China's Century of Humiliation

when the West came is a powerful in an aggressive force with a lot of new armaments new kind of ideas and and with the missionary interesting to to tell the world what is good for them the Chinese didn’t know how to respond because they had not been counted people like that before so they were not prepared and insofar as they’ve been successful for so long they had become complacent about their own success and when they were challenged in this very aggressive way by the West they failed to respond adequately and therefore lost everything in the cause of it in only 30 years the Chinese government has lifted almost half a billion people out of poverty the equivalent of the entire population of South America the Chinese economy from the seventh in the world in 1970 became the second and is still rising faster than any other economy in the industrialized world thanks to the China pipe technology boots became affordable beyond the developed world its thirst for resources created millions of jobs in dusty corners of the world otherwise long-forgotten at the turn of the millennium it seems that every tabloid tries to predict the future of this economic miracle but little is remembered of what the Chinese history textbooks still call the century of shame and humiliation this program we’ll explore the tumultuous interaction between China and the Western nations during the 19th century from a Western and a Chinese perspective from our first encounters we in the West only mean what we wanted from China but never wondered what China wanted from us for most of their history they just wanted to be left alone now for the first time this is about to change and this change will transform the world for the centuries to come [Applause] the vampire maggie encounter lagging away she chooses the malaysian while taxi Fung Digga I think all civilizations before the modern era would go to autocracy over time most of the world followed that path it is only the West that made an exception for me the big question is not why China didn’t become modern the big question is why did the West develop so well such a small part of the world why are boosted phone wall males over about 200 years before Christ at the height of the Roman Empire the man who was to become the first Chinese emperor ginger honk conquered and United the seven warring States founding an empire bound to last for over 2,000 years the first emperor Qin introduced common coinage a unified system of weights and

measures and even standardized the axles of carts traveling on over 6,000 kilometers of roads China civilization is both old and extraordinarily rich if we look for example just a philosophy Confucius is a ruff is roughly a contemporary of Buddha in India and Socrates in Greece and was taking on along with other thinkers at that time enormous questions of how to order society what are the roles of members of that society what is the responsibility of governments and many of the questions that they were addressing seemed very contemporary to us today if Christianity Islam and Judaism explored the relationship between man and the divine Confucianism focused simply on how to order society to put the world right in order with first must put the nation in order to put the nation in order we must first put the family in order to put the family in order we must first cultivate our personal life we must first set our hearts right having lived at a time when small faiths were constantly battling for territory confucius envisioned a future where a centralized government run by scholar administrators would strictly control the military this line of thought gave rise to an imperial army designed mainly for defensive purposes and usually deployed not around the imperial court but in Garrison’s along the great world the Chinese of course are the folks who invent paper we can also of course note that the Chinese invent the compass we note that they invent gunpowder in terms of selecting officials the Chinese were far ahead of the West in trying to create a system of meritocracy America attic system where they selected the bureaucrats based on what they knew rather than who they knew by the sixth century the ranks of the government administration became open to any Chinese citizen provided he could pass a comprehensive examination and he possessed the five essential Confucian virtues benevolence righteousness propriety wisdom and trustworthiness by this time Europe was evolving in the opposite direction the Roman Empire was disintegrating giving birth to numerous small kingdoms Dutchess and principalities each run by its own monarch in control of his own army their administration’s were run by the titled aristocracy a system based on clan heredity and not at all on merit if European monarchs ruled by divine right with unconditional powers over their subjects a Chinese emperor needed the Mandate of Heaven which was conditional and dependent on him maintaining the economic harmony and even more importantly the social harmony in brief I would simply say any comparison between Christianity and Confucius and must face the fact that one believes in God and the other doesn’t so from that starting point then how each person deals with the rest of the world is influenced by those ideas for example in Christianity the individual is thought to be to have a sense of fulfilling and self being responsible for themselves to God as an individual whereas in the Chinese context he is primarily all his responsibility to his family Confucius believed that any member of society not just the aristocracy and the clergy could attain great virtues while Christianity employed faith and prayer for the moral betterment of mankind Confucianism believed in education and this education was to take place within the family 5 social relationships defined the status and role of each member friend to friend elder brother – younger brother husband to wife father to son were designed to prepare family members for the most important relationship in society the relationship

