AMC Hornet

The AMC Hornet is a compact automobile which was manufactured and marketed by the American Motors Corporation in a single generation from model years 1970 through 1977. The Hornet replaced the compact Rambler American marking the end of the Rambler marque in the American and Canadian markets. Hornets were also marketed in foreign markets, as well as assembled under license agreements with AMC that included Vehículos Automotores Mexicanos, Australian Motor Industries, and by Toyota S.A. Ltd. in South Africa The new Hornet became an important vehicle and platform for AMC. It served the company in one form or another for eighteen years, until the 1988 model year. It would outlast all other compact platforms from the competition that included the Chevrolet Nova, Ford Maverick, and Plymouth Valiant. The Hornet was also the basis for AMC’s Gremlin, Concord, Spirit, and the innovative all-wheel drive AMC Eagle The AMC Hornet served as an experimental platform for alternative fuel and other automotive technologies. Hornets were campaigned in various motorsports events with some corporate support. A hatchback version was also was featured as part of a special aerial jump in The Man with the Golden Gun, a James Bond film released in 1974 Origins of the “Hornet” name The Hornet name plate goes back to the mid-1950s. The name originated from the merger of Hudson Motor Company and Nash-Kelvinator Corporation in 1954 Hudson introduced the first Hudson Hornet in 1951. The automaker formed a stock car racing team centered on the car, and the “Fabulous Hudson Hornet” soon became famous for its wins and stock-car title sweeps between 1951 and 1954. American Motors, the resulting corporation formed by the merger of Nash Motors and Hudson, continued to produce Nash-based Hornets, which were sold under the Hudson marque from 1955 to 1957. The automaker retained rights to the name while it was dormant from 1958 to 1969. The rights to the “Hornet” nameplate then passed to Chrysler with that company’s acquisition of AMC in 1987 History The Hornet’s styling was based on the AMC Cavalier and Vixen show cars. The Hornet, as well as the Ford Maverick, were considered a response by the domestic automakers to battle with the imports Development of the new model took AMC three years, a million man-hours, and US$40 million. The Hornet was an all-new design sharing no major body components, but utilizing some of the Rambler American’s chassis and drivetrain. An all-new front suspension with anti-brake dive was developed for AMC’s large-sized “senior” 1970 models, and instead of developing lighter components for the new compact-size platform, the same parts were incorporated into the Hornet Introduced in 1969 for the 1970 model year, the Hornet was the first car in a line of new models that AMC would introduce over the following three years, and it set the tone for what designer Richard A. Teague and chief executive officer Roy D. Chapin, Jr., had in mind for the company for the 1970s. The Hornet marked the return of AMC to its original role as a “niche” marketer specializing in small cars. It also became one of AMCs best sellers With its manufacturers suggested retail price of US$1,994 for the base model, the Hornet was an economical small family car. However, it took design cues from the popular Ford Mustang and Chevrolet Camaro, and the company’s own Javelin with a long hood, short rear deck and sporty looks. The Hornet’s 108-inch wheelbase platform evolved into a number of other models and was produced through 1988. The Hornet was initially available in a choice of two thrifty straight-six engines or a 304 cu in V8 The Hornet was offered as a two-door and four-door notchback sedan in its introductory year. The hardtop coupe body style was not continued from the 1969 Rambler American. A four-door station wagon variant named the “Sportabout” was added to the 1971 lineup. Also for 1971, the SC/360 was added. This was a 360 cu in V8 powered compact muscle car that was available only as a two-door sedan.. For 1973, a semi-fastback hatchback coupe with fold down rear seats was added to the lineup AMC used the Hornet as the basis for its

AMC Gremlin, which consisted of the front half of the two-door Hornet’s body and a truncated rear section with a window hatchback In 1973 a Levi’s Jeans trim package – based on the world-famous jeans manufacturer – was added. The Levi’s trim package was popular and was available for several years. The Hornet station wagon version was offered for two model years with a luxury trim package designed by Italian fashion designer Dr. Aldo Gucci. It is notable for being one of the first American cars to offer an upscale fashion “designer” trim level The AMC Hornet was also the first U.S made automobile to feature guardrail beam doors to protect occupants in the event of a side impact. The 1973 Hornet hatchback was the first U.S.-made compact hatchback design, introduced one year ahead of the 1974 Ford Mustang and the Chevrolet Nova hatchback versions The Hornet was phased out after 1977 and transformed into a new “luxury compact” line of automobiles, the AMC Concord. It also served as the basis of an innovative “crossover” all-wheel drive vehicle, the AMC Eagle that was introduced in 1979 Year-by-year changes = 1970= Introduced in September 1969, the first year Hornets came in “base” and higher trim SST models, and in 2 and 4-door sedans. The 199 cu in straight-6 engine was standard on the base models with the 232 cu in standard on the SST. The 304 cu in V8 engine was optional The annual new car issue of Popular Science introduced the 1970 model by entitling its article: “Rambler is dead – long live the Hornet!” The authors not only compared the new Hornet with the outgoing Rambler American, but also with its primary competition, the Ford Maverick and finding the Hornet better to Ford’s new model in several factors that are significant to consumers, as well as “certainly superior among economy cars” in ride-and-handling and “way ahead” in performance Popular Mechanics road test of a SST model with V8 engine and automatic transmission summarized the findings in the article’s sub-title: “it has a lot of good things in a not-too-small package.” Popular Science conducted a road test of four of lowest priced U.S. cars describing the 1970 Hornet offering more interior and trunk room, excellent visibility in all directions, achieved the highest fuel economy, needed the optional disk brakes, and the authors concluded that it was the “practical family car … better value than any of the others” 1970 production:2-door base: 43,610 4-door base: 17,948 2-door SST: 19,748 4-door SST: 19,786 = 1971= The 1971 model year was the introduction of the Sportabout, a 4-door wagon using a single hatch design in place of the traditional tailgate. The 2- and 4-door sedans were carryovers. The 232 I6 engine was now standard across the range A marketing promotion in the Spring made available a new fabric folding sunroof on specially equipped Hornets, as well as on the Gremlin. The opening roof feature was included with the purchase of whitewall tires, custom wheel covers, pinstripes or rally stripes, a light group, and a special visibility group SC360 A notable addition was the SC360 version, a compact 2-door muscle car that was intended as a follow-up to the 1969 SC Rambler. Powered by the AMC’s 360 cu in V8, the SC was distinguished by styled wheels, hood scoop, body striping, and other performance and appearance upgrades. In standard form, with two-barrel carburetor, the 360 produced 245 hp and was priced at just US$2,663. With the addition of the $199 “Go” package’s four-barrel carburetor and ram-air induction, the SC’s power increased to 285 hp. Optional in place of the standard three-speed was a Hurst-shifted four-speed or an automatic transmission. Goodyear Polyglas D70x14 tires were standard, with upgrades running to the handling package and the “Twin-Grip” limited slip differential with 3.54:1 or 3.90:1 gears Although the SC/360 could not compete with the holdover big-engined muscle cars, the SC combined respectable quickness with a taut suspension, big tires, and modest size; thus Motor Trend magazine described it as “just a plain gas to drive … it handles like a dream.” American Motors originally planned to build as many as 10,000 of the cars, but high insurance premiums killed the

SC/360 after a single year’s production of just 784 examples The Sportabout on the other hand was the most popular model by far, outselling all other Hornet models combined in its debut year. For most of its life it was the only American-made station wagon in its size class 1971 production:2-door base: 19,395 4-door base: 10,403 2-door SST: 8,600 4-door SST: 10,651 Wagon SST: 73,471 SC360: 784 = 1972= American Motors established a new focus on quality with the 1972 model year. The “Buyer Protection Plan”, was the industry’s first 12-month or 12,000 miles comprehensive, bumper-to-bumper warranty. This innovative AMC Buyer Protection Plan included numerous mechanical upgrades to increase durability, as well as a focus on quality in sourcing and production The 1972 Hornet was promoted by AMC as “a Tough Little Car”. American Motors promised to repair anything wrong with the car, owners were provided with a toll-free telephone number to the company and a free loaner car if a warranty repair took overnight To consolidate AMC’s product offering, reduce production costs, and offer more value to consumers, the base models were dropped in 1972 and all models were designated as “SST”. The SST offered more items standard than the previous year’s base model at about the same price. Hornets now came with comfort and convenience items that most consumers expected, and these items were typically standard on imported cars Other changes included dropping the SC/360 compact muscle car, but the two-barrel version of the 360 cu in remained optional in addition to the 304 cu in V8 engine. For those desiring more performance, a four-barrel carburetor was a dealer-installed option on the 360 V8. Automatic transmissions were now the TorqueFlites sourced from Chrysler, and AMC called it the “Torque-Command” New for 1972 were the “X” package that tried to repeat the success AMC had with this trim option on the 1971 Gremlin The Hornet X trim was optional on the two-door and the Sportabout, adding among others slot-styled steel wheels, rally stripes, and sports steering wheel. A performance oriented “Rallye” package was also introduced. It included among other items: special lower body stripes, bucket seats, handling package, front disc brakes, quick-ratio manual steering, and a sports steering wheel 1972 production: 2-door SST: 27,122 4-door SST: 24,254 Wagon SST: 34,065 Gucci Sportabout The 1972 Hornet was notable for being one of the first American cars to offer a special luxury trim package created by a fashion designer. Named for Italian fashion designer Dr. Aldo Gucci, the Gucci package was offered only on the Sportabout, the four-door wagon with a single sloping hatch replacing the then traditional window/tailgate door. The option included special beige-colored upholstery fabrics on thickly padded seats and inside door panels along with Gucci logo emblems and a choice of four exterior colors: Snow White; Hunter Green; Grasshopper Green, and Yuca Tan The Gucci model proved to be a success, with 2,583 produced in 1972 Sportabouts so equipped AMC also produced a one-off Sportabout for Gucci’s personal use. The car was powered by a 5-litre V8 engine and had a three-speed automatic transmission. The interior featured leather was door panels, cargo area as well as the front and rear centre arm rests. The doors and custom-designed bucket seats received red and green striped inserts. The instrument panel was given a centrally located, pull-out writing desk, graced with a scribbler and a sterling silver bamboo pen. A map light at the end of a flexible arm extended from the right side of the desk, the left carried a vanity mirror, also on a flex stem. The back of the front seats popped open. The one on the passenger’s side served as a snack table or provided a flat surface for playing games. The compartment behind the driver concealed a miniature liquor cabinet, complete with four sterling silver tumbles and two decanters—all decorated with red and green enamel stripes American Motors followed this designer influence in successive years with the Cardin Javelin in 1973 and the Cassini Matador in 1974, but there were no new

