Language Learning: Lessons II-IV from A Practical Grammar of the Latin Language

lessons two through four from a practical grammar of the Latin language by George J Adler read for the LibriVox language learning collection vol 2 this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit lesson two bathroom altitude of the first declension a the first declension comprises all substantives and adjectives which form their genitive in IE the nominative of such of these words as are of purely Roman origin ends in aa that of a few Greek words in a s and us those in AA and a are mostly feminine the rest are masculine the singular of a noun in aa in connection with maiya my and dua thigh or your is thus inflected nominative my paper maiya Carta genitive of my paper may I car die dative to or for my paper may I have died accusative my paper may I am kartum vaca t’v oh my paper maiya Carta ablative with or by my paper may acaba nominative your table to a Mensa genitive of your table do i man sigh dative to or for your table do i man sigh accusative your table – wow man sound vaca t’v oh your table to amantha ablative with from or by your table dua Mesa so decline Tanya Saskia aura Benna remark the AH of the ablative of the first declension is always long and sometimes printed ah but in all other cases of words declined the final ah is generally short as CAPTA nominative candelabra candlesticks damn bla temples nota bene in the vocabularies of this grammar the quantity of every Latin word will be given and the paradigms of inflection will show the quantity of the different case terminations from these data the student will accent according to the rules of lesson one page six examples of the application of these principles of accentuation are furnished in the phrases of each lesson have you hobbyist a gnome hobbies estate TV and hobbies note in asking questions the Romans usually employed certain science of interrogation of which the most common are the analytic nay always affixed either to the verb or to some other word at the sentence the particles gnome and ecwid gnome quit otero known a etc the ink lytic nee and ecwid can be used in questions of every description whether the expected answer be affirmative or negative no and no greed only when it is expected to be no no no only when it is to be yes an and autumn chiefly in double questions yes sir I have EDA s-domain a habil sonic.we damn tauren a east note the most current Latin adverbs corresponding to our English yes our idiom even or even so we’re all indeed req day you are right yet they certainly EDA EDA east

sea guest it is so sunny sonic we dem indeed or surely emo or emo arrow yes yes but the Romans frequently reply by a simple repetition of the verb or of the emphatic word of the inquiry ergo here with a simple hobby oh and East the ceremonious use of a word like our sir was unknown to the ancients to domine a however the vaca t’v of Dominus master or Lord there can be no objection have you the Hat hobbies’ nay Opilio Bay is made to be Leo estate to be bilious note the Romans have no article its place is in certain cases supplied by a demonstrative pronoun by almost one mile Equus someone etc but ordinarily the distinctions expressed by our articles must be mentally supplied from the context the learner blah so notice the omission of the pronouns evil to which the Latin language employs only for the sake of emphasis or contrast yes sir I have the Hat see guess dominate hobby Opilio Indian Domini is me he pillows be observation the verb habil being transitive is followed by the accusative of the object and the neuter verb s by the nominative the pen bené bené the ribbon Tonia Tonia or Saskia Foskey I the table mansae mansae the paper Carta card I the Hat Pelias Billy accusative pineal or Belial nominative and accusative the sugar Sakura Sakura D nominative and accusative the salt Sal Silas accusative Salaam see observation words of the neuter gender have the knowledge of accusative and vaca t’v singular and plural always alike my nominative masculine males feminine maiya neuter male accusative masculine male feminine Mayim neuter male thigh or your nominative masculine Lewis feminine Toa neuter boom accusative masculine to feminine tuam neuter 2d rule adjectives and adjectives pronouns agree with their substantives in gender number and case thus my sugar male saccharum nominative and accusative my hat nominative bilious males masculine or paleo male neuter accusative paleo male or male Belial my pen nominative may Opena or Benna maiya accusative mayim Benham or venom ma’am your salt nominative Sal Dhoom or masculine side to us accusative Sal Dhoom or two on side have you my hat hobbyist name a Emilio yes sir I have your hat we’re all domina Belial – um hobby Oh have you my ribbon