between subject and ruler those who in private right behave well towards their parents and elder brothers in public life seldom short disposition to resist the authority of their superiors and for such men the thought of starting a revolution has never occurred oh yeah means the nation-state one’s state John’s family the tool countess put together means nation state and for centuries and centuries and centuries the Chinese have been using this phrase and automatically in a subconsciousness the two things are the same the nation comes first in the family the second we think we are the subordinate a small soldier on the Glen Cass we could be easily immobilized in sacrificed and that’s good for the higher purpose of protecting the future of the nation that’s what you might call collectivism the beauty and ugliness of collectivism but that’s true there are two Confucianism one is the philosophy itself as it emerged in the fifth century BC the other is the use of Confucius by Imperial institutions to legitimize themselves the the original Confucianism is basically a philosophy of self cultivation now later on these qualities were used in a much more opportunistic and instrumental way to claim the obedience of passive subjects Confucianism became an ideology to justify the autocratic hierarchical rule of a very self-centered and grandiose Imperial bureaucracy and the people down below had very little that they received from this imperial institution by way of virtuous conduct the Mandate of Heaven took a theory of virtue and converted it into a theory of political legitimacy your legitimacy was if so facto conferred by order if you had an orderly realm therefore political authority was legitimate the mid and it became disorderly and a dynasty was overthrown clearly you’ve lost the Mandate of Heaven very opportunistic and very convenient for those who win y’all need Han cool Jeon you’ve got our rulers understood early there’s a lot that politics are about brutality if you’re brutal enough you can rule forever the people knew they couldn’t revolt Altman and the rulers would use any means keep their rules that’s how they developed a very stable structure the emperor system only a natural disaster would prompt the revolt that would change the dynasty but then the same system continued if the imperial government was tolerant towards religion it maintained a rigid social structure at the top was the emperor followed by the imperial scholar bureaucrats then came the landed gentry and small locked farmers artisans and manufacturers were also appreciated but any innovative products had to meet government approval finally at the lowest rung of society were the merchants banned from government office banned from riding horses and at times even banned from wearing expensive clothes Chinese inventions are impressive and very early enormous invention but not so much innovation of a technologically useful kind merchants were always regarded as a threat because they could accumulate money without being under the power of the existing feudal establishment and without a an entrepreneurial merchant class the idea of developing wealth and innovating ways of converting inventions into useful technology for production let’s say never really happened so for example

gunpowder was used for fireworks it was not used for explosive projectiles meanwhile in an obscure corner of Europe 25 English noble men at odds with a despotic monarch forced King John of England to sign a document that would bind him by the same laws that applied to them Magna Carta Liberto a 13th century document introduced the West to the idea of government by consent a government that would respect and protect the individual rights freedoms and property no Freeman shall be taken or imprisoned already seized of his freehold or liberties or free customs or be outlawed or exiled or any other wild destroyed nor will we not pass upon him nor condemn him but by lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land we will not deny or defer to any man either justice or right the whole problem of individualism is very complicated in the history of China and it’s true that you don’t get the kinds of assertions of the primacy of the individual that you get in some of the crucial Western texts and certainly if you’re thinking in terms of political rights of how you get to constitutionalism etc China is not on a track to that without encountering the outside world I mean there are ways in which the state is checked but they’re not through claims of individual rights for the most part there are certainly indigenous humanist traditions that allow you to make a case against extreme violations of the person so it’s not as if China has no tradition of individual rights but it doesn’t have that same notion that nothing legitimately stands between individual and States right there I’m a citizen I’m in a dialogue in a sense with my government I have a claim as an individual in China you’re much more likely to have a claim as a member of a community and that does set you on a different path of political development collectivism is the universal individualism is particular collectivism has been the dominant form of thought for the longest period of eternal history well individualism is the recognition of the Equality of moral words among our people that is as individuals our moral worth means is the same again that originated from this religious idea that in in front of a God we are equal so probably in real life we are not and you are a billionaire I’m just a panelist pressure that morally I don’t consider myself inferior to you this is the fundamental feature of Western individuals the Chinese don’t even have a word for what we would consider individualism or Liberty that one Chinese dictionary I saw once said that privacy for example is the American love of loneliness that’s the definition of privacy and same thing for Liberty they really don’t have a good equivalent they’re institutions developed over a period of two millennia and they were highly centralized politically you had a very strong imperial court at the center and then you had a very widely distributed agrarian society at the base and the two were only loosely connected the an imperial magistrate who was basically an autocrat within his own domain so no sense of participation very hierarchical society everyone knew exactly what their status was with respect to everyone else and with highly dense populations social order becomes more important than for example in the Wild West of the United States early days when population was sparse people had a lot of room and if things got too crowded you could always pack up your covered wagon and go over

