Continuous Delivery of Debian packages @debconf

okay I’d like to welcome here bob was giving his talk about continuous delivery of Debian packages so given a big applause please I’d like to start with clarifying the terminology and every one of you might know continuous integration coming from software development continuous deployment is what we understand with as soon as the QA criteria is fine we ship or deployed we don’t wait for any further feedback continuous delivery this is what we are talking about now is you release whenever you decide it’s useful to release so it’s kind of a business decision does it make sense to release right now because some customers are paying us for this or users are waiting for a new release and it makes sense to release it right now so in terms of we can call the continuous integration and in a further extended way and why are we talking about all of this M it’s like what are the benefits we get from continuous delivery in terms of demon project or in terms of what we are talking about here is the cost of a bugfix are getting bigger and bigger in terms of when we are in the pipeline if we are in the in the beginning where we we have requirements design it’s quite cheap to change things and define things but what should it look like and it’s getting much more expensive later on code development accounting operations once we deploy it all the system all the changes are getting much more expensive so what we would like to have is some kind of independence we don’t want to rely on this specific laptop or on this specific machine like nobody knows how to rebuild it from scratch or how to change anything what if we just take it out of operations will anything break we want to be able to to kind of scale not just in terms of one bill too many bills of course this is nice but we would be we would like to be able to also start small and just grow as needed in terms of people maybe it’s a small team packaging team like you have five people what happens if we grow to like 500 people reproduce able we would like to have a way of making sure the package we built we can also rebuild like two years lay down that even reproducible M project might be well known and what’s also important is that we have it predictable like we really want to have metrics to estimate filled x times to fix so if we change anything in our software and the build time increases it would be nice to identify what was responsible is it of infrastructure change is it a packaging change is it like upstream change do we have any further built dependencies so what we would like to know is assuming we would have to fix this and that package how long would it take us to deliver it to our end user or customer and I’d like to talk about a few problems and we had at a company where I’m working for and there was a kind of mess with with golden images to ship custom software tech to customers it was a long build time as soon as you change something you had to rebuild all the image you had to upload the image to the customer for one single small change we also had like builds non reproducible it was unmanaged infrastructure so nobody in New on which machine was it built developers could even build their own package and uploaded it or maybe even a binary and just include it in the in the image also the release process was holding back the ongoing development as soon as we were heading for a new release the code was frozen in the version control nobody could took any further work in master branches and all the release process was holding back actual ongoing work getting more and more customers means that we even had to build even more images and diverting from each other like customers have specific needs or nothing to share maybe even we tried like demon source package uploads to a custom build servers not not so sophisticated as the Debian one but in times of weed don’t even upload any binaries which has tripled to step the package from scratch but the developers still needed to manually built or release packages themselves this means then needs some tools from debian org ubuntu they might have problems with

actually releasing stuff what should go in the changelog what version number do i have to use so this was kind of a big problem it solved some some smallish problems in the in the first M part but not the overall vision we had so what actually do we want to have if you look at the continuous delivery booklet the famous one this is what continual is a continuous the deployment pipeline looks like we have a delivery team which has version control checks in some stuff we have built and unit tests and if they fail we just go back in the cycling and start again once they pass we can get to the next step which is like automated acceptance tests if they still fail we’ll go back in the queue check-in trigger trigger nowaday we have user acceptance test and if they pass we can get to the release so we we transfer us into and some kind of workflow for us what would we like to have the developer should just have something like git commit and get review just push it to the code review system that’s that it nothing nothing further shouldn’t touched even change log at all shouldn’t care about what release re are we actually facing if we want to just go for ongoing development just push to master Jenkins one continuous integration server then verifies what we actually build it relies on demon builds we we automatically get once you do their kit review we get custom pas which can be used for development and testing like I’d want to test is what I’m doing actually working like the developer might not know what that even package looked like in the entry side so it just pushes it get a demon package and can just install it on the environment if Jenkins says no I’m not good we are just going back in there in the queue and say well just fix it get review again and once you have the plus one like I’m good you can integrate the code reviewers like other people just look at their demon packaging stuff or possibly just their the software itself and say does this make sense can we push this yes no once we’re good we just admitted to it master branch or whatever maintainence branch we will look at that later and we have some kind of different needs the internal tooling like we run our own infrastructure we don’t need a release dashboard we can just push it and apply it on our infrastructure once we’re happy with it but we also have the product cycle which is like a given release and you’d even release and we r e then decided to go for a release dashboard where we have all the projects and just say we want to release a new version I don’t care about what’s in the deep in change lock and we will automate this this handling we create according branches we create the according text we create the according change log entries and apply the final build and then all the release workflow like automated testing acceptance testing the QA team can decide whether we are fit for release or not just continuous and then we should be to customers like deviant packages it’s really just F get update F get up trade that’s it so that’s what we actually want to have now how did we get there we have we decided on some principles we just rely on deviant packages for and even repositories for everything no exceptions whatever reading nothing only what’s on a version control met us and you don’t have any chance to pay us anything it with the final product into the final system without having it under version control otherwise it can’t even end up there and automate all the infrastructure handling like we don’t want to touch any systems manually all the configuration management systems that should take place we using puppet and unstable automation we have automated even change lock handling to simplify them the releasing of new package versions like you don’t want to think about what version number do we actually need we know this is a new built or this is a hotfix or this is a minor change and we can all decide on that and so developers don’t need even you wounded all day of course are encouraged to do so but sometimes you have developers working very specific components of software and they aren’t using even or don’t want to use even bunted for whatever reason and we have automated release branch handling so whenever we have a new release at the according new release branch it gets created the same for a new what fix everything is created automatically so once you want to fix an existing release you know you can go at every single project just go into the according branch and everything is there as released we have VMs for testing and development we are using vagrant so

whenever you have a problem and someone says there’s this pack report the steps to reproduce all you have to do is like vagrant apt take the project the product in the according name and choose the according version and everything else is set up automatically so we have automated box builds at least once per day so that this so-called base boxes for vagrant automatically the effort according releases and important part we have PPAs for development so no version control freezes at all you can always push to master of masters should always be good always good to release but what is actually released is in separate branches so we just have fast forward and approach you always have to rebase there’s no no option for merchant you don’t know what you will get it’s just fast forward and the according release branches and some improvements that we made in the in this process is usage of temper FS and eat metadata for just building faster or the see cash so we try to get our builds as fast as possible once the user or developer just pushes kit review the demon package should come out as soon as possible we use dashboards for extractions so people can focus on the actual task they don’t have to look at Jenkins is this set now blue or yellow or red where’s the error whatever and which build parameters will actually need to use to end up in the according release that the dashboard takes care of this it knows which project should go into a release which branches do we have which text do we have so the release manager as well as as that according developers have according front and for the actual needs and very important is the code review system the code river system improves of course code quality but it’s also nice for sharing knowledge amongst people like and you are not yet working in some project but there needs to be someone reviewing the code so you tend to ask is this useful what we are doing there could you maybe be more robust in the commit message to explain the actual situation you’re trying to fix and it helps of course introducing new people because new new developers can just start hacking and they get good feedback from people used to work with this project so that you can actually see the progress in a in a bug fix see what other people are fixing what’s the workflow there so code review isn’t just about the quality of code is also about the quality of a team and what what’s under our system is the so called Jenkins given you and many of you might notice the nice thing about standards is that there are so many of them to choose from which is kind of like why I asked in the beginning and we do you use kalpita or s built and then we have code ensign people de we have D build we have the package build packet at APEC a package build package we have tons of rappers or existing tools and there are like different flavors and this this is good there and and that’s bad and whatever and so one one of the main issues important for me was I don’t want to build another tool I just want to view existing tools together to just be able to replace one component by the other if for whatever reason I’m happy and unhappy with something and its billing on top of Jenkins Jenkins was called hudson before in 2011 it was renamed to Jenkins they have weekly releases where you can just follow current development they have LTS versions which is recommended if you run it in production or for actual usage it’s MIT licensed and nowadays there are more than 1000 plugins available for good and bad purposes like you need to identify which plugins are actually useful and which ones actually help and provide something for you they’re more than 120,000 registered installations as of July and just as a disclaimer it’s written in Java but it’s absolutely not restricted to to it at all you can run whatever kind of project with it it’s like grown on steroids it’s really just an and way of scheduling chops of managing artifacts in such stuff so wyd Jenkins leave in view it’s we restarted to formalize the existing knowledge we know about even packaging provide a framework we can work with provide a common ground to base further work on if we decide to to integrate new stuff it should be built on top of it we wanted to gather feedback from other users what

you might they need and what definitely useful and already happened is like you get contributions for further improving your internal system so it was also a kind of community building so we can talk to each other about problems to other companies or to other dave and developers have and don’t trade new tools or standards really we are just relying on what’s available in the deviant ecosystem and it should be easy to use or even eat non give young folks like their people developing upstream software they would like to provide event packages as soon as they have some kind of working team and directory it’s quite easy to get according pills with Jenkins Stephen blue so what’s behind Jenkins deviant view it’s open source project I’m or so MIT license started in 2011 we have more than 25 contributors to read so far it’s written mainly in shell easy to adjust and extend and mainly through hooks and according a configuration very vers environment variables it’s just relying on see I wanna see I so ever so technically it would be possible to just switch Jenkins to something else but it’s the easiest option and open source CIC are available I’m it uses call builder p bilder as a built environment has out-of-the-box support for get and subversion and I know that their users of bizarre and McCool and whatever but out of the box we support get and subversion and with ready to go scripts it has repository management included with free pre pro which every one of you should know and and the so-called fright which is a very simple tool but seems to be useful for some specific purposes and with plenty of q8 who is included Orrin comes of support like you part slinky and auto package test pep age / critic check and check purchasing so who is using and changing Steve and view we have in a grimmer project we also host d package file in a drama fest tools also all that the camera projects order the k’eremu packages postgres has a pretty sophisticated and pick set up building for all the supported both crest versions for all the all kinds of distributions LLVM compiler Wikimedia so there are plenty of users and we get quite interesting feedback form in terms of what they actually need if you want to test it after the talk and there’s the manual approach where you can just set up anything manually but there’s a automatic setup where just get some script easy to review its trivial it’s just a puppet resize or module which sets up Jenkins Jenkins diamond view and m3 chops for playing around so you get everything what you need it’s set up in like five minutes on faster machines it just depends on your system it’s set up in in some few minutes and this is what you’ll get you get a chanc in set up with with three Jenkins jobs Jenkins even view source Jenkins deviant view binaries and Jenkins even view pew birds but this is what we will talk about now the so-called whatever project you are working on source is generating the Stephen source package for you it’s relying on the version control system so it’s accept it expects that everything is there in version control everything what’s on a version control medicine and it generates the upstream source the event changes if applies the control file it’s actually executing a so-called script generate get or generate svn sep shot this also automates to change log handling so you don’t have to manually write anything to the change log it’s it’s looking at your history thanks for get dch gido very useful important it needs to be run only once per project except if you’re building for multiple distributions something different but out of the box you just needed to build once as usual for deven packaging in the binaries job then we do the actual DBN binary package field we have a script called built and provide package it automates the people lower cal bilder actually set up so usually if you don’t have any special needs it does everything for you automatically so you don’t even have to set up capital or whatever everything will be set up for you and you build once per architecture or distribution whatever you are targeting except for architecture all packages of course the Bluebirds jobs is useful to get automated install upgrade and removal tests it’s optional you don’t have to use it of

but it’s useful since you might forget about it you know you don’t have the according pubert setup available if you are working on a package Jenkees d vaguely automates this and you don’t have to take care of this manually as well we have the repository handling its automatic clearly handling all the repositories without any manual interaction so you don’t have to call any repro command lines or yourself the configuration set up for you by default it’s included in this so-called binaries Jenkins job just 44 to make it easy and once you scale out or have specific needs you might want to just separate it into a specific Jenkins job we by default assume that it’s the call so called Project repos job and you can’t control it then to just built only in the binaries job and provide only then in there in the repos job so you can be very specific what you need you might even want to use D put or whatever add a tool to just upload to a repository then you can just split off the binaries part in the repository but it’s just for having it configurable as needed then we apply for the QA testing Lincoln is automatically executed in the source and in the binaries job auto package test is also executed automatically so once you have a deep in tests a directory in your in your package it automatically invokes auto package test and it looks at the according code policies or for pearl shell code Titan and all the results are available as tap and j unit testing for Jenkins usage like you see in this line of code if you have a problem jenkins then can just provide the according feedback to a failed appealed or should we continue its fine for me if just shell check is is unhappy so all the results are available as according reports then so an example of a build pipeline we use is like you review a pushy to review and run some unit tests available in your patent project for example then if this succeeds you continue to building the source package you run all the binary builds run the pupils checks make sure that the package itself is fine include according reciting the in the repo and then be able to just app get install the package from their repos you’re interested in now managing mainly Jenkins jobs without driving nuts and once you start for every single project to have like five or maybe even 10 Jenkins jobs and you have a product with 50 to 100 even packages and this is quite difficult to manage manually and you might want to change the behavior of all the binaries jobs or of all the source jobs so what what to do and the the openstack project has a very nice tool called Jenkins job builder and it relies on on llaman fires for configuration you just have plain text files describing how your project should look like and we have on on github from the supplies company there’s a kamailio depth jenkins project which has an example of how this could look like they’re plenty of others available as well and it’s very nice to use that way because you don’t have to click anything in Jenkins web interface at all for handling that the jobs you have the possibility to just use it and a version control so we have your repos with all that your Jenkins configs in there and if you apply a change you just committed with the according message of course you can include it in the code review assistive system again like does this change make actually sense for our infrastructure will the result look good included in testing environments etc now during this process I mean this is like I was talking now for 25 minutes but this took us more than than a few years to actually be there where we are and we had quite some lessons on the way developer needs might be quite different from operational Rasputia needs they might want to have a specific package which isn’t available in the distribution yet or they might need a specific version of a package which isn’t available in the according distribution yet of course you should contribute back to the upstream distribution in terms of here of course Vivian and when we said never there might be packages which aren’t distributable or whatever for for some reason but it makes sense to just just push back upstream as as possible diverse people improve the overall

quality it’s it’s it’s interesting to have some common ground of infrastructure for systems but for for code quality it’s really interesting to have diverse people and this includes different distributions as well like not just to think about what even provides outside as might provide interest input from other distributions code review requires good remote working culture and open source Forks are used to remote working so I’m not actually here to to promote this because every one of you might be used to working in this kind of working style but it’s something not not so much used in in in corporate environments that aren’t written by remote working culture external dependencies like we have failures on github or sipping ease down or unreachable or pie pie pie p ruby games puppet labs percona this is a these are all examples we we hit in production usage so what you definitely want to have is local mirrors of every external dependency you have it’s also good because its speed you get a speed-up of your built environment and you have staging options like you before going and shipping this to the customer you decide can i push an update from this specific module or package and only then i will provided in the production mirror configuration management it’s essential to to just have the infrastructure as code if you want to apply any changes to all your qianqian slaves this should just go out through the configuration management whatever you are using if it’s puppet or enter or chef doesn’t matter it but it’s essential that you have some kind of configuration management to ensure consistency also consistent time zones and make all the systems in the same time zone make sure they use some network time protocol so all the systems are you can compare locks from different systems also the catch-22 situation like we ran into this the build scripts are broken but a built infrastructure itself receives the updates for the build infrastructure so we have some kind of recursion problem how do you fix a problem with the underlying infrastructure actually applying those changes is broken also upgrading from from weezy to jesse was everything working but the deployment of the configuration management depends on unit tests which don’t work on chassis yet so in terms of this recursion problem you should definitely have some test infrastructure for for setup for configuration changes so you don’t break production systems and this doesn’t mean just the production system for the customer it’s also the the production system of your own infrastructure then every build of a system might look different from current they’re currently running one even with config management because just because you install the package now doesn’t mean the same result will be in two years if you rebuild the system from scratch so you should also have some testing for the configuration management in place there are plenty of projects like service pack em spectator test server Test Kitchen whatever you prefer but you should definitely have some tests also for your own infrastructure available some tips regular rebuilds of all packages are very good and important because you apply recent policies and and package build infrastructure changes to the packages once you change the underlying build infrastructure the result might be different from whatever you’re building you might have parallel built for your different packages and this is a change in your infrastructure and you have to rebuild the packages and this means what we are doing is like for every single release we rebuild all the packages we never take the package from the previous release all the packages are built with all this current infrastructure if you have to deal with plenty of repositories no matter if it’s get subversion or whatever then mr or my repos nowadays tool is very useful for dealing with large amounts of repositories that the pearl package group has a very good documentation about this on the event vicky and very important integrate your continuous delivery system in your monitoring infrastructure if there’s something broke it should get the same attention as fixing something in customer production it as soon as you can’t build any more packages all the developers are stuck in in development it’s interesting also to to gather some some metrics independent from whatever you use if you’re pushing data into Jenkins you get like build times and and locks and whatever into Jenkins but once

you delete a chop it’s gone also there might be infrastructure changes or clean up for for the for the Jenkins jobs until then you lose all this kind of data so it’s interesting to just provide the meatrix into some independent project or database or whatever and we are using a garret as a code review system and if you don’t like the web interface many don’t know this yet there’s also from the OpenStack community or project itself the gerke command-line tool which provides a command-line interface to Garrett so you can just use it on the command line it has great support for offline so you can actually go to your airplane heck on it review and once you go back online you can just push all the things you did which is absolutely great for working with it and also good is some kind of Jenkins verified job like you whatever mci or CD server you might use but let’s call it a verified shop 2 inch the system actually is working as needed artists slaves there I need and can I’d rig I built of some specific chop or test shop for EM does authentication work do you have the users look there that do the nodes actually look good because once you get get problems in your infrastructure and restarting the CI server and things get out of control and we identified some anti patterns for for a continuous delivery environment as soon as you start with a manual ssh2 some system you might change the configuration you might change the underlying system install additional packages which change existing behavior and provide according debugging options instead this is like keep the coop Eli environment up and running and provided to us to another system or stuff like that but try to avoid manual SSH as soon as tests go ok not ok ok not ok and you don’t know why people will just stop looking looking at them and take them serious and they won’t have any trust and they won’t care at all so once you integrate a new QA tool make sure that it’s working properly before making it mandatory to accept in a pipeline like if we want to have all the pupils jobs to be ok they should at least be once ok everywhere and i also tried to avoid the pulling or cron jobs like at the specific times this is like the dean store run of vivian like you know i have to wait four hours to get my change in instead try to trigger immediate actions once you push something immediately start with it this is like dink Jenkins jobs don’t pull for them or the polling for their the version control changes instead once you know that something is going up to the kids over to the Garrett or code review system whatever just provide according triggers to trigger the according builds I want immediate sent and effect and the manual setup of machine configs I’m I’m not sure if this is an official term but i just recently read it for from markaba that there’s no flake it all they look alike but they are still different and as soon as you start to run installer manually and there’s one single change in it that the result might be just different so really it should be all about automation and what was kind of a problem for us and we have in jenkins given you several wrappers for that purposes is like you have tools with no standardized output so it makes parsing harem if you’re developing a new tool make sure that you can rely on the ultra potent and parse it appropriately and checklists are at a good way to identify that something is going wrong because you might just miss something from the checklist the checklist might be out of date just use automation instead if you want to check for something user champions job hard coding IP addresses hostnames port numbers whatever instead of configurability is is bad thing and if you build the same thing in the in the continuous delivery pipeline once and once again don’t do this it should be will once and then reused for tests for deploying whatever and if you don’t have according notifications developers start to wait and to pull for something instead of just continuing to work on it we have some unresolved problems

actually dependence manager dependency management is is kind of an unsolved problem like if you build a pen on packaged bar and you need another package built before it’s kind of tricky to get this automated so we are researching on that front we have built depends and depends but we have no test depend so we can’t build packages which just have which any decent is in this package but just for testing not for building and not for shipping for the runtime and once you have high frequency and continuous delivery TV reporter stories cause apt to fail quite often because the the mirror is updated and we have had some mismatches and we are seeing this more and more often and I think we have some kind of ideas how to tackle that but I’d like to talk to the according maintenance before pew parts we had some like successful runs even if the package couldn’t be installed so it is the actual solution for buttes was removed the package and everything is fine the actual package will try to to test so just to give you an idea that these are the projects that might be worth a look even every one of you hopefully Jenkins Jenkins even people might help you a vagrant this youth football for all these automated testing as a developer Garrett and Gertie for code review is really nice Jenkins chocolate definitely worth a look everything on our version control automation is really important use dashboards for for for abstraction to not have users get into the details of Jenkins test test test really and built on established workflows and tools like the build package workflow works very well for us and the only bad thing about this is once you’re used to that working it’s really horrible to move outside of such environments and the one of you who are interested in getting deeper into this we have a Jenkins even gloop off on the 21st in room Helsinki I would invite to show up there I think time is over yeah are there Christians hello so I’m under the piano protect my maintainer yeah and so I’ve been exposed to a lot of sea ice from OpenStack world I’ve been using Jenkins to build packages for like two years without Jenkins debian grew the thing is I’m really happy to see that this kind of usage of a CI is spreading and that you are using it too but what I would like to happen is that we use it widely inside the gun to do that unfortunately we have to package Chang Garrett okay so I started to do that drink that cone 5 package 1 travel every invite everyone to join that effort so I don’t know much about Java before that comfort didn’t even know how to maintain something with maven and so obviously I’d need help and I don’t want to have it done all by myself I simply would won’t have the time to do it alone so first like please join join me in doing that effort I I know everybody hates packaging java java in debian but we have to do it that’s the first thing and then so the final goal would be you know already all that we have des right Saudi gate makes the whole of the Debian archive available for everyone to use using it what what nvision would be using Garrett on top of the gate and then the the people that are in the uploaders field would be set as corey reversing getting Garrett and then so the we would have this kind of see I you were walking about like building the package running pew past engine and whatnot and then once once it’s done then the people’s in the lower fields would be able to say vote + 2 pro so that bitter goal and I think it’s really really important that we do that and that we have it available on Alioth or in another machine so the GSA already talked with them and they refuse to use Gary if it’s not packaged in the Vienna and I think there are right to do

to reply this way so please join me in packaging get it do you know about how many dependencies we have left to go to package in Java of oral work the question was how many packages are left in papa 60 Garrett used once before once upon a time used ends to build now we choose is back so before we packaged carried we need to package burke it alone is a lot of work and then once we have package back like it maybe 30 packages then we have to do it for Garrett which is maybe again 30 to 40 packages in Java I’m not sure so because it you will discover as we try to build it so continues so just a short question what are you using for the dashboards and we write our own ones started in different languages actually and just cutting it but nothing highly sophisticated is really just an abstraction to get end so maybe if i should start nowadays from scratch it’s some mixture of go and django which would be actually preferred a gnostic just a quicker mind about the test dependent Oh click on my comment about the test dependencies so we ran into the same problem that it’s very hard to find out which packages test depend on me and we discussed this with the the package maintained as a while ago and we actually have a plan how to implement it just not done yet but we have their agreement we know it’s going to look like and so it’s that’ll help us all for figuring our reverse dependency testing properly without a nice I would like to chat about this later just a technical question so the packages you deliver into production yeah they are all coming out of the continuous integration environment if so how do i add are they scientist then because do we have trusted keys on the infrastructure we have entrusted keys on infrastructure so designing is essentially anonymously so to speak of it once you have access to the review system and you get approved packages they end up in the cap or might end up in a product if everything goes straight forward in the pipeline but no manual signing I mean you are it’s if you want to tag something for whatever reason for example internal tooling or stuff like that you’re encouraged to get tagged with your sign but no manual signing is needed to to bypass the pier so the personal signing is in the versioning and yes the wedding packages you don’t rely on on that end okay thank you any further questions ox ox Linda okay um how much effort do you think would take to write of wanna build front one built like front end for it like say I’m adding a new distribution stretch comes out and I want to rebuild everything for scratch and the system needs to figure out which package is still missing say I don’t want to recompile everything but just admit at the missing bits no idea but they might be worse attract we might join on there yeah sorry for the question but I are still of the opinion that it’s not the white idea to package Jenkins debian glue and debian and it’s on my to-do list for this week actually am yay yeah at that depth that the main concerns I have is once it’s in that even pipeline it should just the diviner back attitude should really just fit and so far i basically had the company vision or from different companies what what’s working for them so i’m just looking at them but it’s definitely on the to-do list i have a pack opening on github issues so there’s time for one more question questions so thank you very much to the crowd and you