signature designer versions after those This trim package concept inspired other automakers – including Ford’s luxury marque, Lincoln in 1976 – to offer packages styled by other famous fashion designers = 1973= The biggest visible changes among all AMC automobiles for the 1973 model year were to the Hornet line and its new model, a two-door hatchback. Car and Driver magazine called it “the styling coup of 1973”. Other changes included a new front-end design and bodywork with a V-shaped grille, a slightly recessed and longer hood, and longer peaked front fenders. The facelift incorporated a new stronger and larger energy-absorbing recoverable front bumper system with a horizontal rubber strip that met the new no-damage at 5 miles per hour NHTSA safety legislation. The rear also received a new 2.5 miles per hour bumper with twin vertical rubber guards, but the 5 mph unit was optional. The overall length of the Hornet increased 6 inches For the 1973 model year, the SST designation was dropped from the Hornet line, and all were simply called Hornet The newly introduced two-door hatchback incorporated a fold-down rear seat for increased cargo volume from 9.5 to 30.5 cubic feet. An optional hinged floor made a hidden storage space that housed a temporary use “space-saver” spare tire, and created a flat load area totaling 23 cu ft. An optional dealer accessory was available to convert the open hatchback area into a tent camper with mosquito net windows The new hatchback was available with a Levis bucket seat interior trim option that was actually made of spun nylon fabric, rather than real cotton denim, to comply with flammability standards as well as offer greater wear and stain resistance. The interior included copper Levis rivets, traditional contrasting stitching, and the Levi’s tab on both the front seat backs, as well as unique door panels with Levis trim with removable map pockets and “Levi’s” decals on the front fenders The two- and four-door sedan models were carried over while the Sportabout wagon received a new optional upscale “D/L” package. This trim package included exterior woodgrain body side decal panels, a roof rack with rear air deflector, and individual reclining seats upholstered in plush cloth. The Gucci edition wagon was continued for one more year with five exterior color choices. The “X” package was now available only for the Sportabout and hatchback. It included color coordinated “rally” side stripes, 14 x 6-inch slot-style steel wheels with C78 x 14 Goodyear Polyglas tires, an “X” emblem, and a sports steering wheel Engines incorporated new emissions controls and the choices on all Hornet models included two I6s, the standard 232 cu in or a 258 cu in version, as well as two V8s, the base 304 cu in or the 175 hp 360 cu in. Any Hornet model could be ordered with the two-barrel 360 engine and automatic transmission Demand for classic muscle car cars had disappeared by 1973, but the Hornet was a relatively light car and was a “mildly spirited performer” in stock form with the new emissions gear. A Hornet hatchback with the 360 V8 was tested by Car and Driver. The 0-60 time was 8.4 seconds with a 3.15 rear axle ratio and the magazine noted that the Hornet hatchback was “…so good that AMC is sure to finally lose its underdog status.” Research sponsored by the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration to improve front and side crashworthiness was first applied into production compact vehicles starting with the 1973 Hornet, which included stronger doors designed to withstand 2,500 pounds penetration in the first 6 inches of crush Spurred by AMC’s success in its strategy of improving product quality, and an advertising campaign focusing on “we back them better because we build them better”, the automaker achieved record profits. American Motors’ comprehensive “Buyer Protection Plan” warranty was expanded for the 1973 models to cover lodging expenses should a car require overnight repairs when the owner is away from home Suggested prices began at $2,298 for the base model two-door sedan with the more popular new hatchback going for $2,449 1973 production:2-door: 23,187

4-door: 25,452 Wagon: 44,719 Hatchback: 40,110 = 1974= All four versions of the Hornet were mostly carryovers in 1974, with minimal trim changes. The car’s front bumper lost its full-width vinyl rub strip, but gained two rubber-faced bumper guards. A larger rear bumper was added to meet new 5 mph legislation, and the license plate was moved up to a position between the taillights New inertial-reel seat/shoulder belts were standard, along with a new electronic system requiring front seat passengers to buckle up before the engine would start 1974 production:2-door: 29,950 4-door: 29,754 Wagon: 71,413 Hatchback: 55,158 = 1975= Focusing on the new Pacer, AMC kept the Hornet mostly the same. A new grille with vertical grating was the primary change. A new “Touring Package” included special upholstery and luxury features In a return to its philosophy of economical compact cars, AMC emphasized its comprehensive “Buyer Protection Plan” warranty in marketing the Hornets Six-cylinder Hornets could be ordered with a new British supplied Laycock de Normanville “J-type” overdrive. Optional on cars with a manual three-speed transmission, the unit was controlled by a pushbutton at the end of the turn signal stalk. The overdrive unit engages automatically at speeds above 35 miles per hour and drops out at 32 mph. It also included an accelerator pedal kickdown switch for faster passing All U.S. market Hornets featured catalytic converters and now required gasoline without tetraethyl lead “Unleaded Fuel Only” warnings were displayed on both the fuel gauge and on a decal by the fuel filler. Consumers complained loudly about the 1974 “mandatory seat belt” system, and it was replaced in 1975 with a simple reminder buzzer and light The U.S. economy was experiencing inflation, and new car sales fell for all the automakers. The industry sold 8.2 million units, a drop of more than 2.5 million from the record pace in 1973. Sales of the Hornet also suffered 1975 production:2-door: 12,392 4-door: 20,565 Wagon: 39,593 Hatchback: 13,441 = 1976= In its sixth year as a carryover, AMC priced the sedan and hatchback at the same identically, with the Sportabout slightly higher. That year, the Dodge Aspen and Plymouth Volare were introduced; the line included a station wagon, ending AMC’s monopoly on 6-cylinder domestic compact wagons 1976 production:Total: 71,577 = 1977= The Hornet line was mostly unchanged for 1977 with improvements made to engines and transmissions for increased fuel efficiency and the effects of new nitrogen oxides emission standards. All 3-speed manual transmissions were now on the floor. A new “AMX” model also appeared 1977 production:2-door: 6,076 4-door: 31,331 Wagon: 28,891 Hatchback: 11,545 In fall 1977, the Hornet was reengineered and restyled to become the 1978 Concord and helped establish the “luxury compact” market segment. With its upgraded design, components, and more standard features, the new Concord was moved upscale from the economy-focused Hornet. Changes to the AMC’s “junior” platform made the new Concord more comfortable and desirable to buyers seeking an image of luxury, as well as greater value AMX A new sports oriented model, the AMX, was introduced to appeal to young, performance-oriented car buyers. The AMX was available only as a hatchback with the six or the V8 engine featuring a floor shifted four-speed manual or automatic transmission. Standard was an upgraded black or tan interior with a floor console, “rally” instrumentation with tachometer, and “soft-feel” sports steering wheel. The special “Hornet AMX” was only available in four exterior colors that included matching painted bumpers with a wraparound rubber guard strip, body side rubber guard strip and contrasting AMX model identification bodyside decals ahead of the rear wheels. The exterior included a front spoiler integrated into the front lower fender extensions, rear lower fender flares, sport-styled road wheels, brushed aluminum “Targa top” band over the B-pillars and roof, black left and right outside mirrors, and louvers for the rear hatch window. Options included bright aluminum road wheels and large Hornet-graphic decals on the hood and on

the decklid. This model marked the return of a famous name that evoked AMC’s original AMX two-seat sports car International markets The AMC Hornet was exported to international markets, as well as assembled under license from Complete knock down kits that were shipped from AMC’s factories the U.S. or Canada. The foreign built cars incorporated numerous components and parts that were produced by local manufacturers to gain tax or tariff preferences = Australia= A total of 1,825 Hornets were built at the Australian Motor Industries factory at Port Melbourne in Victoria, Australia between 1970 and 1975. The Hornet was sold in Australia as the Rambler Hornet, only in four-door sedan body style. It was fitted with either a 232 cu in or 258 cu in six-cylinder engine and with an automatic transmission While the Hornet was the least expensive compact model in the United States, the Hornet in Australia was a luxury model, with high levels of trim, carpet, tires, and accessories. These included high-back seats, fully lined boot and covered spare wheel. The Hornet used a PBR fully assisted dual braking system, and front disc brakes from the Javelin Trans Am. The Hornet sold for $3,999 in 1970, with 407 cars being sold in Australia in that year = Mexico= American Motors has partial ownership of Vehículos Automotores Mexicanos and produced Hornets in Mexico from 1970 through 1977. The VAM built cars continued to be called VAM Rambler following the tradition of the VAM-built Rambler American models up to 1974. The Mexican models included: VAM Rambler American U.S. equivalent: AMC Hornet VAM Rambler American Rally – U.S equivalent: AMC Hornet X sedan instead of hatchback VAM American U.S. equivalent: AMC Hornet base model VAM American Rally – U.S. equivalent: AMC Hornet X sedan instead of hatchback VAM American ECD U.S. equivalent – AMC Hornet DL two- and four-door sedans VAM American GFS U.S. equivalent: AMC Hornet DL two-door sedan, replaces two-door ECD VAM Camioneta American automática U.S equivalent: AMC Hornet DL wagon with automatic transmission The VAM cars came with different trims and interiors than the equivalent AMC-made models. The models also combined different front clips, such as the 1977 VAM American came with the shorter U.S. and Canadian market 1977 Gremlin front end, while its interior trim featured premium seats and upholstery VAM Rambler American The initial VAM Rambler Americans were available in a single nameless trim level, with only an optional performance-minded “Rally” package for the two-door sedans that was carried over from 1969 = 1970= The Hornet-based 1970 VAM Rambler American featured a standard a 232 cu in I6 producing 145 hp with a 244 degree camshaft, 8.5:1 compression ratio, and a single-barrel Carter RBS or YF carburetor. A fully synchronized three-speed manual transmission with column-mounted shifter, heavy duty clutch, and a 3.54:1 rear differential gear ratio were standard. The cars came with four-wheel drum brakes, manual steering, four-rigid-bladed engine fan, and regular-duty cooling system Convenience equipment included a two-tone padded dashboard with a three-pod instrument cluster, “RAMBLER” emblem on the glove box door, electric windshield wipers and washers, a 200 km/h speedometer, side marker lights, four-way hazard lights, antitheft steering column locking mechanism, base steering wheel, brake system warning light, AM radio, front ashtray, cigarette lighter, locking glove box, padded sunvisors, day/night rearview mirror, cardboard-type sound-absorbing headliner, round dome light, dual coat hooks, flip-open rear side vents, full carpeting, driver’s side rubber floor mat sewed to the carpet, front bench seat with split folding backs on two door sedan or with a fixed back on the four door, bench rear seat, two-point front seatbelts, dual rear ashtrays, front and rear side armrests, vinyl-cloth upholstery on seats and side door panels, aluminum grille, backup lights, steel wheels with center hubcaps, dual “232 SIX” rear quarter panel emblems, dual “bulleye” emblems on the lower corner of the rear side vents, script “American” emblems on both front