the next mountain range to a valley which where you’d have plenty of fertile soil and sunshine like most traditional societies the Chinese government focused really on just two questions to maintain order and to live off of the productivity of the world’s largest Empire if you look at the period of roughly the 15th century China was sending expeditions of hundreds of ships into the Indian Ocean they were visiting places in Southeast Asia India and even the coast of at this is more than a century before the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus and if you took the largest of Columbus’s ships it would easily fit along with two or three others in the largest of these ships despite its political and economic stagnation by the 15th century China was still the largest richest nation in the world quite opposite to his predecessors who maintained a strictly defensive military Emperor Judy who ruled over a hundred and ten million Chinese had built the largest ocean-going Navy at that time in may 14:21 lightning struck the Imperial Palace sparking a fire that destroyed half of the Forbidden City by the time his Admiral Zhang hua returned from abroad Emperor Judy thinking he’d lost the paper of heaven had ceded the throne to his son it was something unprecedented in the history of that time and when jung-hwa returned to china the ming emperor was so worried that the power unleashed by this navigational exploration might be used against china that he basically dismantled all 200 ships and jung-hwa died without ever having really made much of a mark permanent mark and from that time on the chinese eschewed all outward communication with the world and simply moved within their own borders china thought that we were the central kingdom in the universe we were the center of the universe so we welcome all other aliens to kowtow in front of the emperor in the Forbidden City and we have been governed by this notion for centuries so China refused to go abroad in search of all raw materials and and and we failed we failed we failed it expand not because we were being we were nasty we were greedy but because we were aristocratic noble but noble in a round sense because we thought we were the best but we were not and we were given a better lesson and the estimation of the importance of trade and the estimation of the importance of an economic development we paid so much attention and energy to education it is absolutely true that the Chinese state could intervene at a certain moment and say we’re done with overseas exploration call it off stop it and that you couldn’t do the same thing in Europe right had Portugal decided to stop the Netherlands or something would have would have done it from that point of view yes you have a real difference what jeong-ho was doing was mounting these enormous expeditions to a certain amount to see what was out there but also to show the flag what he wasn’t doing I think this is really critical is he was not blazing a trail for profit seeking merchants fifty years after the death of Zhang hua an Italian sea captain was also trying to assemble a fleet to explore the world if Zhang hua was a civil servant of the Ming Emperor Columbus was primarily an entrepreneur as he looked for a government to finance his fleet Columbus demanded as payment for his services one-tenth of all revenues that would come from the new colonies and that he serve as governor of any territories discovered his native Genoa turned him

down as did Venice and Portugal the British monarch considered his proposal but by the time he said yes Columbus had already committed to Spain what made them discover the new world but produce Columbus and all the sailors that went out now then you go back to the very aggressive world in which they all needed so all of them sharpening their wits as it were on having to kill them and not be killed and that went on for hundreds of years of all religions the war against the Muslims the Christian war was actually trying to hold back an external enemy while at the same time fighting among themselves almost continuously for hundreds of years and to go on and make the money to have the money to have better guns to be to have an advantage over your next enemy and so on was all the people were engaged in this didn’t what happened in China the country called China was peaceful yes agriculture there was there was the enemy on very far frontier the vast majority of the Chinese people lived peacefully and the thing about warfare is a it’s very expensive and be you’ve got to pay for it now right when the other army shows up you can’t say hey come back after the harvest and we’ll have a fair fight right you’ve got to find a way of paying of spending next year’s revenue now in order to win wars I mean that’s where the European financial system in many ways comes from right it all really starts from the need to finance war faced with continuous war European states developed the ability not only to tax their citizens but also to borrow from them besides financing wars now they could also pay for a building of Merchant Navy’s infrastructure and Public Works the government bond market led to the creation of the publicly traded corporation where private investors were able to spread the risk and pool their resources with property right the judicial system in place land could be used as collateral in order to raise capital for most of the last several centuries whoever rules in Beijing looks out across their borders and they don’t see anybody of comparable size and the other thing is that if you’re as big as China the way you meet a military crisis can be by mobilizing resources from across the Empire and concentrating with them at the point of invasion so in a sense you gather resources across space and that means you don’t have to gather them across time you don’t have to spend future revenues Chinese state until the mid 19th century basically doesn’t borrow up until let’s say the 19th century given a world of relatively limited technological possibilities that probably doesn’t matter a whole heck of a lot then you get to the 19th century and a whole new set of investments are possible right once you can build railroads that require a very very large amounts of capital that’s going to have to wait several years for its returns you want a different kind of financial system you want a different kind of property right and what had worked very well for centuries when we doesn’t work so well during the 18th century a number of English inventors developed the first steam engines for the first time in history man had made and was able to use a power source stronger and more reliable than the animals he’d used until then the financial system allowed entrepreneurs to develop these inventions on the scale large enough to benefit all members of society with affordable transportation trade flourished and new territories were found and exploited feudalism was on the way out capitalism had arrived the question of steam engines in China is very interesting they pop up periodically over the centuries and their curiosity they’re sort of young gee this is cute you know you can make a jet of hot air you can make it turn something etc use for toys basically and they’re not systematically developed the Chinese have played an awful lot of attention to the specific skills of the craftsmanship and we played so much