Regular Expressions (Regex) Tutorial: How to Match Any Pattern of Text

Hey there how’s it going everybody in this video We’re going to be learning how to use regular expressions So we’re actually going to look at regular expressions as a standalone topic because they aren’t specific to any one programming language Now there are some slightly different flavors here and there but for the most part Whether you’re programming and Python or JavaScript or Java or whatever if you learn how to use general regular expressions? Then it should mostly carry over into your language of choice And it will also allow you to use them in text editors and the command line and things like that now I am going to do a follow-up video where I show how to use regular expressions Specifically in Python since that’s a language that I cover most on this channel, but for this video We’re going to be learning how to use Regular expressions by themselves so that you can apply these to other areas so with that said let’s go ahead and get started so regular Expressions basically allow us to search for specific patterns of text and they can look extremely complicated But that’s mainly because there’s just so much that you can do with them You can create a regular expression for just about any pattern of text that you can think of so let’s see what some of these Look like so I have a test file open here that we’re going to use to search for specific patterns And I’m going to be using the regular expression tool in the atom text editor to write these regular expressions And find what text matches our patterns now in order to open up this regular expression search tool I’m just going to go to find and then find in buffer now. You could have also opened this up with command F on a Mac and I believe, that’s Ctrl F on windows now within the options here make sure that you have the dot asterisk selected over here because that’s going to tell our search tool to use regular expressions and Also select this match case option here as well. That’s just going to give us behavior That is more common to how regular expressions usually behave, okay, so let’s start writing some regular expressions and first We’ll start off kind of simple so first of all we can just search for literal characters, so if I was to search for ABC then we can see here at the top that it highlighted ABC because it matched the ABC and our lower case alphabet now it didn’t match the Capital ABC here because it’s case sensitive Now this search right now is looking specifically for a B and C But if I was to type in something like BCA then we can see that there were no results found because the order does matter Now if we look at this meta character section here I have some examples of characters that I say need to be escaped so for example if you wanted to search for a literal period now if I was to just type in a Period here and hit enter for my search then we can see that it does this weird thing where it matches Everything and that is because the dot is a special character and regular expressions And we’ll see more of this in just a second But for now if we just wanted to actually search for a period or a dot then we have to escape it and to escape Characters we can use the backslash so if I do a backslash and search then now we can see that it only matches the actual Literal dot or period within our document here and that goes for any of these meta characters that I’ve listed here So for example we can see that the backslash is a special character also so if you wanted to search specifically for a backslash Then you have to escape itself so a backslash to escape and then a backslash for the search And if I search for that then we can see that we matched a literal backslash so a practical Example of this might be trying to match this URL right here So if we wanted to match that literal URL exactly Then we could just say kori MS and then for the dot on the dot-com we have to escape that with a backslash and then a period and then come and we Can see that it matches our URL okay? So that’s how you match literal characters But a literal search isn’t too exciting because we’re used to that already Really, we want to use regular expressions to search for patterns and to do this We’re going to be using some of these meta characters that we were just escaping so I have a snippets file open here So I’m going to switch over to this and in here I have a list of values where we can see the types of characters that we can match Now just for now I’m going to try to make this into a split screen here As we’re walking down this list so the first one I have listed here is this dot or period and we can see that this matches any character except a newline now we’ve already seen this, but let’s take a look again if we just do a And search for that then we can see that it matches any character Except it does not match the new lines. Okay, so next on the list is backslash D and that matches any digit 0 through 9 so if I was to do a Backslash D here and searched for that then you can see that this matches all of our digits so anything 0 through 9 it matches now we also have an uppercase D here and that matches anything That is not a digit, so if I search for an uppercase D. Then We can see that our digits are not matched, but everything else is highlighted, so it matched everything except for the digit now

You’ll notice that This is a common theme here that the uppercase versions of all of these are the ones that kind of negate the search so Moving on down here we have backslash W That searches for any word character and a word character is lowercase a through Z uppercase a through Z 0 through 9 and an underscore So let’s search for the word character, and we can see that it matches You know all these lowercase uppercase numbers and things like that tani maaha mid match garanysa charcter gaarka ah It doesn’t match these special meta characters here and just like with the digit the uppercase W Will match anything that is not a word character so anything that is not in this list here So let’s go ahead and search for that uppercase W And we can see that you know it picks up the spaces and these special punctuation ‘s and things like that But it does not match the word characters that we saw before now if you’re not quite getting this just yet We are going to look at a lot of examples to where it’ll start to sink in so moving down the list here We have backslash s Which will match any white space and white space is a space tab or a new line so if we search for Backslash s. Then we can see that it matches our new lines here and our spaces but it doesn’t match any of these characters and here so it’s mainly white space and Just like with the others the capital S Will search for anything that is not white space so now you can see that we have you know all these lowercase uppercase Digits and then also this punctuation anything that isn’t a new line or a space or anything like that Now these bottom ones over here the backslash B. The caret and the dollar sign These are a little bit different, so these are called anchors, and they don’t actually match any characters But rather they match invisible positions before or after characters So let’s see what I mean by this so for a word boundary if I search for a word boundary here So now let’s search for where we have this ha ha ha here Let’s search for a word boundary And then ha and match that so we can see that that matched because there is a word boundary here at the start of this line before this first one here and This space here is also word boundary, so this one gets matched as well But this last one does not get matched because there’s no word boundary between these two Cause here now Just to show with what this would look like without the word boundary if I was to search for that then you can see that It highlights all three of those now. Just like with the other ones if I do a an uppercase B Then that matches anything that is not a word boundary, so if I do an uppercase B Then we can see that we match the one that it didn’t match before because there is no word boundary between these two here so it doesn’t match these first two now if I was to put word boundaries on both sides of These then it should only match this first one Because this is the only one that has a word boundary at the beginning Which we’re matching here and at the end so this one has a word boundary at the beginning But not at the end because it’s in the middle of this word and this one has a word boundary at the end But not at the beginning ok so our other two anchors here are pretty similar so the caret matches the position at the beginning of a string and the dollar sign matches the position at the end of a string So let’s say for example That we only wanted to match a ha if it was at the beginning Of a string so for example if I was to do a caret And then a ha and match that then we can see that it only matched this one because it’s the only one That is at the beginning of a line now if we wanted to only match it if it was at the end then we could put that dollar sign at And what we’re saying here is that we only want to match this if the end of the string is the? Is in the following position so we can see that it not only matches this last one? Because the end of the string is the next position in line, okay? So now that we’ve seen what we can match with these special characters here now Let’s go ahead and take a look at some practical examples, so I’m gonna move my snippets file back here And we will keep referencing that later on but for now Let’s go ahead and say that we wanted to match a couple of phone numbers and let’s write some regular expressions to do this now with a phone number We can’t just type in a literal search like we did before because all of these are different So they have a similar pattern But they’re not all the same digits so in this case we need to use the meta characters instead of literal characters So we just have a pattern here of three digits And then a dash or a period and then three more digits and then a dash or a period and then Four digits at the end so we saw before that we can match a digit with a backslash D

And that is going to match all of the digits in our file so we want to match this phone number here So we want to match first three digits in a row so we can just put in three Backslash DS and that will match any three digits in a row so now that we’re matching those first three digits now We’re getting to where we can see that We’re either going to match a dash, or a dot in our phone number so for now. Let’s just match any character That’s in this position so from our snippets file We saw that if we want to match any character the win can use a dot so we can see that for now our Pattern is still matching some other stuff as well But let’s just continue on so now that we’re matching this – or this dot now Let’s go ahead and add in the next three digits, so we want to search for three more digits So I’ll do three backslash DS And now we’re going to want a dot to match any character Which should match that – or that dot and now we want four digits so we can just do four backslash DS So now we can see that this regular expression Highlights both of our phone numbers and matches both of those so now we’re starting to see how this could be pretty useful So for example I have a data file here now if I pull this up then I have a bunch of fake names and numbers And addresses and emails, but if I wanted to match all of the phone numbers in this file Then you can see that the regular expression that we just wrote matches all of the phone numbers here so now we’re starting to kind of get a sense of how this could be more useful than just a literal search because now we’re Actually searching for a specific pattern, so now let me go back to our Simple text file here so now Let’s get a little bit more specific So let’s say that we only wanted to match a phone number if it had a dash Or a dot now right now this pattern will match any separator because we’re using the period down here which will match any Character so if I was to put in a another number here that doesn’t have a regular separator Let’s just say it’s an asterisk then we can see that it matches this number as well Even though the asterisk isn’t really a phone number separator so to only match the dash or the dot We’re going to have to use a character set and a character set uses square brackets with the Characters that we want to match so to create a character set I’m going to replace our first dot here And this is going to be square brackets now This is a character set now within this character set we want to put the characters that we want to match so we want to match either a dash or a dot and I will just copy that and we’ll replace this second dot here which was matching any character And we will put that in for that as well And now you can see that it only matches our phone numbers here that have a dash or a dot separator And it does not match this one with the weird asterisk there now you probably also noticed that we didn’t need to Escape our dot character within our character set and that’s because character sets have some slightly different rules Now you can escape these characters if you’d like But it just makes it a lot more difficult to read if you do that now even though the character set has Multiple characters here in the set it’s still only matching one character in our next it’s matching one character that is either a dash or a Period but if I was to put in let’s say two dashes here into one of these numbers Then you can see now it doesn’t match that number because it’s only matching the first dash, or a dot and then it moves Right on to looking for a digit, so it’s looking for a digit in this position So that’s something that can kind of throw people off when they first start working with regular expressions so even though you know we have four characters total here in this character set with these square brackets and All of the characters in this set it’s still only searching for one literal character up here, which is either a dash Or a dot now to show another example of this Let’s say that we only wanted to match 800 and 900 numbers, so I’m going to create two different numbers here I’ll do an 800 number and a 900 number here So if we only wanted to match 800 and 900 numbers then our first three digits here We have to do something different so first we want the first digit that we’re going to match to either be an 8 or a 9 so we can do a character set and we can say that we’re looking to either start with an 8 or a 9 Now the following two numbers are going to be 0 0 and that’s just a literal search so now you can see that We’re finding the 800 and 900 Numbers here now within our character set the dash is actually a special character as well so when it’s put at the beginning or the end of the character set then it will just match the Literal – but when it’s placed between values that it can actually specify a range of values so for example We know that the backslash D

matches any digit But what if we only wanted to match digits between? let’s say 1 and 7 so to do that we can use a character set and we can just say instead of typing out 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 If we wanted to specify a range of those values Then we can just say 1 – 7 so now we can see that We’re matching all of the digits between 1 and 7, but the 8 9 and the 0 aren’t getting matched up here Now you can do this with letters as well so if we won’t only wanted to match the lowercase letters A through Z then we could just do a character set of A through Z Now you can see all of the capital letters aren’t getting matched But the lowercase ones are now if we wanted to match the uppercase and lowercase numbers Then we could just put our ranges back-to-back So I could say a through Z and then just add on to this character set and say Capital A through capital Z and now we’re matching all letters regardless of whether they are uppercase or lowercase and you could keep adding to those ranges if you wanted to you could do a 0 through 9 there as well to add in all digits now another special character in our character set is the carrot Now we saw before that outside of the character set it matches the beginning of a string But within the character set it negates the set and matches everything That is not in the set so for example if we wanted to match every Character that is not a lowercase letter, then we could say this carrot And then a through Z so we can see that it matches everything on our screen that isn’t a lowercase letter It’s not matching these lowercase letters here So it’s even matching these new lines and the spaces and everything so just to show another example of this Let’s say that we had some words here cat mat Hat and bat, so let’s say that we wanted to match every word that ends in a T except bat we don’t want to match bat so to do this we can just say that we want a character set of Everything that is not be followed by a T So now we can see that it matches all of these three letter words that end in 80 except for bat because our character set here negated that B So everything that we’ve looked at so far has involved single characters so in this example Right here where you’re matching any single character That is not a B then followed by an A and then followed by a T But we can actually use these things called quantifiers to match more than one character at a time So let’s go back to our original phone number example from earlier And we’ll do match any character like we did before so I will do three digits and then a period for any character and then three digits again and a period for any character and then four digits at the end and I’m just going to remove what we had there for an example and Scroll those back up so to see what quantifiers we have available I’m going to make my snippets half of my screen here again And then scroll down to my quantifier section so the asterisk will match zero or more of what we’re searching for the plus sign will match one or more the question mark will match zero or one and To match exact numbers we can use these curly braces with a number on the inside so in this example this would match exactly Three of what it is we’re looking for and we can also specify a range of numbers as well With the first number being the minimum and the last number being the max so this would search for whatever our pattern is it would Look for three or four of those So let’s take a look at an example of this to see how this works So you can see that with our phone number We are searching for one digit at a time But we could change this if I erase my digits here Then we could say that I’m searching for a digit And then we could put in our quantifier for exactly three digits And we could do this after our separator as well, so we’re searching for Three digits and then any character and then here at the end we want to match four digits So instead of writing out the same character over and over we can see how these quantifiers allow us to specify Exactly how much we want now here. We’re matching exact numbers, but sometimes We don’t know the exact number And we’ll need to use one of these other quantifiers so for example here at the bottom of this test file here We have some lines where each starts with a prefix of mr or miss or misses So let’s say that we wanted to match these prefixes as well as the names after so just to start Let’s start by matching the names that start with mr. Now we can see that some of these

Have a period after the prefix and some do not some of them Just have a space So let’s start our regular expression by searching for lines that start with mr And then we’re gonna put a backslash period to search for that Literal period and right now it isn’t matching this mr Smith which doesn’t have a period after the prefix now to match that also we can use this question mark Quantifier which tells our pattern that we want to match 0 or 1 of that character so if I put a question mark after that literal period then it’s saying that There can be 0 periods there or there can be 1 so we can see that now It’s matching the ones with 1 period there And it’s also matching the one with no period so now to continue and match the entire line now we want to match a space after that and after the space we want to match any uppercase letter and to do that we can use our character class and we can match any uppercase letter by doing a range of uppercase letters there so at this point after that first uppercase letter that we match we’ve Completely matched the name for mr T down here at the bottom, but we still need to match the rest of our other names so we could say that we will match any word character after that uppercase so let’s put in a Backslash W to match any word character, and now we don’t know how many more characters are going to be in our name So we’ll have to use a quantifier here now if we look over here We could use the asterisk or the plus sign and the plus sign will match one or more of these word characters and the asterisk will match zero or more so if we Used the plus sign then we can see that it matches our two top names here, but now it’s not matching this mr t because after our word character It’s searching for one or more word characters after our uppercase character so a better solution in this case May be to use the asterisk which matches zero or more word characters And if we use that asterisk then we can see that it matches all three of our names that begin with mister now I know that we’ve covered a lot so far But we’ve got a couple more concepts to go and then we’ll look at some examples that wrap everything together So we still haven’t matched our miss or misses names here So how would we do that? So you might think that we could use a character set that matches either an R or an S And there are maybe some ways that we could get that to work but it probably would be a bit ugly since we’d have to match either and R or an S as the second character, and then the optional s after that So that could get kind of ugly, but I think a better solution here would be to use a group now We haven’t looked at groups yet But groups allow us to match several different patterns and to create a group we use parentheses so After the M here instead of just searching for mr I’m going to create a group with open and close parentheses here and Now within our group we can specify different Matches so I can say that we want to match either an R and Then or and we use this character here to specify an or and that is just the vertical Bar character to specify an or so we can say that we want to match an R or an S And whenever we add that in we can see that now we’re matching the miss name here But we’re still not matching this Misses so to match the misses we can put in another or and say that we want to match an RS Okay, so now we can see that We are matching all of our names here so let’s do a quick walkthrough of this one more time to make sure we know what’s going on so we have a Capital M to start, and then that capital M is. Followed by either an R and s or an RS and then we are looking for a literal period and this question mark says that we can have zero or one of those so that is optional so it’s matching the ones that do have that period and the ones that don’t and Then after that we are matching a space then after that space we the first letter of the last name We’re looking for any capital letter so we a character set here That is a through Z of capital letters, and then for the rest of the last name. We are matching zero or more Word characters now these groups can actually be used to capture sections of your matched regular expression And that’s something that we’ll look at in just a minute But for now, let’s do a quick recap of everything that we’ve learned so far And look at some examples that incorporates all of these things together, so I have a file here And I’m going to move my snippets back into the group here and open up this file emails

Txt so I’ve got a file here with three fairly different email addresses So let’s try to write a regular expression that will match all of these emails So let’s just match the first email address first and see what that looks like So the first email address we have a mix of upper and lowercase letters here before we hit this @ symbol So let’s go ahead and match those first so to match any upper or lowercase letters we can do a character set and we can do a lowercase a through Z or an uppercase a through uppercase Z now right now This is only matching those single characters So we can use the plus quantifier to say that we want one or more of these upper or lowercase letters So we’re still working on the first email address here We have our upper and lowercase letters here, and now we want to match that at symbol So I’ll just put in a literal at symbol and now for the domain name here I’ll just do a another search for any upper or lowercase letters So I’ll do the same as we did before and then I will do a plus sign for a quantifier to match any Upper lowercase letters after that at symbol and then that’s when we hit the end with the dot-com so to match the dot-com we can do a Backslash period for the dot and then we can just fill in a literal com so now we’ve successfully matched that first address now It looks like it’s not matching the second address So let’s see why and see if we can mold this to match the second address as well So we can see that the second address has a dot in the first part of the name here So let’s add a dot to our first character set so that dots are included in That character set so now it’s still not matching that second address, and it’s because at the end here We don’t have a dot com but a dot e-d-u So in order to search for both. We can use a group like we saw before using open and close parentheses and we can search for either com or Edu okay, so now we are building this up a little bit at a time and we can see that We are now matching our second email address, okay? So now let’s see if we can change this to match our third email address here so and our third email Address it looks like before the @ symbol We also have some hyphens and some numbers in the first part here So let’s add those to the character set as well so back here after our capital letters. I’m also going to add in digits by doing 0 through 9 and we also want to add a Dash in there as well so that should match everything before the @ symbol now It looks like we also have a dash in our domain here So we’ll have to add that in as well so after the @ symbol. We’re matching any characters right now it’s just lowercase and uppercase, but we can put a dash in there as well and Lastly, it’s still not matching because just like the other two instead we have here instead so we can just add In a second or at the end and also include Dotnet so we can see that we built that up a little bit at a time to match all three of our email addresses Now with something like email addresses it can be pretty tough writing your own regular expressions from scratch But there are a lot of these available online and once we learn how to write regular expressions Then we should be able to read them and figure out how they’re matching as well now I’ve always found that reading other people’s regular expressions to be a lot harder than writing them But let’s take a look at one and see if we can do this so I have an expression here that I pulled off line That matches email addresses and let’s paste this in here And see if we can read through and see what this is matching So we can see that the one that I got offline does match all three of my email addresses here now Let’s look through this so we can see that It’s somewhat similar to what we had before but first we have a character set here And it’s a pretty large character set and it matches lowercase uppercase Any number and underscore a Period a plus sign or a hyphen And then the plus sign here says that we want to match one or more of any of those characters And we match one or more of those characters all the way up until we hit an @ sign And then after the @ sign we have another character set here and in this character set we have Lowercase letters uppercase letters any digits and also a hyphen now I don’t know a lot about email addresses, but I’m assuming that since they left out the underscore the period and the plus sign that were in the first part of the email address, I’m Assuming that those aren’t allowed in the domain so then we have a plus sign After that character set which means that we’re matching one or more of any of those characters all the way up until we reach this

literal dot and that literal dot is escaped with a Backslash and then after the dot we have another character set here and this character set is any lowercase letter any uppercase letter any digits Any – or a period and then that is followed by a plus sign which matches one or more of anything in that character set So just like I did with the phone numbers if we open up our data file here with this Regular expression that we’ve typed in then we can see that it does match all of the email addresses in this data file as well, so we’ve Got an expression that will match email addresses fairly well so doing what we just did and reading through a regular expression Written by other people is probably the hardest part of all this, but if you walk through it bit by bit Then you should be able to break down just about any pattern, okay So the last thing that I’d like to look at in this video is how to capture information from groups now We’ve already seen how to match groups But we can actually use the information and capture from those groups so to show an example of this I’m going to open up a file here with some URLs. Okay, so we can see here that some of the URLs are HTTP some are HTTPS Also some of these have WW before the domain name and some do not So let’s say that you had a list of a lot of different URLs within your document and you only wanted to grab the domain name and The top-level domain which is dot-com or gov so for example out of all these domains you only wanted to grab or quarry MS Calm or or, and you just wanted to ignore everything else So let’s see how we can do this so first Let’s write an expression that actually matches these URLs So let me get rid of the one that we currently have now First to match this we can say all of these start with with HTTP and then the S is Optional so we can say s and then put in a question mark to say that we want to match 0 or 1 for the s and then after that optional s we want a colon forward slash forward slash so at this point some of these domains have a So now you can see on all of our URLs. We’ve matched up to the domain name so now to complete this I’m just going to say any word character so backslash W And I will put in a plus sign to say one or more of those word characters and then We get here to the top level domain So we want to match a literal dot so we’ll do a back slash dot and then for the rest of that top level domain I will just do any word character one or more times so we can do a Word character with a plus sign to do one or more okay, so we can see that this matches all of our URLs But the point here was to use our groups to capture some information from our URLs so let’s capture the domain name and the Top-level domain which is the dot-com or the dot gov and things like that so to capture these sections? We can just put them in a group by surrounding them in parentheses So what we want to group here is our domain name and the domain name is this part right here this string of one or more word characters So I’m just going to wrap those in parentheses and create a group And we’ve seen that before and now we also want to put the top-level domain and a group as well that is the dot-com or The dot gov so we can put a parentheses around That dot and then also around the ending there that is the string of one or more or characters, okay? So we can see that we’re still matching all of our URLs here But now we have three different groups so our first group is just that optional wwr Second group is the word characters that make up our domain name and the third group is that top-level domain now There’s also an implicit group 0 and group 0 is. Everything that we captured so in this case It’s the entire URL, so now let’s get to the cool part about this So let me show you what we can do now that we’ve captured these so we can use something called a back Reference to reference our captured group so for example here an atom we have the ability to Replace our matches we can see down here that we can replace So let’s replace all of our matches with just the literal text group 1

and then a colon and then a dollar sign 1 now this dollar sign 1 is a reference to our first group now sometimes This is a back slash But for some reason and atom they use a dollar sign so if I do a replace all here Then we can see that it replaced our matches with this literal text group 1 But then it also replaced the dollar sign 1 with our first captured group and the first capture group is that optional? Wwww we can see that it shows up and for ones that didn’t it doesn’t have anything so let me undo this and now let’s replace our matches with the second group and now the second group should be the domain name so now if I do a Replace all now then we can see that now it says group two is Google Corps EMS YouTube and NASA and if I undo that and Replace this with the group three then the group three should give us our top-level domain so our group 3 is the dot-com comm Gov things like that So let me undo this one more time so now that we know how to use those back references Then we can actually take our regular URLs and clean them up like we meant to from before So we could convert these to a cleaned up version without the HTTP or the WW just by replacing our matches with the domain name which is group 2 Followed by the top-level domain which is group 3 So now if I replace all of our selections with those two Then we can see that replaced all of our URLs with just the domain name and the top-level domain so you can imagine if you had a lot of Information like this that you needed to clean up or modify in some way Then knowing how to match these groups with regular expressions could save you a ton of time with doing things like this ok So I think that’s gonna do it for this video now There’s a lot of advanced features that we could go over with regular expressions as well So if anyone is interested in learning more then I could put together an advanced video covering those topics in the near future But hopefully now you feel comfortable with being able to read and write these regular expressions that we went over in this video But if anyone does have any questions about what we covered in this video Then feel free to ask in the comment section below, and I’ll do my best to answer those And if you enjoy these tutorials and would like to support them Then there are several ways you can do that the easiest ways to simply like the video and give it a thumbs up and also It’s a huge help to share these videos with anyone who you think would find them useful And if you have the means you can contribute through patreon and there’s a link to that page in the description section below Be sure to subscribe for future videos, and thank you all for watching You

