Lecture 3 : Introduction to HRD (Contd.)

Transcribers Name: Mayflower Human Resource Development Prof. K. B. L. Srivastava So back to the session in this session basically what we are going to discuss is that what are the various activities that HR people especially relate to the development professional perform and what context they are going to perform it, because you know that any function that you are going to take up is going to be influence by a number of factors, so we will discuss about the context and we will also talk about from the critical issues which are important for HRD Before we take up this issue let us see a major difference that has been made between the HRM function and HRD functions. What I want to tell you here is that HRD is basically subset of Human resource management. So HRM actually what to say consist of number functions are related to management, administration, development labour relations and industrial relations While HRD just specifically concern with that development of knowledge skill and attitude of the people, so that they said improvement in their behaviour in the performance. So if you look at HRM as a concept it is basically related what you call the Management and Administration HRM as I told you as a number functions may be related to management administration But if you look at HRD which I told you is a subset of basically HRM only. Is focusing on employ development issues. While HRM may be reactive in the sense that you need to decide about the practices and policies depending upon your requirement. So far HRD is concern the management has to see that what kind of development orientation of policies they are going have So that their people have the right kind of a skill and knowledge basis so in that way it is going to be more productive. Similarly HRM is basically concern with what you call how are going to you make sure the people in vector, so that they are more productive, they are more effective. But HRD is basically concerned with developing the competitions of people. HRD is not concerned with effective utilize on the people. HRD is concerned with ensuing that people had those kind of physical which is required by the organization HRM is while more routine and administrative so far as activities are concerned, but HRD is more creative in the sense that you need to do said about what kind of systems and practices in terms of various activities that revealing to perform in the name of HRD are going to be there and since learning and development is a continuous process So we have to continuously work for that If you look at HRM the major concern of HRM is the individual in the organization. While the concern of HRM may be the individual may be the group are even they organization. So with this distinction we move for that to see that one of the various activities that is being performed by the HR people Especially related to the HRD. Now broadly speaking if you say the HRD function as such it could be classified into different activities, but training and development in general is the major function. Apart from training and development we also go for some other activities especially related to organize and that is organization development. So we start with training that is the most important function in any organization Now if you look at training either function in the organism which is perform with the HRD department HRD professionals are the people who are affiliated with HRD they organization and it is there they up to see that this kind of activities are taking place to improve the behaviour and the performance of the people in the organize symptoms for their knowledge there is skill or their behaviour Now if you look training it could be of different kind orientation program when employ joints in the organization that is also part of the training program or improving this knowledge and skill gap in terms of how we are going to perform this up. So it could be related to kind of a skill or the knowledge that is required. In addition to this, to other activities which are basically a part training but actually if you look at them coaching and counselling They are slightly different because in some

cases when you are not going to provide training you have to give coaching or some cases where training is not visible you are going provide training. Now one major theme relate you training is that training is given to see that imply are able to perform their job in the current job. It means the training objective tools see that you are able to improve your performance on the current HR And for that we will discuss further later on that how I identify this training programs are the individuals what are their needs we assist the needs, we also design in our training program and then we delivered programs and see that with other change in the knowledge in skill and attitude or not. Using the charting process model. Apart from training the either important factor that is education We need to major difference between training and educations while many authors try to see it only as a training and development but here we have taken three important functions that you are training education and development Now the idea of education is different from training, while training is going to help you to improve your performance on the job Training basically prepares you to if future identifies job or responsibilities or when it is going to increase your responsibilities or capacity in the present job So say for example you have been asked to attend a course in a different areas keeping in mind that you might be given a position or you have been given a leave by the organization to pursue higher degree, so all this is a part of education. So basically education prepares you for a future identify job or giving more responsibility you educate yourself to take up these kinds of positions Apart from education the next major important function that is performed with HRD professional says related to the development. Now development is distinct from training and education the sense that development of a skill or attitude may not be directly related to your job. So not this is that any development activity or program that is taken by the organization is going to help you to see that it has to improve your performance in a direct manner But definitely indirectly it is going to help you to grow you personally and professionally So that idea is that if any development program which is not directly link with your performance but indirectly link with that is going to help you to improve performance because these development programs are meant for your personal and professional growth If you look at these development activities that could be offered to the people like stress management yoga or leadership development, so these kind of programs are basically given for your personal and professional developments, similarly other HRD activities like for networking seminars having membership of associations of professional bodies, in the context of HRM like you know that there we have a society for human resource management. Initial HRD network or in general management organizes like Indian Chamber of Commerce Industry, Associated chamber of Commerce Industry So these kind of professional organizes help you to grow you personally and professionally So if organization facilitates the process for you to net work with these kind of organism to be a member in attend, so that you capture or get or increase our knowledge on skill base which is going to help you to perform in your job, but it may not be directly related So these kinds of activities organize development activities Now if you look at it we have talked about three major functions that is trending education and development. Now that is at the individual level. Now at the organization level also we have organization development. Now when we are talking about organization level this is not at the micro level, but the macro level where you basically concerned at the shaft versions for the growth and development of the organization That how organizations are going to effective Now the thing is that our organizations are going to effective only if individuals are going to effective and perform well. So those side you are going to link individual development and growth with organization development and growth. But at the same time, the lot of intervention that can be planned at the group in the organization level