attention to the application of such skills in counting in crafting for example the Emperor’s the chairs the Emperor’s bear to the Emperor’s palaces we didn’t think deeply about how to benefit a social being how to benefit the spirituality how to benefit the abstracts of Sciences China has lots and lots of coal it’s overwhelmingly in the wrong place it’s mostly in the far northwest it’s hundreds of landlocked miles away from the most commercially advanced parts of China so what you get in the lower Young’s are the richest part of China is what one person calls a super light industrial economy they’re incredibly good at things like textile production etc etc using very low energy demands they get very good at saving energy the British response is instead to find more energy which they find primarily in the form of coal and which is happens to be located in the perfect places for them very accessible to water transport it’s easy to get it to London South England is very deforested from a very early days – there’s the debandpete cetera and coal of course changes the world let aired to the civil now what your heads up finally through until I think the rise of the West was a matter of luck several factors came into play at the same time first the struggle of English Kings with the aristocracy delivered the first constitution I think the rule of law was essential for the balance of power in the government secondly the West accomplished a scientific revolution inventions were abundant all over the world but only the West employed the scientific method Westerners developed theories from their inventions and taught them in schools sure there were plenty of Chinese inventions but they were all done by chance not by research the Scientific Revolution resulted in the Industrial Revolution for the first time in millenia humanity didn’t have to rely on agriculture alone the development of Industry created large urban populations these new people developed a civic conscience by living in close proximity to each other so that is how you got democracy Fault away so yeah the theme for the scent of musical the Chinese had never looked outward beyond themselves and I think that’s a big key to their falling behind the west prob part of the problem is the very cost of success we’ve shot in the Roman Empire the decline and fall of the Roman Empire we are seeing it now I think in the decline of American Empire when you’re the top of the heap when you’re a unipolar hegemon you become used to having it your way you become complacent you become arrogant you become Exceptionalist you believe that you are where you are because of so many qualities that you bear and that the rest of the world really wants to do it your way and that’s true while you’re you know for a time but what goes up comes down the lotion of it being the center stage or center of the universe is deeply rooted in our mind for centuries we believed we should live in a homily instead of our hostility and the the notion of a homily is based on the naive thinking that our neighbors are not so greedy and we are afraid of the Emperors of power and strength in the central kingdom but they are not because I mean they are greedy with a brutal they colonized Africa Asia K they killed Indians in North America our naivety has been ruthlessly exploited by the Europeans you

to the extreme width of a redhead and Western foreigner appears violent love quite unlike other barbarians of the Western island among them or the English Islamic the French the Dutch the Spaniard and the Portuguese these are very fierce nation their ships are strong and do not be a typhoon their natures are dark dangerous and inscrutable wherever they go they spy around with view to seizing other people’s land by the 18th century Chinese emperors continued the policy of isolation and any merchant who engaged in foreign trade was executed as a pirate so great was their steel of the outside world that all Chinese living on the southern coast were moved inland including those living on all southern islands the only foreign trade allowed was restricted to the Canton where an official market was organized and all the foreign merchants had to transact business through official intermediaries British merchants frustrated with such restrictions petitioned King George the third to open China to trade Lord McCartney led a delegation to the Beijing court but before receiving him emperor zhongzong declared the celestial Empire possesses all things in great abundance and lacks no products within its borders there is therefore no need to import the manufacturers of outside barbarians in exchange for own products the Lord McCartney mission in 79 is a remarkable moment at this time China is able to dictate the terms China is large China is powerful the Chen lo Emperor subsequently wrote a message to the British model saying thank you for sending these gifts thank you for maintaining control over your territory it’s not necessary for you to send future gifts for we have all that we need all that we require in great abundance they move everybody inland from the coast it’s a pretty brutal policy it’s something that you couldn’t have pulled off in most of the world that’s the attitude of the state though very different from the attitude of the population right one of the reasons they had to move people in off the coast because the people on the coast we’re perfectly happy to trade with foreigners because the things that he talks about this says yeah we don’t need your clock saying we don’t want this junk there’s actually enormous craze for it among the wealthy elites of South China it’s very very cool to have a Western cuckoo clock in the late 18th century if you’re rich the oligarchs within the dynasty we’re incredibly reactionary they were the guardians of the Confucian faith and here where the Westerners coming in with ideas that were totally unrelated to Confucian notions of virtue and benevolence they were saying knowledge is power and they were saying that the only good curriculum in a school is one that teaches you how to solve current problems as opposed to Confucian education which consisted of memorizing to five two thousand year old classics about good behavior emperor jean long died soon after meeting Lord regarding his successor the Xiaojing emperor eased the restrictions on trade this would raise the taxes collected on imports banning them would earn nothing thus a new revenue stream was created to the Beijing Court and in fact Imperial officials at Canton are under pressure to increase the volume of foreign trade because that revenue goes directly to the Privy Purse in Beijing on the other hand it’s absolutely true that they see foreign trade as something that they can do without and so if it seems to involve a security threat the Ching State they’re perfectly willing to cut it off tea silk porcelains a whole list of