Trump & the Coronavirus: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO)

♪ (“LAST WEEK TONIGHT” THEME PLAYS) ♪ Our first story concerns the coronavirus It’s the Home Alone 2 of viruses as it’s amplified the dangers of air travel, lots of it took place in New York, and right in the middle for no good reason is Donald fucking Trump And I know that the fact that we’re about to talk about this at all would make Trump roll his eys That’s all I hear about now That’s all I hear– Turn on television– COVID, COVID COVID, COVID, COVID, COVID A plane goes down, 500 people dead, they don’t talk about it COVID, COVID, COVID. COVID– By the way, on November 4th, you won’t hear about it anymore -(CROWD CHEERS) -(DRUM THUMPS) COVID! COVID! Look, believe me, I would love nothing more than to not talk about COVID, and instead return to subjects we’d normally cover on this show like scented candle fraud or alpaca veterinarian malpractice But unfortunately, I can’t do that when so many Americans are still dying of “COVID! COVID!” every day For many, Trump’s handling of the coronavirus is going to be a significant factor in how they vote And to listen to him, that’s really not a problem He’s labeled his handling of the pandemic as “tremendous, A-plus, and said, ‘Nothing more could have been done,'” which is obviously ridiculous as America has just four percent of the global population and yet about 20 percent of global cases And if you’re thinking, “Oh, come on Who doesn’t know that Trump fucked up this pandemic?” The truth is a lot of voters are more than willing to give him the benefit of the doubt REPORTER: How do you feel President Trump has done in handling the pandemic? The best he can for something that’s so somewhat unknown I think he’s probably doing the best that he can right now I mean, there’s so much mixed information out there, and trying to decipher what’s fact and what’s fiction The pandemic? Not his fault (DOG BARKS) And everything that’s gone along with it, not his fault He’s doing the best he can Is he? I mean, I guess that depends, doesn’t it? Do you mean that he’s doing the best that any president can or the best that he can? Because if it’s the second one, you may actually be right We should probably all be grateful that he hasn’t tried bottling his urine and selling it as Trump Immunity Juice Look, all presidents, whoever they are, tend to face a defining crisis, and this was unquestionably Trump’s, but his response has been such a disaster, there are massive fuck-ups you may have already forgotten Remember that time that he suggested we should leave American citizens on a cruise ship ravaged with coronavirus because they’d increase the number of positive cases in the country, and he “liked the numbers being where they are”? That was insane, right? And we covered that on this show In fact, we’ve talked about coronavirus a lot on the show this year, but we still thought that tonight, especially if you or someone you know also thinks that “nothing more could have been done,” it would be worth taking a look at three crucial areas where more could very much have been done, specifically preparation, coordination, and communication And let’s start with preparation because it is worth noting previous presidents have been aware of a threat like this for years George W. Bush demanded the government develop a pandemic response plan all the way back in 2005, and Obama created a pandemic preparedness team and gave a speech in December of 2014 that is eerily prescient There may, and likely will, come a time in which we have both an airborne disease that is deadly and in order for us to deal with that effectively, we have to put in place an infrastructure, not just here at home, but globally, that allows us to see it quickly, isolate it quickly, respond to it quickly So, that if and when a new strain of flu like the Spanish flu crops up, five years from now or a decade from now, we’ve made the investment Wow. Those are some shockingly specific predictions What else did he say there? In exactly five years, the Warriors are gonna blow a three-one lead to the Cavs, and Lebron’s gonna have a chase down block that makes your soul jump out of your body Also, Kumail Nanjiani’s gonna get really jacked in a way you don’t know quite how to feel about So, previous presidents were well aware that something like this could happen, and yet in the years before this outbreak, Trump’s administration not only disbanded Obama’s pandemic team, they also cut CDC staff operating within China by more than two-thirds and ended a pandemic early warning program And even once the pandemic had begun, Trump took an appallingly long time to take it seriously He will often complain, and not wrongly, that China took too long to be forthright with us about the virus, but what he doesn’t mention is that once we found out about it, we acted unforgivably slowly The first public reports of what was happening in Wuhan came on December 31st, and yet Alex Azar, Trump’s Secretary of Health and Human Services, couldn’t get a meeting with Trump to talk about it until January 18th And even when he did, Trump apparently interrupted him to ask when flavored vaping products would be back on the market,

which, you know… cool Then, Trump continually implied the virus would simply go away despite learning on February 26th that there was community spread in the US, something we might have known sooner had we also not lost a month due to flaws in our testing process that we were extremely slow to fix And yet, despite all of this, Trump loves to claim that it doesn’t matter what he didn’t do, what really matter is this: This country is very lucky, and I’m very lucky, that I put the ban on China I swiftly implemented a travel ban on China I put in the ban on China I did the China ban We put that ban on When I put a ban on– You have to remember, I put the ban on China (SIMULTANEOUSLY) I banned travel from China We put the ban on China I put a ban on China Ban on China Yeah To listen to Trump tell it, he bans travel from China and job done So, if you’ve lost a loved one to this virus, I’ve got some great news You didn’t! They’re completely fine They’ve just been busy jetsetting all across the world, enjoying live performances with thousands of their closest friends because Trump put the ban on China, and we’re all very lucky he did But a few things about that, because while he did indeed impose some travel restrictions on China, they took effect on February 2nd That is two weeks after the first known case in the US, and also, after 45 other countries had already done so And this “ban” had some major exceptions, including allowing US citizens, residents, and their immediate family members to still come into the country from China, meaning an additional 40,000 people came in from there during the first two months that his “ban” was in place Also, we now know that the virus came to the New York City area not from China, but predominantly via Europe, and yet it took Trump an additional six weeks to place any restrictions on travelers from there And when he finally did that, it came in a chaotic Oval Office speech, where he false made it sound like some Americans wouldn’t be allowed back into the country, which had predictable consequences REPORTER 2: Confusion leading to chaos at US airports under the administration’s European travel ban, lines stretching for hours in New York, Dallas, and Chicago’s O’Hare Yeah, those images don’t get any easier to look at People, panicked by Trump’s announcement, rushed into airports that were not adequately prepared to safely process them, with some passengers reporting there was no hand sanitizer available, and having to share pens to fill out immigration forms And this was before most of us knew we shouldn’t be sharing anything with anyone, which incidentally is still true despite what this Coke bottle tells you Do not share that Coke with Grandma Get her her own and have it delivered by someone in a hazmat suit “Happy 90th, Gammy Try to stay safe.” So, Trump’s travel ban wasn’t a ban, wasn’t early, and didn’t do what he said it did But even if he had rolled it out perfectly, experts will tell you if you decide to use travel restrictions, they have to be part of a comprehensive plan because the best they can do is delay a pandemic, not prevent it. All they’ll do is buy you a little bit of time, which is useless if you don’t then use it wisely, which actually brings us to our second point: coordination And I shouldn’t have to remind you just how badly this administration coordinated crucial supplies like PPE Some medical professionals resorted to making their own using ski googles, snorkel masks, and garbage bags And yet, the White House denies mishandling anything The RNC even featured this video touting the heroism of front line workers, including a clip of Trump talking to a nurse practioner in the Oval Office But if you find the raw footage of that clip, you will see that the conversation they’re having is pretty revealing PPE has been sporadic, but it’s been manageable, and we do what we have to do Sporadic for you, but not sporadic for a lot of other people Oh no, I agree, Mr. President Because I’ve heard the opposite -Yeah -I’ve heard that they are loaded up with– with gowns now, and you know, initially, we had nothing We had empty cupboards We had empty shelves We had nothing because it wasn’t put there by the last administration Okay, first, “sporadic for you, not sporadic for other people” is the literally definition of sporadic. And second, his complaint that he had empty cupboards and shelves is slightly undercut by the fact he’d been president for three years when that conversation took place If you move into a new apartment and three years later, there is still nothing in the cupboards, you don’t get to blame the previous tenant when you’re hungry Go buy some fucking food And it’s not like the administration wasn’t warned here Take Mike Bowen, a top executive at a PPE production company For years, he has been sounding the alarm that most of the US mask supply now comes from abroad, and in January, seeing what was coming our way, he emailed everyone he could think of in the government, offering a clear plan to ramp up production I voted for Donald Trump I thought, you know, if I contact enough people in the administration, somebody, one of these people are gonna look at this and go, “Hey, this is a problem Maybe we oughta call this guy.” And uh, no, I couldn’t get any–

I didn’t get any response there Now, in hindsight, would warning Donald Trump have done anything? You’d get into the Oval Office and go, “Sir, a quarter-million Americans are gonna die.” And he’d say, “Like me die? Or just like random people.” And you go, “Well, Herman Cain.” And he’d say, “Yeah, not really seeing the problem here.” And you’d say, “It might cost you the election.” And he’d say, “But I’d still have my fans and rallies right?” And you’d say, “Yeah, of course, they’ll never abandon you even if you’re actively killing them.” And he’d go, “Okay, not really seeing what the warning’s about here, please leave It’s time for me to watch my shows.” Bowen could not have been more explicit about what needed to happen He told government contacts that placing large, non-cancellable orders would allow him to ramp up production immediately Which was important, because, and I quote But the administration dawdled and Bowen later testified before Congress about what that delay meant I’m getting 500 to 1,000 emails a day I’m getting emails from people, not businesses I am getting emails from moms I’m getting emails from old people, “Please, can you send me a mask?” (VOICE CRACKING) CONGRESSWOMAN: You make a product that can protect people I can’t help these– I can’t help all these people Yeah, that must have been incredibly frustrating Because he offered the administration a clear way to at least mitigate the damage, and they just didn’t move fast enough And decisions like that meant that suddenly, and entirely avoidable, they had to scramble for essential equipment at the same time as almost everyone else on Earth And for all Trump’s supposed expertise as a businessman, his administration’s approach to managing the supply chain was in total shambles At first, Trump encouraged states to, “get it themselves,” putting them against each other and eventually starting a bidding war And later, Jared fucking Kushner was made the White House lead for something called, the supply chain taskforce At one point, it tried to coordinate things directly with Jared pulling in a group of mostly young, untrained volunteers to help vet leads on PPE And here is one of them describing what happened after an initial pep talk about the importance of them tracking down equipment Everyone stood up and started filing into different offices And I remember the only people left were the volunteers We thought we’d be auxiliary support for an existing procurement team that just needed to be expanded as quickly as possible And we would do data entry for contracts And instead, we were the team I think when people imagined the federal government response in the war room, they thought it would be this big, you know, energized group of experts, not 10, 20-year-old volunteers That really doesn’t sound good And I’m not saying that young people are all dumb idiots Mozart composed a minuet at age six This guy created the downfall of society at age 19 You just hope that everyone on the federal task force would have resource-management experience that goes a little beyond, “I played Settlers of Catan at my friend Topher’s house one night, and I actually did pretty well.” And the thing is, one of the best ways not to run short on PPE is to not have mass-community spread And one of the best ways to achieve that is by promoting strong, public-health guidelines Which brings us to our final point here, communication Because Trump has repeatedly undermined public messaging from the very start Despite the fact that, as we now know, he knew extremely early on just how bad things could get DONALD TRUMP: REPORTER 3: That’s what he said privately, but in public, later that month, he was still downplaying the severity and spread of the virus This is a flu, this is like a flu Yeah, Trump just lied Which I know at this point isn’t something that I should have to say It seems like the kind of thing we all already know Like puppies are good and Geppetto definitely built Pinnochio for weird sex stuff That really should not be a surprise, because be honest, if you lived next door to a bachelor who was age somewhere between 70 and 1,000, whose only friend was a fish, whose house was full of not-for-sale handmade clocks going off at different times, and who one day said, “Good news, this little wooden boy is Pinocchio, he is my son.” You’d have exactly two thoughts, “One, he’s fucking that puppet, and two, we have to move The guy whose house sounds like a bomb built himself a son, we have to move No judgment, he fucks that puppet It’s not a crime There’s not a law written down anywhere that says Geppetto is not allowed to fuck the puppet he made while his fish watches I’m not calling the cops here, I’m just saying I’m moving away from Geppetto.” And yet even as it became clear to everyone that this was very much more than the flu, Trump constantly undermined his own administration’s advice On April 3rd, the CDC finally advised that the public wear masks But Trump immediately undercut it, in the very press conference that news was announced The CDC is advising the use of non-medical, cloth face covering as an additional, voluntary public health measure So it’s voluntary, you don’t have to do it

They suggest it for a period of time But, uh, this is voluntary I don’t think I’m gonna be doing it And just like that, wearing a mask was a political issue Trump himself didn’t wear a mask in public until July Which is obviously dangerous You can’t effectively convince people to do something while refusing to do it yourself It is why Soul Cycle instructors are on a bike like everyone else instead of just yelling, “Pedal faster,” while lounging on a bean bag and eating a bucket of hot wings It’s about setting a good example And the thing is, Americans were listening to him Listen to these people just a few weeks later Just like the flu, right? No, it’s not just like the flu It’s far more contagious Well I know, but people where I’m from the flu also… so, to me, that’s just the way I look at it I mean if he’s not wearing a mask, I’m not gonna wear a mask If he’s not worried, I’m not worried -REPORTER 4: The president? -Yes, sir Okay I understand that impulse, I really do But, “If he’s not worried, I’m not worried,” is a weird thing to say when he is the president, surrounded by 24/7 security and a team of doctors, and you are not even surrounded by a shirt It has been genuinely remarkable just how consistently Trump has undercut public-health messaging Over a decade ago, the CDC actually developed guidelines for how leaders should communicate during a crisis And they are: Be first, be right, be credible, express empathy, promote action, and show respect And I’m not saying that the CDC has been perfect during this pandemic, but Trump did the precise opposite of every single one of those And on the empathy one, which should be the hardest to do badly, he’s been borderline sociopathic Because just think about what medical professionals have had to go through this year, especially at the start of this crisis In New York, hospitals had giant, refrigerated trucks that served as makeshift morgues, and there were mass graves dug on Hart Island, even as hospital workers broke down in video testimonials It was utterly brutal here And with that in mind, let’s go back to that oval office meeting Trump had with nurses You know, the one that they used in the RNC video And just watch Trump respond to someone citing concerns about what his colleagues were going through And if I may add one big concern that I have is the post-traumatic trauma that a lot of the nurses and doctors and other members of the health care team will be facing in the future You know, they’re seeing death probably three to four times the average than what they normally would Yes… yes, sir (INDISTINCT CROWD CHATTER) I know after four years it is hard for anything Trump does to shock you anymore, but it is worth making sure that that still does Because that man was in the middle of talking about his peer’s PTSD, and the president cut him off so he could offer everyone pens. Pens! He wasn’t even listening He was just sitting there, waiting for his turn to speak, so he could do his pen thing Is there anything more grim than that? I mean I guess he could have not offered them pens, but would that have been worse? Better? It’s honestly difficult to say It’s even more difficult to write a joke off of “Oh, Trump must be great for you comedians, right?” Yeah, not really, this has been a fucking nightmare And all of this: The lack of preparation, coordination, and communication has had real-world effects And I know that Trump badly wants everyone to believe that nothing more could have been done, but that’s just not true Other countries have done more and suffered less We have four times more people than Germany, but 17 times the COVID cases And we have three-and-a-half times more people than Vietnam, but 7,500 times the COVID cases This wasn’t inevitable And look, I shouldn’t have to take 20 minutes to tell you that Trump mismanaged the pandemic In a lot of ways, the answer to the question: Has Trump done a good job handling this pandemic is, “Well, he got the disease, so, you know…” And the thing is, there are so many more terrible moments we haven’t even had time to cover from using this racist term multiple times to never once releasing a comprehensive federal strategy for fighting COVID, to removal of watchdog, overseeing two trillion dollars in COVID relief To saying he asked his people to slow down testing, which his people then tried to pass off as him kidding, to which he responded, “I don’t kid.” To basically claiming that doctors are inflating coronavirus death counts for money To suggesting sunlight and ingesting disinfectants could help cure the virus To repeatedly undermining the nation’s top infectious-disease expert At one point, he retweeted: FireFauci And got so openly jealous of him that when Fauci was invited to throw the opening pitch at a Nationals’ game, Trump announced he’d be doing the same for the Yankees, surprising them since they’d not actually invited him And look, if Biden is elected, it’s not like he’s gonna magically end this pandemic, but he’ll at least

take it seriously And it’s pretty bleak that that alone sounds good, but it really does ‘Cause at this point, Trump is clearly bored of hearing about COVID And I am sorry about that But you know what’s been completely exhausting for the rest of us? Worrying about it all the time For what it’s worth, multiple members of our staff were sick earlier this year, and it was heart-wrenching being constantly concerned about their health, and that concern hasn’t gone away There are long-term and devastating effects for many who have recovered that we still don’t fully understand People who are sick and dying can’t see their families, and cases now spiking to record highs all over the country This virus has taken so much from us Our peace of mind, our routines, and nearly a quarter of a million Americans And it’s frankly pathetic that in response, the only things Trump has offered people in this country over the past eight months are damaging lies, staggering incompetence, and occasionally, when he’s feeling generous, some shitting fucking pens

Oregon Opposition to U.S. – Peru Free Trade Agreement

we are here today to denounce the killings of Amazonian Indians I’m last month on june fifth which world environmental day government of glory sent in troops to attack ended in indigenous protesters at a place called Devil’s curve these protesters were protesting the u.s. Peru free trade agreement and which would have opened up 45 million hectares of amazon rainforest new foreign development residence excuse me residents in bagua and they bring downtown had saw that the the government had gone in and were attacking the indigenous protesters and went in for support over the next several days the killings and disappearances increased final numbers there were probably more than 50 killings and over 500 people disappeared in the Amazon these killings were done in the name of free trade and I want to read a quote from President Allen guard peruvian president alan garcia and a he wrote an article in 2007 in the newspaper in bruce leading newspaper and he wrote quote there are millions of Hector’s that the communities and associations are not cultivated or will cultivate as well as hundreds of mineral deposits that cannot be worked and millions of hectares of see that cannot be used for aquaculture and production the rivers that run down both sides of the mountain range are a fortune that pours into the ocean without producing electric energy this perspective shows the the real dangers of free trade agreements and today we have here on speakers row now watch a row wah wah hey uncle and Arthur stimulus from the Oregon free trade up Oregon fair trade campaign and also Jose yeah Jose on helping anyway I was going to be speaking about the dangers of the Colombian free trade agreement thank you so much I’m happy to have opportunity to share with you how Who I am first of all I am is the student or exchange student with a scholarship I want to you I want to use I can hold with you are active member of the our Moon culture I’m Ronald working on both of our culture from feel I belong to the third one else family dinner ratio then I am going to drag a little bit about my culture the people of our own culture are terrible and and they like to sit up to come on harmonia meeting other culture we have a most suna-ma like how we need to respect people is a person who teach us about good life the principal rule is is to drink ayahuasca and joy to see our future and see the water world what going to happen the indigenous people we when you planning to take the land you are disappearing then he’s got three when they have a good our relationship with the mountains river will therefore insane animals indigenous is stronger than them indigenous peoples they are a stronger as true play with them lab because they want to save the mother of the planet and it is the good way how we need to conserve our natural resources without made pollution development also we are working for care our culture because the science science and technology destroyed our our own dog no clue but but we want to develop development our out our our own politics like using our vision and power for the taking beginning tail challenging in the world and

well only i won I wanna say or I want every one more for the cows not that blue boomin our wedding for what I i wanna i want for them as you see it is a difficult to live harmonia and I feel I can do then but I am a student nurse studying natural resources as i know you are interested in the environment so i would like to know if you can let people know what has been happening I will really appreciate that then but that but more on the people that are suffering in my country and I ask that you would bless ur of the Obama administration to contact the peruvians government and old then the basic you must went well and and and there was progressing in this in this form of economic development sir is the true indigenous community thank you so much it’s such an honor to be up here with run all I want to thank you all for coming out today to support him and continue this movement against free trade agreements I also want to thank PCAST for organizing this important event so again my name is Arthur stimulus I Durham Oregon Territory canteen which is a statewide coalition of labor environmental and human rights organizations fighting for a positive vision for international trade their coalition fought against the Peru free-trading rid trying to prevent it from being passed in Congress for years for much of that time we were up against a Republican president in a republican-controlled Congress when we stopped them for passing the Peru FTA and the New Democratic majority took over in Congress in 2007 we naively thought we had watched we thought there was no way Democrats particularly in a presidential election campaign would be supporting the bush negotiated NAFTA style free trade agreement then in May of that year leaders in the Democratic Party and the House of Representatives announced that they had struck a deal with President Bush on the Peru FTA in exchange for adding some very very basic minimal labor and environmental standards they were going to support President Bush’s free trade agreement it was a secret deal it took quite a while before the terms of the deal came out when they finally did it was extremely obvious that the new labor and environmental standards were completely inadequate to protect working people or the environment in Peru or the United States and we try to share that message or congressman bloom an hour in all members of Congress um congressman woo lissat our arguments and he voted against the harvester deposit elicit our arguments and he voted against the running for Senate listen to our arguments and he spoke out against the free trade agreement saying this is just an extension of NAFTA in fact most Democrats in Congress voted against the Peru free trade agreement was a minority of Democrats including oral bloomin our look-ins and voted to pass this bush trade deal over the opposition of most of the Democratic caucus and more importantly but with you opposition of most Americans and so the result has been exactly what we predicted free trade and Carew has meant nothing more than rippin ship resource extraction that runs roughshod over communities democracy in the environment and you know I don’t think Earl bloom an hour could have predicted the massacre that took place last month I’m sure he’s horrified by just as any human being would be horrified by it but mr. bloom an hour absolutely could have predicted the destruction of the Amazon rainforest in the destruction of the indigenous communities that has resulted from this trade deal would have had to have blinders on to the effects of NAFTA and