fenders, capital lettered “RAMBLER” rectangular emblem between the right taillight and the gas filler, non-locking gas cap, manual driver’s side remote mirror, and radio antenna Factory options consisted of a heating system with windshield defroster, power drum brakes, power steering, bright molding package, protective side moldings, parcel shelf, courtesy lights, 6000 RPM VDO tachometer with dual hands, luxury wheel covers, sports steering wheel, custom steering wheel, passenger’s side remote mirror, remote-controlled driver’s side remote mirror, bright panel between taillights, metal bumper guards with rubber edges, full vinyl roof with additional bright moldings, and a heavy-duty suspension = 1971= The VAM Rambler American sedans for 1971 were carried over from 1970. Among the changes was the incorporation of VAM’s 266 degree camshaft to the 232 engine replacing AMC’s 244 degree unit. Despite power increase, the official announced output of the engine was still 145 hp at 4,400 rpm. New interior colors, side armrest and side panel designs were available. The AM radio was updated to a newer model. The new year introduced the Hornet Sportabout-based Camioneta Rambler American. The station wagon version included the same equipment as the two sedan models with a several additional features. The Camioneta Rambler American included the parcel shelf with courtesy lights as standard equipment and was the only Mexican Hornet version to be available with a three-speed automatic transmission as optional equipment. Cars with the automatic transmission included the one-barrel 145 hp 232 six, while those with manual transmission had the 155 hp 232 six with Carter WCD carburetor = 1972= The 1972 model year VAM models incorporated the same engineering revisions and upgrades of the U.S market AMC-built counterparts. All VAM Rambler Americans were limited to the 145 hp 232 engine and featured a front sway bar as standard equipment. The 1972 models also included a new plastic grille with a revised hood latch, along with a new tail light design with larger backup lights, a new optional wheel cover design, a third AM radio model, and new interior door panels. This was also the first year of the seatbelt warning buzzer located above the light and wiper knobs. The Camioneta Rambler American featured the Chrysler-built TorqueFlite A904 automatic transmission, replacing the previous Borg-Warner “Shift-Command” units = 1973= The 1973 model year VAM Hornets were redesigned and incorporated a new front end design with larger horizontal rectangular side marker lights, semi-square headlight bezels, and a “V”-shaped grille and hood edge. The front bumper included AMC’s five-mile-per-hour design, but without the recovering shocks; in their place were regular rigid bumper mounts as in previous years. The automobile product standards in Mexico were less restrictive than in the U.S.; thus, VAM’s mounted the bumpers placed closer to the body than their AMC counterparts The 232 engine was replaced by the AMC 258 cu in I6 rated at 170 hp gross with Carter RBS/YF one-barrel carburetor, 266 degree camshaft, and a 8.5:1 compression ratio. The three-speed automatic transmission for the first time became available in the sedan models as an option and the rear differential gear ratio changed to 3.31:1 in all units Other features included new door panels, longer narrower inside door latches, controls for the cigarette lighter, wiper/washer, and lights knobs had rubber knobs, modified tail light lenses, the deletion of the rectangular “RAMBLER” emblem in favor of “American” script on the rear panel, “258” emblems replacing the “232 SIX” rectangular ones, and the removal of the bullseye emblems on the C-pillar base = 1974= The 1974 Rambler American was a carryover. The only difference was the presence of the rear five-mile-per-hour bumper and the rear license plate was relocated to the center of the rear panel over the gas filler. The standard wheels for the year were VAM’s new 14×6-inch five-spoke design with volcano hubcaps. The 258 six included an evaporative canister to reduce emissions, and a slightly lower 8.3:1 compression ratio. However, during the

mid-year, the compression ratio was lowered even more to 7.6:1. In both cases, the engines were still advertised as having an output of 170 hp. The Seat and door panel designs were revised VAM American The introduction of the Gremlin line by VAM in 1974, which became the company’s most affordable model, created a gap between the lower end Rambler American line and the larger, top Classic line The VAM Rambler American was restricted to the economy segment since its introduction to the Mexican market, the only exceptions to this being the luxury limited edition Rambler American Hartop for 1963 and 1965, as well as the sporty Rambler American Rally from 1969 through 1974. By this time, the Hornet-based Rambler American had been on the market for five years and saw continued sales and positive image. The model was shifted from the economy to the mid-segment, as an all new generation was introduced for 1975. The name was simplified from Rambler American to just American, marking the discontinuation of the Rambler brand in Mexico. The greatest change was the creation of the new luxury American ECD trim level followed by revised and improved American Rally and American base models, which helped to distance the line further from the Gremlin. The cars in all versions obtained substantial updates and upgrades The American base model in its first year was characterized by incorporating all-new designs for the parking lights, grille and headlight bezels. Manual front disk brakes were standard and the 258 six cylinder engine featured electronic ignition. This engine was carried over with a 7.6:1 compression ratio, 266 degree camshaft, 170 hp, and a single-barrel Carter carburetor Interiors included new door panels, seats, and upholstery patterns. The two-tone dashboard was replaced by a color-keyed unit with a new “American” emblem on the glove box door and a standard fuel economy gauge. Cars equipped with automatic transmission included a heater and power steering The 1976 models were almost the same; their differences were limited to a compression ratio increase for the 258 six from 7.6:1 to 8.0:1. New gauges appeared in the form of a 160 km/h speedometer and revised warning lights, sunvisors were redesigned to larger units with bending portions, a new dome light lens, new seat and side panel designs, while a rear defroster was added to the options. The 1977 models had numerous changes. Most noticeable was a new front end that AMC intended to make exclusive for the Gremlin line. The two-point seatbelts were replaced by fixed three-point units. The Carter RBS carburetor was discontinued leaving only the YF model on the 258 six. Two-door sedans with the manual transmissions now featured a floor-mounted gearshift with low-back fold-down individual seats, while models with automatic transmissions retained the bench seat with split folding backs and a column-mounted shifter. The seats and door panels were modified. A new “American” emblem with new typograhpy was applied to glove box door Rambler American Rally and VAM American Rally The sporty Rally package in 1970 consisted of a sports steering wheel, wide reclining individual front seats, floor-mounted Hurst Performance shifter three-speed manual transmission with locking mechanism connected to the steering wheel ignition switch, full bright molding package including rear panel overlay between the tail lights, two courtesy lights, and a 160 hp, 9.8:1 compression ratio 232 six cylinder with Carter WCD carburetor designed by VAM It was a continuation of the 1969 version with a longer list of equipment and several engineering improvements The “Rally” model as a sporty Hornet was available a full year ahead of AMC’s Hornet SC/360 and two years ahead of the Hornet X and Hornet Rallye-X models. The Rambler American Rally for 1971 saw only minor changes; the script “American” fender emblems were replaced by script “Rally” units, seat controls were revised and new side panels and steering wheel designs became present along a with a different AM radio. The Rally package became a trim level for 1972, losing the shifter locking mechanism and having front sway bar, while the previously optional 8000 RPM tachometer