items were in grand demand in Europe and in the United States initially the British were able to sell to China cotton that they were able to get in India produce turn into fabric and then send to China the Chinese though quite quickly developed a cotton industry of their own and no longer needed to purchase this British supplied cotton over time the British demand for tea for lacquerware for a whole slew of products increased and they were running a huge trade deficit their ships would bring silver to China in exchange for these Chinese products many of these British traders were anxious to make money on both sides they were anxious to make money selling things and not just importing them not just buying them China had an early experiment with paper money it worked pretty well for a few centuries and basically in the 1300s it’s destroyed the way so many paper money experiments were destroyed the government got in trouble and started printing like crazy and after that nobody would trust it after that the Chinese economy which is after all the largest in the world in this period is gradually we monetize with silver and interesting with China produces almost none of it but the best estimate is that of all the silver mines in the America about a third of it lines up in China as silver has a crucial function in Europe to this hard currency is what you pay mercenaries and so it’s not that there wasn’t enough silver to pay the tournament there certainly was it’s that Parliament doesn’t like decreasing their their hard metals hoard and so the British East India Company is under political pressure find something you can sell on a very very large scale but we don’t have to ship some silver each other it’s not an economic issue receives the Securities they sit upon a product that was available in India and in Turkey the Americans imported opium from Turkey into China and much more famously the British imported opium from India into China and initially the size of the trade is like small but in the 1820s and 1830s it accelerated dramatically so dramatically that there was an imbalance in trade that was now in favor of Britain silver was leaving China in exchange for this opium opium does two things for the British the first thing it does is it helps make their Indian colony profitable it’s a major source of revenue for that colony which at that point is struggling and that’s pretty critical especially cuz if you can get that by taxing an export right then essentially you’re not asking any Indian people to pay the tax it’s politically much more palatable the second thing it does because it enables them to pay for the tea that they’re buying from China without shipping in huge amounts of silver the government was losing control and so it decided that it had it had to act to block the importation of opium first the government adopted use propaganda just say no campaign don’t use opium is bad for you it’s immoral second it established sanitariums to try to clean up attics to provide an opportunity for addicts to escape their addiction third it began to crack down and force addicts into collective responsibility owners the fourth measure was a crackdown on Chinese dealers it was because all four of these actions

failed to stem the problem that the Chinese government then took its fifth action which was to address the foreign suppliers and it did so first in a gentle way saying the ways of God are without partiality it is not permissible to hurt one another in order to profit oneself is there any article from China that has done any harm to foreign countries on the other hand articles that come from outside to China can only be used as toys we can take them or get by without them there is however a treacherous class of barbarians that manufacture opium smuggle it for sale and deceive our foolish people in order to poison their bodies and derive profit there from not to smoke it yourselves but yet to dare to prepare and sell it to the foolish masses of the Middle Kingdom this is to protect one’s own life while leading others to death when that failed to stop the problem then they seized first the traders compelled the traders to give up their opium and destroy the opium and it was at that moment that the British traders sense an envoy back to London to lobby Parliament to authorize the British government to use military force to secure redress to secure payment for property and in the British debate everybody knew the discussion was about opium but the law itself authorizing the British government to take action doesn’t use the word opium it speaks only of the property of these traders but say some extravagant people the Chinese had the right seizure but not the power to enforce that and the inference they would wishes to draw from that is that it was the duty of British merchants to show respect for the laws and maritime rights of China what at the cost of two and a half million shillings very fit it is that such arrogant people should be brought to their senses and notorious is it that in the eastern lands no appeal to their sense of justice will be made available which does not speak through their fears by all means thanks of well it’s the only chance it’s the only logic that penetrates the form of so conceited a people the Chinese government they’re actually pretty surprised that the British won’t negotiate over it they they don’t get it they don’t they can’t see how important it is not to all of Britain certainly but to certain powerful British interests especially those tied up with India and so they never really expect a war they’re not terribly well prepared for it and they’re not technologically prepared for it we have developed a strategic thinking before the establishment of the first centralized the kingdom of the Ching dynasty now this the essence of this diplomacy or strategy thinking is we use diplomacy to conquer the remote enemies but we use military force to bring our neighboring enemies to their knees having succeeded in defending themselves so well against others they never really had any serious enemies for a long time the Mongols are the only enemies in the end at Dien it from the 13th century and then eventually succeeded by the Manchus were all similar nomadic peoples from the north Horseman so the although they had gunpowder they had cannons had all those things it was never necessary to do more than that it was adequate for dealing with all the enemies they had never met an enemy that very threatened them and certainly never by scene never in whole history of China did an enemy attacked