CAFTA to expect anything otherwise the last thing I want to share is just hours before the massacre in bagua mr. bloom and our rope to constituents suggesting that he still holds the Peru trade agreement is a model for future trade deals he needs to take a step back he needs to look at the destruction that these trade agreements have caused both at home and abroad and he needs to reassess his views and figure out ways to correct these problems over a hundred members of cars honking have endorsed a bill called the Trade Act that does just that mr brown the first step in correcting the damage of these deals he supported the girl to thank you next up we have Jose I’m hell opinion ebm who is a representative of Colombia’s general Confederation of work and also president of Sierra Leone black which is in Bogota cuanto más en todo esta jodido stays here take estamos los colombianos como tu PO significa p organizaciones keyspan in contra el trabajo es nosotros da Norris colombianos estamos en avión opposition’s a tratado de que commercial to Selonia estado to leo’s columbia la mano de bragelonne bikaner well good morning it’s an honor to be here for all of you it’s great to see that there are so many organizing groups here let’s stand with us in Colombia in to these kinds of agreements the workers in Columbia are firmly against these type of free trade agreements free trade agreements between Colombia and the United States between Colombia and Europe other types of free trade agreements loss trolleys yellow colombiano sabemos que los rat rod eres con ESO ulica meant a benefic annales trail nacionales keep went radha a sus capital de pueblo in pueblo vote on dole hombre pero no tralala la garantia la hora de todos our end o the workers of columbia know that these type of free trade agreements are only in the interest of multinational corporations and just bring hunger instead of those things that we really need the south estan grados tratado de comer so que pasa por encima l’organisation muccio del commerce porque en arregles kay kuya via tienen algo de manha dong que no son amant pero tenia un bueno pero con los tratado de Beaune so our risen con todo y son Pony potent A’s pues colombiano decimos no a la bro bellezza ciancia la mundial sassy own porque es que la Monte haces en el de todos y no solamente logo puerco d stepa free trade agreements are even inconsistent with the World Trade Organization and their rules these are agreements have a type of omnipotence that goes beyond even those rules the workers of Columbia we say no to globalization notes a corporate globalization but yes to an internationalization an alternative globalization llamo thomas de senado para la desaparecio de las olas de los vistes ethically so sassy near asesinato en colombia pero lo que me tiene aqui es algo más grada que se fueron los hombres y mujeres en la en el mundo pues normal digamos porque el mundo continuo para otros home present el que los dientes in de calais los asesina es normal por toda no de sanchez k asesina pero es que en colombia se estan desaparece iendo yeah condo las ganancias Venice dedica days es el movimiento que esta pasando por lo pasa que yo quiero ser i am here not so much to talk about our union leaders that have been disappeared and murdered because in some sense this kind of situation is normal and to be expected in as long as we’re in a situation where very few rule over all why i am here is the focus more on the fact that are very unions themselves are under threat and are disappearing in our country yo se lo acabas o SI los campesinos in cologne en este momento esta haciendo dispel asado de sus computer a las edades emma’s de Trenes millones che campesinos pentagon done’ ciudades y mensual men test on display Sandow in Mateos millones cave a pasar con estos campesinos condos entrance feeding tratado leave a commencé oh hey vana es con se mucho más allá siento yo

to do de la tierra de sansa condos tierra estados unidos sucios compressive columbia no Lucy right now there are three million cappuccinos small farm workers who have been displaced from the rural areas in Colombia and are wandering through our cities and we expected it two million more to join them store border I want to know what’s going to happen to these people when these free trade agreements are approved in the United States we see that the government supports in small farmers and supports the agricultural sector in Colombia this does not happen in Colombia slaughter said Azazel ahora esta acabando con la dieta cityca they say cuidado Kansas basilica de coche de chao y su contrato de mayo p anova train SI no para poisonous erina Kansas indicado y quiero travesty des postes que estamos en contra totalmente slaughter sexes ahora esta es plans ando por lo tienes in sk Roz’s esta SE un tro or en colombia no tiene futuro más allá de lograr sussex tier consulado minimo cruzando cientos cuarenta dolares men swans cuando en una esta Billy a la hora con quien es entre meses de caminha he says dia muy SI de what’s happening Colombia is in complete violation opto pomo rose surrounding waive rice entities agreements lui qui NOS dejamos para que regresar medio Contessa and I would like to say that the workers of Columbia we are completely opposed to outsourcing of labor as it’s happening now this is nothing more than an enslavement of our workers and people are living without health worker can expect at best to earn minimum wage of two hundred forty dollars a month and that’s it the worker has a stable job in the first place and they’re not facing the normal situation of three months of work in six months of starvation yo pour des des templo una empresa see pave directamente al trabajo de jamon costo de funcionar bien pero SI esta empresa contrato na cooperative a una mamada cooperativo trabajo senado de ya mannan ver SI o SI aqui cuando le pegan cousteau un salario punto de trabajo SE le llaman gastos de cancion ah miento y la ley dicen que los gastos de paseo na meto tienen que bajar pero SI es por intermedio nalco parati de trabajo que no le fond du salario mínimo que lo trot apenas la boca dose cuarenta y las anziano no puedo ver mas lo cuerpo que esta de entonces ahi SI es iteration y la paz y hay que usted SI mira lo más grab a que estos trabaja auras no puede hacer el derecho y SI quiere el derecho de ser sedano porque el dia das elecciones NOS cooperative a los Obregon avatar a a le souper millas por los han giotto’s que yo los representantes Edale es que sacar a workers of Columbia are classified in two categories and they’re paid in two ways one classification is support expenses functioning expenses that’s one class for paying workers and another one is to pay those workers that are part of what are known as social cooperatives and those workers that work for functioning in opposing and classification of functioning expenses receive some sense of unreasonable or some basic wage but those workers who are classified as working in the social cooperatives don’t even receive that basic wage and they’re also vulnerable because they are considered to be too old at the age of 40 years old and they are not permitted to take sick days Colombian workers can’t even exercise normal rights of the citizen of the country because during elections those workers who work with social cooperatives are obligated to vote for the candidates that their employers forced them to support Wahlberg quiero tambien esta Presidente Pesci movie acha en esta sonando con el presidente obama yo que la muerte los zetas calysta’s ha bajado see ahad pero también se olvido es en que ha bajado proportion a las organizaciones sitacles que antes aparecido our president met with president obama

on jun 29 and he told President Obama that the number of labor leaders that had been murdered in Colombia had gone down and that’s true the ratio of labor learners being murdered has diminished at the same rate that our unions have disappeared compañeros SPO no less Kia Optimas documented pensiones quiero Rita con ustedes no alt NSA no al pehle SE y gracias por salir de pon el culo con lluvia Norris take over your time I just wanted to chat with you no to this free trade agreement no to this free trade agreement no no no agreement

Every Fish in the Sea: Findings of the First Census of Marine life

dick thanks very much for the kind introduction it superior to be here any reasons and with an extra three it’s a wonderful sirak i do want to begin by saying i’m representing close to 3,000 people as as dick met what i’ll be sharing with you in the next 40 minutes or so the result of the culmination of many many people from more than 80 countries and it’s a privilege to speak on their behalf i want to take special note of the role of Alfred P Sloan variation in the program a little at the talk about the management of the program but the sloan foundation provided the the platform the the core funding for the program over more than a decade and so I want to make a special appreciation it’s not easy to get continuity for programs like this I also want to thank the scientific community in the Washington DC area washington DC in fact the most important places in the world it’s for ocean science and I want to take special note of a couple of the elders who tutored me and helped me to learn how to do something like this dr Frank press who’s here this evening past president National Academy of Sciences I watched him to the National decade of natural aster reduction other programs and also Eve white is here this evening mrs. railroad em white and Bob was the the greater of the global research time and the world climber Graham and other tremendous complex scientific programs from which the census took many lessons I won’t read all the names here but you can see that in the Washington area there were people from the federal agencies from the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration the Office of Naval Research the National Science Foundation from the consortium for ocean leadership from the National Geographic Society of the Smithsonian and perhaps some of you are in the audience and others from the area who contributed to the program and I want to thank you I know Jim Baker is here jim was the administrator of NOAA when the first glimmer of the program came around and we went to see Jim and said well what do you think about this and he said well it’s it’s it’s crazy but you should try and we did and then Jim played a major role actually in carrying out the program well what was it as dick mentioned it was a decade-long program officially beginning in two thousand going until 2010 to look at diversity all the forms of life in the ocean distribution where they live their addresses and abundance how many of each kind how many individuals are how many kilos and we were interested in everything that lived in the ocean and this was one of the different things about the census all previous studies of marine life had limited themselves to a few thousand forms of ocean life and we ended up looking at about 250,000 so it wasn’t only what was in the fish stores or in an aquarium we looked from the very small the microbes to the largest animals on earth marine mammals the whales and we looked in all ocean realms from the the poles to the equators from the deep sea to the sea surface the national academy of sciences national research council ocean studies board study that helping the census get going at its outset said well we should organize around four great questions what did live in the oceans for which we developed a program on the history of marine animal populations what does live in the oceans what’s there today for which we developed many field projects to go out and look and then program to look at what will live in the oceans the future for which one needs to to develop numerical models to forecast and then finally there’s the question of how to access and visualize all the information now this seems routine with the internet but in the late 90s the question of how to how to visualize was much more wide open first let me give you some reminders about the oceans themselves the vast varied environments here you see a map of Earth

the way oceanographers see it the the land areas are featureless and dull and the oceans have all the interest and you can see there are these dark blue a Bissel planes the the largest habitat on earth averaging about 12,000 feet deep there are huge mountain ranges like the mid-atlantic ridge here the largest mountain range on earth rising from the sea floor like the Andes or the Rockies and sometimes piercing the sea surface as in the Azores Islands then the the shelves the shallow shelves which may be a 200 300 feet deep the in the salmon pink from the the shelves you have the continental margins that slope down to the into the Epistle plains of course in the shallow areas you have reefs so we wanted to look at all these different environments and again from the poles to the tropical regions in all the oceans well why now and dick shared some of the motivation in his opening remarks on the one hand the ocean is more crowded than ever there are more uses and more users there’s fishing their offshore oil and gas windmills people want to put energy machines out there to capture tidal waves tech types we may capture the energy from the tides so the industrialization of the oceans is a motivation many changes that are taking place here you see a map of the surface of the world oceans for the year 2009 with all the ship tracks of large vessels recorded there about a hundred thousand large vessels now in the oceans altogether more than about three hundred gross tons about three times the number that there were in 1960 and so you can see many oceans are being crisscrossed on the surface all the time by by the vessels the seafloor is crowded too here you see seafloor cables telecommunications cables those of you with your blackberries or not blackberries anymore your your your your iPhone 5s you may be communicating through satellites but more likely you’re communicating through seafloor cables if you’re communicating long distances or getting information and so you see all the cables laid across the Atlantic or across the Pacific down to Australia and scalloping along the quote the coasts it’s easier to lay a telecommunications cable in the seafloor off of the coast of Brazil than to burrow through the jungle and all these these are optical fiber cables all laid in the last 25 years this may look like the map of the railroads in the in New York or Pennsylvania in 1850 or in England but it’s not it’s the sea floor south of New Orleans here’s this is New Orleans Louisiana and here’s Houston and these are oil and gas pipelines that transport oil and gas extracted from the sea floor in the Gulf of Mexico onto to the coast and the the North Sea and South China Sea and other areas are the same so both the sea surface and the seafloor are being industrialized and lots of activity so it seemed a very good idea to have a baseline now of all life in the oceans with all these changes taking place now how would one go about that well if you’re in the near shore and interested in what’s living in shallow water and rocky shores and tidal pools like Robin Rigg be here you can take these these metal frames these quadrats and in some and with snorkeling or with some simple scuba gear you can go to shallow water and lay these over different areas of the sea floor and count what’s in each square photograph it in some case take samples and so there’s a particular culture for the near shore work if you’re if you’re trying to work in the Antarctic and this is a Patrick help and some members of our Antarctic team of course the conditions are quite different it’s much harder much more expensive much more dangerous and this is in the good Antarctic season so the polar researchers have quite a different style and of course you need lots of different technologies finally here’s an example from the Arctic this is an expedition that I had the privilege of participating in and we used these these submersibles with with cameras and lights and and jars that could suck up some of the creatures that we could see with the cameras this could go down 10,000 feet to the sea floor and the Arctic Ocean and we had under I scuba

divers we had devices that could land on the seafloor we had nets that could be lowered to different depths to collect jellies and we had people with little vials collecting little little bottles of water ampules of water with microbes in them so on our expeditions we had all kinds of people working shallow and deep working on large animals and small finally it became a concerto of technologies so there were people working on the ice is just now there were people flying in airplanes using a kind of laser ranging lidar s to look into the the veneer surface of the ocean we had scuba divers we had manned submersibles we had unmanned submersibles we had fish with cell phones reporting back to us animal allies so it the the only way to do it finally was through this whole integrating this whole range of technologies so there were 14 different field projects polar reefs large animals plankton so forth well let me give a preview of the results this is a wonderful cartoon by the the cartoonist Jim to me Sherman’s Lagoon some of you may read his his cartoon and he took an interest in the census and ran several series that the Washington Post among others published and here you can see that the sea life itself this fish is looking at the shark and so here you can see his little board says census of marine life and manta ray and so forth whitetip shark and he’s counting and the well the so the well there was a I’ll come back to this there’s some there is some humor in the whole program to the so we looked as I mentioned the outset at diversity the kinds of life and as dick mention the the headline is the oceans are even richer in diversity than anybody had known or been able to to show distribution the oceans are more connected than had ever been appreciated in more ways and in terms of abundance more altered now let me now go into the main part of the talk and I’ll talk first about diversity some of what we learned about diversity then I’ll talk some about what we learned about distribution and then some about abundance I mentioned earlier the the largest mountain range on earth the mid-atlantic ridge running here between South American Africa and between North America and Europe we had big expeditions led by a Norwegian team from Bergen that did wonderful work and the both in the North Atlantic and the South Atlantic now of course this area between New England and England and France and so forth this has been traversed by vessels regularly for 500 years and you might think that everything has been discovered but far from it there were many new species discovered on the Atlantic Ridge in the North Atlantic including this magnificent octopus the and this is one of the twelve hundred new species that that dick mentioned that the census discovered so you know even even though lots of ocean liners & freighters and and oceanographic research vessels have crossed back and forth there the ocean the oceans are still there’s still an enormous amount to discover I’ll come back to the seam about how much is still unknown another octopus this is an octopus that that came and registered with us that came and visited with us Nancy Knowlton of who’s the lead scientist ocean scientists at the Smithsonian Institution here in Washington and her colleagues developed a wonderful simple new technology for looking at what lives on reefs basically empty doll houses and imagine putting an empty dollhouse on each of a couple of hundred different reefs around the world and you leave the dollhouse there for a year and then you collect it and you see what’s moved in it’s a completely non destructive way of sampling the reef you don’t have to drill into the reef you don’t have to try to pull things out let the the animals come and move in and this marvelous octopus moved into one of the census stall houses on the Great Barrier Reef and that was a new species that had never been described before plankton there are lots of small things that float around in the in the oceans there was a very strong team looking at at about 12,000 different kinds of

plankton that that are known to live in the oceans and discovering more new ones and this was one that was found in near between the Philippines and Indonesia and the Celebes sea in the western Pacific nicknamed the squid worm just amazing beautiful animals the Angola Basin off southern Africa there was a German led expedition there on the sea floor on the Epistle planes there and they found 800 different copepods a sort of bugs bug like creatures living on the sediment and in the sediment and then our southern ocean team found more than 700 isopods which 500 we believe are new to science they haven’t all been described yet here you see five examples of the copepods and isopods and you know there I think they’re as good as the jeweler’s on Fifth Avenue in New York the imagination it’s hard to compete with nature’s imagination of course we also found new fish the title of my talk is every fish in the sea we made an estimate of the number of known fish in the sea at the time of the release of our statement it was sixteen thousand seven hundred eighty four different kinds of known true fishes true marine fishes and the the ichthyologists in the project estimated that there is still between four and five thousand more fish yet to be discovered so those of you who want to name a fish for someone in your family if still may have an opportunity this was a new reef fish discovered by rich pile from the Bishop Museum in Honolulu Hawaii and dick mentioned the encyclopedia of life when we as soon as we would discover a new species we would it’s like Facebook we would give it a page with images and gene sequences and other kinds of information and in fact this online encyclopedia of life now has web pages for more than 130,000 of marine species so about half of the known marine species now have have have pages the now the species it’s not just that we discovered astounding species but they’re in the astounding richness but they we discovered a lot of biologically very interesting species and kinds of species for example the carnivorous sponges you wouldn’t want to be a shrimp swimming by one of these sponges it’s like kind of like a Venus flytrap plant in the Amazon the these were the first known carnivorous sponges and it turns out they’re actually quite a few of them in the in the deep sea to the there are many ways of making a living also longevity we’re accustomed to the idea that some forms of marine life like turtles or whales may live a hundred to take some of there’s some whales live longer than 200 years but imagine a sea worm that was born before Christopher Columbus this is a type of sea worm that leaves it creates a kind of shell around itself and you can use the the chemical composition of the shell to estimate the age of the worm and these worms found by a team led by Chris German from Woods Hole Ava Ramirez from Barcelona explored one of the deep canyons 6,000 feet deep in the Gulf of Mexico and they found these these worms that are more than 500 years old so the these are there may be some interesting things we can learn from for human medicine and so forth from some of these very long-lived creatures another very interesting discovery science fiction authors and people interested in the origins of life had been speculating for some time that there should be an aerobic animals animals that would live without oxygen and Roberto Donna Varro census researcher from Italy from the University of ancona in Italy on an expedition looking at the sea floor in the eastern Mediterranean not too far from the island of Crete for the first time found this species of the Laura sifrin his wife’s name is Cinzia he named it for his wife anna laura kiss

Cinzia and these are probably survivors from an ancient anoxic ecological from from hundreds of millions of years ago before the oceans were filled with with more oxygen we found new habitats also not just new species and in places where again where you think well maybe everything is already known the Gulf of cadiz spain here’s gibraltar here’s the Gulf of Cadiz and this again is where Christopher Columbus and many others set sail for the new world and you’d think here in an area like that people would know what lived there but it turns out that mud volcanoes very interesting habitat on the seafloor there now quite a few of them have been discovered and there are particular kinds of life of course that live in association with these mud volcanoes and like some other animals that live in the so-called vents the deep sea vents they they don’t depend on sunlight they don’t depend on photosynthesis there’s a whole distinctive fauna and this one people thought it had looked a little bit like a rastafarians so it was named the Bob Marley worm at the end of the the decade we made a fresh estimate of the total species known species in the ocean for the first time I was actually a surprised when we started the program in the late 90s that there wasn’t some book or some list they’re already of all the forms of life in the ocean but there wasn’t and our best estimate is there about 250,000 known name species already and there is now a website which has about 220,000 of those that are in an orderly list very accessible and we also estimated how many remain to be discovered and we think ninety percent of the forms of life in the ocean remain to be discovered and described there may be two million more species most of them very small of course but there’s just an enormous amount now why would there’s be so much still to discover rare animals the long tail something i’ll come back to things that are small and of course the oceans are just very hard to sample their immense they have 3d complexity there are habitats that are very hard to reach and also actually there are very few experts for many of the groups so worms if you know there may be quite a few people who study fish theologists but there aren’t so many people who study the the nematodes or some of the other forms of life so there’s a there is just a lot to be learned about some of the lesser-known tax of the lesser-known groups well we aggregated what we knew in 25 different regions to try to get a general picture of what a typical region might look like for example the mid-atlantic here if you went to the coast and in Virginia or Delaware or North Carolina and the area like this might have let’s say 10,000 known species and if you go to the fish store of course you’re used to the idea that they’ll be they’ll be fish but if you divide up by different groups by different the the 10,000 typical known species you find in fact that the most abundant of the known species are crustaceans the crabs lobsters shrimp barnacles at nineteen percent next would come the mollusks at seventeen percent the clams the squared the octopus the fish would be third some of the small protists would be fourth the sum of the algae and the plant-like organisms would be fifth the worms six jellyfish seventh and so on so the we try to give people a broader sense of what the totality of marine life is and it’s certainly more than is then as the fit in the fish store in turn that information can be useful in thinking about parks or protected areas national parks or marine protected areas for the ocean we made maps for a lot of different regions in which we charted the the diversity or the richness in terms of biodiversity of different areas so here you see the Caribbean this is Cuba Haiti and Dominican Republic puerto rico venezuela columbia panama and so forth and the the the the darkness of the red square means the the richness of the diversity of that region and you can see there are some areas like the coast of Colombia or

the coast of baileys or coast of Cuba east of Puerto Rico which have a special richness and of course if you’re interested as many of us are in marine conservation then this provides an objective and rational basis for designating areas as parks you want these hot spots to be the areas that receive the most careful protection in fact we also made maps for the entire world using the entire database of the census to estimate the the richness of biodiversity for all taxa for coastal taxa and for the the the oceanic taxa the things like the tuna and for that go out in the deep blue and what comes across very strongly of course is this incredible richness of the region from Japan down through Philippines Malaysia Indonesia down to the Great Barrier Reef in Australia this area sometimes called the Coral Triangle so people intuitively had known this but it had not been possible the there hadn’t been the databases hadn’t existed to make really objective descriptions of the diversity let me turn to distribution now where things live and here’s the Viper fish named for Sloan also the and here are places that’s been recorded to live so you can see here’s a fish that lives in in many places there it probably lives in lots more places these are just the observations we have and one of the very important things the census did as I mentioned the outside was create a spatial database where everybody who makes reliable observations of a species could enter that information so all the different people who study the Viper fish or all the different people who study a barnacle or a jelly could all enter it into a shared database showing locations now some some marine animals may skip one submarine animals are sessile they stay in one place they sit in one place and others move but in any case you’d like to know what lives in a given region and it can be useful one example is the Gulf of Mexico shortly before the Deepwater Horizon accident in April of 2010 fortunately our Gulf of Mexico team led by westin el from Texas A&M University in Corpus Christi Texas had completed the first comprehensive baseline list of all the species in the Gulf of Mexico 15,000 419 that they’d identified they put this into a database here’s a map of the Gulf of Mexico here’s Louisiana here’s where the Deepwater Horizon spill occurred here’s Florida Mexico Cuba and you can see there are eight pie slices here and in the north-northeast pie slice of the gulf of mexico where the spill occurred Wes and his colleagues had recorded the presence of 8330 two different species and you can imagine this list was downloaded a lot after the accident occurred and was extremely important you can’t do before and after studies unless you have a baseline now tuna their tuna that live in the Gulf of Mexico that swim all the way past the coast here and go all the way up to to Canada you don’t want to you need to know the movements of animals if you want to do a census you don’t want to count the same one twice the and lots of species in fact migrate long distances we follow the census followed more than 40 species on long-distance migrations I’ll show you just a few examples this is a leatherback turtle leatherback turtles got their cell phones on a beach in Costa Rica and they swam out past the Galapagos Islands here you see South America peru would be over here and she lay down here and their cell phones also took the temperature of the water when they would dive and the animals of course dive to to eat and forage and we’re able to develop a picture of the physical attributes of the ocean as well very valuable here’s another example elephant seals big seals here’s Antarctica the South Pole would be there this is the Antarctic Peninsula that goes up towards South America and there’s a shallow shelf here the yellow is the continent the landmass the Atlanta nice and here you can see the elephant seals swam from what’s called a

seamount one seamount to another so the sea mounts were like like rest stops or McDonald’s along in the ocean and so you can see that the the a lot of the animals use these the topological geographical attributes of the of the open ocean sea life itself will aggregate around these features so there’s more to eat and then you can see that they they dive also down to the tops of the sea mounts and in some cases the deepest dive that we had in the census was 2,300 meters that’s almost 7,000 feet if you think of how you feel when you try to dive without scuba gear just 10 or 12 feet down imagine the physiology of an animal that can dive five or six times as deep as the Empire State Building and these were another type type of seal crabeater seals that like to live on the on the shelf these are the elephant seals again here’s Antarctica South America Australia and you see they they Antarctica’s their habitat they circumnavigate the entire continent so the world looks very different to the if you’re in elephant seal from a human obviously or a barnacle and they’re just these endless ways of connecting the oceans things can connect by drifting but they can connect by actively swimming as well as the elephant seals do we also looked at animals along the shore along the coastline so we use something like easy pass we team based in Vancouver set up toll booths along the west coast of North America and British Columbia and Alaska and again we gave the animals sort of cell phones and let me just show you a very short animation some of you have probably been to the Rocky Mountains and we tagged some of the animals in the Rocky Mountains in the Snake River here they got the red and blue means they have tags and they’re swimming out of the Columbia River this is past Portland and there being these are these are young salmon about the size of a frank footer and a lot of them are being eaten here by by sea birds and seals and so forth but some of them will swim all the way past Vancouver Island and here they’ll appear to portage over this island but they actually swim around it and Alaska is up here and the you know if you’ve gone white water rafting on the snake river and the Rocky Mountains it’s hard to believe but here the days are going by 10 days let me show it one more time in the course of about 60 days an animal the size of a frank footer swims 1,500 miles from Idaho to Alaska and these kinds of migrations had never been followed in detail until the census help advance the technology and this sort of thing is now in much more widespread use and by having these the sort of toll booths along the shore one could follow them and it’s very important because you want to know where animals die in the oceans as well not just from fishing but from other causes go back to the name presentation so here you see the size of the salmon being tagged again it’s the size of a hot dog or a banana and it will be able to swim 1,500 miles now we saw pictures of tuna early bluefin tuna and this is the tale of one tuna that we first gave a cell phone to off Southern California over here in the dark blue dots it was January February and then come the green dots March April in the course of two months the salmon swam most of the way to Japan then in the course of May and June the yellow dots it went all the way to Tokyo it saw that with the Japanese due to tuna it turned around and in the red dots in the course of the next 60 days at swam to Mexico the this one particular tuna swam 25,000 nautical miles in 600 days in both the Atlantic and the Pacific there’s been debate about whether there are separate populations that live here and live here but the census was able to show that a tuna may be in Sicily or in near Spain one month and three months later it could be in the Gulf of Mexico or Florida so the the animals have connect the ocean in incredible ways and finally they form that you know these kind of