became standard equipment along with AMC’s new three-spoke sports steering wheel. Smaller more bucket-like front seats were new, and the floor shift base was changed from round to a squared design. The bright rear panel and taillight lenses featured new designs and the grille was changed from aluminum to plastic. The 1972 Rally engine was the VAM 252 six producing 170 hp at 4,600 rpm, 9.5:1 compression ratio, with a high-flow Carter RBS-PV1 single-barrel carburetor and the 266 degree camshaft A 170 gross HP, 8.5:1 compression ratio AMC 258 with 266 degree camshaft and single-barrel Carter RBS or YF carburetor was used for 1973. This year also saw, aside from the new front end design, the first set of high-back bucket seats and standard parcel shelf, even though the reclining mechanism of the seats was removed. The front end was completely updated as in the standard Rambler American models except for the unique characteristic of the blackout grille. The 1974 Rallys incorporated the first set of VAM side decals and five-spoke wheels plus a T-shaped Hurst shifter, aside from new five-mile-per-hour rear bumper and relocated rear license plate The marketing concept for VAM’s compact model was also included for its sporty version. The 1975 American Rally gained electronic ignition, manual front disk brakes, and a TREMEC 170-F four-speed manual transmission with Hurst linkage and a lower 7.6:1 compression ratio on the 258 six. The interiors were revised to a higher level of luxury and sportiness, plus the presence of the heater as standard equipment. All previously exposed metal parts like the inner faceof the B pillars, top edge of the doors and sides were covered; the dashboard changed from being two-tone to color-keyed, and the door panels obtained an etched “Rally” emblem on their top front corners. The 1976 Rally models switched to the 200 hp 7.7:1 compression ratio VAM 282 with Holley 2300 two-barrel carburetor and 266 degree camshaft, power front disk brakes, power steering and tinted windshield were now standard equipment The four-speed transmission and heater were fully standardized this year. New seat patterns and side panel designs were used, while gauges were changed to a 160 km/h speedometer and 6,000 RPM tachometer. The 1977 American Rallys obtained a more powerful 8.0:1 compression ratio 282 with an upgraded head design, a new aluminum intake manifold, high-back bucket seats with new patterns and reclining mechanism, three-point retractable front seatbelts, a VAM-designed digital tachometer, as well as AMC’s Gremlin front clip for the year. Like the three luxury versions of the year, the 1977 American Rally was the first sports model to offer the air conditioning system as a factory option At the mid-1976 discontinuation of the Classic AMX model, the American Rally became VAM’s top-of-the-line performance model The Rally included D70x14 radial tires in all years and rear gear ratios of 3.54:1, 3.31:1 and 3.07:1. The American Rally was discontinued in 1977 along with all other Hornet-based VAM Americans. It would find a successor in the 1978 American Rally AMX model meaning a change from being a sedan into a hacthback coupe American ECD and American GFS In 1975, the VAM American obtained its third trim level to accompany the nameless base and Rally. This was the American ECD or Edición Cantos Dorados, the first regular-production luxury compact made by VAM. They were the equivalent of the U.S. Hornet DL models The American ECD was available on both sedan models, while the wagon remained without a model designation. The ECD included a 258 cu in I6, automatic transmission, power steering, power brakes, heater, luxury steering wheel, vacuum gauge, electric clock, high-trim upholstery, parcel shelf, courtesy lights, tinted windshield, full bright molding package, wheel covers, vinil roof, and golden “ECD” emblems on the base of each C-pillar. The two-door American ECD featured individual high back seats with floor-mounted transmission, while the four-door versions had a bench seat with column-mounted shifter. For 1977 the two-door model gained an exclusive

designation: the American GFS, thus reserving the ECD nameplate to the four-door sedan. The 1977 American GFS incorporated a half Landau-type vinyl top carrying the roof Targa band AMC used for the 1977 Hornet AMX models and shortened rear side windows. AMC liked this styling touch and used it for its 1978–1979 Concord DL/Limited two-door models. Unlike the 1977 American ECD, the 1977 American GFS featured the 282 cu in engine with a 3.07:1 rear differential gear ratio, instead of the 258 I6 with a 3.31:1 rear ratio. The station wagon offered an optional package for 1977. If the automatic transmission was ordered, it included all the accessories and features of the GFS/ECD models, as well as the 282 These station wagons the “Camioneta Automática” model name The engines in VAM models were based on AMC designs, but modified and built by VAM. Unique to Mexico included the 252 cu in and 282 cu in I6 engines. These were designed to cope with low octane fuel and the high altitudes encountered in Mexico = South Africa= Both Nash and Hudson models were assembled under license in South Africa for many years. In the 1960s, AMC’s compact Rambler model had entered the market and was assembled at the Jacobs plant in Durban by Motor Assemblies Limited. In South Africa, the Hornet’s predecessor was marketed through the 1970 model year. The Ramblers were assembled by Toyota South Africa Ltd, a company that was wholly owned by South Africans, and the cars were marketed and serviced by 220 Toyota dealers Starting in 1971, the new Hornet was built and continued to be marketed under the Rambler brand. American Motors South America Limited was the official license holder for production of the Rambler Hornet at the Motor Assemblies Ltd plant. However, sales after 1971 were hampered by problems arising from regulations. The nation’s tariff structure considered only the weight of parts or materials made in South Africa would be calculated toward local content requirements. The objective was to increase indigenous production. As a result, the last of the South African-built Rambler Hornets had 4.1 L Chevrolet straight-6 engines. The objective was to standardize the manufacture of vehicle components within South Africa. In this case, a large component, the Hornet’s original AMC engine was eliminated from the marketplace, while the switch also provided greater local production volume to the General Motors engine Motorsports AMC Hornets were campaigned in various motorsports events. Some technical and financial support was provided by the automaker in the early years = Stock Car Racing= Bobby Allison was AMC’s factory-backed NASCAR driver, racing #12 Matadors fielded by Roger Penske. Bobby also did a lot of short-track racing, often using a modified stock car he rebodied using Hornet sheet metal, painted redblue in the AMC scheme and numbered 12 = Drag racing= Hornets were campaigned on dragstrips from 1972 and became well known by their bold red, white, and blue graphics. Dave Street was an early Hornet racer in Northeast Pro Stock events. Drivers on the Pro Stock circuit included Wally Booth, as well as Rich Maskin and Dave Kanners captured top awards. Booth drove a Hornet to the top qualifying spot at the 1975 NHRA U.S. Nationals Some drivers converted from AMC Gremlins when tests with identical engines in 1973 showed that the hatchback Hornet had an advantage with higher speeds and lower times. The 1974 Gatornationals, as well as the 1976 NHRA U.S. Nationals and the World Finals were won by Wally Booth driving an AMC Hornet. The Hornets would do the quarter-mile in 8 seconds reaching 150 mph The last AMC Pro Stocker was campaigned through the 1982 season in American Hot Rod Association events. It was a Hornet AMX with nitrous injection = Endurance= In 1970, Lou Haratz drove an AMC Hornet over 14,000 miles to set a new Trans-Americas record by going from Ushuaia, Argentina to Fairbanks, Alaska in 30 days and 45 minutes. He also went on to be the first to drive completely around the widest practical perimeter of the North, Central, and South American continents for a distance of 38,472 miles in 143 days. The Hornet received a

tune-up service in Caracas as well as in Lima, and the endurance record was promoted in various popular magazine advertisements for Champion spark plugs that were standard equipment in AMC engines = IMSA racing= From 1971 the AMC Hornet was campaigned in the International Motor Sports Association races. Hornets ran in GTO class and American Challenge class American Motors provided only limited support in the form of technical help The cars were gutted and powered by highly modified AMC 232 straight-six engines In 1973, AMC cars very nearly placed 1-2-3, in a BF Goodrich Radial Challenge Series race, but Bob Hennig driving an AMC Hornet went out while in third place with only six laps to go. BMW driver Nick Craw and AMC Hornet driver Amos Johnson ended the IMSA series as co-champions in Class B On 6 February 1977, out of 57 cars that started the 24 Hours of Daytona, Championship of Makes, at Daytona International Speedway, an AMC Hornet driven by Tom Waugh, John Rulon-Miller, and Bob Punch drove car #15 to 22nd place overall and 12th in the GTO class by completing 394 laps in 1,582 miles Amos Johnson drove car #7, an AC Class Hornet, in the 100 mile Road Atlanta race on 17 April 1977, as well as with co-driver Dennis Shaw to finish 11th in the Hallett Motor Racing Circuit on 24 July 1977 A 1977 Hornet AMX was prepared by “Team Highball” from North Carolina and driven by Amos Johnson and Dennis Shaw. Car #77 finished in 34th place in the GTO class out of the 68 that started the race by completing 475 laps, 1,824 miles in the 17th Annual 24 Hours of Daytona Camel GT Challenge The AMC cars “were killers at places like Daytona. Despite being about as aerodynamic as a brick they had those nice, big, reliable straight sixes …” = SCCA Trans Am= Buzz Dyer drove a 1977 AMC Hornet AMX with a V8 engine in the Sports Car Club of America Trans Am events at the Laguna Seca Raceway on 8 October 1978 and finished 46 laps = Coast-to-coast run= Two Hot Rod staffers, John Fuchs and Clyde Baker, entered a 1972 AMC Hornet in the Cannonball Baker Sea-To-Shining-Sea Memorial Trophy Dash This was an unofficial automobile race from New York City and Darien, CT, on the U.S. Atlantic coast, to Redondo Beach, a Los Angeles suburb on the Pacific coast during the time of the newly imposed 55 mph speed limit set by the National Maximum Speed Law. The Hornet X hatchback was modified with a 401 cu in AMC V8 and auxiliary racing fuel cells to increase gasoline capacity. They finished in 13th place after driving for 41 hours and 15 minutes at an average speed of 70.4 mph James Bond movie As part of a significant product placement movie appearance by AMC, a 1974 Hornet X Hatchback is featured in the James Bond film: The Man with the Golden Gun, where Roger Moore made his second appearance as the British secret agent The film’s “most outrageous sequence” begins with Sheriff J.W. Pepper, who on holiday in Thailand with his wife, admiring a new red AMC Hornet in a Bangkok showroom. He is about to test drive the car. The action begins as secret agent 007 commandeers the Hornet from the dealership with Pepper in it for a car chase. The Hornet performs an “airborne pirouette as it makes a hold-your-breath jump across a broken bridge” The stunt car is significantly modified with a redesigned chassis to place the steering wheel in the center and a lower stance, as well as larger wheel wells compared to the stock Hornet used in all the other movie shots. The 360-degree mid-air twisting corkscrew was captured in just one filming sequence. Seven tests were performed in advance before the one jump performed by an uncredited British stuntman “Bumps” Williard for the film with six cameras simultaneously rolling. Two frogmen were positioned in the water, as well as an emergency vehicle and a crane were ready, but not needed. The Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory was used for computer modeling to calculate the stunt. The modeling called for a 1,460.06 kg weight of car and driver, the exact angles and the 15.86-metre distance between the ramps, as well as the 64.36-kilometre-per-hour launch speed This stunt was adapted from Jay Milligan’s Astro Spiral Javelin show cars. These were jumps performed in AMC