Like you know when companies conduct organize dissection survey or organization health survey The idea is to identify this strength and weakness of the organization and then take certain majors like going fast survey feed back or other kind of things which basically help you to identify the issues and problems and then work on it, so that organization does not have this kind of problems So they are not a interventions that can be planned at the group level like team building could be at the organization level also, lot of intervention can be planned extensivity training for the people and these kind of things which are basically mend for the growth and developmental organization and they are also planned as systematic activity. So HRD professionals are also concerned with organism development intervention So they have to plan this kind of intervention to ensure that how the organization is going to be more productive and effective in the logarithm. So here you are going to play a role as a catalyst, you want to see or you want to ensure that organization growth and develop, so you are going to play the role as a changes it. You need to ensure that how you are going to contribute to the growth and development of the organization, so if there is anything that is initiated by the organisation So you have to identify that in what way you can contribute to make that these changes are going to be successful and in that we are going to be called a change management Say for example organization is going to acquire in your form now if organization going for this kind of acquisition then what role you have to play at HRD professionals. Now you have to see that what are the knowledge as skill base of the people of that organization and with it is going to be compatible with requirement of your organization or not So you are going to plan certain intervention in the name of training education or other kind of interventions like coaching, mentoring and counselling to ensure that people have the competencies to work in this organization If that happens probably you will have a better role to play as it changes in it. Apart from this role changes in you are also responsible for ensure in the growth and development of the employees, so far is their carrier is concerned. If you look at this that most of the organization have well let carrier paths And it is the responsibility of both the individual and the organization to ensure that you progress is well on that carrier path from the individual site you are going to upgrade your knowledge at skill base, upgrade your experiences, so that you can move for the from the organization side they are going to see that how you can move at in your carrier So they are going to plan certain activities in the name of the HRD, so that you take up activities upgrade your knowledge in skill base and finally you are able to improve your performance and move up ladder of the organization in terms of society or other kind of things Now if you look at these kinds of things that I have been talking about said training education development broughtly it could be classified into two categories that is at the micro level and at the macro level. When you are talking about the micro level basically we are looking at HRD at the individual and the group level, but when we are discussing about the macro level it could be the organization level, and the community or society level or even it could be in the national level also That what kind of efforts are being made by the nations or communities or societies to upgrade the knowledge in the skill base of its people. So when we are talking about role of HRD at the individual and the group level So you have to say that at the individual level what is the role, to improve the knowledge in skill and also to see that people have the carrier growth, if they have the potential they will be able to grow up This is very, very important here, because this notion of employability. The organization have to make sure that you have those capabilities which is matching with the requirement with organization, so that you remain employable So the basic purpose of the individual HRD at the individual level is to ensure our employability at the organization. So any kind of intervention that is planned by the HR professionals at the individual level has to ensure that people remain viable, they do not become how debtor 14:52 of oxalate So when we are coming about at the organization level the focus is on what to ensure that how this knowledge and skill of the people