these highways these white dots are the bluefin tuna going back and forth commuting like Jet Set businessmen between Los Angeles and Tokyo the the yellow dots are these are white sharks that go back and forth between San Francisco and Hawaii I’ll come back to that these are turtles so they’re they’re a what we came to call blue highways and their neighborhoods so you know if you’re flying over the Atlantic or the Pacific you look down it just looks dark blue or black but actually if you look underneath you know it’s like the DC metro there’s all this stuff going on underneath all this all this all this movement and I’ll now show you another short animation the same thing with this is the North Pacific and it shows a lot of different species time is going by and the the colors here represent the heat of the water the sea surface temperature so red or orange means warm water blue means cold water and so it’s getting colder up here and some these are salmon sharks that are leaving the Gulf of Alaska and Prince William Sound and here you see in the the yellow these are the the tuna again leave the go from California this way and the there are elephant seals that go from California up to the Aleutian Islands so the they’re all these patterns going on mrs. work that was led by Barbara block from Stanford University and Don Costa from University of California at Santa Cruz there’s similar work has been done in several other oceans now and so as the seasons are going by as the water temperature is changing all this stuff is going on all these seasonal migrations different kinds of animals connecting the oceans in in different ways so the the the the the the it’s not a featureless it only looks featureless to us the one of the remarkable examples of migration is the white shark this is the west coast of California can sort of see San Francisco Bay the little bit of blue up there and Monterey would be down here this is the peninsula that goes up to the city of San Francisco on December 15th of 2005 one of the members of the census tagged a white shark over here and this is the track of the white shark it swam all the way to Hawaii and hung around mostly the Big Island eating pineapples or doing whatever surfing and then it swam back and you can see a little less than a year later on october eleventh two thousand six it shed its tag just a few hundred yards from where it was tagged so you know we’re a little bit used to the idea that birds migrate or that salmon migrate but think about swimming yourself for think about just trying to find Hawaii from San Francisco if you jumped in the water to get it then if you got to Hawaii imagine swimming back to exactly the same spot so there’s all this vertical motion in the ocean but there’s horizontal motion to and the world’s largest migration is not the traffic in Washington DC every morning it’s actually from about 1,200 feet 400 meters down in the ocean to the surface each day here you see the height of the Eiffel Tower and this was a day in June in 2004 in the North Atlantic and all this kind of yellow green stuff is sea life fish and jellies and plankton and different kinds of things and this is it’s noon 1200 hours then about nine o’clock at night 2130 it gets dark and all of a sudden all these animals go up to the surface where it’s now dark and there they feel safer and they can feed and then at 448 in the morning you know Sun is starting to rise and down they go so but you know if you imagine a shrimp climbing the Eiffel Tower in the course of about an hour and then descending again the next morning so there’s just incredible movement and connectivity now let me speak about abundance having spoken about diversity and distribution here you see a family with some large groupers that they caught off Key West this has worked on by our history team that collected lots of postcards and photos to try to understand changes and here’s a photograph of the Greyhound the same recreational fishing boat in 2007 and Key West and you can see quite a contrast between the catch and the story in terms of abundance unfortunately is not a happy one it goes way back though it’s not just modern times here the Romans were incredibly effective

fishermen tuna was actually the favorite food of the Romans and the Romans are believed to extract it about a hundred thousand tons a year of sea life from the Mediterranean and using very sophisticated nets and hooks and techniques swordfish are pund off North America off this this area in a bit north of New Jersey off Massachusetts Maine Nova Scotia you can see the average swordfish harpooned in 1860 was about 500 pounds and then by 1880 it was smaller and by 1930 it was less than 200 pounds so the the large animals the the it’s not just in the last few years the techniques for hunting were very efficient earlier now you might think this is the Tokyo fish market the Japanese the zoo coogi famous for port for the tuna but in fact this is a bluefin tuna fish market in Denmark in 1946 there were there were big big populations of bluefin tuna in the North Atlantic until the early 1950s there used to be a sport fishing tournament to catch the biggest tuna between Sweden and Denmark between Copenhagen there’s an Al bridge that goes from Copenhagen over to Sweden and people used to catch tuna like this it’s nineteen nineteen forty six the cover of a Swedish sport fishing magazine and now needless to say you’re lucky to catch a herring in that area but as dick said at the beginning there are there is still a lot and the here in the Gulf of Maine here’s Cape Cod Boston using a new technique a new acoustic technique a kind of acoustic lighthouse we found huge schools of herring which Americans don’t eat that much now and it’s one of the reasons the populations are strong and one of the largest aggregations of animals ever seen a quarter of a billion fish 250 million herring were seen in a show about the size of Manhattan Island we then when we did net a few of them to make sure it wasn’t just computers telling us that that our our teams doing integrative work then looked at lots of different studies of different kinds for example 12-14 studies of reef fish and 41 studies of sharks to try to estimate the fraction that had been lost since fishing became important say 500 years ago and in many of the groups ninety percent of we believe that ninety percent of the large animals have been lost in some of the groups like the seals the pinnipeds in the whales this lighter gray bar indicates recovery so in the areas where there’s protection like some of the ground fish some of the seabirds some of the whales and the seals the good news is that there has been there has been their recovery extinction is rare in the oceans it’s hard to get that last animal it’s the oceans are so big so if we leave things alone things can grow back direct removal of animals fishing is the biggest cause of the decline of populations but there are other causes to habitat destruction but a very tragic one is the marine debris on one of the expedition’s in the northwest Hawaiian Islands great photographer Susan Middleton photographed this albatross and everything in the belly of the albatross the those of you who have cats you know that cats sometimes swallow things and then they’ll regurgitate them and albatross are the same and some of the other seabirds they’ll swallow things that that are not digestible shells whatever and regurgitate them but when you swallow cigarette lighters and so forth and a lot of bottle caps it’s hard to survive and this is one albatross I’ve spoken mainly about the larger forms of sea life but there’s a hidden majority the marine microbes small stuff and in fact by weight the marine microbes probably make up ninety percent of everything in the ocean if you see of the ocean most ninety percent of what you’d have would be very small form very small forms of life and when you take a gulp of seawater you may have 20,000 phylotypes eight thousand different kinds of the very small life and of course these are in many cases ubiquitous and also connect the oceans in the same way in it well in a way in an important way and just as large animals do and these small things can aggregate into big things one of the wonderful discoveries of the

census was a mat a bacterial mat the size of Greece of Chile one of the largest known living objects ever seen and it’s a filamentous map like a carpet made out of a bacteria called high up loca in fact one of the biggest discoveries of the census was in the the very small stuff the microbes the the census of marine microbes team led by Mitch slogan from the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole published a paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences which is one of the most cited papers of the census microbial diversity in the deep sea and the underexplored rare biosphere this long tail there are a few things like that thigh up loca that are high abundance but then they’re out there in nature they’re just this there’s this enormous reservoir of possibility of different ways of being and if the circumstances the context were to change maybe things that were out here and rare would move up here with climate change or other changes it’s very important to understand some of these low abundance populations better and this paper in a few years has already garnered more than a thousand citations and become a citation classic finally we estimate that there are 10 to the 28th microbes in the ocean just numbers that are you know kind of how can you even decide between 10 to the 27th a 10 to the 29th it’s crazy but the when you look at the oceans you should look at the oceans the way you look at the stars in the sky the in terms of the microbes the very small life it’s a it’s a it’s a galaxy of microbes along with the the tuna and the turtles and the big ball the big forms of life I’ve spoken about what we learned mostly about the the explored the the what we know but I’ve also mentioned sometimes what remains to be discovered or what’s unexplored here’s a map looking down on the North Pole here’s Greenland here’s Canada Alaska Russia Scandinavia Iceland the red means we have a lot of records in the in the marine life database of the census and you can see that around England Ireland lots of measures around New England lots of measures around the northwest of the United States lots and lots of observations and measures but the dark blue means very few and white means essentially none so the there are still many many unexplored parts of the oceans for life we may have looked at the we may have we may have a geological map but it means we haven’t had systematic biological exploration and you can see there’s just a tremendous bias towards areas that are near the rich countries near major major marine labs and so forth here are two maps of the eastern Pacific here’s Australia and South America over here again Australia and South America these are big squares we’re five degrees squares mr. these are small squares so if you look at a big square and ask do we have a measure well then there are quite a few squares where there are measures but even with these five degrees squares in the eastern Mediterranean Pacific there are just completely biologically unexplored regions and if you use smaller squares and a one degree square is still a very large a bit of bit of Earth I should let’s say it’s Delaware it would be bigger than that the nobody has looked at all so you can see again they’re just much of the ocean is still just unexplored for for life that’s looking down imagine taking a slice through the water so the top this this is the surface of the water this is the seafloor and red means a lot of observations so near shore near surface there are a lot of observations and people then send a box or a diver or a submarine down to the sea floor and look but you can see the vast mid waters here also the dark blue means essentially no records so the by volume the mid waters are the largest habitat on earth and most of the the mid waters of the ocean again are are there are just no observations let me talk briefly about the some of the practical benefits of the census and then I’ll say a little bit about the census and art and wrap up dick mention the DNA barcodes these short DNA identifiers that can tell you whether something is an anemone or a

snail or a shrimp or a sea star these represent these these colored stripes represent the the nucleotides of DNA the base pairs and each form of life will have a slightly different it’s like a fingerprint DNA barcode and we teamed up with the census researchers teamed up with with geneticists to build a growing library of marine species for identification and one of the wonderful things that happened was one of the first successful citizen science projects to high school students seniors at the Trinity School in New York City decided to do a study of sushi being sold in restaurants and fish stores in New York they will it help them get into college but they had a lot of fun too they did buying and eating with sushi and then doing the DNA extraction and testing and they wrote a small article for it about for an obscure magazine Pacific fishing magazine they made the front page of the New York Times and this led to the so called sushi gate scandal it turned out that a quarter of the fish being sold in in Manhattan was inaccurately labeled and in every case something inexpensive was being sold as something expensive for example a lot of lot of fish was being sold as red snapper some of it was actually freshwater Nile perch you can see it’s a bit different and there are quite a few other mistaken mistakes spotted Caribbean goatfish was being sold as Mediterranean mullet tilapia which is again a freshwater fish was being sold as a kind of tuna and there been a series of these studies now in different parts of the US and around the world and everywhere in the world where it’s been done between ten and fifty percent of the seafood has been inaccurately labeled the FDA is now trying to use the US Food and Drug Administration is now trying to use this technique to get to improve the Consumer Protection public engagement the I think you can see already that there are lots of wonderful discoveries and to our delight artists and all kinds of people took an interest in the census this was one of the wonderful species discovered the Yeti crab discovered in the South Pacific very deep water and the Yeti crab appeared on skateboards it also added those stuffed animal all kinds of things this is another example it’s a beautiful squid jeweled squid from the North Atlantic and a fabric artist in California started making pennants beautiful pennants this is all made out of fabric with sequins and painted fabric and here you can see some sea stars on the sea floor and this beautiful jeweled squid artists started coming on the expedition’s this is a Norwegian watercolor artist or an elf opdahl and he came on one of the expeditions on the in the North Atlantic and here you can see him working and his on on the ship this was the artist’s model here you can see some of the paintings these were exhibited in the the the main art art museum that in Oslo Norway and elsewhere another Norwegian artist a sculptress and edvardsson took an interest especially in some of the hollow Thorian sea cucumbers and some of the mollusks and did these just magnificent sculptures art and science really are the same they’re both about observation and I think and edwardson saw these the these forms of sea life as as well as we do looking through microscopes the census had the wonderful fortune also to team with a french-led project to make a documentary about ocean life a film called oceans led by the great director emea some of you may have seen a film called winget migration about the long-distance migration of birds or a film called micro cosmos about insects we worked with him on the film Ocean’s a version was released in the US by Disney which I would say is not as good as the version seen in the rest of the world which is more of a Disney made it for a younger audience if time permits at the very end try to show you maybe just three minutes from that of course we produced books almost

everything is available open access online we produced a report that’s available in many languages final report again I mentioned open access a lot of we worked a lot with public library of science or their collections of the paper so almost everything I’ve described to you is available easily and freely online we teamed up with a national geographic society here in Washington DC which has some of the world’s best cartographers to make a two-sided wall map which was extensively distributed and is also available online in a zoomable form that this was an incredible discipline I think for the the researchers in the program to to try to decide what information would actually go into this the last thing I want to say is that of course the experience at the outside I mentioned Frank press and Bob white and cooperative international science projects and it’s one of the great joys of working in science it’s a better world in many ways here you see the team that worked on the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf at a meeting at sultan qaboos university in Muscat we had very good participation by Iranian scientists here’s the the Caribbean team which was led by wonderful expert on Queen conks from Simon Bolivar University and Caracas Venezuela the southern Africa team the Indian Ocean team the comal dots en china here this was a meeting that all of us had on the queen mary in long beach and marine biology hadn’t had a tradition of big science you know compared to astronomy or physics or some other fields and I think one of everybody I think had a very happy experience that we can work together successfully dick mentioned that the gratifying award in 2011 of the Japan awarded major major prize the International cosmos prize to the census the the word of more than half a million dollars this is the grand summary first it can be done at the beginning and speaking with Jim Bakker that this was part of the question could could it actually be done 2700 scientists more than 80 countries 540 field expeditions total expenditure globally we estimate including all the ship time about 650 million dollars over the 11-year cheers 1200 new species to squirt discovered and described about 5,000 more awaiting description 130,000 species with web pages 35,000 species with genetic identification thousands of publications as I said at the beginning finally marine life is richer more connected more altered and yet less known and less explored we did end with a poll to see the most popular animal and the winner was this blob fish so no it’s it’s a beautiful animal and so mr blobby as he came to be called was voted the most popular animal in the in the census and on that note dico

Flying on Water in Montego Bay with LIFT FOIL JAMAICA!

oh yeah it is 6 19 in the morning just driving out from montego bay to fall mouth i just happen to have a couple friends from canada that are visiting with their families and managed to arrange some foil boarding electric foil boarding so big up sefton stewart from efoil jamaica and we’re gonna try these boards out it’s like an electric surfboard but they’re raised out of the water on a foil looks insane and i’ve wanted to try it for a long time so very much looking forward to this and yeah sun’s gonna come up and we’re gonna see if we can figure out this crazy piece of technology all right here we are oh [ __ ] what’s up boys yeah yeah i just said it’s going to know who we’re looking for uh whip you like this corolla why is it every time i see you you pick me up in a shittier and shittier toilet is this what you’re going to wear to go surfing today okay we’re good thank you thank you yeah this is beautiful it’s perfect are you ready to shred i’m feeling very shred tacular ready shreddy you know what you got you got perfect perfect perfect yesterday we were gonna go stand up paddle boarding and the guy wouldn’t let us have the paddle boards because it was too wavy i was like isn’t that the point of this you can warm up on that look at this we’re just waiting for the foils evan’s doing some warm-up paddleboard tell me how do you warm up for foil boarding with my stuffed yoga moves you see the headstand here stop yoga yep yep yep oh that was right onto your spine i totally forgot i was filming too sorry no you’re the hero all right save some energy for foiling crazy take him down man how are you that’s small too man the brains of the operation oh man that is so sick i gather these things are [ __ ] rad oh they look so fun the only thing okay yeah four bolts all it takes four bullets that’s his workout aggressive that’s where the pricing comes from some good engineering you gotta pay to play

can we get some more horsepower on this yeah what you do is you gotta diddle this knob and it’ll uh add a few extra horses get your sprocket wrench on that that will do i like this one’s for the extra husky gentlemen which one’s the best for doing handstands on that one supervising today you got to be the lifeguard though in case they get in trouble out there [Laughter] first one to the abandoned freighter wins looks russian looks russian i was going up there man i got scared and turned back some bad man stuff happening over there i think that thing look i have been to the bottom of the ocean before oh we’re exploring today all right have a good vibe yeah i’m gonna go and do this you know this is like priest link up this wall initiation smoke all right get it good you know as you come on that player this morning there’s a two guy right there oh yeah in the grill so i’ll get me a nice border weed and try my best for not going out of the camps and i have to give more cars before yeah yeah just come deep brother yeah it’s smaller but small things always come smoke ceremony and get out there yeah smoke ceremony first yeah it’s not involved in that sort of thing i can film first and then try next so yeah i’m in all right let’s do it if you look right there you’ll step right there often in nine feet of water just where the sun breaks so ever it’s been cleaned out and we can see the bottom of the ocean right now like clearly so that’s why i’m excited to go there early yeah yeah yeah so okay look at this business card is maddie coming up with ideas like this for your business this is ingenuity these guys are going to be the guinea pigs i’m going to just shoot see what we get first i’ll be here for support mike’s here for support social support also helping the turtles by digging absolutely yeah somebody has to be the controller here man just make sure things go smooth we’re gonna put this somewhere safe we’re gonna move this to the water [Applause] right don’t run me over yeah right buddy that dome is going to be my target so far so good everyone still got all their limbs wow shredders yeah yeah john

it’s like surfing without having to paddle yes it’s like all the hard part is done for you and it’s just a fun day hell yeah i rode for six months on my stomach because i had the first one and no one to teach you’re just self self-taught wow six months right now my stomach people just like what is this like is this can you stand on it it’s called dick dragging oh man six months and then like i went across the channel here first time i stood up and then the first time i took it to kingston i wrote it from lime key to maiden key yeah and everybody was like yo you crossed the channel i was like was there a channel i don’t know about our channel i just wrote that’s sick it’s fun man come on these guys get in under 10 minutes man yeah these guys are good surfers that’s it yeah they got the skills you’re the second big guys you ride this thing in less than yesterday there was a guy like 270 no kidding yeah man he got up on me right i think i couldn’t believe i couldn’t believe it’s surfing with none of the hard work like it’s just the fun part that’s why they’re charging yes okay it’s all just soul card yeah john i got some sick shots of you guys john’s got like the big the big indigram turn i stopped talking to him and just told him what to do once like just listen you’re gonna do this shuffle your left leg forward and step and he just did it right away man these guys are rippers the team from minnesota and these guys are the fastest to ever stand up on this thing [ __ ] now pressure’s on me oh that’s the thing that’s the thing now it’s like having your sister do something before you exactly you’re in a competition no and that’s it that’s what the trouble is so good so are we getting these for the county or what so i’ll pick two yeah it’s really weird looked hard but you guys said you’re the fastest ever to pick it up it’s like dude once it’s like you know when you’re trying to like get going on a wakeboard or on a surfboard or something and you don’t have the speed you need yeah it gives you the speed so like you can get up super easy so like it takes the it takes the guesswork and the hard parts out of it so it’s just the fun part now it’s just figuring out how to carve on a friggin blade instead of on a board yeah the sharp turns were hard yeah or like or like you go and you want to just like like it’s a skateboard or a snowboard you want to just give it a little toe to like straighten up a bit and you’re just like over the handlebars oh man that’s fun get ready you can do some stretches or something stand up uh jet skiing yeah uh okay yeah like that the same weirdness with you this is this is an absolute workout though when you get home you’ll realize all of this is worked out and switch the batteries over and man i was in so much pain i got to take a lot of shots today and then i got off the boat and jumped in the car and drove for like two hours and when i went to get another car i was like oh god somebody help me my legs they don’t want to go yeah fireman you’re wearing that whole suit right in the water if i wearing white i will straight white island blue yeah cm glasses cm boats everything all right ali is a match not not the style but the red and black is for half hyena apricot symbol so i’m happy in one suit looks so this nice so crazy man wow and the pressure’s on because of these guys learning so damn quick yep you better stomp a kick flip any tips evan go fast die young yeah get some front foot front foot gas gas gas you look good you look fast

it’s pretty awkward but it’s fun dude just like you you’ve got the balance now just just open it up and see how fast you can go mikey in the put cut up yeah johnny go get some johnny kitty all night that’s so fun and relatively easy to get up yeah yeah well like again it gives you the speed right so it gives you everything you need yeah yeah those good look at john’s glistening muscles all right first time foiling i’m able to do it pretty good it’s not too difficult and uh yeah it feels insane so i’m controlling it with this my stance is pretty tight and we’re rolling here in montego bay jabby how’d i do yeah i’ll take it easy you know yeah yeah i’m fun but uh yeah so fun yeah i think they’re good yeah yeah i really want one for at home imagine cruising down a river or wherever it’s like having a blast now go do it yeah first time doing that relatively easy to learn definitely awkward at first you got to be a lot more forward than you think and your feet need to be close together so if you’re a surfer it’s way tighter than you would normally imagine compared to surfboard but still very easy 10 minutes we’re all up and riding john’s ripping evan’s ripping septon’s killing it mikey is out there killing it too i really want one of these things now have a blast i’ll put the link below hit up sefton and yeah you got to try this out it’s insane i think he can meet you anywhere montego bay negril wherever

