell you more about it offline thank you very much ok thank you Alex so that wraps up the talks and now as promised we’ll go into a Q&A session so I’d like to ask all of the speakers to just wrap around up here and I’ll just in case you forgot i’ll put all their images up on the screen and sarah my colleague is in the back of the room with a microphone I’ve got one up here and i will give one to the speakers she goes can just pass this does anyone have any questions about these images I’m going to tell by my question that I’m not a scientist what do you guys think about Jackson Pollock now maybe I should rephrase that how do you feel about abstract expressionism I think I think we get to appreciate his working one more now okay who else anyone else with a question I saw another hi hello um this is for a Lena is that your knee I was fascinated by the same picture but I was really fascinated because I think anaphase is going on in one of your nuclei and I was wondering if that was something of interest to you to see how cell cycle is progressing with in these cells you mean within the tumor cells yeah yep so of course that’s another ring that’s a process we’re very interested in studying um because today does it’s all lining up inside that nucleus yep so it’s I mean it’s very cool because in culture system like these we can actually catch exactly the processes that we see that happen in vitro in vivo so we can we can see cells dividing we can even do live imaging to watch them how that happens and using these call these coculture systems where we have multiple cell types mixed in together we can see how these interaction can affect these processes so we can test it with the stromal cells are without and see how the processor are involved are you gonna go on to a 3d system like a form of gel and see how the extra mile cellular matrixes you’re acting with all of this yeah so um from this the next step is 3d culture with matrix to more accurately mimic the in vivo system and then of course the ultimate test and ultimate system or we or we want to study this is he’s in a whole organism so that’s why the jacks lab we have some very very sophisticated mouse models of cancer where we can again study the same processes and using what we’ve learned from simpler in major systems then also take them in vivo and even test different drugs etcetera as a more representative situation thank you all of your images are beautiful by the way Joshua hi my question is actually for Thomas so using I guess fluorescent protein to label tumor cells and then watching how they interact with the blood vessels in a lung and since this protein a particular is not from a human I know in particular immunes resident immune populations such as macrophages are important for tumor blood vessel formation and infiltration into a tumor mass so have you looked at whether that this foreign protein is affecting the resident immune populations and whether or not what you’re seeing here is is in fact what actually happens when you have a normal tumor and a normal law that’s a really really good question I didn’t explain the experiment in such detail that that would have answered it preemptively but so what what I did in the first experiment that is actually the image was implant these gfp these fluorescent protein positive cancer cells into an immune deficient mouse that lacks t-cells completely so the so the tumor cells are not rejected nor is nor drink

nor does the immune system react to that very very foreign protein that like you say comes from a jellyfish the next image that I showed however was from an actually more advanced model of cancer that we that Tyler has pioneered in his lab where tumors actually start from a single cell within an immunocompetent mouse and this yeah this image up here this actually uh will be a much more accurate model in studying what happens in the human and this this image actually is taken from a tumor then started forming only four weeks for only four weeks so it’s a very early time point to first thank all you guys for all your beautiful images filigree all the science you guys are doing really appreciate all your hard work my question actually was for Michael Wells who had the top right image in black and white so we’ve heard a lot about a cancer biology and that sort of thing and but I was struck by Michaels image because he mentioned that had to do with autism research so I’m just kind of wondering you know how do you feel about autism research how it’s sort of progressing in relation to cancer research and specifically sort of how autism research is how you’re tackling that and what’s the sense in the field of the best way to look at autism and how are you particularly looking at autism with such a debilitating disorder so I can’t compare them too well just because I’m not exactly up to date with what’s going on in a cancer field but in terms of how we’re looking at autism at least on my end is through the use of knockout mice these are genetically engineered mice I think somebody mentioned this concept earlier this idea of removing a gene and assessing its effect so I comentary for I’m studying an autism related gene and so we don’t what we have done is removed that gene from a mouse with the idea of assessing behaviors see if their autistic like and the long term goal of using either pharmaceutical intervention or gene therapy in the long term so I hope that answers your question I know but nobody’s asked this yet but just to get that get this over with nobody’s asked me who I’m wearing this is calvin klein so i was waiting for that question I just went much time left so thank you for reading my mind Michael any any any other questions okay so you want back here this is for Alex shellack which was the last image and I was just wondering how did you make the needles so there are a number of different ways that we do it but the simplest way of doing it now is actually to spin a resist on top of a surface and then to use a gas to etch down the surrounding material so basically you’re protecting one spot and turning what’s originally a spot into a cylinder and as it pushes down into a wire what kind of materials is is that silicone yeah so the this particular sets made on a silicon wafer the outside of them becomes covered with a native oxide so it’s glass on silicon ok any other questions ok if not then I just want to thank all of our winners that for not only all their great work that they’ve done as researchers but also taking time out to kind of talk to all of us and help communicate what they do I think that’s a really important part of you know what what we’re trying to accomplish here the Koch Institute is to really talk about science and engage people in science and take it out of the black box and into something that people can approach and I think all the speakers tonight have done an excellent job of doing that so if we could just give them all and you can’t literally take them home with you unless you happen to be one of their wives or husbands or boyfriends or girlfriends which I know there are some in the audience but for the rest of us I’d recommend a couple of other ways if you want to learn more one thing you can do is log on to our website so we have a website for the galleries that shows not only their their images but also all the ones that didn’t win and for them in particular tomorrow if you can wait until tomorrow there will be videos posted of each of them explaining their image and you can watch that share it it also be on YouTube and so I’d encourage you to check that out here’s a sampling of some images from last year from 2012

that didn’t win and in fact there are over a hundred more images than this that didn’t win last year that are equally striking so I’d like to thank you all for coming out and joining us and one more thing I’ll mention is that if you enjoyed tonight and enjoy the wit insight series I’d encourage you to come back this will be continuing throughout 2013 so our next event will take place on May twenty-third and it will feature not like this it won’t be a night that features the images of the gallery instead it will feature a particular threat of research and three different expert perspectives so we’ll have our own professor Sangeeta Bhatia talking about very high-tech exciting innovations for detecting cancer and she’ll be joined by a physician and others who can talk to this challenging and exciting ways that is being faced so thank you all and have a good night you