ha bay is near Dania mayor I have your ribbon Fabio – Antonia have you the pen distinctive Obinna a bay a snare pin now I have the pen it’s me he penned ‘no fabio been nom exercise 1 have you the table yes sir I have the table have you my table I have your table have you your pen I have my pen have you the sugar I have the sugar have you my sugar I have your sugar have you the paper I have the paper have you your paper I have my paper I view the salt I have the salt have you my salt I have your salt lesson three handsome dad dual of the second declension a the second declension comprises all substantives and adjectives which form their genitive in ii determinations of the nominative are boosts generally masculine sometimes feminine air here masculine and neuter note – these must be added one adjective in or south dual cetera satoru meaning seated or satisfied examples may dominus masculine my master nominative my master Mayo’s Dominus genitive of my master Mei domine dative to my master may all terminal accusative my master may on Domino vaca t’v o my master me domine a ablative with my master may all Tommy no note on the vocative this vaca t’v is sometimes males and sometimes me after the analogy of proper names in ears which have always e as in we’re gillies we’re Gilly horrid use or Rd so also feel use PV Guinness any libertas masculine your book nominative your book Liberty to us genitive of your book Libra e to e dative to your book Libra to or accusative your book liberal to own pocket if oh your book Libya to a ablative with your book libro – OH Saharan poem neuter good sugar no native the good sugar saccharine pomo genitive of the good sugar Zachary Pony Dave – the good sugar sakharova more

accusative the good sugar z’ha’dum boom oh ative oh good sugar Saharan bono ablative with the good sugar Sahara pommel like dominoes decline Pelias our nose Equus calculus and all nouns and adjectives of this declension which end in booths after the manner of libel decline a girl who’ll dare father magister etc like siharan all moochers in home as in our room quorum ling no bloom boom etc note some nouns and adjectives in air retain the air in the genitive and have Eddie instead of Lea as in Canada unity of son-in-law we’re ready a boy leave it Liberty free etc we’re a man has witty and so it’s compounds as the can read the can we D remark won the final E of the genitive of this declension and are flattened words generally is long except in Mickey DB CB where it is common e to the final all of the dative and ablative singular of this declension is always long but in Latin words generally it is common as Sarah mole a mole Hubble which of many nominate of masculine qui or Greece feminine qui neuter cold or queen accusative masculine wham feminine Guam neuter world or Creed which of two nominative masculine who dare feminine ultra neuter otro accusative masculine bootrom feminine utrom neuter patron good nominative masculine bonus feminine palma neuter bonum accusative masculine boehmem feminine Oh nom neuter boneun great large or big nominative masculine man knows feminine magna neuter man no accusative masculine man known feminine Magnum neuter man known bad nonnative masculine Mallos feminine mala neuter malloon accusative masculine maroon feminine malum neuter Malone bad as in worthless nominative masculine Wiese feminine wheeze neuter we lay accusative masculine we lamb feminine we lamb neuter we lay or neck WOM in decline of all note Mallos is set of persons and is morally bad Wiese chiefly of things worthless Nia Guam of

persons and things both beautiful or fine nominative masculine full care feminine pulchritude chrome accusative masculine fulcrum feminine pulchritude chrome also nominative masculine formosus feminine Formosa neuter for more soon accusative masculine form also feminine form or some neuter for more soon ugly nominative masculine two-piece feminine two-piece neuter Torbay accusative masculine turpan feminine turpan neuter goodbay my good sugar Sam huddle may on Bommel nominative and accusative you’re bad sugar z’ha’dum – on relay or siharan Dhoom Nahum the fine table nominative Mayon saputra accusative maeín sample cam the fine paper nominative Hartlepool crab accusative curtain pole cram the fine ribbon normative tiny upon claw accusative dynein pull cram the ugly hat normative Palio’s Derby’s accusative William Thorpe am the ugly book nominative Liberty turpis accusative liebe room tour BAM the ugly salt nominative Sal purpose accusative solemn to repeal which had which paper nonnative crispy Luis why Carta accusative wham billion want help them with sugar courts Uhuru nominative and accusative tweets Sahadi nominative and accusative be observation the interrogative colt is always used as timely and agrees with its noun in gender number and case tweed is more like the english what and as either used independently or has its noun in the genitive the masculine which is more commonly cui then crease what is substantive is expressed with it have you good sugar estate EB siharan bonham yes sir I have good sugar Sanei Domini East Mesa Haram Bowman have you the fine ribbon a base near tiny ample cram I have the fine ribbon bubble tiny important which hat have you we SDB pillows when Billiam hobbies I have my ugly hat William M door bam hobby Oh which ribbon have you why STB Dania WOM hobbies Tanya I have your fine ribbon tiny I’m doin pull em