them by sea so they were totally unprepared so naval power for example or something they they had the capacity and they never developed it because it said why why do all that when you don’t have any enemies coming by sea from what they knew there were nothing in June 1840 Abreu t’ish expeditionary force of 16 warship with 4,000 Marines left India to seek retribution for the destruction of the opium the Chinese blockaded the entrance to the port of Guangzhou with chains the British Armada simply by past Guangzhou and occupied through other key ports Hong Kong Liang wall and Tianjin in response the Chinese called for a meeting in Quang Jo agreed to cede Hong Kong to the British indefinitely and agreed to pay a large compensation for the destroyed opium the British crown didn’t think this was enough so in 1841 and another even larger expeditionary force of 10,000 men several strategic ports were occupied including Shanghai and Nanjing faced with defeat hundreds of Qing officers committed suicide the British having already undergone the Industrial Revolution possessed much better weaponry the capacity to support an expeditionary force of this sort and they were able to land first in southern China and then to advance and threaten the capital it took three years but the British were able to compel the Chinese government to capitulate the decisive moments in the opium war basically have to do with steam ships that the British are able to do something that the Ching never expected anyone could do which is to sail upriver and get behind coastal forts that had all their guns pointed out that way once they could do that they could threaten the young as a river and the grand canal the Grand Canal is as they called it the throat of Beijing it’s the thing on which you ship southern rice up to the northern capital once the British can threaten that the Chinese want to settle fast and that’s what they do and in 1842 the Treaty of Nanjing was signed and this treaty provided for first the Chinese had to pay for the cost of the war the cost incurred by the British second it ceded the territory of Hong Kong to Britain in perpetuity and third it allowed for the opening of five coastal zones to British traders the most famous of these is of course Shanghai it changed the relationship between the west and China in a really striking way quickly after that the French were able to sign the treaty with the with the Chinese that allowed for missionaries to enter China and in 1845 the United States signed a treaty with China getting all of the benefits that the British and French had already won as well as introducing a new idea the idea of most favored nation status which meant that whatever deals the Chinese would offer other foreign countries in subsequent agreements the Americans would receive automatically the Qing Dynasty like all the Chinese dynasties was really a continental power a few Europeans arrived by sea defeat you’re very weak Navy take a few ports and open up for trade would you see that as a threat to your whole system they didn’t so a wake-up call it should have been but it was not understood in that way because they didn’t see this as a long-term threat it was only after the Second Opium War in the 1860 but then they realize something was fundamentally wrong these people are not just invading for a short while and causing some trouble on the course and then going away they are actually pressing inwards and they actually march into Beijing and

we went down to summer palace and that was humans there you Joey the best watermelon on internet challenge Baja to make Swatara awesome ago to make water I’m American I am a and is the Darren said JD Hogg and figures at the insurance even Vijaya should go hi baby from pushing a yes man yeah are you pick on a fun note card will be something to me you we have women abuse what I mean to each other also women we are to know without to you aware as well this what if I were to give a legitimate I will have to be on the feet on solid experiment wait yep I won’t do battle and you’ll make one starting making about anything but sorry everyone Joanna Woodleigh yeah Jennifer yes Reggie Williams who was available in a community because it off in an international charity on Halloween yeah what are you for adidas could you don’t worry you go child and you mean no usually how far away you are but we all day with chant you know how that means ah yeah in 1856 off the coast of Guangdong the Chinese Coast Guard seized a British merchant ship suspected of carrying contraband soon afterwards the British and French joined forces and renewed the war against China they demanded that the opium trade be legalized throughout China but the Chinese customs office be put under their control that tariffs on goods made in Europe be limited and that all Western missionaries be allowed to operate without hindrance frustrated with these demands officials of the Ching dynasty arrestees the anglo-french delegation in Beijing a few days later 20 members of this delegation were tortured and executed by the Emperor’s so-called Board of punishments the British and French forces encountered little resistance and after only delicious River they stormed Beijing the change government surrendered unconditionally and agreed with all the demands however Lord Elgin the British High Commissioner to China decided to strongly discourage the Chinese from ever executing diplomatic envoy’s again 3,500 English and French troops with heavy artillery were ordered to surround the Summer Palace in the early 18th century the Chinese emperor invested better than a dozen years and huge huge amounts of labour and money in erecting UN Ming UN this became the chief playground for the imperial family one portion of this was designed by a foreign missionary to look like Versailles in the middle of 19th century a combination of British and French forces took about a day and a half to destroy what had taken better than a dozen years and huge amounts of labour and treasure to build laid waste to y ending in looted it and destroy leaving a scar on the land and a scar in the Chinese psyche after the devastating defeat and humiliating setbacks the Emperor’s realized that we were weak but we but they did not realize that we were corrupt because we didn’t have a strong