is going to help you to achieve the goals and objective of the organization. So that is at the organization level. Now you have to say that you need to scan the environment You have to see that your organization is competitive enough, you have need to ensure that organization have those capabilities which is going to help you to achieve this goals and objectives and this possible only when people have the kind of skill that would be required in terms of knowledge skill or competencies are whatever you call it and if you pull have then request knowledge in skill base probably the organization would be able to compete and sustain in the longer Now when we are talking about HRD at the macro level, so basically we are talking about community level or society level or going to the national level. Say for example the national level you have education industry, some history of human source development which is responsible for the training education and development of the people, starting from the childhood to the adult level and to ensure that these people are able to grow through educational institutional, government departments or professional associations or community groups or even volunteers who offer formal in family education at border level So this is what HRD is at the macro level There is a lot organizations as I told you like national HRD network Wiki in a society for training and development, society for human resource management and if you look at these organizations they are also responsible to help the community and society to ensure in terms of policy decide that what needs to be done in order to see that they was remaining for liable, they are not actually concerned with individual growth and development what they are want to see that collectively how people in community and societies can grow and develop or more educated So that they can understand the things. Now the idea is that these about this at the national level of the community level or whatever they had. They are responsible to ensure that people are able to advance in knowledge in a skill base, so that they can contribute economically and also be more productive at the individual level Now if you look at performance dynamics and you can see that how learning is going to contribute to performance. This is a very important issue, because even if you are going to organize chart intervention a training program, you cannot guarantee that after the training is given the performance will be improving. Training does not leads to or knowledge does not lead to what you call action So this kind of preamble is not correct, because in order to ensure that knowledge leads to action you have to see that they are setting other factors which are available like person is having the right kind of attitude person really motivated to perform simply having the ability to perform well is not enough Because if you look at performance it has a combination of number of factors like you should had the ability that is knowledge and a skill then you should also put in effort and should also be motivated to perform, only then perform as can be expected. Now if you look at the orientation because ultimately we are going to see that how HRD is going to help people to improve the learning as well as performance at different levels So if the outcome of the HRD is what at the individual level to improve your knowledge in a skill base. And if that happens what will happen you are going perform better And if you are going to perform better then organization is going to be benefited. Now your performance is major attacking certain parameters in terms your skill changes in terms of your behaviour changes are if you are working in a particular department you have to say that how much change in the productivity is there after the training is given So you are going to design certain majors in terms of performance and you need to see that whether learning is directly related are linked with the performance or not and whether it is going to be at the individual level or even at a group level. In both the cases it is possible, but when it comes to at the organization level you have to see that how organizations are going to learn Means that what kind of processes there going to adopt in order to ensure that they become learning organization

So the idea of learning organization is that the organization is going to perform continuously well it is able to adopt for the changes and remain competitive in the long run. So if in learning organization is one which is going to improve its performance on a continuous base through innovation, learning and having adoptability to the change process I think that happens probably they would be able to perform well. So again here we are trying to link with learning with performance especially which is an outcome of the HRD activities Now having said so if you look at how well it has gone up so far as Indian organizations are concerned, you can see that all said also talked about it that we have faced economic restructuring because of the globalizing process Because these economic restructuring very very important to ensure that we are able to compete with other organizations domestically and also what you call internationally So you know that after the liberalising process we are going compete in a global economy So gradually most of the Indian organizations also moved from what you call a CRP to in LPG economy that is a controlled, regulated and protected to what you called a liberalised Privatised and a Global economy So the idea is that when we are going to move from a protected and controlled resume to a libral and private resume lot of structural changes have been taking place in the organization in the name of what you call restructuring, nervous sizing, business process in engineering and organizations had adopted lot of strategy is to ensure that they remain viable and competitive in a liberalize privatized and globalize economy Now moving further this kind of economy has also provided in opportunity for Indian organization to expand diversify and integrate their activities and also globalized it means that you can move to other countries for your products, for your process and other kind of things But most of the Indian organization they begin did face these kinds of challenges to change to ensure that they become a performance based competitive organization So moving from is ERP economy to liberalized privatized and globalized economy created lot of challenges and for that most of the Indian organizations took up this challenge and in the process they will for lot of history restructuring exercise internally and also ensured that they are able to capture the opportunities that is available because of this globalize economies elsewhere. But in the process if you look at how HRD is going to help you Now you have to see that when we are talking about Indian organizations competing in a global economy moving from a CRP to in LPG economy. We have to ensure that how HRD professionals are going to help them to facilitate this process of computation, so here we are going to discuss about something that see how you are going to compete in the organization Only when you produce a product which size and quality of certain standard, you are systems in processor of efficient your productive enough in the growing and that is where HRD has a major role, they need to ensure through training and development and other interventions to ensure that people had those kind of competencies So that they can produce quality products and processes they are going to have more efficient processes they are able increase the productivity and finally grow and that is where the role of HRD becomes more and more important. Similarly, if you look at this especially HRD professionals have been trying to ensure that the work place or the people are able to develop themselves and they are able to take up these challenges in the new economic environment And that is where HRD has been able to help them to develop those capabilities which is going to help them to compete in a global economy Now if you look at some of situation that has happened actually like even if they are trying to see that HRD is going to help them in the growth and development process probably in this organization in the beginning or not very much sure whether the HRD practices are