ha vo exercise to have you the fine hat yes sir I have the fine hat have you my bad hat I have your bad hat have you the bad salt I have the bad salt have you your good salt I have my good salt which salt have you I have your good salt which sugar have you I have my good sugar have you my good sugar I have your good sugar which table have you I have the fine table have you my fine table I have your fine table which paper have you I have the bad paper have you my ugly paper I have your ugly paper which bad hat have you I have my bad hat which fine ribbon have you I have your fine ribbon have you my fine pen I have your fine pen lesson for fans soon while tone of the third declension a substantives and adjectives of the third declension have their genitive in eise the terminations of the nominative are numerous some ending in one of the vowels ah eh e all e and others in one of the consonants could do an f6 this declension comprises nouns of every gender nouns ending in a e e and and are neuter nouns in all or offs and elves are generally masculine but sometimes of other genders those in US House s YZ YZ hence and are generally feminine sometimes masculine those in air and n are masculine and neuter lapiz masculine a stone nominative a stone lapis genitive of a stone Lapidus dative to a stone labadie accusative a stone LAPI down bucket of our stone lapis ablative with a stone leve de whiskey’s feminine a garment nominative the garment Westies genitive of the garment whiskey’s native to the garment whistie accusative the garment west down locative Oh garment Westies ablative with the garment West a Janus masculine and feminine the dog nominative the dog Canis genitive of the dog Canis dative – with the dog canny accusative the dog canal vaca t’v Oh dog Canis ablative with the dog can a note nouns which are sometimes masculine and sometimes feminine according to the context are said to be of the common gender so are the less scans and you a nice masculine and feminine a young man or woman canucks masculine and feminine a husband or a wife Ian founds masculine and feminine an infant and a number of others nouns of which the gender is unsettled are said to be of the doubtful gender as in Deus masculine and feminine a de Vence masculine and feminine and neuter provisions the EBI la neuter the

stocking nominative the stocking the Ibla genitive of the stocking DB a lease native to the stocking DB Olly accusative the stocking the EB la vaca t’v Oh stopping DB la ablative with the stocking the a bialy South door masculine the tailor nominate the tailor Sarto genitive of the tailor santori’s dative to the tailor Sartori accusative the tailor start or a bucket if Oh Taylor sat or ablative with the tailor Sarto a coupled neuter the head nominative the head coupled genitive of the head capitis native to the head deputy accusative the head coupled vaca t’v oh the head coupled ablative with the head kappa de la terre masculine the brother nominative the brother brought their genitive of the brother flat Rhys native to the brother Rodri accusative the brother flat Ram vaca t’v oh brother trotted ablative with the brother trot ray Sal masculine and neuter the salt nominative the salt Sal genitive of the salt Sally’s native to the salt Sally accusative the salt Salam or Sal votive oh salt son ablative with the salt salad or Sally remark the final a of the ablative of the third declension is always short in the final ii long it nominative masculine eise feminine a ax neuter eid accusative masculine ail feminine am neuter eid be observation the pronoun is a –i eat must be put in the same case in gender as a substantive for which it stands not or no no no on we’re all meaning me I have not known hobby oh no sir no unwed all dominate meaning me we’re all dominate have you the table her base name me and Sam no sir I have it not meaning me domine non Fabio meaning me domine ya know on Fabio no on her album in a norm have you the Hat unhappy ASP leo no sir I have it not minima domine non habeo minima dominate a oh no on have you have you the sugar nom have a is Socceroo I have it not no on habeo d observation the English idiom requires here eat non Hubble in Latin however the pronoun is a ax or it is frequently omitted when it would have to stand in the same case as the noun to which it relates the coat toga

play the cloth Pano’s panty the horse a horse Equis the shoe calculus Kalki the thread film fede the candlestick and a lab row and a LaBrie the wood lino Leaney the leather choreo hoary the LED plumbum bloom be the gold our room OD of a or X e observation the preposition a or X is followed by the ablative a can be put before consonants only X before vowels and consonants both of gold X out or elrios out Leah our rule of cloth a ban or F observation the material of which anything is made may either be expressed by the ablative of a substantive with N or X or by means of an adjective in a us thus a wooden or of wood Ling Neos Linea Ling neo paper or of paper CAF tacos Karthikeya carpaccio leather or of leather Scorpius SWAT a scorpion or a curio Laden or of lead plumbers plumber plumbing or a bloom ball linen or of linen lintels Lynn taya lint a own stone or of star Lapidus la pelea lapa do or saxis succes Saxon pretty bellows Bella balloon or when useless when you stop winners to the paper had no native Billy Oscar Tokyo’s accusative billion cartoccio the wooden table nominative man Selenia accusative male Sam Linea the linen stocking nominative and accusative the EBI la linea the golden candlestick nominative and accusative and a labrum areum or and a lab room X ro the horse of stone nominative Epis Lapidus accusative equal opinion the golden ribbon nominative Tonya area accusative tiny Amalia the cloth coat nominative toga a pan no accusative totem a pan no have you the paper hat non hobbies billion have done you no sir I have it not a unknown hobby Olbermann a known known poem na L no on habil have you the stone table and Hebei smells I’m Lavinia I have it not known hobby Oh err no on hobby o of the genitive third declension G from the paradigms of this lesson it will be perceived that substantives of this declension vary considerably as to the manner in which they assume the characteristic termination of the genitive the following rules are intended to give the learner some insight into the extent of this variation note these rules though not directly connected with the exercises of this lesson are yet recommended to the careful attention of the student one nouns in a change ah into at ease as poema bow am at ease neuter a poem two nouns in a change a into e s– as Kabila Jubilees neuter a couch three those in e are generally in