sponsored thrill shows at fairs around the US, including the Houston Astrodome, where Gremlins and Hornets were also used to drive around in circles on their side two wheels in the arena. Using exactly the same ramp design, movie artists made the ramps convincingly look like a rickety old bridge that was falling apart. The movie’s director ruined the continuous spiral effect of the stunt. By cutting camera shots as the car was in mid-air, it looks like trick photography to get the car upside-down instead of one continuous actual jump Months of difficult work went into the scene that lasts only fifteen seconds in the movie. The Guinness World Records 2010 book describes this “revolutionary jump” as the “first astro spiral used in a movie” and lists it as third among the top ten James Bond film stunts The actual Bond Hornet is preserved in the National Motor Museum in Beaulieu, UK together with other famous items owned by the Ian Fleming Foundation and used in the 007 films The AMC Hornet is one of Hagerty’s favorites Bond cars for vintage automobile collectors on a budget Several scale models of the AMC Hornet are available that include the James Bond hatchback versions made by Corgi Toys and Johnny Lightning Experimental Hornets The AMC Hornet served as a vehicle for several experimental alternative power sources = Gas turbine= In the aftermath of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1970, research grants were funded by the government in further developing automotive gas turbine technology. This included conceptual design studies and vehicles for improved passenger-car gas-turbine systems that were conducted by Chrysler, General Motors, Ford in collaboration with AiResearch, and Williams Research teamed with American Motors. In 1971, a long-term test was conducted to evaluate actual road experience with a turbine powered passenger car. An AMC Hornet was converted to a WR-26 regenerative gas turbine power made by Williams International A Williams gas turbine powered 1973 Hornet was used by New York City to evaluate comparable cost efficiency with piston engines and funded by a grant from the National Air Pollution Control Administration, a predecessor of the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The Hornet’s experimental power source was developed by inventor Sam B Williams. Weighing in at 250 lb and measuring 26 in by 24 in by 16 in, it produced 80 hp at 4450 rpm with a clean exhaust = Gasoline direct injection= Research to develop a Straticharge Continuous Fuel-Injection system design) was conducted with the backing of AMC The Hornet’s conventional spark ignited internal combustion straight-6-cylinder engine was a modified with a redesigned cylinder head, and road testing performed using a 1973 AMC Hornet. This SCFI system was a mechanical device that automatically responded to the engine’s airflow and loading conditions with two separate fuel-control pressures supplied to two sets of continuous-flow injectors. It was “a dual-chamber, three-valve, fuel-injected, stratified-charge” engine. Flexibility was designed into the SCFI system for trimming it to a particular engine = Hybrid= In 1976, the California Air Resources Board bought and converted AMC Hornets for its design research into hybrids = Natural gas= The Consumers Gas Company operated a fleet of 1970 AMC Hornets converted dual-fuel system with compressed natural gas. This was an early demonstration project for clean and efficient vehicles = Plug-in electric= In 1971, the Electric Fuel Propulsion Company began marketing the Electrosport, a plug-in electric vehicle based on the Hornet Sportabout wagon. It was designed to be a supplementary battery electric vehicle for commuting or daily chores, and to be recharged at home using household current or at “Charge Stations away from home to replenish power in 45 minutes, while you shop or have lunch.” = LaForce Vertur-E= The United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted extensive tests of 1974 and 1975 AMC Hornets to evaluate the fuel economy claims made for the LaForce Ventue-E modifications The LaForce prepared Hornet included a

special carburetor that was designed to vary the fuel to air mixture under all operating conditions. Other modifications were made to the camshaft, a smaller combustion area, special “dual” exhaust manifolds, and the installation of solid valve lifters (in place of the standard hydraulic tappets The manifold was designed to intercept gasoline between the carburetor and engine and “to use even the harder to burn heavy gasoline molecules” – thus, claiming mileage increases of 40 to 57% However, the EPA tests did not fully support the performance and economy claims that were to be achieved by these modifications in comparison to standard factory tuned vehicles Concept cars The AMC Hornet platform served as the basis for evaluating design and styling ideas by AMC. In the late-2000s, the Hornet name was revived for a Dodge concept car = Cowboy= In the early 1970s, AMC was planning a compact coupé utility based on the Hornet to compete with the increasing sales of Japanese compact pickup models A prototype called the Cowboy was developed under the leadership of Jim Alexander. The prototype vehicle featured a modified AMC Gremlin front design and a cargo box with a Jeep logo on the tailgate. The standard I6 engine would be more powerful than the 4-cylinders found in the imported pickups. The only surviving prototype was built using a 1971 Hornet SC360 with the 360 V8 and 4-speed manual transmission. It was used by AMC on their proving grounds for several years before being sold to an employee, who later installed a 1973 Hornet updated front end. However, with the increasing sales of the Hornet models, and the 1970 acquisition of Jeep and no 4WD option ready for the Cowboy, AMC’s product planners shelved the Cowboy truck program. A 4WD system was developed and later used on the 1980 AMC Eagle, and the “uniframe” construction resurfaced for the 1985 Jeep Comanche pickup, based on the unit body XJ Cherokee = Hornet GT= In 1973, the Hornet GT toured auto shows as an asymmetrical styling exercise. The left side featured more glass area and a narrower “C” pillar for better visibility in comparison to the concept car’s different design on its right side. Using different designs on each side is common practice within automobile styling studios, especially when money was tight; however, showing such an example to the public was unusual and AMC was not afraid to measure consumer reaction to new ideas Other design elements and ideas presented on the Hornet GT show car included sealed glass to allowing hollow doors that could house easily accessible components while freeing up space in the dashboard area, as well as a stronger roof and support pillars for additional crash and rollover protection = Hornet by Dodge= A mini-sized front-wheel-drive, concept car called Hornet was designed and developed by Dodge in 2006 for possible production in 2008 as the brand was entering European markets and attract younger customers. As the price of fuel increased, Chrysler continued work to launch the Hornet in 2010 in Europe, the United States and other markets. This Hornet project may have been cancelled as part of Fiat’s partnership with Chrysler; but it was also rumored that the Hornet nameplate would instead be applied to a small Dodge sedan slated for introduction in 2012 based on the same “C-Evo” platform as the Alfa Romeo Giulietta In October 2011, Chrysler trademarked four names: Hornet, Dart, Duster, and Camber. One month later, the head of the Dodge brand, Reid Biglund, stated that Hornet will not be used for the new car The automaker “surprised industry pundits and insiders” with an announcement that the small sedan for 2013 will be called the Dodge Dart. For a long time, both company insiders and industry experts “had insisted that the compact Dodge would be called the Dodge Hornet, in homage not only to the well-received 2006 concept car that carried the name but also to an ancestry of vehicles stretching back 60 years to the original Hudson Hornet.” Notes References Conde, John A.. The American Motors Family Album. American Motors Corporation. OCLC 3185581 Foster, Patrick. AMC Cars: 1954–1987, An Illustrated History. Motorbooks

International. ISBN 978-1-58388-112-5 Foster, Patrick. The Last Independent Motorbooks International. ISBN 978-0-87341-240-7 Gunnell, John, ed.. The Standard Catalog of American Cars 1946–1975. Krause Publications. ISBN 978-0-87341-096-0 Hayden, John Harold; Haynes. 1970–1983 AMC Concord/Hornet Spirit/Gremlin owners workshop manual. Haynes Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-85696-694-1 Mitchell, Larry G.. Illustrated AMC Buyers Guide. Motorbooks International ISBN 978-0-87938-891-1 External links AMC Hornet information pages “Information about 1972 Hornets” Archived from the original on 28 July 2010. Retrieved 12 August 2012 AMC Rambler Club American Motors Owners Association AMC Hornet at the Internet Movie Cars Database VAM American at the Internet Movie Cars Database

Civil rights movement | Wikipedia audio article | Wikipedia audio article

The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) in the United States was a decades-long movement with the goal of enforcing constitutional and legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already enjoyed. With roots starting in the Reconstruction era during the late 19th century, the movement achieved its largest legislative gains in the mid-1960s, after years of direct actions and grassroots protests organized from the mid-1950s until 1968. Encompassing strategies, various groups, and organized social movements to accomplish the goals of ending legalized racial segregation, disenfranchisement, and discrimination in the United States, the movement, using major nonviolent campaigns, eventually secured new recognition in federal law and federal protection of all Americans After the American Civil War and the abolition of slavery in the 1860s, the Reconstruction Amendments to the United States Constitution granted emancipation and constitutional rights of citizenship to all African Americans, most of whom had recently been enslaved. For a period, African Americans voted and held political office, but they were increasingly deprived of civil rights, often under Jim Crow laws, and subjected to discrimination and sustained violence by whites in the South. Over the following century, various efforts were made by African Americans to secure their legal rights. Between 1955 and 1968, acts of nonviolent protest and civil disobedience produced crisis situations and productive dialogues between activists and government authorities. Federal, state, and local governments, businesses, and communities often had to respond immediately to these situations, which highlighted the inequities faced by African Americans across the country. The lynching of Chicago teenager Emmett Till in Mississippi, and the outrage generated by seeing how he had been abused, when his mother decided to have an open-casket funeral, mobilized the African-American community nationwide. Forms of protest and/or civil disobedience included boycotts, such as the successful Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955–56) in Alabama; “sit-ins” such as the influential Greensboro sit-ins (1960) in North Carolina and successful Nashville sit-ins in Tennessee; marches, such as the 1963 Birmingham Children’s Crusade and 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches (1965) in Alabama; and a wide range of other nonviolent activities Moderates in the movement worked with Congress to achieve the passage of several significant pieces of federal legislation that overturned discriminatory practices and authorized oversight and enforcement by the federal government The Civil Rights Act of 1964 expressly banned discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin in employment practices; ended unequal application of voter registration requirements; and prohibited racial segregation in schools, at the workplace, and in public accommodations. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 restored and protected voting rights for minorities by authorizing federal oversight of registration and elections in areas with historic under-representation of minorities as voters. The Fair Housing Act of 1968 banned discrimination in the sale or rental of housing. African Americans re-entered politics in the South, and across the country young people were inspired to take action From 1964 through 1970, a wave of inner-city riots in black communities undercut support from the white middle class, but increased support from private foundations. The emergence of the Black Power movement, which lasted from about 1965 to 1975, challenged the established black leadership for its cooperative attitude and its practice of nonviolence. Instead, its leaders demanded that, in addition to the new laws gained through the nonviolent movement, political and economic self-sufficiency had to be developed in the black community Many popular representations of the movement are centered on the charismatic leadership and philosophy of the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., who won the 1964 Nobel Peace Prize for his role in non-violent, moral leadership However, some scholars note that the movement was too diverse to be credited to any one person, organization, or strategy == Background == Before the American Civil War, almost four million blacks were enslaved in the South, only white men of property could vote, and the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U.S citizenship to whites only. But some free states of the North extended the franchise and other rights of citizenship to African Americans. Following the Civil War, three constitutional amendments were passed, including the 13th Amendment (1865) that ended slavery; the 14th Amendment (1868) that gave African-Americans citizenship, adding their total population