Parliament we didn’t have the novel Hache who’s a strong interested in protection of their vested interests and urge them to take part in parliamentary elections until you’re led to those big those who trust and to formulate a mechanism of check and balance so I think the Western democracy is very much related to the fact the idea of protecting private ownership we don’t have a private ownership to be banished to so any bank me unless you found be what do we do a militant for the last 200 years of Chinese history has to do with the rise of the West unfortunately all the Western powers went to China for economic purposes and none of them ever tried to reform her political system and that is for good reason it is easier to make quick profits in a country without the rule of law the CEPA I think the same is true today some corporations go to China knowing that if you bribe officials you can make anything happen professional we were late comers to democracy now it seems I think late comers always need international support in order here reporter Steve Alford Andrea Correale we didn’t generate own boy horse sins and the grinding seemed wrong for the times again border you you starting in 1861 the British and French sign a treaty with the Ching dynasty which they get pretty much everything they want and then they realize something which is wait a minute we now have everything we want from these people what is the dynasty spell what a nuisance we’d have to start all over again we don’t want to do that it was much more practical for them to instead enter into what was called the cooperative policy which was a policy of let’s try and keep the chin on the throne push them make them implement the treaties but not push them so hard that we toppled the weak up court indeed the opium war a group of scholars started to reflect upon whether we should go to the west and unfortunately those rulers who are defeated were able to pay the the tuition fees for the first group of young Chinese the students were sent to the states to study advanced technologies the coming of the West really accelerated the downfall of the Manchu dynasty they were already having problems with peasant unrest beginning in the late 18th century peasant rebellions I mean huge ones not small ones millions and millions of people and in that situation the Chinese state was losing the Manchu dynasty was losing sovereignty the West was taking territory and taking concessions the West was determining the terms of trade deciding how much tariff the Chinese could charge on the importation of goods and Western machine-made Chinese handmade goods probablistic and so you had a real deflation of imperial power and their decision to send students abroad to learn how to make gypsum and cannon railroad came too little too late the Qing Dynasty became worried but even then they were worried yes they must learn from the West and fight back and defend the country but they then you think it was a threat to their survival to the cultural underpinnings of the of that civilization the political system seemed to be very stable they had major

rebellions within the country and they beat them back one after the other the Taiping levels the Muslim rebels see having trouble with is Europeans coming by sea but it did not really occur to them that this is ultimately something that would destroy the whole system why did they not wake up because they were so confident of their system it’s been around for 2,000 years dealt with all our enemies one way or the other we will deal with this one as well until it was too late and they only really finally woke up when they were defeated by the Japanese that was incredible a small country which they had despised and saw this not a problem to actually lose to death and why did the Japanese beat him because they actually live away American objectives change as America’s position in the world changes after in the mid 19th century we’re a relatively weak power and basically what we’re doing for most of the 19th centuries were piggybacking on the British which suits American interests as well because we’re a strong commercial type military platform and so we want the same things as other Westerners we want to be able to trade we want to be able to ended missionaries if Britain opened China to trade the United States proceeded to do the same thing for Japan in 1852 Commodore Matthew Perry leading for American battleships sailed into Tokyo Valley the fiercely isolationist Japanese were given an ultimatum open up trade or trade will be opened by the cannon ban fearing the Chumley’s fates of humiliation and defeat the Japanese leadership embarked on the most radical reform since they recorded history when China and Japan encountered the West in the beginning in the early 19th century their responses were entirely different because their societies had become differently the centralized Empire of China was still intact with its Confucian orthodoxy which still wanted to control everything that came in and went out whereas in Japan you had had the disintegration of empire and a series of feudal States more like Europe where the samurai were became sort of these wandering merchants and entrepreneurs so that when the West came knocking on the Japanese door they saw that there were things the Westerners had that they could use to make themselves more powerful perhaps against their regional rivals within Japan and so they were able to adapt whereas the Chinese this old and rigid ossified empire when it was challenged by the coming of s rejection the Meiji Restoration resulted in the first Japanese Constitution handed down by the emperor as a badge of civilization and enlightenment while still ambiguous and at times self contradictory the first Constitution guarantees the individuals the right to his property the freedom of speech assembly and Association the Shogunate was dissolved as a governing institution political parties and a free press were established trade with the west flourished by the end of the century over a thousand miles of railroad was built and Japan became the third largest steel producer in the world the Japanese learned the Chinese language the record classics they borrowed a lot of ideas from the Chinese initially thousand years ago but in fact a very independent of China they never were subjugated by the Chinese they never be even paid tribute to the Chinese they admired the Chinese a great deal but their admiration for China was challenged when they found the Chinese defeated by the Europeans and since they never really cared that much for China he just from what they learned from trying the admiration of China was for China’s success and prosperity once they saw the West’s defeat the Chinese they paid attention to save the west can beat and the West just took some ships and their countries we’re way far away can come all that way and defeat the Chinese there’s something wrong with China so we stopped looking to try and stop admiring the Chinese look at how these Westerners did it if the Westerners can do it from that