Trap to Table: Maine Lobster LIVE

“We are live here in New York City to talk about Maine Lobster!” “Why New York City? It is the food and media capital of the entire world and we are going to talk about New Shell Lobsters Are we ready? Yes? Okay, let’s go! “Ladies and gentlemen, please welcome the host of Speaking Broadly on Heritage Radio Network, the former longtime Editor-in-Chief of Food & Wine Magazine, and our host for the evening, Dana Cowin!” “Welcome everybody! I’m so glad you’re all here I’m really glad to be here because I love Maine, and I love lobster and for decades and really decades, I was the editor of Food & Wine and everyone would say like, ‘what’s your favorite meal?’ and they’re like hanging on the Michelin star and they’re waiting for the French chef and I’m like it’s Lobster from Maine! It’s Georgetown Island I love it! So we’re gonna hear a lot about the Lobster of Maine today. We’re gonna hear from the lobstermen of Maine, we’re gonna hear from chefs who’ve been on lobster boats and cooked incredible dishes with those Lobsters from Maine, so first I’m gonna go over to you guys Hi, lobstermen of Maine!” “How are ya?” “I’m great how are you doing?” “Very well.” “So, first my biggest hello is to Krista, because we got to be on a boat together and it was your grandfather’s boat that you’ve taken on! Tell me like, what’s it like being a third-generation lobstermen of Maine?” “Yes, it was! My whole family’s been fishing forever. My dad, my brother, my uncle and of course, my grandfather. We’ve just done it for years… and these you know, what we’ve done is Maine this is who we are and these practices have been in place since 1850s.” “Wow!” “Yeah, it’s pretty incredible So we’re just so happy that we can bring lobster here and share it with everyone and you know…” “Here’s one way you can share it – you’ve got to pick it first! Right? so the thing about lobsters are sometimes it is such a pain the cracker and the picker.. but Chris what’s going on here? Your hands – they’re dirty, they’re wet, they’re inside the lobsters..” “Yeah, so what we’ve got going on here, we’re picking some New Shell lobsters. So what’s pretty neat here is the New Shells have just molted, so they’re nice and soft which gives us the opportunity to break them and crack them with their hands, where as the old shell lobster, you need tools You know, you need to break them – sometimes you hit them with a hammer or crack them with a knife – but these are nice and soft. They’re able to break them apart and it’s something really enjoyable.” “So there’s a season. Like, I know the season for corn and there’s season for other things but seasons for lobster, Merritt, like what’s what’s going on? I didn’t know there were seasons in lobsters.” “So in the summertime, the lobsters come in from off shore and they molt, as Chris was saying, they shed their shell and they become New Shell Lobsters and it’s roughly July 4th all the way up through the fall, so we’re in the height of..” “We’re in the HEIGHT!” “Totally in the height of New Shell.” “The total right moment to be having this!” “Exactly!” “For Maine lobstermen, the next two months are like a several month long Superbowl. This is go time. We can’t wait to back on the boat, get back fishing for lobster “Okay well, fishing, but before you get to fishing, I need to know like, what are the tricks? Like what is the trick to the lobster? Yeah – you just did! It’s a twist of the wrist!” “Yeah, so a New Shell lobster, you can see how easy it is twist off the tail, and you know, these aren’t gonna really hurt you. The edges are soft and everything, the shell is soft, so you pull the tail off – you can crack the tail off, like that – and push it right through and right there you have a big nice piece of meat.” “Wow – that’s the move. Flip the tail, push it right through, and it pops out!” “Even if you’re from New York City you can do it” “Even I can do that! I know, thanks So Bruce, now we’ve got the lobster right it’s all right in

front of you. If you’re gonna make the lobster, how would you make it?” “Well, the simplest way, for me, is just steamed lobster with butter, and it’s just I don’t know, you can be on the beach with these anywhere. It just cracks open easy it’s sweeter, it’s tenderer but the beauty of the lobster, is you can do it however you like and it turns out into some fabulous recipe but I like it just steamed with butter.” “See I think that’s fair because I bet a lot of you would agree, right? The steamed is great Later, we’re gonna have some chefs to show us how to like, take it to the next level, but before we get there, we’ve got some video about the difference between New Shell and Hard Shell, because it’s kind of confusing. Hit the video!” “Need help identifying the differences between Maine New Shell and Hard Shell Lobsters? Here are the key things to look for. New Shell Lobsters have just molted, so their shells are thinner and give way when squeezed. Hard Shells are fully developed and much thicker. Before they’re cooked, New Shell Lobsters have a brighter exterior free of marks and scuff. Hard Shells are darker and frequently marked up Once cooked, New Shells are bright orange, while Hard Shells are darker usually with spots and scars. The meat of New Shells is a vibrant orange and flecked throughout. Hard Shell meat is a softer color with fewer flecks As for texture and flavor, New Shell meat is incredibly tender and tastes sweeter Hard Shell is a denser meat with a brinier flavor This summer, do your own taste test and see which you prefer.” “Okay, are we clear now? Like, we get the differences between Hard Shell and New Shell? Which is awesome, particularly since you’ve just seen it in the video, right, but that’s not enough. What would make it really great is to taste the difference! So, later tonight this audience gets to have New Shell Lobster! So a few weeks ago, I, and some of the most incredible chefs in America, got to go on lobster boats with some of the greatest lobster people in America, and so right now we’re gonna meet some of those chefs, and we’re going to hear about what you can do with this amazing New Shell Lobster.” “She’s the soon-to-be Executive Chef and Owner of a highly anticipated restaurant in Boston, Mass. She’s been featured on television’s Top Chef and Beat Bobby Flay, and is the co-author of the award-winning cookbook, Myers & Chang at Home. Please welcome this year’s James Beard Award Winner as Best Chef in the Northeast, Karen Akunowicz!” “You’ve seen him on the hit TV show, Top Chef. You’ve read about him on Forbes’ list of 30 Under 30 to Watch. His dishes have been inspired by his world travel, please welcome the Executive Chef and Creator of Kith and Kin restaurant in Washington D.C., Kwame Onwuachi!” “He’s a StarChefs Rising Star, on the Zagat list of 30 Under 30, and was recently named by the Robb Report as one of America’s Best Young Chefs to Watch Please welcome the Chef and Partner of Bellmore in Chicago, Illinois, Jimmy Papadopoulos!” “Okay, we all got to share an experience – not together – a day on a lobster boat “What do you guys think? “Oh man, I mean, how can you spend a day better than that, right? “No, it was, it was really. I think we were talking earlier, Jimmy, and like we had both said this was on our bucket list! Our things to do in life! So, I couldn’t imagine anything better.” “Okay, you made it sound really glamorous. Their life is not glamorous, and what was the tough part? Like, what was really hard actually?” “Well when I was out we had what they call a Grandma’s Day, where the water is perfectly still and it’s super beautiful, so it

made me think that like, I could actually probably do this for a living until the sternman said wait till you’re out here and there’s ice on the deck and it’s you know, five below zero.” “Yeah, yeah, for sure. I mean I think there’s like a romanticism of it right? You’re sitting there, you’re watching them take the traps out of the water, and they’re measuring the backs, and then all of a sudden they’re like, hey, come on I need, I need more… more bait bags! You know? And then you’re rushing to get the bags and stuff them, kind of like in the kitchen, you know? So I think that was like the hardest part, was trying to watch and observe everything, but you were still part of the crew at the same time.” “Right. Well I think that, you know, I think the kitchen is glamorized as well, right? People are like – wow, it must be so great to be a chef. And we’re like, I was scrubbing of ovens until 3 a.m. last night, so… maybe not as maybe maybe not as glamorous. I mean, the hard part, yeah I thought I was doing a great job. I was like – I am killing this lobstering, and they were like okay, now we’re gonna do it at the regular speed, because we actually have to pull 18 more traps, so knowing that you know, we weren’t, or I wasn’t quite up to speed or up to par that was a little challenging, but then I haven’t been the new guy in a while.” “So okay, how are the new people? All of us new people. How’d we do?” “Well, I happen to take Jimmy with me and uh, he’s a work-in-progress. He had a good good heart about it – a good spirit – and he, he gave it his all, and at least he knew enough to say when he wasn’t sure exactly what he was doing right or wrong, but I’d take him again if he ever wanted to go. He was, he was good to have on the boat.” “Thank you!” “There ya go, Jimmy!” “Good job, Jimmy!” “Okay, so we’ve gotten over the hard part. What was the easy part? Like what is like, this is my dream?” “Falling in love with the fact that you’re out there on the water, and you’re pulling beautiful live Maine Lobsters right out of the ocean I mean that was the easy part to fall in love with, for sure.” “Yeah, I mean, you know, if you think about it, when do you really like, go hunting for live animals, you know? And you think about it’s just like, you’re fishing, but you’re really pulling these animals out there, and they’re trying to attack you while you’re like, grabbing them, and then you’re taking them and taking them back to the, you know, lobstermen’s house… and preparing a dish for them, so you know, that’s like the best part is like, being primal and in the moment. And that’s something that we don’t really do on a day-to-day basis.” “Back to my bucket list of pulling a lobster out of the water and being able to go cook it and eat, it it’s almost like, like something you’d read in a book or see in a movie, you know?” “It was idyllic. Really.” “Like, literally we were sitting in a gorgeous harbor watching, the sunset behind us as we were eating you know, beautiful Maine Lobster that we hauled earlier in the day. So it was just, it was perfect.” “So there are ways in which boats are kind of like kitchens, right?” “100%” “Absolutely.” “Like, well how would you say it? What’s the comparison to you, for you?” “You know, I think that there’s a lot of ways that I found it to be similar, I mean I think one is watching them, you know, as you’re learning – it all looks like a dance – it looks like a ballet, right? You’re watching them, it’s a symphony, yeah. And I think when you watch the line in a kitchen cooks that have worked together for a long time on a night where everything’s like really working well that’s one of the most beautiful things in the world and I think I got that I really got the same feeling on the boat That for me was was really cool to be a part of and see that that similarity.” “All right let’s see what really happened on the boat I wanna see – was that a dance or was it like… ” “Definitely looked like a ballerina” “Or was it break dancing? Let’s look.” “Got you some Grundens so that you can stay dry as well and take those white pants back to Chicago.” “Yeah, it fits like a glove.” “They’re just my size!” “What do you guys think, looks good? Yeah?” “I’m gonna like dig in deep!” “Roll my sleeves up.” “You feel like you’re getting the hang of it?” “No” “I was told you were going to be smarter than the bait bag.” “It’s like, very similar to the kitchen. You got to keep moving, make sure you got all your mise en place – your things in place, yeah?” “You’re all done? We’ve only got 250 more to go…” “Is there any technique to the gaffing or is it just…” “Make sure you turn the hook the right way” “Like down there? Oh! I missed him!” “Whoa, there’s one!” “Whoa!” “Oh, I’m not good. I’m not going at full speed.” “All right, so this one’s got quite a few, so I call these a hornet’s nest You reach in there and every one of them wants to get a hold of ya, so good luck.” “Not big enough.” “That’s big enough.” “Oh it is big enough?” “On the main shell, yeah you’re gonna be not making much money at this game if you throw them back.” “This guy is waiting to get one of my fingers right now.” “You want to wrestle with that and band it? “Not really!” “Do you think that I could, I could lobster? I could be a lobsterwoman? Do you think you would give me a job?” “I’m not ready to offer you a full-time gig but..” “Ok.” “I feel like a real lobstermen. Except not at all.” “I was amazed at how many lobsters we

threw back. Partly I was like, wow, this is such hard work that you guys do because you do all the work to pull it up and then there’s like three lobsters and you have to toss something back but, there’s a reason. Like, it’s a really important and great thing, because that’s at the core of the sustainability of this entire industry. I mean in the seafood industry, sustainability is so important right now. Like is that something that you guys are concerned about?” ‘Yeah, absolutely I mean I think it goes hand-in-hand with caring about food right you know where your food comes from and how it’s procured, and you know these people right here, they pull these lobster out of the water one by one.” “Literally one by one.” “And to this sustainability, you know, piece of it when you see a trap come up and there’s, you know, the things almost packed with lobsters, and to see how many actually go back in the water.” “It’s heartbreaking!” “It was like, literally I thought we like hit it big, and then Chris starts, ‘oh no that doesn’t work, that one’s too big, that one’s notched…’ and I’m watching, you know, what was thirty-five lobsters turn into three, you know, and that was pretty remarkable that that is how honest and how hard these people work at their sustainability and keeping their, you know, their fishery, you know, maintained for the generations to come.” “And if we don’t, if we aren’t practicing sustainability right, there isn’t going to be anything left. And I think that what we learn from the lobstermen and women here is that they’ve actually been doing that for hundreds of years. It is one of the oldest industries, not just in the Northeast, not just in Maine, but in the United States. And that for me was kind of mind-blowing, and to see that they have always been practicing these things, that now is a hot-button topic when we’re talking about, I was like, hey, you guys had it right from the beginning.” “Ahead of the curve.” “What about you guys?” “We were conservationists before conservation was cool.” “Right” “And so, you know, we’ve always taken pride on leaving something for the next generation, and the next generation. I say we, I mean generations ago, and one of the things we do is have a minimum size and oversize. So this is our tool right here – the most important tool on a lobster boat – it’s to make sure that that lobster meets those guidelines to ensure that the young lobsters have a chance to breed before they’re kept, and the old lobsters that produce a lot of the brood stock are going to be able to remain on the sea floor to produce more lobsters for the next generation.” “I know there’s rules, right? So what are the rules? Because it’s just that little measuring thing..” “So what we do besides measuring is…” “It has a name doesn’t it have a name?” “Is it what?” “It’s called the gauge, right?” “It’s the gauge, yeah, it’s a measuring tool.” “Some call it measure some call it a gauge.” “Extra credit. Cheater.” “And not only that, we v-notch egg bearing female lobsters, so they have the chance to continue reproducing, which is a huge sustainably measure. Not only that, but we have trap vents to let the smaller lobsters leave the trap. So I mean, like I said, we’ve been doing this for 150 years and we’re so proud to be able to, you know, bring lobster to you and pass it on to younger generations to come.” “And just to show how good we’ve been doing it, when I started fishing 44 years ago, 20 million pounds was caught in the whole state of Maine. Now we’re catching 120 to 130 million pounds, so what we’ve been doing, we’ve been doing right.” “So instead of the lobsters being decimated, it’s allowed to to flourish. So you guys got to use the gauge, now I know the name of it! I was terrified of poking the eye, I’m like, I’m gonna throw blind lobsters back. But um, how’d you do? How’d you do with the gauge?” “I did pretty good. I was more afraid of them like, cutting my finger off then..” “You really felt like they were ready to attack you.” “Yeah, for sure.” “So my first time I thought if it went past the limit that he wasn’t keepable.” “Right.” “And that’s when Chris was like, no no, you throw him, if you’re a lobsterman you throw him in the water, you’re not gonna be making much money doing this. I was like, oh.. thanks. So, I caught on.” “I definitely the opposite of you, I was like, we can keep this right? Like, no? We can keep this? Right? No? I kept trying to… I’m a moneymaker man, I want to get this on the boat, but no, each time Cy was like, ‘no, gotta throw him back,’ “It is that like, throwing money over board, but you’re keeping the future in front of you, so I think that’s..” “So one of the things that’s very cool about our sustainable industry, and what we do for these measures, to maintain, is what we’d said before, is that we used to catch, you know, 20 or 30 million pounds in the past we’ve caught over 100 million, I think that’s a direct result of our sustainable measures and the more we give back the more of the oceans providing for us. So this thing has been it used to be the New Shell Lobster stayed in the state of Maine. We kind of kept them and hoarded them to ourselves But now we’re able to share them because we’ve been able to produce and catch so many more, so that’s part of why we’re here today.” “Okay so now that you’re like

you’re catching and sharing, and that makes me really hungry We’re here, we have plates in front of us, and what I’m really excited to do is to find out what these three AMAZING chefs did with the New Shell Lobster, so Jimmy, I’m gonna start with you. What is it that you like? You went, you had the boat, you tried something up there. What did you try to do?” “Right, so the first thing that I thought of is I’ve never had New Shell Lobster before Like Chris said, they’ve been kind of keeping it as a secret for themselves For me, you know, you catch a lobster that just molted its shell and it’s growing it’s super tender and sweet and I wanted to kind of accent that by just quickly tempura frying it to get it nice and crispy to kind of, you know, just to kind of give you a little bit of contrast against the texture of the lobster. We seasoned it with a little bit of d’Esplette chili pepper, some dried lime, and then a chive aioli. So I wanted to kind of hit on crispy, salty, spicy, acidic, and just basically a nice beautiful piece of fried delicate New Shell Maine Lobster. So there wasn’t really much to it outside of that.” “Ok, bring it over here!” “Let me get this over to you guys.” “Just go ahead and grab them with your fingers.” “Oh yeah.” “They look like lobster corn dogs.” “They do, that’s just what I was going to say!” “The goal is to make them like snacky and delicious, you know, nothing, it’s good Pretty unadulterated. It’s delicious lobster, so.” “Beautiful.” “So was being on the boat an influence in putting together this dish?” “I think so, absolutely. I mean getting to be out there and see the water, see where this lobsters coming from, you know, that was that was pretty much it for me. Never seeing New Shell Lobster before, trying it for the first time, and then starting to think, okay, how do I want this ingredient to be showcased and that’s how we, all of us chefs, pretty much approach, you know, building new dishes, right? So when you find a new ingredient, it’s almost like a new treasure. It’s like something that you haven’t experienced before. And then the gears start turning and you just kind of start you know plugging and piecing everything together.” “I thought what was interesting about the way that you approached it was it’s not from any particular place – it’s you borrowed a flavor from here and a flavor from here..” “Almost like thrift shopping of flavors, right? Just kind of plugging in playing.” “Okay, guys. What do you think?” “Kwame?” “Karen?” “I think it’s great, you know, I think you nailed what you were trying to achieve. It’s super crispy, the like floral yet citrusy notes from the black lime really come through.” “Yeah, can we tell these guys do something called Top Chef every once in a while?” “I’m just waiting to get sent home!” “We’re not gonna tell you to pack your knives and go, babe. That’s ok.” “Yet.” “Yeah, right.” “No but it’s great and then the aioli is like it’s really creamy and it coats your palate It’s great I really like customer it. I can’t wait to come to your restaurant.” “Awesome, thank you.” “Karen?” “I think one of the two things that I love the most about it, right, it really reminds me of summer. My favorite lobster places in Maine have like maybe the best lobster and also the best onion rings or like, in the summer we eat fried food, right? Like fried clams or fried oysters, and delicious things like that, and this brings it together in a really beautiful elevated way, and I love the flavors and it’s just like for me it sings summer “Awesome, thank you.” “It’s an international country fair dish, right?” “Yeah!” “Elevated to the max, but Chris, so we’re eating some fried lobster here, and I understand that you have an enormous skill at frying lobster What’d you think when you had this dish? What’d you think? “You know, I grew up working a side job as a fry person so I was able to give Jimmy a few pointers on how to run fry.” “Did he need them?” “Yeah, yeah, you know, I had to keep him on the straight and narrow. But the flavor that he was able to bring out of this New Shell lobster was something I never experienced before. In the past I’ve always eaten my lobster right out of the shell with a little butter, and eat it as I picked it, but to get a chance to try these chefs flavorful items, it has been quite an experience for me “All right, I’m not done yet. I’m still hungry Kwame, you’re next. What’d you make?” “Yeah so I decided to go in like, the Afro-Caribbean route, so I did a New Shell Lobster with a gooseberry piri piri, marinated cucumbers, heirloom, you know, yellow tomatoes, and puffed quinoa. So the cucumbers we treated like meat and in Trinidad we have this green seasoning – so it’s culantro, celery, thyme, scotch bonnet pepper, scallions, all type of stuff We puree that and then we cryovac the cucumbers in that so it goes into the center of the cucumber.” “Alright let’s try that! Bring it on.” “Not as easy as just grabbing with your hands.” “So the ingredients obviously come from your past.” “Mm-hmm” “Was there something about when Maine gets crossed with Trinidad what happens?

“I think something amazing happens, you know, I was in this little island and in Maine, making Nigerian and you know, South African and Trinidadian cuisine, so I don’t think it’s ever happened up all the way up there, but it was equally as delicious you know I’m taking an ingredient and just highlighting it I’m not changing it much, I’m just pairing it with things that just accentuate the natural beauty of the dish itself.” “It’s really it’s so beautiful to look at Bruce, it’s kind of spicy, what did you think about the the piri piri? Was that just perfect for your palate?” “Kwame started putting it together he come up with a piri piri sauce and he said, here try this! So I put my finger in it, and whoa Can you tone that down for me a little bit? Everything works so well together with such a nice, fresh summer salad. Great way to use lobster and it just shows that you can use it in so many different ways like his Nigerian rice dish that he does and used to use goat with that and now we he uses lobster – and that’s my second best way to have lobster.” “So I know you guys are best friends. I think that Karen, I’m just gonna guess you liked his dish But what do you think?” “So you know that I love your food and I love your cooking – I do! I would rather eat your food than almost anything else, and I love this dish. The thing that I love the most about it is actually the gooseberries. So I love gooseberries. I love how tart they are and I think they bring, I mean I know you always bring your own flair to a dish, but that is like, the thing that’s really special to me and I love in this dish.” “Your turn.” “I couldn’t agree more I think that the point of how beautiful and fresh and crunchy and you get this nice sweet you know New Shell Maine Lobster in there it’s just really unexpected and the gooseberries just kind of pop and the spice is like perfect against the richness and the sweetness of the lobster so it’s almost like one of those like quintessential perfect summer salads of lobster, but just with unexpected flavors and twists that you wouldn’t normally get.” “I love spicy so for me “It works.” “Yeah, it’s perfect. I love it.” “All right, Karen, what did you do? What was your dish?” “So I made a lobster and XO dumplings with a little bit of toasted chili vinaigrette. I was blown away by the the New Shell lobster and how sweet and tender it was and I really wanted to highlight that although it’s delicate and it’s sweet, it’s also rich Lobster can take some big flavors. And so many people regard it as a lux ingredient and I wanted to pair it with something that was equally as lux So for me that’s XO. So a beautiful condiment that’s kind of like a jam – ginger, scallion, shallots, and dried chili that are kind of cooked down with some dried shrimp and dried scallops, which are not only very rare but expensive and you know, and beautiful With a pork product you -” “That sounds amazing. Can you pass the plate?” “I don’t know, I might keep it over here for a little.” “So you can use bacon, you can use ham, I like to use a little bit of Chinese sausage. Thank you! You know, and mixing that with the claw meat of the of the New Shell Lobster and to me that’s like a really cool way to take two ingredients that are lux and kind of elevate each you know, each ingredient. And I wanted to, I was you know, I kind of wanted to say thank you to Cyrus for taking me out on his boat and I wanted to kind of show him something different that you could do with lobster, so I hope I hope everyone likes it.” “So I’ve got to say I think – it’s spicy! So Kwame’s dish didn’t knock me over it the way that it did Bruce, but this is delicious, and very spicy!” “It’s got some kick, it’s got some kick.” “It’s just like you, it’s got some spice!” “Ha, it’s got a little spice!” “The lobster stands up to it though, that’s the thing You get the spice and the sweetness, really kind of plays there I think it’s, great you know, I love.. the only thing I love more than Karen is her food, all right, so this is really great – really great “Thank you “You’re welcome.” “Ok, you need to describe it. Why? “Why? Oh! So, the spiciness of the XO works really well with the lobster, and it’s not really a pairing that you see with lobster in general, so to see this in in this style is really beautiful.” “That’s super smart though, I mean the XO has dried shrimp and dried scallop and it’s very shellfish based to be tons of umami and spice and that kind of cuts off the richness with the lobster and plays so beautifully so super I wish the Chinese restaurant

by my house serve dumplings like that.” “Jimmy I’ll come to your house, I’ll make you dumplings any day! Invite me over.” “The new China Buffet in Downers Grove.” “Yeah, yeah I’ll have your kids all lined up making dumplings. I’ll teach them all. don’t worry about it! “How did you do at teaching Cyrus to do dumplings?” “Cyrus, what’d you think?” “Well, I mean, Karen brought her a-game on the boat, so I felt like I had to give it my all to make these dumplings. But it’s not as easy as it she made it look But I felt like I made at least like twelve edible dumplings. Which I was pretty proud of.” “Eight! No I’m just kidding you did a really great job.” “Maybe four…” “No, Cyrus was awesome. It was actually, as much fun as it was being on the boat, it was really fun to be in the kitchen together and working together, and he – don’t let him fool you he can cook. He definitely brought his A-game. He was like, I was like ‘oh, do you need a knife, here’s my knife.’ And he was like ‘I brought my own knife, it’s cool.’ He was like, ready to go and he was definitely ready to show me that he had kitchen skills and you know so it wasn’t only fun, but you were awesome.” “Well if you’re in a kitchen with somebody like Karen, you just, you have to be ready.” “We had a really good time. I’m trying to get a job on his boat, so like anyone wants to say nice things about me Yeah, exactly, exactly.” “So, when you guys, you know, think about the time on the boat, the time cooking with the lobster, how did it change the way you think about lobster and Maine and New Shell and what you knew from the past, and what you know now?” “I feel like it really completed the whole circle. A lot of the times wherever you’re at if you’re not living in Maine, you know I live in Chicago, so basically we’re smack in the center of the country You call your seafood purveyors and all the sudden there’s lobsters at your door But to come and get on Chris’s boat and literally go out you know, up with the sun and just go out there haul traps. It really kind of put everything into perspective and you kind of see the entire chain. I think it makes you appreciate how hard these people work you know and that really is kind of what it is for me. It was it’s a whole new appreciation for the industry and the fishery and how these these people work.” “Yeah, Jimmy I mean when I got back to my kitchen after like literally taking one lobster out of the ocean at a time, if my cooks overcooked the lobster I was like you don’t understand what’s going on here, and you need to really respect the animal and I walked them through that process and it’s funny because they get it.” “That’s awesome – that’s like when you I’ve heard a lot of chefs say they take their team to a farm and all of a sudden there’s less waste so but Karen, you’re opening a new restaurant!” “I am, I am! Opening Thank you, thank you.” “I’m your biggest fan” “I know, I’m your biggest fan too.” “Okay so I gotta ask you, like, the question of the night would be, like is there a place for lobster on that menu?” “There is absolutely. So there’s always a place for lobster on my menu, definitely New Shell Lobster will be on the menu And you know what, I found I asked a lot about how I can make sure that one I’m getting Maine Lobster, two that when it’s in season I’m getting New Shells, and I actually called my seafood purveyors when I, when I got back and I was like how can I make sure I want to make sure that I’m getting Lobster from Maine and can I get New Shells yet and they were like well they’re not coming yet but specify on your order. Because I wanted to make sure that that was the product that I was getting. I have family that lives in Maine so I am very, very lucky that I get to spend time in Midcoast Maine on the coast and to be able to have that experience and absorb it even more just solidifies to me, you know, how much I love the ingredient, how much I love lobster, and how much I really truly respect the industry and was kind of blown away by it.” “And Karen knew that if she wanted to get me down to her restaurant she had to have Maine Lobster on the menu.” “Absolutely, I was like, Cy, are you coming down?” “Right, that’s what I really want to know…” “I asked, like are you coming to the restaurant? And he was like.. ‘is there lobster on the menu?’ and I said, okay, yeah, of course “Well we really want to know is not whether he’s gonna come to the restaurant cuz that seems like you know, good cooked food, but are you ever gonna have us back?” “Oh, absolutely. I think everybody’s invited back.” “But you need to bring your boots next time.” “Hold on, hold on, you asked all of us how we did on the boat…” “Yeah, how did Dana do on the boat? That’s what we want to know!” “She did amazing. She caught on just like that, I was so impressed.” “How much are you paying her?” “No, she’s a boss, man!” “I saw in the video. That was nice finesse setting that trap” “It was very fluid.” “Okay so it wasn’t just us on the boats having fun with each other, we also had a crew I was really worried for the crew, because I thought the guy at the front of the boat.. what’s the front called?” “The bow” “The bow.. ha! I thought he was gonna fall off the bow with the camera…but we have some video. So, we’re gonna launch the Trap to Table: Maine Lobster series tomorrow, which is amazing, so that we can see all the adventures that we all had and it debuts on tomorrow So lets have a look, because you guys get to see it first! “Finally!” “This is something that’s like been on my bucket list –

to actually go out and catch some lobster right out of the ocean.” “You want to wrestle with that and band it?” “Not really…” “Now remember, keep your top hand out of the way.” “You gotta work as you go, just like in the kitchen.” “Woah!” “I mean this is as perfect as perfect gets to be cooking Maine Lobster.” “This is like the mother sauce of Nigeria, so I’m excited to use Maine Lobster with it.” “This for me – the Maine lobster – really is the star of the show.” “This is AMAZING!” “I want to thank the lobstermen for the generosity of having us on your boats and slowing you down for a day. Thank you the chefs for having such great inspiration from the days on board and feeding us. Thanks to the crew and thanks to the history of Maine and the lobster industry, that we get to enjoy these New Shells, and thank all of you so much for watching and check out the trailer and goodnight!