of four million to the official population of southern states for Congressional apportionment; and the 15th Amendment (1870) that gave African-American males the right to vote (only males could vote in the U.S. at the time). From 1865 to 1877, the United States underwent a turbulent Reconstruction Era trying to establish free labor and civil rights of freedmen in the South after the end of slavery. Many whites resisted the social changes, leading to insurgent movements such as the Ku Klux Klan, whose members attacked black and white Republicans to maintain white supremacy. In 1871, President Ulysses S. Grant, the U.S. Army, and U.S Attorney General Amos T. Akerman, initiated a campaign to repress the KKK under the Enforcement Acts. Some states were reluctant to enforce the federal measures of the act. In addition, by the early 1870s, other white supremacist and insurgent paramilitary groups arose that violently opposed African-American legal equality and suffrage, intimidating and suppressing black voters, and assassinating Republican officeholders. However, if the states failed to implement the acts, the laws allowed the Federal Government to get involved. Many Republican governors were afraid of sending black militia troops to fight the Klan for fear of war.After the disputed election of 1876 resulted in the end of Reconstruction and federal troops were withdrawn, whites in the South regained political control of the region’s state legislatures They continued to intimidate and violently attack blacks before and during elections to suppress their voting, but the last African Americans were elected to Congress from the South before disenfranchisement of blacks by states throughout the region, as described below From 1890 to 1908, southern states passed new constitutions and laws to disenfranchise African Americans and many poor whites by creating barriers to voter registration; voting rolls were dramatically reduced as blacks and poor whites were forced out of electoral politics. After the landmark Supreme Court case of Smith v. Allwright (1944), which prohibited white primaries, progress was made in increasing black political participation in the Rim South and Acadiana – although almost entirely in urban areas and a few rural localities where most blacks worked outside plantations The status quo ante of excluding African Americans from the political system lasted in the remainder of the South, especially North Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama, until national civil rights legislation was passed in the mid-1960s to provide federal enforcement of constitutional voting rights. For more than sixty years, blacks in the South were essentially excluded from politics, unable to elect anyone to represent their interests in Congress or local government Since they could not vote, they could not serve on local juries During this period, the white-dominated Democratic Party maintained political control of the South. With whites controlling all the seats representing the total population of the South, they had a powerful voting bloc in Congress The Republican Party—the “party of Lincoln” and the party to which most blacks had belonged—shrank to insignificance except in remote Unionist areas of Appalachia and the Ozarks as black voter registration was suppressed. Until 1965, the “Solid South” was a one-party system under the white Democrats. Excepting the previously noted historic Unionist strongholds the Democratic Party nomination was tantamount to election for state and local office. In 1901, President Theodore Roosevelt invited Booker T. Washington, president of the Tuskegee Institute, to dine at the White House, making him the first African American to attend an official dinner there “The invitation was roundly criticized by southern politicians and newspapers.” Washington persuaded the president to appoint more blacks to federal posts in the South and to try to boost African-American leadership in state Republican organizations. However, these actions were resisted by both white Democrats and white Republicans as an unwanted federal intrusion into state politics During the same time as African Americans were being disenfranchised, white southerners imposed racial segregation by law. Violence against blacks increased, with numerous lynchings through the turn of the century. The system of de jure state-sanctioned racial discrimination and oppression that emerged from the post-Reconstruction South became known as the “Jim Crow” system The United States Supreme Court, made up almost entirely of Northerners, upheld the constitutionality of those state laws that required racial segregation in public facilities in its 1896 decision Plessy v. Ferguson, legitimizing them through the “separate but equal” doctrine. Segregation, which began with slavery, continued with Jim Crow laws, with signs used to show blacks where they could legally walk, talk, drink, rest, or eat. For those places that were racially mixed, non-whites had to wait until all white customers were served first. Elected in 1912,

President Woodrow Wilson gave in to demands by Southern members of his cabinet and ordered segregation of workplaces throughout the federal government.The early 20th century is a period often referred to as the “nadir of American race relations”, when the number of lynchings was highest. While tensions and civil rights violations were most intense in the South, social discrimination affected African Americans in other regions as well. At the national level, the Southern bloc controlled important committees in Congress, defeated passage of federal laws against lynching, and exercised considerable power beyond the number of whites in the South Characteristics of the post-Reconstruction period: Racial segregation. By law, public facilities and government services such as education were divided into separate “white” and “colored” domains. Characteristically, those for colored were underfunded and of inferior quality Disenfranchisement. When white Democrats regained power, they passed laws that made voter registration more restrictive, essentially forcing black voters off the voting rolls. The number of African-American voters dropped dramatically, and they were no longer able to elect representatives From 1890 to 1908, Southern states of the former Confederacy created constitutions with provisions that disfranchised tens of thousands of African Americans, and U.S. states such as Alabama disenfranchised poor whites as well Exploitation. Increased economic oppression of blacks through the convict lease system, Latinos, and Asians, denial of economic opportunities, and widespread employment discrimination Violence. Individual, police, paramilitary, organizational, and mob racial violence against blacks (and Latinos in the Southwest and Asians in California) African Americans and other ethnic minorities rejected this regime. They resisted it in numerous ways and sought better opportunities through lawsuits, new organizations, political redress, and labor organizing (see the African-American civil rights movement (1896–1954)). The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was founded in 1909 It fought to end race discrimination through litigation, education, and lobbying efforts Its crowning achievement was its legal victory in the Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Education (1954) when the Court rejected separate white and colored school systems and, by implication, overturned the “separate but equal” doctrine established in Plessy v. Ferguson of 1896. Segregation had continued intact into the mid-1950s. Following the unanimous Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education (1954) that ruled that segregation of public schools was unconstitutional, many states began to gradually integrate their schools, but some areas of the South resisted by closing public schools altogether The integration of Southern public libraries followed demonstrations and protests that used techniques seen in other elements of the larger civil rights movement. This included sit-ins, beatings, and white resistance. For example, in 1963 in the city of Anniston, Alabama, two black ministers were brutally beaten for attempting to integrate the public library. Though there was resistance and violence, the integration of libraries was generally quicker than the integration of other public institutions The situation for blacks outside the South was somewhat better (in most states they could vote and have their children educated, though they still faced discrimination in housing and jobs). From 1910 to 1970, African Americans sought better lives by migrating north and west out of the South. A total of nearly seven million blacks left the South in what was known as the Great Migration, most during and after World War II. So many people migrated that the demographics of some previously black-majority states changed to white majority (in combination with other developments). The rapid influx of blacks altered the demographics of Northern cities; happening at a period of expanded immigration from Europe, it added to social competition and tensions, with the new migrants and immigrants battling for place in jobs and housing Reflecting social tensions after World War I, as veterans struggled to return to the workforce and labor unioins were organizing, the Red Summer of 1919 was marked by hundreds of deaths and higher casualties across the U.S. as a result of white race riots against blacks that took place in more than three dozen cities, such as the Chicago race riot of 1919 and the Omaha race riot of 1919. Stereotypic schemas of Southern blacks were used to attribute issues in urban areas, such as crime and disease, to the presence of African-Americans. Overall, African Americans in Northern cities experienced systemic discrimination in a plethora of aspects of life. Within employment, economic opportunities