far away we are so near one aspect of the newly found ban may caker was the contempt for other Asian Nations Korea at times called why the Japanese press a dagger pointed at the heart of Japan became an obvious target rich in iron ore and coal Korea have been part of the Chinese Empire since the 16th century in 1894 the Chinese Secret Service assassinated Kim okyun a Korean revolutionary with Japanese symbolism soon after war erupted as both sides rushed to increase their troop numbers in the peninsula the Chinese could only deploy 4,000 troops led by general one Chi Chi they were no match for the better led and better armed Japanese army the lethal problem that killed at the last of the dynasty was a collage pirates who she embezzled the funds for the Chinese and navy for the construction of our royal garden the Summer Palace and she knew very well that we’re going to have a war with the Japanese everybody at different levels either in the Navy in the Army or in the government was only loyal to his or her own vested interests instead of the future of the nation at sea the Chinese Navy found itself vastly outgunned while Japan bought three new battleships from England during the 1870s the Empress Dowager took the Chinese naval budget to build a new summer palace in a matter of hours the Chinese Navy was an isle ated hundreds of Ching seamen found their death in the frigid waters as the Japanese Navy took no prisoners Kurian empress myeongseong was murdered by japanese troops for siding with china in a matter of years the entire Korean Peninsula and Taiwan became the first Japanese colonies this marked a new era for the Chinese state from losing trade concessions and a few ports now entire territories were torn apart in the country the last Chinese dynasty had collapsed by 1911 resulting in further disintegration and decay natures are dark dangerous and inscrutable wherever they go they spy around with fuel to seizing other people’s land of all the islands barbarians under heaven the redhead barbarian the island barbarian and the Japanese are the three most deadly there is nothing in Chinese history anybody to suggest that they would expand territorial there’s that nothing again in Chinese history that they would attack anybody they have fought mainly on their own frontiers there for many many times for reasons which may or may not be justified that they had fought along their frontiers but they’ve never gone beyond what was traditionally Chinese frontiers would they now do otherwise I have no reason to believe that they would be so foolish as to do that the world is different and no room for empires nobody is going to accept it the world will not accept and they know it they don’t believe in regime change elsewhere they don’t believe in intervening in other people’s affairs I think they genuinely believe that because they are very concerned that other people should not intervene in their own affairs and they want to keep the principle of state sovereignty is absolute now what your little water your horse I think it is the fault of the Chinese rulers they brought upon our people pain and misery our governments to the present day never accepted a system that would limit their powers in order to benefit society the treaties that the

West imposed on us also benefited the ruling class the victims were always the Chinese people as the government always controlled the education it was easy to create this blaming of the West for all of China’s problems that’s where this national feeling of shame and humiliation is coming legal to laganja to the hotel it was all none other way we want to with loved six you got to remember the Chinese are totally peace-loving we don’t want to give a little too early we just want everybody to be happy the way we hope you expect us to be happy but the way Chinese that have been treated seriously was not very nice it means we cannot forget history that’ll serve as the impetus and incentive for us to move forward to construct the Chinese economy to resume our dignity with the re-emergence of the speed power and then we want to be treated as Yukos not only in the imagination Security Council or MF that enormous all of the major world bodies and I think the Chinese welcome because we a dialogue is better plugs and plantation is we out for in the bright future you you