Thai Street Food – EXTREME BBQ MEAT TOUR in Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand | Thai Sausage and Laap!

– Good morning, I hope you’re having an amazing day It’s Mark Wiens I’m in Chiang Mai, Thailand, and today we’re gonna go on a Northern Thai food tour of Chiang Mai We’re gonna eat at the market, we’re gonna eat at some street food stalls, we’re gonna go to some restaurants, and we’re gonna eat a mix of food, but especially focus on a dish called laap, which is a Northern Thai mixed meat dish full of spice It’s so good Mostly we’re just gonna have a lot of fun We’re gonna eat some incredibly delicious Northern Thai food and I’m gonna share it all with you in this video right now (upbeat music) Our first destination this morning is called (speaking foreign language) and it is a market in Chiang Mai known for Northern Thai food They have a specific stall here that serves one of the best versions of sai oua, which is the Northern Thai sausage, which is guaranteed to make one of the best breakfasts But walking around the market, it’s just sort of opening up They have some curry stalls You can get fruit and vegetables here too, and one of the great things about this market is it’s actually not too big, yet it’s big enough So it’s manageable, it’s friendly Let’s go find that sausage (upbeat music) The grill is just loaded with curls of sausage You can smell the lemongrass in the air The stall is called (speaking foreign language), and they also have another few delights, Northern delights in packets, which we’re gonna try this specific one here They have some (speaking foreign language), but the real thing you’re gonna Oh, there is it, the curly, the curly rolls of sausage (speaking foreign language) Just given me a sample (upbeat music) Oh, oh, the lemongrass (speaking foreign language) – [Mark] Oh look at those cutting skills He just flew through that curl of sausage slicing it up That was impressive He has some sausage cutting skills The aroma of the lemongrass and the herbs just bursts out of that sausage Joel has since joined We got a whole bag of it now and it’s just steaming hot It’s right off the grill It even fogged up my lens as soon as I got close taking a photo of it That is an aroma That is an aromatherapy Cheers – Cheers, dude – I was so excited I forgot about the little stick that’s tying the intestines closed at the end Some of the best sai oua I’ve ever had for sure without a doubt It’s so herbaceous Mm, so heavy on the lemongrass, and to me it actually doesn’t taste as fatty as some other versions, because it’s not, it juices, but not like that fatty, fatty juiciness that you sometimes get It’s more heavy on the herbs which I love That is dangerously tasty You could munch through a whole bag without even thinking about it at 7:00am in the morning Follow that with a little sticky rice There’s one more little packet that we need to taste next One of my favorite thing is to eat in Northern Thailand is called (speaking foreign language), which is a little packet It can be meat, it can be herbs, it can be vegetables which are packed into banana leaf wrapper and then roasted grilled over fire, over charcoal But the supreme version The most gourmet, greatest, richest version is called (speaking foreign language), which is pig brains mixed with spices and herbs that needs to be eaten with sticky rice (upbeat music) All the creaminess It’s a fine custard on top of sticky rice with a little bit of a lemongrass flavor You got a 12 kilo bag of sai oua to go (speaking foreign language) That was for sure some of the best sai oua I’ve ever had in Chiang Mai Really good, really top quality Such an herbaceous mix, and one thing you should know is that sai oua is one of those things that you cannot return back to Bangkok without it, giving to friends and family They will not be happy with you if you came back empty handed So Ying bought How many bags did you buy, Ying? – Five kilo – Ying bought five kilos (laughing) We’re walking out of the market, because we’ve got many more thing to eat today I’ve gotta get one more bite of that sai oua over here Oh, look at that hanger. (laughing) That piece just stuck together It kind of inverted It insided out, you wanna take this to your mouth as fast as possible (upbeat music) That is like the definition of what sai oua should taste like We’re underneath the,

underneath the camera Okay but we have decided to go, it’s a little bit North of Chiang Mai City to a place that has an insane looking meat grill, and we’ll get a couple of Northern Thai grilled meat delights there before, there’s one place that we have to be back We have to be there by 11:00am to get what is supposed to be one of the top places to eat laap in all of Chiang Mai But we’re on our way first to eat some grilled meat and maybe some other things (upbeat music) That was about a 30 minute drive or so This restaurant is north of Chiang Mai and it’s called (speaking foreign language) They do have a selfie position, but let’s try to get a look Oh yes, yes I can see the smoke from the grill We’re here just like 15 minutes before they open (speaking foreign language) (speaking foreign language) Right now it’s just in full bloom The entire grill is just covered with meat and different banana leaf packets You can see the curly intestines You can see the pork, you can see the catfish, the pig ears Oh man, it is all there The grill, it smells so good, but not only do they have the entire grill just smoldering away, but they have a lot of different Northern, whoa, I just almost got knocked out by the pole there They have a lot of Northern curries and soups They have a full Northern Thai food selection, and also includes the (speaking foreign language), which we gotta get as well (upbeat music) The main dish that we ordered is the mixed grill, so he’s rummaging through This is just a grill to behold, but he is going through the different parts The snout, the ears, the intestines, chopping bits off and assembling them all onto a plate Oh, look at that We had to actually hold ourselves back from ordering too much, because we have lots more to eat today But it looks so good We got some of their specialties, especially the (speaking foreign language), which is all that mix of grilled meats Another thing that have here is the (speaking foreign language), which is one of their specialties, and so that’s like a fermented pork, which is roasted in a banana leaf But we saw him as he was making one They first roast just the pork and then he cracks on an egg onto the top So that’s like just a next level, a new type of fried egg with just an entire base of fermented pork on the bottom, all wrapped in a packet banana leaf Oh man, that look storage so good I think we have to start on that The entire base is just all fermented pork down there, and then you’ve got the yolk just nestled on top It also comes with a little bowl of raw chilies and garlic which you also chase with Wanna get a dosage of the skin and, oh, look at the yolk Be sure to coast your sticky rice in yolk and grab a bit of everything So gooey and collageny (upbeat music) Oh, that’s so gooey Perfectly sour, so garlicky Oh wow, and the creaminess of the yolk, and you gotta follow that Chili and garlic combo, and since this is Thai, (speaking foreign language), Thai garlic, you can actually eat the skin (upbeat music) That just elevates your entire mouth Look at this multi-colored chili Wow It’s so porky, porkilucious Okay, let’s move on to the next grill here Dip it into the sauce, get a look at that That looks delicious as well Oh, dude Oh, the meat is so tender and so smokey, and their sauce Their sauce has like a different taste Almost like a Worcestershire sauce flavor to it And typically my favorite piece from the (speaking foreign language) of Northern Thailand of the mixed grill is the intestines Heres a little guy Give this a good soaking Intestines are the best They have like a, mm, you know what I taste in that sauce is a little bit of galangal Oh man, but the intestines, they have that perfect balance of chewy, crunchy, crispy, like, everything, all the textures in your mouth As you do keep on chewing the flavors release I think right here, this one is the snout Look at that, it’s just pure. (giggles) I think this one is the pig nose, the snout

Mm, oh, oh the snout, dude It’s so fatty and gelatinous but the edges are so crispy Mm, mm, oh that is like a burst of smokey, fattiness in your mouth (speaking foreign language) We got some (speaking foreign language) This is made from some type of a mushroom, but made with some chilies in there too Mm Oh, oh that is, that’s insatianally good But you’ve got the roasted green chilies, but at the same time you have that meaty flavor from the mushrooms And this is some type of a, I don’t know if I’ve ever heard of this, but it’s like a beef, oh there’s lemongrass in there, a beef stew or a beef soup Oh, that tastes like beef stew, but with more of a lemongrass flavor to it And this one is the (speaking foreign language), which is a young jackfruit curry There’s also pork bones in here They topped it with cilantro and green onions And then this is a chunk of the young jackfruit Like a light pork soup, and the pieces of young jackfruit are kind of, they’re starchy They’re starchy rather than sweet at that stage when it’s a young jackfruit And finally we just wanted to try their (speaking foreign language), which, so you gotta kinda turn the bowl here, because it has a lip and there’s a shadow, but this is one of Ying’s favorite dishes, Northern Thai dishes, and so we had to try some of that Oh, that pork just flakes apart, it’s so tender Oh, I lost my sticky rice Mm, mm yeah Ying is the best judge at (speaking foreign language) What do you think, Ying? – It’s very good – The ginger is really nice in there You taste the pickled garlic as well Just that slightly part flavor The ginger stands out though, and that pork is really, really tender Man, that was some incredibly good food I think the thing that stood out to me Their (speaking foreign language) was delicious with the fried egg on top, but their mixed grill, man, this is a place that you wanna get some takeaway grilled meat for your next party, that is for sure And we got our bill The total bill for all that food came to 390 baht We’ve gotta move kind of quickly now, because we’ve gotta get to the next restaurant right as they open, because otherwise they’re only open for three hours per day We wanna get there right as they open to get that first selection They sell out very fast But yeah, just as you have probably noticed already since we’ve been eating this morning Northern Thai food is quite heavy on the meat, and yeah, people love to eat meat so we’re gonna eat like the ultimate of meat dishes in Northern Thailand next (upbeat music) And it’s right along the side of the highway It just opened up, it’s 11 right now, but already all of these cars, everyone is rushing for the laap (upbeat music) Yes, this is the spot right here There’s almost like a bar counter seating at the front and then you walk back into the yard, into the house here I’m not even sure if they have a menu here, but Ying instructed that we need to order the (speaking foreign language), which is the, it’s buffalo laap, minced buffalo raw Oh, there it is right there It’s only been open for like five minutes and those are the orders already Actually all the seats are taken already (upbeat music) Just from the way he moves the bowl, he is such a master He’s focused on the laap That’s all raw minced buffalo So it’s really, dark, dark like maroon, beat red He adds in a lot of (speaking foreign language), which is the bile He adds in some powders, some spices, he mixes that He almost mixes it like a cake batter style, revolving the pan as he scoops and stirs, mixing all these spices Oh, that looks so good and people are here just waiting now This is the takeaway section You know it’s a good spot when there’s a buffalo skull hanging in the kitchen Look how cool this is This is something you’ll rarely see anymore The traditional style This is the coconut shell on a stick We’ve been waiting for probably, yeah, 40 minutes, but it’s gonna be so worth the wait They already had quite a few,

like at least 10 or 15 orders before we got here, and we got here at 11:02 (speaking foreign language) She just brought us the (speaking foreign language), and that is the dish that everybody You can order, they probably have only five things on their menu, but this is a dish that everybody orders here This is what you come here for He added heaps, not only, he scooped in at least, in that bowl, at least five giants spoons of green bile Oh, oh, hot – [Joel] I’m drooling – Oh, look at that, it’s so fine Oh, and cool, that’s like the texture of jam It literally looks like strawberry jam – Cheers, man (chuckling) – Oh, wow Okay, I’m just speechless I just wanna lick my fingers (chuckling) It literally is like jam It’s such a fine grind Maybe even like liquified buffalo – It’s almost like– – But it’s like jelly a little bit, ’cause of the blood (giggling) – That’s thick – It’s like a buffalo’s meat, and then he does, oh man, he’s such a master It has that perfect bitter bite, but not overpowering And makhwaen, I think there’s some makhwaen in there, which is the citron, pepper-like spice, we have a little bit of zing And just the fact that he beat it like a cake batter, that took out all the air bubbles and probably coagulated the blood, so that’s why it’s kind of almost like smoothie-ish I cannot wait to take another bite Look at the texture of that That is a ground breaking plate of laap And then you gotta have a herb basket when you eat laap I’m gonna go in for some of this one, is the (speaking foreign language), which is english is often called Vietnamese coriander – Thanks, man (upbeat music) – And that just goes so well, that cleans the palate We also got some (speaking foreign language) This is the soup that’s boiling with a lot of animals parts in it in the back there, in the kitchen Oh yeah, there’s meat in here, there’s lung, there’s all the organs That looks great, I’m gonna grab Oh, did I score a piece of rumen? That could be an inner-stomach chunk right there (upbeat music) Oh yeah That’s a grassy, livery chunk I got a little bit of digested grass in that bite for sure That’s a soothing broth Maybe a little bit of this A little bit of this dry spice blood (upbeat music) – Oh, with the extra spice blood Oh, that is I think mostly makhwaen You wanna be a little bit careful Look at those thorns Just be careful of those thorns Mm, it’s bitter and then followed by sweetness (laughing) – The best price and the best taste– – Of laap – Of laap– – In Northern Thailand – In Northern Thailand – Yes, he has just informed us And it was, it was so good Another Northern Thai dish that they have here is called (speaking foreign language) It can be raw, but we got the (speaking foreign language), which it’s like, flash blanched It’s slices of meat, also mixed with spices You can see the garlic in there You can see the herbs There may be some digestive juices and liquids in there as well, but then that also looks delicious Oh Oh wow It’s so bitter it’s almost sweet You’ve got a jolt of bile bitterness in there That’s a digestive meat broth that you wanna just let your sticky rice soak in (upbeat music) Wow From appearance it looks like an average, slightly sauteed beef dish, but I can assure you there’s enough flavor in there to just excite your mouth and tongue for days That flavor might linger on your tongue for days – So I think Is this 300 baht? – 200 baht Half a kilo – Half a kilo So we got (speaking foreign language) 100 grams, they got 500 grams – That’s half a kg of the laap They know what they’re doing

You’d be definitely getting it wrong by only getting 100 grams – Oh, yeah – We should have gotten the half kg (speaking foreign language) – The guy sitting behind us that we just left from, they said this is the best They think it’s the best place for laap in all of Northern Thailand, and that’s really quite a bold claim, but I would not argue with them whatsoever – I think I’m a bit buzzing from all that bile My mouth is buzzing, I’m even stumbling a little bit – Man, if we ended this food tour right now, right here I would be very, very happy, but I think we might have to go to one more place just to like, just to eat some more food and just gather our thoughts after that Oh, Ying, that was the greatest plate of laap I’ve ever had in my entire life (speaking foreign language) Oh, Ying, it was unbelievable And by the way, thank you to Ying She is the one that She discovered that spot for us She said that we had to go there Thank you, Ying – You welcome (upbeat music) – We made it to the final place This is the final laap restaurant Northern Thai restaurant It’s called (speaking foreign language), and it’s actually quite packed right now It’s kind of a whole courtyard area This restaurant specializes in laap, but they also have a number, quite a mix of Northern Thai dishes, including a few curries and soups and some things from the grill as well (upbeat music) I think most of the dishes have just arrived The two center pieces, these are the two laaps that we got, but then we got also some other dishes that we had to taste Check out this mountain of lemongrass, this (speaking foreign language) Okay but let’s come back to that later Sticky rice You can actually see the chili seeds in there Oh wow, that is like a, it looks like frog skin almost Okay, but I’m gonna save that for later I’m just gonna go into this – [Joel] So soft – Look at all the herbs and stuff, and the spices in there But you can see how that’s not nearly as red dark as the buffalo (upbeat music) That is incredibly good too The bitterness, the bile in there, and the the makhwaen that comes in so nicely That citrusy, zinginess, look at that texture (upbeat music) You could say It’s not, it kinda has that snappy, cartilag texture to it Then next, this is a cooked plate of laap made with pig, pork You can see the toasted garlic in there, the cilantro and the green onions and the fried garlic on top – [Both] Yes – The garlicky goodness, oh my – They cooked is so good as well It’s all the same spices as in the raw version Just it’s more like a warm feel, as apposed to the refreshing coolness of raw meat Slightly soured, slightly fermented pork little riblets Mm, oh yes So salty, it’s so crispy, it’s so fatty, oily That is awesome. (chuckles) Next dish is called (speaking foreign language) I think it’s mostly shin pieces of beef A mix of beef that’s steamed And then served with (speaking foreign language), which is red eyed chili sauce – We’ve had so much meat today, and I’m still excited for each bite Look at that (upbeat music) – This is straight up, like a Sunday roast with a really smooth chili taste It’s actually not spicy Well rounded in flavor You taste the chili, you taste something fermented in there Oh yeah Oh Oh, that one has like a, like a lemon feel, lime feel, zest to it The next dish is called (speaking foreign language) and it’s with fish, and this is a Northern curry I’ve never had it before There’s fish in it, and lotus stems in it You can see the curry paste in it It looks like a sauce almost It tastes pickled almost Like the whole curry’s pickled, and then you’ve got the crunch of those lotus stems Like that same kind of crispness of celery, but really soft and tender at the same time The (speaking foreign language)

It’s a fried fish and (speaking foreign language) just means like a mix of Thai herbs, which is mostly lemongrass and kaffir lime leaves in this case Dip that into the sauce, and maybe chase it with some of that lemongrass, that fried lemongrass Mm That’s just, it’s just like classic good The crunchy fried fish, the sour, garlicky chili sauce, the fragrance of lemongrass (upbeat music) It’s deep fried strands of lemongrass, it’s so good Oh, that’s good The bile, it never gets old I can say with certainty that this is one of the best days of Northern Thai food in Chiang Mai Well, without a doubt the best day of food in Chiang Mai that I’ve ever had I’ll have all the information of all the restaurants we ate at in the description box below so you can check them out And I wanna say a big thank you to you for watching this video Please remember to give it a thumbs up if you enjoyed it and leave a comment below, and also if you’re not already subscribed, click subscribe and click that little bell icon I’m gonna be publishing lots more food and travel videos and yeah, lots more delicious food to come So thanks for watching See you on the next video

Cricket Flours Business Plan

perfect thank you my name is Charles Wilson this is Omar Ellis and our 13 member that can be today is Paul Butler but we are cricket flowers we are a new food ingredient platform company with our first line of products that’s gonna be in the sports nutrition space and it’s a high-performance protein powder now I’d like to introduce you to Julie now Julie is 35 she has two kids and while her time is important her kids and nutrition is even more so so she’s an athlete she’s a lifestyle consumer and what she does is whether it’s biking or whether it’s going for a swim or going on a hike with her kids she wants to find more nutrition better protein to actually fuel her workouts now that can come in a couple different forms that you’ll actually find in the market today and that’s either in the form of fish on a fish fillet or sushi could be beef and the steak or it could be poultry whether it’s a chicken breast or it could be in the form of eggs but it also comes in a powder form as well which you might have seen on store shelves which is a way or soy based protein isolate or concentrate which is highly processed but a lot protein per gram now our product is a new ingredient that actually comes and does everything that you see up there and more in its application by providing more protein and more nutrition I’d like to introduce you to a cricket flour product line now this includes our 100% pure cricket flour our Peruvian chocolate flavor and also our chocolate peanut butter flavor as well now our cricket flour is milled from crickets raised in the United States that are raised for human consumption each of these are raised for about six weeks and then they’re processed into a fine milled flour using only the chicken breast of the cricket from there we actually mix it and then create our own recipes which some of them you’ll actually see here today so this is our first line of products is what you’re seeing and it’s naturally gluten free soy free and dairy free and this is without this isn’t this isn’t with actual the additive processing at all so now looking at an actual weight to weight comparison what we’ve done is we’ve compared all those different protein sources if we’re giving you 64 grams of protein as you can see if you look to the far right way and soy concentrate they give you about the same amount of protein as what our product does but they’re limited in their application they can only be used in a shake but they taste funny when they go into other applications such as baked goods or other recipes and in seven out nine categories of nutrients we beat them and actually able to provide more nutrients than what they’re able to because they’re highly processed to get into that concentrator isolate form now when you look at the other categories of animal-based proteins what you see is if you wanted that same amount of 64 grams of protein you’d have to eat six times as many eggs you’d have to eat three times as much fish or two times as much beef or poultry we’re able to reduce your actual intake of food to get that same amount of protein to both fuel her own nutrition but then also feel the nutrition of our kids and part of how we’re doing that is through our different recipes and over here is actually going to take around a couple samples of one of our recipes that’s in that cricket flour cookbook that we published just two months ago this is our spice granola recipe now if you have a nut or a shellfish allergy hold off but it’s actually delicious it’s a spice cinnamon recipe high in protein from what you’re normally gonna find because we use cricket flour we give you about twenty to thirty percent more protein than what you’ll actually find in a granola on store shelves but we don’t stop there we’re not just in a shake workout even though we do do those we also couldn’t be an ice cream we can be in brownies so where your kids might not eat a salad they might not crave spinach if you have one of our cricket flour brownies we can give you that I am that iron calcium b12 b6 omega-3 fatty acids and all the essential amino acids as well so it’s a great combination that we’re able to actually provide to our customers and for this first product line this is where we sort of shaped the path of our business as we had an idea we actually took it outside to do these interviews and testings with consumers and also with friends and family and what we found is that over a thousand different interviews and taste testings we found that really our target market for this first launch is in that lifestyle consumer and also in that Fitness market we’re able to provide a cleaner source of protein that they need for their own diets and also for their family now many of our customers are in the women’s age group of 28 to 45 but this also is not only just for the lifestyle but also for dietary restrictions as well so people who can’t have gluten because of diabetics well we can help you there now if you can’t have dairy you can’t have gluten you can’t have soy we can also help you there and that’s just naturally without those additional additives now our initial target market as I mentioned was a sports nutrition market and in the United States this was worth over 5.9 billion dollars per year in the United States with powder specifically accounting for 3.7 billion dollars per year now for both of those there’s a compound annual growth rate of 11% projected over the next five years so while our consumer testing tools we had a great product that’s solving those problems we’re also seeing a great market for our product to launch into with great returns for our investors now in the United States and also up here in Canada there’s been some great traction for cricket flour this is coming from publications such as the New York Times from Businessweek we also