for blacks were routed to the lowest-status and restrictive in potential mobility. Within the housing market, stronger discriminatory measures were used in correlation to the influx, resulting in a mix of “targeted violence, restrictive covenants, redlining and racial steering”. The Great Migration resulted in many African Americans becoming urbanized, and they began to realign from the Republican to the Democratic Party, especially because of opportunities under the New Deal of the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration during the Great Depression in the 1930s. Substantially under pressure from African-American supporters who began the March on Washington Movement, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued the first federal order banning discrimination and created the Fair Employment Practice Committee Black veterans of the military after both World Wars pressed for full civil rights and often led activist movements. In 1948, they gained integration in the military under President Harry Truman, who issued Executive Order 9981 to accomplish it Housing segregation was a nationwide problem, widespread outside the South. Although the federal government had become increasingly involved in mortgage lending and development in the 1930s and 1940s, it did not reject the use of race-restrictive covenants until 1950, in part because of provisions by the Solid South Democrats in Congress. Suburbanization became connected with white flight by this time, because whites were better established economically to move to newer housing. The situation was perpetuated by real estate agents’ continuing racial discrimination. In particular, from the 1930s to the 1960s, the National Association of Real Estate Boards (NAREB) issued guidelines that specified that a realtor “should never be instrumental in introducing to a neighborhood a character or property or occupancy, members of any race or nationality, or any individual whose presence will be clearly detrimental to property values in a neighborhood.” The result was the development of all-black ghettos in the North, where much housing was older, as well as South.Invigorated by the victory of Brown and frustrated by the lack of immediate practical effect, private citizens increasingly rejected gradualist, legalistic approaches as the primary tool to bring about desegregation. They were faced with “massive resistance” in the South by proponents of racial segregation and voter suppression In defiance, African-American activists adopted a combined strategy of direct action, nonviolence, nonviolent resistance, and many events described as civil disobedience, giving rise to the civil rights movement of 1954 to 1968 == The beginnings of direct action (1950s) == The strategy of public education, legislative lobbying, and litigation that had typified the civil rights movement during the first half of the 20th century broadened after Brown to a strategy that emphasized “direct action”: boycotts, sit-ins, Freedom Rides, marches or walks, and similar tactics that relied on mass mobilization, nonviolent resistance, standing in line, and, at times, civil disobedience.Churches, local grassroots organizations, fraternal societies, and black-owned businesses mobilized volunteers to participate in broad-based actions This was a more direct and potentially more rapid means of creating change than the traditional approach of mounting court challenges used by the NAACP and others In 1952, the Regional Council of Negro Leadership (RCNL), led by T. R. M. Howard, a black surgeon, entrepreneur, and planter, organized a successful boycott of gas stations in Mississippi that refused to provide restrooms for blacks. Through the RCNL, Howard led campaigns to expose brutality by the Mississippi state highway patrol and to encourage blacks to make deposits in the black-owned Tri-State Bank of Nashville which, in turn, gave loans to civil rights activists who were victims of a “credit squeeze” by the White Citizens’ Councils.After Claudette Colvin was arrested for not giving up her seat on a Montgomery, Alabama bus in March 1955, a bus boycott was considered and rejected But when Rosa Parks was arrested in December, Jo Ann Gibson Robinson of the Montgomery Women’s Political Council put the bus boycott protest in motion. Late that night, she, John Cannon (chairman of the Business Department at Alabama State University) and others mimeographed and distributed thousands of leaflets calling for a boycott. The eventual success of the boycott made its spokesman Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. a nationally known figure. It also inspired other bus boycotts, such as the successful Tallahassee, Florida boycott of 1956–57.In 1957, Dr. King and Rev. Ralph Abernathy, the leaders of the Montgomery Improvement Association, joined with other church leaders who had led similar boycott efforts, such as Rev. C. K Steele of Tallahassee and Rev. T. J. Jemison

of Baton Rouge, and other activists such as Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth, Ella Baker, A. Philip Randolph, Bayard Rustin and Stanley Levison, to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). The SCLC, with its headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia, did not attempt to create a network of chapters as the NAACP did. It offered training and leadership assistance for local efforts to fight segregation. The headquarters organization raised funds, mostly from Northern sources, to support such campaigns It made nonviolence both its central tenet and its primary method of confronting racism In 1959, Septima Clarke, Bernice Robinson, and Esau Jenkins, with the help of Myles Horton’s Highlander Folk School in Tennessee, began the first Citizenship Schools in South Carolina’s Sea Islands. They taught literacy to enable blacks to pass voting tests. The program was an enormous success and tripled the number of black voters on Johns Island. SCLC took over the program and duplicated its results elsewhere == History == === Brown v. Board of Education, 1954 === In the spring of 1951, black students in Virginia protested their unequal status in the state’s segregated educational system. Students at Moton High School protested the overcrowded conditions and failing facility. Some local leaders of the NAACP had tried to persuade the students to back down from their protest against the Jim Crow laws of school segregation When the students did not budge, the NAACP joined their battle against school segregation The NAACP proceeded with five cases challenging the school systems; these were later combined under what is known today as Brown v. Board of Education.On May 17, 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled unanimously in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, that mandating, or even permitting, public schools to be segregated by race was unconstitutional. The Court stated that the segregation of white and colored children in public schools has a detrimental effect upon the colored children. The impact is greater when it has the sanction of the law; for the policy of separating the races is usually interpreted as denoting the inferiority of the Negro group The lawyers from the NAACP had to gather plausible evidence in order to win the case of Brown vs. Board of Education. Their method of addressing the issue of school segregation was to enumerate several arguments. One pertained to having exposure to interracial contact in a school environment. It was argued that interracial contact would, in turn, help prepare children to live with the pressures that society exerts in regards to race and thereby afford them a better chance of living in a democracy In addition, another argument emphasized how “‘education’ comprehends the entire process of developing and training the mental, physical and moral powers and capabilities of human beings”.Risa Goluboff wrote that the NAACP’s intention was to show the Courts that African American children were the victims of school segregation and their futures were at risk The Court ruled that both Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), which had established the “separate but equal” standard in general, and Cumming v. Richmond County Board of Education (1899), which had applied that standard to schools, were unconstitutional The federal government filed a friend of the court brief in the case urging the justices to consider the effect that segregation had on America’s image in the Cold War. Secretary of State Dean Acheson was quoted in the brief stating that “The United States is under constant attack in the foreign press, over the foreign radio, and in such international bodies as the United Nations because of various practices of discrimination in this country.” The following year, in the case known as Brown II, the Court ordered segregation to be phased out over time, “with all deliberate speed” Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954) did not overturn Plessy v. Ferguson (1896). Plessy v. Ferguson was segregation in transportation modes. Brown v. Board of Education dealt with segregation in education Brown v. Board of Education did set in motion the future overturning of ‘separate but equal’ On May 18, 1954, Greensboro, North Carolina, became the first city in the South to publicly announce that it would abide by the Supreme Court’s Brown v. Board of Education ruling “It is unthinkable,’ remarked School Board Superintendent Benjamin Smith, ‘that we will try to [override] the laws of the United States.” This positive reception for Brown, together

with the appointment of African American Dr David Jones to the school board in 1953, convinced numerous white and black citizens that Greensboro was heading in a progressive direction. Integration in Greensboro occurred rather peacefully compared to the process in Southern states such as Alabama, Arkansas, and Virginia where “massive resistance” was practiced by top officials and throughout the states. In Virginia, some counties closed their public schools rather than integrate, and many white Christian private schools were founded to accommodate students who used to go to public schools. Even in Greensboro, much local resistance to desegregation continued, and in 1969, the federal government found the city was not in compliance with the 1964 Civil Rights Act. Transition to a fully integrated school system did not begin until 1971.Many Northern cities also had de facto segregation policies, which resulted in a vast gulf in educational resources between black and white communities. In Harlem, New York, for example, neither a single new school was built since the turn of the century, nor did a single nursery school exist – even as the Second Great Migration was causing overcrowding. Existing schools tended to be dilapidated and staffed with inexperienced teachers. Brown helped stimulate activism among New York City parents like Mae Mallory who, with the support of the NAACP, initiated a successful lawsuit against the city and state on Brown’s principles. Mallory and thousands of other parents bolstered the pressure of the lawsuit with a school boycott in 1959 During the boycott, some of the first freedom schools of the period were established. The city responded to the campaign by permitting more open transfers to high-quality, historically-white schools. (New York’s African-American community, and Northern desegregation activists generally, now found themselves contending with the problem of white flight, however.) === Emmett Till’s murder, 1955 === Emmett Till, a 14-year old African American from Chicago, visited his relatives in Money, Mississippi, for the summer. He allegedly had an interaction with a white woman, Carolyn Bryant, in a small grocery store that violated the norms of Mississippi culture, and Bryant’s husband Roy and his half-brother J. W. Milam brutally murdered young Emmett Till. They beat and mutilated him before shooting him in the head and sinking his body in the Tallahatchie River. Three days later, Till’s body was discovered and retrieved from the river. Mamie Till, Emmett’s Mother, “brought him home to Chicago and insisted on an open casket. Tens of thousands filed past Till’s remains, but it was the publication of the searing funeral image in Jet, with a stoic Mamie gazing at her murdered child’s ravaged body, that forced the world to reckon with the brutality of American racism.” Vann R. Newkirk wrote: “The trial of his killers became a pageant illuminating the tyranny of white supremacy”. The state of Mississippi tried two defendants, but they were speedily acquitted by an all-white jury.”Emmett’s murder,” historian Tim Tyson writes, “would never have become a watershed historical moment without Mamie finding the strength to make her private grief a public matter.” The visceral response to his mother’s decision to have an open-casket funeral mobilized the black community throughout the U.S. “Young black people such as Julian Bond, Joyce Ladner and others who were born around the same time as Till were galvanized into action by the murder and trial.” They often see themselves as the “Emmett Till Generation.” One hundred days after Emmett Till’s murder, Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on the bus in Alabama—indeed, Parks told Mamie Till that “the photograph of Emmett’s disfigured face in the casket was set in her mind when she refused to give up her seat on the Montgomery bus.” The glass topped casket that was used for Till’s Chicago funeral was found in a cemetery garage in 2009. Till had been reburied in a different casket after being exhumed in 2005. Till’s family decided to donate the original casket to the Smithsonian’s National Museum of African American Culture and History, where it is now on display. Decades after his murder in 2017, Bryant disclosed that she had fabricated her story in 1955 === Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955–1956 === On December 1, 1955, nine months after a 15-year-old high school student, Claudette Colvin, refused to give up her seat to a white passenger on a public bus in Montgomery, Alabama, and was arrested, Rosa Parks did the same thing. Parks soon became the symbol of the resulting Montgomery Bus Boycott and received national publicity She was later hailed as the “mother of the