decline able but sometimes have ethos as in he drew Molly he draw mellitus neuter meat for those in e add us as Missy Missy owes neuter vitriol 5o commonly becomes honest as thermal ceremonies masculine speech but dough and go become Denise and penis as Brando Brandis feminine hail or evil or really nice feminine origin note a number of other nouns in all have likewise eNOS has Hummel a man named or nobody Apollo etc karo flesh feminine has carnies and Anil the name of a river and a nice six nouns in hmm simply add es as harlech a leg is neuter and feminine a sort of pickle now heed thou masculine a man’s name cubital could be Dallas neuter a cushion Ren Rainy’s masculine the rains note but lack neuter milk has lacked ease and those in men have meanness as Norman nominees neuter the DD Greek nouns in own have honest and aunties as econ agonies feminine and image a care on our care on this masculine name of a river seven those in our air or and or commonly add likewise is as nectar nectaries neuter nectar answer and series masculine a goose lacked or lack Taurus masculine a reader through poor soul porous neuter sulfur eight those in us generally change us into a DS as where it does vary that is feminine truth nine the only nouns in ice are ice neuter brass and price masculine bondsmen which have IDs and varieties 10 nouns in house have allergies as louse loudest feminine praise Krauss proudest feminine fraud 11 those in s generally change s into S as Thomas Thomas feminine hunger rubies rubies feminine a rock but sometimes into Eddie’s eighties or Aries as Pyrus Hyades masculine in air me less me lead is masculine a soldier Geddes Kennedy’s feminine the goddess series 12 nouns in eise have commonly ease as a piece is feminine a be obese eise feminine a sheep but sometimes also Eddie’s a nice eighties or Edie’s as police for various masculine dust sang wheeze sanguini’s masculine blood lapiz Lapidus masculine a stone queries query it is masculine a Roman same is masculine one half has say a missus 13 those in Earth’s change us into oddities as secure doors sack authorities masculine a priest Nepos Newport is masculine a grandson but also into all these hallways and bodies as crystals restored is masculine

a keeper eros had always masculine a hero rose Rory’s masculine do 14 the termination us becomes bodies eros hoodies hoodies hoodies or bodies as corpus corporis neuter a body opals openness neuter a work Bruce Flores neuter the lag Incas in Kudus feminine and anvil soluz salud is feminine safety 3 booze three police masculine a tripod 15 Greek nouns in arrows have a us as or pills or pills etc 16 nouns in this and Earth’s change s into these or these as pulse poultice feminine a sort of pap parts but these feminine apart glance gland YZ feminine any Colonel furred sad pants sell panties feminine a serpent 17 those in business and imps have bees peace and miss as orbs or bees feminine a city steps steer peace masculine and feminine offspring he amps he amis feminine winter note but the adjective Caleb’s single has Kylie B’s and the compounds of caps have ep’s as putting caps put Incubus the foremost the genitive of and Gibbs doubtful is hunky BT’s 18 the only nouns in our caput capitis masculine the head and it’s compounds or kyboot or capitis etc 19 nouns in X change this letter into keys or geese as walks walk is feminine the voice calyx the callee keys masculine a cup Rex reg is masculine a king codex codec is masculine a book but Nix feminine snow has newest norc’s feminine night noctus senex adjectives old say nice or Cini geese and through bellick’s feminine furniture sue bellick DS exercise 3 have you the wooden table no sir I have it not which table have you I have the stone table have you my golden candlestick I have it not which stocking have you I have the threat stocking have you my thread stocking I have not your thread stocking which could have you I have my cloth coat which horse have you I have the wooden horse have you my leather and shoe I have it not have you the leaden horse I have it not have you your good wooden horse I have it not which would have you I have your good would have you my good gold I have it not which gold have you I have the good gold which stone have you I have your fine stone which ribbon have you I have your golden ribbon have you my fine dog I have it have you my ugly horse I have it not end of lessons 2 through 4 from a practical grammar of the Latin language by George J Adler recorded by jro Mahan