have an article that’s coming out in popular science next month talking about the nutrition sustainability and the different benefits of using cricket flour in your diet but there’s also three different companies that are not only showing the consumer interest by selling to consumers but they’ve actually concluded their funding rounds with investors the show that investors are invested in these types of companies so two of those in the United States are EXO raise 1.2 million dollars from their seed a financing round but then also chip pool I know it’s not Dragons Den up here but Shark Tank down the United States he actually invested in their company as well both of those are protein bars that use about 40 to 65 crickets per bar our bags we have up here have about 1,100 in our fourth pound packaging so we actually give a lot more crickets than what you’ll find in those but once again this is just some I know this is just what you’ll actually see from some of the companies but another exciting thing is right now in next millennium farms is a company up here in Canada which also just finished a financing round to build out their own infrastructure but they’re more in the farming side so they actually are working with the University of Winnipeg to actually put their ingredients in some of the actual schools recipes there on campus now we’re gonna go into our value chain and defensibility and turn over to omar Thank You Charles so our crickets are growing in the southeastern United States and high-capacity fda-approved facilities this is really important to our consumers to maintain that quality control we don’t want to source in from other countries that we might be able to get them cheaper we want to keep that high quality control that the FDA regulation can bring us then they’re sent to our milling partner who has a patent-pending process to get them into the finest grain particle size available on the market what this is what this does is it increases shelf-life by a year and it also allows for that nutrition to be retained longer right now we have a two year supply agreement with them and we also have a three exclusive supply to be the only people allowed to the only company allowed to use this in the sports nutrition industry this will automatically extend once we hit certain performance metrics we are cricket flowers and sports nutrition ingredient company who currently sells B to C but we recognize that there’s a massive opportunity B to B which we want to further explore currently we do have some b2b letters of intent we also if you look too far left paleo scavenger who’s been seen on Good Morning America right now in the works has used our product further I’m sorry use it our product in their product which will be on store shelves here relatively shortly there’s also two other companies right now doing testing with our product to put in their products for our marketing operations we have three phases our first phase which we’re currently in is we’re doing an e-commerce we do this for two reasons first we want to keep the capital costs real low while we build that extensive customer network second we recognize that internet retailing is the fastest-growing retail channel in the sports nutrition industry it grew at 18 percent last year we use evergreen SEO campaigned to get us onto the first page for Google search results for cricket flowers which is highly important because as you know 95 percent of people don’t go to that second page our marking is still in phase one this is our website that’s currently you can see our awesome growth that we’ve had up until March we’ve had over 40,000 unique page views the best part about this is that zero dollars have been spent on marketing and advertising I repeat that not a penny has been spent on marketing and advertising this is all organic people are searching this out on their own so imagine what could happen if we had 500,000 to a million dollars to spend on marketing and advertising this is our cookbook that a recipe book I apologize that our founder wrote Charles Wilson it’s currently selling on Amazon and a few other channels and what this does is three things it brings another revenue stream it also brings back repeat customers and it also allows customer education for the wide amount of applications that our product can be used for this is the traction that our company personally has gotten as you can see on the top left Charles is being interviewed by NBC we’ve also been interviewed on Radio Disney which is another national platform we’ve been seeing in Portland monthly which is pretty much the biggest magazine in the Oregon region our phase two and phase three late 2015 we start self distributing to more traditional retail sites like GNC and Whole Foods we are primary targets we recognize that once we hit about 25 stores and we got this number from talking to other consumer product companies in that industry once you get about 25 stores then distributors will start to acknowledge your presence and in 2000 I’m sorry early 2016 this one want to partner with those distributors to increase the number of doors around ten fold overnight as far as defensibility besides the exclusive agreements that we’re talking about what we really want to do is we want to generate proprietary user data much like Gatorade did and Nike did with their products and be the knowledge gateway for anybody looking for information on critic flowers or anything like that we want to hold the keys to that information we also want to build an elite community of athletes we know Olympians personally and we also know the Jessie Thomas you see on this magazine he’s a world-class triathlete we basically want to use a trickle-down Marketing effect by them being brand advocates for us I apologize that Paul our CFO couldn’t be here but I’m going to present his slides so this is our

financials we have about a 60% gross margin on average you can see we break-even in year two then we see a nice growth curve this is due from the multiple growth revenue streams that we will be into thank you and then we’re looking for an exit in 2050 with a 35 million dollar revenue stream our funding milestones during the spring we want 500,000 and this is to increase that marketing where it’s been 300,000 of it just on marketing to bring more customers and we also want to secure lower inventory costs with our current supplier in 2016 we want that 1.5 million dollar series a this is to fill a talent needs Charles and I recognize that we think we’re great we can’t do it all so we’re gonna bring more people on board want to hit that 1 million in sales and then we want to exit in 2020 via acquisition for acquisitions it’s been a lot of activity in this space point out a particular company glam BIA which is an Irish cheese conglomerate they buy up a lot of protein companies they have nothing in their portfolio that resembles what we do and has the properties that we have so we think we’d be a great strategic fit for them if you look down at the bottom the angel investors who invest right now will get 25% equity at the end when we hopefully exit and then the expected IR of 106 percent and it twenty-seven point two five cash-on-cash I’m gonna hand it to Charles to talk about the team thank you all marks so once again our team right now is made out of three individuals and our business descriptions really fall into three main categories and that’s business development operations and finance so Paul Butler has a piece of JD MBA candidate can’t be here right now but his backgrounds in government and nonprofit finance Omar Ellis he spent over ten years we’ve knighted States Air Force working in logistics and operations and also in food service myself my background is in marketing product development SEO and then also in private equity and Angel office investments but however we know that when we bring on our next round of team we need to build out some of those other channels to help facilitate what we’re planning to do to hit those revenue marks and that’s really going to be in the food science area b2b b2c and also to help us develop out more of those distribution channels as well now right now to help us fill those roles we’ve really hand-picked our Board of Advisors to really help us fill those needs that our business currently has as we grow in scale so with our plan we’ve brought in some people to have extensive experience both with Nike for private equity and venture capital also in retail food space and in distribution with hummingbird wholesale but just as Omar mentioned with our brain development Jesse Thomas is also on our Board of Advisors who’s not only a world-class triathlete but he’s also developed and launched his own protein bar company using some of the same sales and metrics and channels that we’re currently using for ourselves which would be great as we build out and scale our own business now once again we are cricket flowers and we’re here with our protein powder they were actually putting into that sports nutrition product now our powder not only is like what you’ll see in the soy and whey based protein powders we can be used in a variety of applications just as you try it in that spice granola recipe we can be in muffins salad dressings all these things that we’ve already tested with consumers and we have products ready to go out into development they’re just going into the next stage of our business so if you have any questions I would love to hear them spice granola it’s also in the recipe book this is a Charles’s family recipe that it’s dusted with our cricket flour protein so it’s granola with better / more protein in it mm-hmm I see David finishes theirs artists suggest your campus probably has some good athletes on it for certain has been tested with their what’s their feedback been yeah no it’s great so there’s we’ve actually been talking to a couple of different athletes both Jesse Thomas some Olympians but then also on campus so there’s some different regulations for what products can go into dh1 schools and regulations but that’s sort of why we’ve been talking to our athletic department to see how to hit those same standards and get our metrics with them but we’ve recently just had a d1 school from it’s a big one up in Michigan actually reached out from their hockey team that actually wanted their coach actually wanted cricket flour for their teams so they reached out that Co can you sell it we can so that’s there’s some exciting things happening that way but they are interested unfortunate we haven’t got marcus mariota to try it yet so we’re still trying to say why is michigan interested but yeah well we’re still going the question i have the only intellectual property comment I heard related to the milling partner is there any intellectual property that you own or is it just the milling partners process that’s going to be protected other than trade secret or proprietary recipes and our trademarks that’s really what we have internally other than the license that we get from our supplier okay and in terms of the license you said there’s exclusivity for three months but it may be extended I take it if you hit certain milestones can you go into that I mean if you keep hitting milestones can you keep exclusivity for longer periods of time yes so right now what we’ve said I was like we envisioned that we would we would love to have a year we know that we’ve only been selling for about two months so what we have is sort of this window that we have

built out where right now on our actual rate that we’re buying from if we just maintain we keep that exclusivity now for actually growing and getting that longer time frame like we have the renewal terms would actually get a year out and not having to meet it every three months that’s really when we start growing and scaling the business and so for protections for some other options we are looking into what it would cost to buy out to supply the entire supply for two years and then just actually maybe partnership and one or two years after we’ve validated the market more yeah thank you can you explain what you’re spending your marketing budget on and why it balloons so big in nineteen for sure so with or actually those are old financials sir we originally had an eight million dollar because it is we are branding a marketing company we had a we know that’s a long term very expensive game to play so we had an eight million dollar ass that we removed because we thought we could be more efficient with our money and the front half and still get the same benefits at the end so that I should have taken that marketing budget out I apologize or that that large honey million it’s 55.1 million is the expense absolutely so we had an eight million dollar ask and we were gonna spend five minute on that on on marketing itself just to bring more customers in to prepare for an exit in 2020 so what are you what are you gonna do now like you that was so that’s that still happened he’s just scaled back on the amount we’re actually investing and part of this because we actually built out the b2b channels before we’re just gonna go just ecommerce and just to our be to see market but because we’re opening up into these other companies channels they’re actually doing some of the advertising some of that burden for us it’s are able to take down that capital song what should I pencil in here what’s the number for the marking infants what we’d have to check on that for the most recent one yes it wouldn’t be five million dollars I apologize about those old financials question I assume these are free-range we do we do I don’t want to see them with small cages the end but I did I understand the I appreciate the focus on the sports nutrition market which is a big one but have you considered sort of the the power of an environmental spin of the fact that there’s two hundred thousand brand new people on the planet every day which takes about the size of Manhattan to produce enough protein and food for them in terms of the you you give some impressive ratios of the protein that’s generated versus beef and the less water being used have you thought of that angle in terms of future sales yeah no we actually have and that’s that’s something that we soared did a different focus with this actual presentation but that is something that’s sort of key to our customers and that’s the ones that are looking for those sustainable and environmental benefits because to raise our crickets we actually use less feed than what you’d find from poultry and beef and also less water you like one-tenth 1/6 of the water depending on what we’re actually comparing our company to so right now with the focus for athletes they’re really looking for something that’s a cleaner better protein so for that customer second that’s definitely a little bit the higher on their you know the priority list but for the consumers and lifestyle stuff that definitely rings true definitely in our Eugene in Portland markets and also nationally as well and to your point obviously by 2050 there’s supposed to be nine billion people on the planet and the World Health Organization just released a report saying that we have to find a solution and they actually chose entomology as the entomophagy as the solution which is kind of where we this idea got its origins in thank you so how do people react so I’m a vegetarian so I didn’t eat the granola how do people react to the overall just eating crickets particularly in the States right I mean well actually worldwide it’s actually 80 percent of the world’s population currently eats insects I know but your targets the US market so talk to me about that yeah so that’s really where we see the biggest market potential because it’s right now it’s established that we know one it’s good for people it’s healthy it’s safe but then it’s actually an untapped market and emerging in the United States and also in North America so when we launched our company of where we’re seeing where we could actually bring it into we found the United States by bringing someone we’re bringing our product to these consumers that want something that has environmental sustainable benefits or that’s also less processed we can give them those benefits and so when they try our product whether it’s in the flavored because that’s when someone’s buying the product mmm crickets they don’t really know that it tastes neutral or nutty so that’s why we do have the flavored lines for some of the Americans that might be okay we’ll try Peruvian chocolate but we might not try the 100% pure but the hundred percent pure is actually what we’re selling out of the fastest because that’s what people are searching for and also to point like initially we do get a very you know if I’m not I was at first when Charles approached me I was kind of like I don’t think that’s going to work whatsoever and then but the fact that I was able to give it to my daughter and put it into a cookie and realize that she’s getting those extra benefits it started to sell me on it and I was like you know what this isn’t a big deal and it’s gonna happen in the future so I think it’s that customer education and that’s really a big piece of it that we’re gonna have to communicate really you fed your daughter before you tasted eight years I didn’t have any no but like I mean I don’t see chickens walking down the street in Manhattan but I’ve been walking down the street there’s crickets everywhere I wouldn’t eat those free

music yeah no it is true but we’re able to fun actually protect like the actual food chain because we’re using this commercial facility so what you’re gonna see on the streets of New York isn’t gonna be what’s in their product but the nutritional benefits were able to give you from that same source in our normal diet well it depends on what your your diet personally is like but the CDC just released a report it was a few months back that said that the average American is not getting enough protein in the room and their diet and that’s why I chose sports nutrition because we know that athletes need more protein than an average consumer so that’s we thought okay okay and just one more question on your revenue stream you talked about other new products every six months you got a challenge to get this one going oh what other new prop or other new products with that as an additive or yes sort of like you tried with the granola that would be one idea for the product we also have an all-purpose baking flour that you can for your kid might make those brownies or cookies that’s already developed we have a gluten-free one as well we also have a protein energy drink that’s made out of the protein powder as well okay for future like pinch tap pinch top development okay so those are in the pipeline just not out right now so we don’t get distracted you say in the plan that with your current capacity you can do 4,500 to 5,000 units what’s the revenue on that number of units so that’s when we’re looking to that January of 2016 yeah and we start moving into distributor that’s when we sort of max out of what we’re able to get so that number would be really what you’re seeing on our sales when you look into January 2016 so then do you have to go to a different factory or what happens when you hit that growth what’s the investment that you need to make yes so that’s with like the minimum orders we’d have to place with our distributors so right now we’re able to stay lean because we have our own domestic facilities that we’re using and can actually process these orders and so that helps keep our cells lean but when we move into January 2016 and one where we talked about the 25 stores before we get into those distribution channels that’s when we actually go to a co-packer that’s when some of those expenses you see yes yeah we won’t still be doing that part okay any scientific studies are there any plans for scientific studies are on the health benefits of the of the protein either in their overall health absolutely there have so each first of all each batch of our curry flour is sent for testing to make sure it has certain you know the full amino acid profile and stuff like that and we get those letters from our supplier as well but there’s been a lot of testing in general on just the quality of animal protein and how well it dissolves within the human body and it dissolves just as good as beef protein does and the rest of those animal proteins so and this is some of those testings that he had mentioned and also the amino acids as well and if you’re going to if you’re getting so large that you need to go to a co-packer but you you’re using equipment that’s got a patent by your milling partner how do you deal with the IP to get the equipment to the co-packer so we actually don’t have to do the part so they’d be actually sending our actual cricket flour that’s milled with that patented process okay so that cofactor wouldn’t be touching I see I see they’re not doing that part of it yes the manufacturing part of it yes sir in your plan you’ve talked about the unique visitor value of 40 cents u.s. dollars so we visitor or that’s the customer acquisition cost or yeah it’s our it’s an estimated revenue per visitor at this point and we currently push that down way down to ten fifteen percent later on down the line who did was who reached out for to a few other companies sports nutrition companies that are sewing or primary started selling online and found out what metrics they were using and then we put that into our model and that’s how we got those numbers but if you’ve got zero marketing dollars your customer acquisition should be your customer revenues should be a lot higher well so this is the ones who are coming to and what we take into account they they might go to 10 pages before they buy because we actually have information what’s the nutritional profile of crickets they’ll go to that one or they might check out how do I make cricket flour they’ll go of that one and then the recipe page and then like I actually want to buy and so when they click we might have five or six of those pageviews before we actually convert them into a buyer and so that’s where you might see a little bit lower number where it actually might increase when you start paying for advertising because when someone then searches how to buy cricket flour they click directly to our buy page and it’s a faster conversion at that point instead of the five clicks or three clicks for the educational yeah and that’s not just cost you more they’re still gonna want to know about crickets they’re gonna what the research won’t go away right the early markets always gonna do research when you add pageviews you’re just gonna pay more first year but when we’re looking for someone who’s looking at least specifically in that instance to buy

cricket flour they’ll be directed to the actual buy page right now because we do an evergreen approach we bring them in with knowledge and so they come in to try to find more on the topic and then it’s kind of an upsell approach where they find more and more information and then how to use it but it’s not an acquisition cost that metric you’re talking about it’s simply a value cost to us and that’s how we projected some of our revenues out it’s a revenue per visitor yes so aspire originally they had won the whole prize and they got that one million dollars and they really focused on mealworms to other countries originally and then they started moving into the cricket flour market and they’ve been doing this they won that 2012 so about two years now and they don’t they’re if you’ve been to their website it’s not okay it’s not set up like ours is not a real friendly ecommerce site it’s it’s very much an informational site as well and they’re not selling on any of those other channels and they’re a private company and so you don’t have any ideas to how we can give you numbers that are ahead of you guys though they’re there they’re ahead of a salad but in our conversations with them their focus isn’t actually in the consumer side so there’s their focus is actually on becoming a supplier themselves and really only going after supplying more a more coarse grain cricket flour and also to a different customer segment than what we’re targeting with our applications okay so what how does how do you stop somebody else from buying a cricket farm and making cricket flour well part of its with that IP and defense ability with our actual supplier yeah because if you’re to get the Korea fire I’m not going to name a company but if you were to get another company’s cricket flour there’s actually going to be more course so it’s actually gonna be a thicker grain compared to our light and fluffy one it’s because your machinery the machinery the processing and also sort of because it can either be freeze-dried dehydrated there’s a couple or baked there’s some different processes so another flour couldn’t actually compete with us on a one-to-one basis when it’s with their own milling process you’re pretty sure that well that’s from our own supplier in testing and the pattern do I care about that if I’m putting it in a smoothie you do because it’s like putting coffee grounds in your smoothie compared to putting really fine almost dust like powder in your smoothie it’s gonna be more easily I don’t say adopted I’m sorry well yeah it’s more soluble thank you very much for her and that’s and that’s the coffee grounds are more of the other companies because they don’t have the patent-pending process that we do for ours okay and I like the idea I think it’s really cool but I can’t get like I can’t get the P&L to work I can’t get the I just can’t get the math to work on the investment absolutely and those are those are month old financials and it because obviously that’s when the requirement and I apologize that we don’t have updated ones but we’ve done addressing changes to them especially since we’ve started in the last month getting a lot more b2b interest we’ve charted changing them it’s moving away from that asking for more money like we talked about earlier so the financials are really different and I apologize that we can’t give you you don’t have a slide or anything that you could talk us through cuz like you’re asking for a check we can we answer the oh I’m sorry thank you though


have I’m waiting toffee no on the west coast Vancouver Island this area is famous for its surfing storm watching in the wintertime then of course camping and just general sightseeing in summertime as well it’s a pretty popular tourist place but of course we’re here this weekend to do some fishing in the ocean but as you can see the weather’s a little disgusting right now it’s rainy and it’s stormy out in the ocean so we’re actually staying put on land today and the forecast late tomorrow supposed to be pretty sunny and calm and that’s when we’ll be heading out we’re staying at the Crystal Cove beach resort which is south of Tofino and this is our first time here and we’re pretty impressed by it this is a really family-oriented resort it’s it’s it’s got a nice playground for the kids and you can rent one of the log cabins to stay in we’re saying while the cabins called the treehouse cabin as you can see this bridge right here actually leads to a little tree house over there for the kids to hang out and the actual cabin has a man bedroom for the parents and also a second bedroom with bunk beds for the kids as well and it’s a it’s got a fully equipped kitchen a nice fireplace to keep you warm and generally just it makes it very comfortable it’s not a big luxury resort and it’s not a it’s not a rustic cabin but it’s kind of got a pair of two worlds and if you want to come out to experience the West Coast lifestyle this is definitely a place to come check it out and just west of the resort you can actually walk down to the beach and there’s a really nice long beach where you can walk along during the low tide when the tides out you can walk on the sand flat and it’s really really beautiful and check out the islands just outside the beach as well and in the meantime people like to go down there and such a campfire just sit around beach under the nice guy and it’s it’s a really unique experience compared to other parts of PCC usually we tend to visit a lot of lakes and rivers but this is definitely they’re very very different compared to some other destination what we’ve been to before so we’re gonna get some rest today and hopefully we’ll get some fish we’re gonna be fishing for salmon and chinook salmon and halibut and we supposed to go becoming pretty far offshore so hope I’m hoping for calm weather so I’m gonna get seasick and and of course hopefully we’ll get some fish to show you guys as well I’m just gonna fish a spoon on this side little peyote start here and then I’ll put some of my anchovy on the other side be fishing near the bottom which the baits been all down wait so Brian’s first fish here shut up 10 pound Chinook computer screen

good job oh it’s action up on top Jabar they’ve been drifting around pulled out now in LA I’m gonna bite so now except those fish have you awake like the bigger one no speaking a year additional scrappy leave him there for a second can switch the Roger

I’m excited okay straighten out what fight you get back throttle on either throttle have a problem the tree Oh thank you okay tribal again it’s quite a battle it was quite about yeah actually I think is good it looks for when it came up for the citizen Oh put it by thumbs of silver nail no he wasn’t getting away first of the big Network Phyllis oh boy she did my god like coming pretty easy here tell me to come back keep going for the right wonderful they’re mine so today we’re fishing with captain Jeff yeah from Freddie Mac Odyssey to phenol so yeah pretty rough start this morning but it was his fishing was pretty good anyway sound it wasn’t yeah we we took a chance and went offshore to a spa called Portland point and yeah the swell from from yesterday’s

win was was pretty strong and heavy and we did manage to get to right away with movies yeah the first 20 mins we’ve got to finish and then then it slowed down on us for about an hour and then then another of activities yeah and then we put another nice bonus go so full pipe it fits yeah I was five fish and we could we ran it for three yes yes we have the pudding well we ensure warden are a we’re in an insurance payout honor they start hello comma so fishing with houses yeah right now and you guys window yesterday and if we will ground you we did yeah yeah yeah so we’ll be right it’s a waiting game just sitting way it is that’s the hardest part about the fishing is waiting for that waiting for them to bite but yes week any minute now yeah so speaking of seasickness I know I got look go see out there today so if you would want to come out it faces you yeah what should they do what should i do you feel a progression well it’s one of the great things about Tofino is we do have insurer options if someone is very conducive to seasickness but yeah I recommend a gravel or a foaming or one of those anti-nausea drugs before one one before you go to sleep at night and then one in the morning to write the triad a Thank You PA so hydrated yeah water drinking water yeah a lot of people don’t eat and that sometimes is a problem too right well the sunshine is pretty warm got to take this jacket off we’re gonna get fishing enough chatting now and hope you get it somehow we’ll show you guys sounds good right thank you I’m rat fish actually cover turns lightly and yeah come on Eclipse that’s pretty good Oh get it taking some line going back down yeah well they’re up assure on it all starts when we’re getting close to slot time that’s right see all right no sweetie class we’ve been fishing pulled out how just gigging wrong that’s why we had so that was pretty good thank you yeah yes the weather’s turned out nice it was a little foggy in the morning but we ended up getting some sunshine yeah who should look salmon at the beginning and the offshore and yeah the how efficient in to know as planned every yeah I was lucky I caught one fish but the rest of the guys can get hit but it’s fine yeah but you still come water really settle things down it is good to have that option especially when it does get too rough yeah and a sinner he can’t complain on the right all the way to the patient’s lodges and has to be so whales yeah a little grape baby pretty real and you’ll see all the waters and what does we see egos and laughs just simply amazing so if you want to call out fishing with you yeah how they get ahold well the best is to go to my website fishing Tofino CA and all the contact information is there yeah and the peak sound season then Elvis is in swing well starting right now if we kick off her May long weekend

and then go right through till September yeah excellent well we can come back to me you better ride yeah nice meeting you thanks very much yes you