going to help them And they did not find much help from workers at lower level especially from the unions because they thought especially union thought that this is not going to be very very good thing for them. If you are going to bring HRD practices to improve the knowledge in skill base of the employees and they did not find any role for them, probably that is why they did not cooperate Similarly, big organizations have the resources cause and expertise to go for these kind of things but many organizations did not go for these kind of systems and practices. Big organization multinationals or even Indian multinationals they did investment on HRD programs expecting that better result put come out, the people would be competent enough and that is how there could be more effective and productive But many of Indian organizations did not go for that. They wanted to ensure that how these kinds of HRD interventions especially such as training performance management, carrier management is going to help to improve the performance. So these were actually reports that have been identifying base especially related to the HRD area in India and in many cases I have not found that HRD departments have not been professionally managed Most of the personal department or unite have been named a HRD department but ultimately they were doing the same thing, they were not concerned about the development of the employees though many of them neglect services only, they did talk about people being the most important I said to most valuable as said in the organization but ultimately they did not make much investment on their development activities If you look at some of the examples in the beginning you will find that is they did go for these kind of things ITC took up HRD to diversified business and to other products and processes and for that they went for some kind of interventions to ensure that managers are competent enough to take into position in like L&T who was the first Indian company probably in 1970s which will for HRD programs SBI For example, when for cultural transformation of at that employees to ensure growth and development and that has been very very successful programs. Now in LIC also they have gone for restructuring and in order to see that in the face of foreign computation how they can compete have sustained growth, now if you look at LIC the lot of multinational players are coming to the picture and they are fixing be computation, so they have gone for major exercises for change in growth HRD is really helped them in the process. Now if you look at the Indian organization many Indian organization have separate HRD functions many of them have their own training departments and they are trying to help or invest on people development activities And it is a good sign that is in companies are trying investing people through HRD activities So in the next slide you can see that yes because of the changes in the environment change of the technology and even if this less commitment from the people and because of this globalize efforts This basically aware the driving forces because of which you need to change the orientation of the employees and you need to ensure that they are training development or they are growth development happens, so that they are going to be more and more productive. So these are some of the issues that I am being talking about If you are not able to take up these kind of issues probably we are going to create a major thread for employees, because and then you are going to lose your talent or your employee may become obsolete an outdated And they will not be able to perform as well Now if you look at some the critical issues as I told you will also discuss that in detail, but I am giving a reference here like how it is related with the strategic management, but it is the role of the supervisor in the HRD process and what kind of structure is required in so far as HRD is concerned Now if you look is strategic management HRD basically the idea is that how it can integrate HR with strategic with the organizations The idea is that integrating HRD in strategic is that you look at two kind of line external as well as internal. External means that you look at the environment and then accordingly you talk about the kind of the strategy that you want to have internal means that you have to look at kind of people you have and then you see that whether they have it or not That how this strategy is linked with the goals and objectives with the organization So you have to go work for both external and internal alignment and you have to look at very subsistence in the organization and how

HRD system is integrated with other systems like foreigners marketing other things. So that you are able to have a more coordinated and integrated activity So basically if you are concerned about the strategic management, because strategic management is basically related to see that how organizations are going to more effective not only today but also in the future. The idea is that how can maximize growth and development in terms of productivity profit and then short term and the long run and inverted HRD is going to contribute, so you need to align our HRD activities with this strategic management Here we discuss it in detail again so and similarly HRD is responsibility with the HRD profession supervise is also very important role in terms of organising base they can also contact on the job training program they can perform the role of coach, mentor or a council, they should be also concerned with the employ development and basically the supervisor in consultation with employees And the HRD professionals can play a much more important role provided, they can coordinate integrate at the activities with each other, so that people are able to grow in development And finally you have to see that what kind of structure is there for the HRD department, you know that it depends upon number of factors with their small organizations the same person who is the head of the HR activities or HRM is going to look after the HRD activities also. It also depends upon industry whether it is in a growing stage or not So it all depends upon the size, industry and maturity, if the size is being its big industry it is gone grown up substantially then you will find that yes. You have the structure for the HR department actually when we are talking about the structure of HRD it is a part of organizational structure So you have to see that where HR department in position in the organism That is more important, then talking about the structure of the HRD. So if HR department in positioned well and if the reporting relationship with the top management is good probably, you are well positioned in the structure otherwise not So look at this figure which will tell you that in a big organization how it happens, so you have been HR department which is headed with the director then you have people working under him and then you also have down the line, people having in different kind of responsibilities related to development the skill, organization development specialist to also have a separate person for looking after the carrier issues So big departments have this kind of things but in the other medium size departments you will have just 1% or 2% are going to look after the training activities under these kind of things. Similarly you will also find that many organization have their own training departments and they try to ensure that this training department is going to fulfil the requirement of the organism okay Thank you