civil rights movement” Parks was secretary of the Montgomery NAACP chapter and had recently returned from a meeting at the Highlander Folk School in Tennessee where nonviolence as a strategy was taught by Myles Horton and others. After Parks’ arrest, African Americans gathered and organized the Montgomery Bus Boycott to demand a bus system in which passengers would be treated equally The organization was led by Jo Ann Robinson, a member of the Women’s Political Council who had been waiting for the opportunity to boycott the bus system. Following Rosa Park’s arrest, Jo Ann Robinson mimeographed 52,500 leaflets calling for a boycott. They were distributed around the city and helped gather the attention of civil rights leaders. After the city rejected many of their suggested reforms, the NAACP, led by E. D. Nixon, pushed for full desegregation of public buses. With the support of most of Montgomery’s 50,000 African Americans, the boycott lasted for 381 days, until the local ordinance segregating African Americans and whites on public buses was repealed. Ninety percent of African Americans in Montgomery partook in the boycotts, which reduced bus revenue significantly, as they comprised the majority of the riders. In November 1956, the United State Supreme Court upheld a district court ruling in the case of Browder v. Gayle and ordered Montgomery’s buses desegregated, ending the boycott.Local leaders established the Montgomery Improvement Association to focus their efforts. Martin Luther King Jr was elected President of this organization The lengthy protest attracted national attention for him and the city. His eloquent appeals to Christian brotherhood and American idealism created a positive impression on people both inside and outside the South === Desegregating Little Rock Central High School, 1957 === A crisis erupted in Little Rock, Arkansas, when Governor of Arkansas Orval Faubus called out the National Guard on September 4 to prevent entry to the nine African-American students who had sued for the right to attend an integrated school, Little Rock Central High School. Under the guidance of Daisy Bates, the nine students had been chosen to attend Central High because of their excellent grades On the first day of school, 15-year-old Elizabeth Eckford was the only one of the nine students who showed up because she did not receive the phone call about the danger of going to school. A photo was taken of Eckford being harassed by white protesters outside the school, and the police had to take her away in a patrol car for her protection. Afterwards, the nine students had to carpool to school and be escorted by military personnel in jeeps Faubus was not a proclaimed segregationist The Arkansas Democratic Party, which then controlled politics in the state, put significant pressure on Faubus after he had indicated he would investigate bringing Arkansas into compliance with the Brown decision. Faubus then took his stand against integration and against the Federal court ruling. Faubus’ resistance received the attention of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, who was determined to enforce the orders of the Federal courts Critics had charged he was lukewarm, at best, on the goal of desegregation of public schools But, Eisenhower federalized the National Guard in Arkansas and ordered them to return to their barracks. Eisenhower deployed elements of the 101st Airborne Division to Little Rock to protect the students The students attended high school under harsh conditions. They had to pass through a gauntlet of spitting, jeering whites to arrive at school on their first day, and to put up with harassment from other students for the rest of the year Although federal troops escorted the students between classes, the students were teased and even attacked by white students when the soldiers were not around. One of the Little Rock Nine, Minnijean Brown, was suspended for spilling a bowl of chilli on the head of a white student who was harassing her in the school lunch line. Later, she was expelled for verbally abusing a white female student.Only Ernest Green of the Little Rock Nine graduated from Central High School. After the 1957–58 school year was over, Little Rock closed its public school system completely rather than continue to integrate. Other school systems across the South followed suit === The method of Nonviolence and Nonviolence Training === During the time period considered to be the “African-American civil rights” era, the predominant use of protest was nonviolent, or peaceful Often referred to as pacifism, the method of nonviolence is considered to be an attempt to impact society positively. Although acts of racial discrimination have occurred historically throughout the United States, perhaps the most violent regions have been in the former Confederate states. During the 1950s and 1960s,

the nonviolent protesting of the civil rights movement caused definite tension, which gained national attention In order to prepare for protests physically and psychologically, demonstrators received training in nonviolence. According to former civil rights activist Bruce Hartford, there are two main branches of nonviolence training There is the philosophical method, which involves understanding the method of nonviolence and why it is considered useful, and there is the tactical method, which ultimately teaches demonstrators “how to be a protestor—how to sit-in, how to picket, how to defend yourself against attack, giving training on how to remain cool when people are screaming racist insults into your face and pouring stuff on you and hitting you” (Civil Rights Movement Veterans). The philosophical method of nonviolence, in the American civil rights movement, was largely inspired by Mahatma Gandhi’s “non-cooperation” with the British colonists in India, which was intended to gain attention so that the public would either “intervene in advance,” or “provide public pressure in support of the action to be taken” (Erikson, 415). As Hartford explains it, philosophical nonviolence training aims to “shape the individual person’s attitude and mental response to crises and violence” (Civil Rights Movement Veterans) Hartford and activists like him, who trained in tactical nonviolence, considered it necessary in order to ensure physical safety, instill discipline, teach demonstrators how to demonstrate, and form mutual confidence among demonstrators (Civil Rights Movement Veterans).For many, the concept of nonviolent protest was a way of life, a culture. However, not everyone agreed with this notion. James Forman, former SNCC (and later Black Panther) member and nonviolence trainer, was among those who did not. In his autobiography, The Making of Black Revolutionaries, Forman revealed his perspective on the method of nonviolence as “strictly a tactic, not a way of life without limitations.” Similarly, Robert Moses, who was also an active member of SNCC, felt that the method of nonviolence was practical. When interviewed by author Robert Penn Warren, Moses said “There’s no question that he [Martin Luther King Jr.] had a great deal of influence with the masses But I don’t think it’s in the direction of love. It’s in a practical direction . . .” (Who Speaks for the Negro? Warren) === Robert F. Williams and the debate on nonviolence, 1959–1964 === The Jim Crow system employed “terror as a means of social control,” with the most organized manifestations being the Ku Klux Klan and their collaborators in local police departments This violence played a key role in blocking the progress of the civil rights movement in the late 1950s. Some black organizations in the South began practicing armed self-defense The first to do so openly was the Monroe, North Carolina, chapter of the NAACP led by Robert F. Williams. Williams had rebuilt the chapter after its membership was terrorized out of public life by the Klan. He did so by encouraging a new, more working-class membership to arm itself thoroughly and defend against attack. When Klan nightriders attacked the home of NAACP member Dr. Albert Perry in October 1957, Williams’ militia exchanged gunfire with the stunned Klansmen, who quickly retreated The following day, the city council held an emergency session and passed an ordinance banning KKK motorcades. One year later, Lumbee Indians in North Carolina would have a similarly successful armed stand-off with the Klan (known as the Battle of Hayes Pond) which resulted in KKK leader James W. “Catfish” Cole being convicted of incitement to riot.After the acquittal of several white men charged with sexually assaulting black women in Monroe, Williams announced to United Press International reporters that he would “meet violence with violence” as a policy. Williams’ declaration was quoted on the front page of The New York Times, and The Carolina Times considered it “the biggest civil rights story of 1959.” NAACP National chairman Roy Wilkins immediately suspended Williams from his position, but the Monroe organizer won support from numerous NAACP chapters across the country. Ultimately, Wilkins resorted to bribing influential organizer Daisy Bates to campaign against Williams at the NAACP national convention and the suspension was upheld. The convention nonetheless passed a resolution which stated: “We do not deny, but reaffirm the right of individual and collective self-defense against unlawful assaults.” Martin Luther King Jr. argued for Williams’ removal, but Ella Baker and WEB Dubois both publicly praised the Monroe leader’s position Williams—along with his wife, Mabel Williams—continued to play a leadership role in the Monroe movement, and to some degree, in the national movement

The Williamses published The Crusader, a nationally circulated newsletter, beginning in 1960, and the influential book Negroes With Guns in 1962. Williams did not call for full militarization in this period, but “flexibility in the freedom struggle.” Williams was well-versed in legal tactics and publicity, which he had used successfully in the internationally known “Kissing Case” of 1958, as well as nonviolent methods, which he used at lunch counter sit-ins in Monroe—all with armed self-defense as a complementary tactic Williams led the Monroe movement in another armed stand-off with white supremacists during an August 1961 Freedom Ride; he had been invited to participate in the campaign by Ella Baker and James Forman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). The incident (along with his campaigns for peace with Cuba) resulted in him being targeted by the FBI and prosecuted for kidnapping; he was cleared of all charges in 1976. Meanwhile, armed self-defense continued discreetly in the Southern movement with such figures as SNCC’s Amzie Moore, Hartman Turnbow, and Fannie Lou Hamer all willing to use arms to defend their lives from nightrides Taking refuge from the FBI in Cuba, the Willamses broadcast the radio show “Radio Free Dixie” throughout the eastern United States via Radio Progresso beginning in 1962. In this period, Williams advocated guerilla warfare against racist institutions, and saw the large ghetto riots of the era as a manifestation of his strategy University of North Carolina historian Walter Rucker has written that “the emergence of Robert F Williams contributed to the marked decline in anti-black racial violence in the U.S….After centuries of anti-black violence, African Americans across the country began to defend their communities aggressively—employing overt force when necessary. This in turn evoked in whites real fear of black vengeance…” This opened up space for African Americans to use nonviolent demonstration with less fear of deadly reprisal. Of the many civil rights activists who share this view, the most prominent was Rosa Parks. Parks gave the eulogy at Williams’ funeral in 1996, praising him for “his courage and for his commitment to freedom,” and concluding that “The sacrifices he made, and what he did, should go down in history and never be forgotten.” === Sit-ins, 1958–1960 === In July 1958, the NAACP Youth Council sponsored sit-ins at the lunch counter of a Dockum Drug Store in downtown Wichita, Kansas. After three weeks, the movement successfully got the store to change its policy of segregated seating, and soon afterwards all Dockum stores in Kansas were desegregated. This movement was quickly followed in the same year by a student sit-in at a Katz Drug Store in Oklahoma City led by Clara Luper, which also was successful.Mostly black students from area colleges led a sit-in at a Woolworth’s store in Greensboro, North Carolina. On February 1, 1960, four students, Ezell A. Blair Jr., David Richmond, Joseph McNeil, and Franklin McCain from North Carolina Agricultural & Technical College, an all-black college, sat down at the segregated lunch counter to protest Woolworth’s policy of excluding African Americans from being served food there The four students purchased small items in other parts of the store and kept their receipts, then sat down at the lunch counter and asked to be served. After being denied service, they produced their receipts and asked why their money was good everywhere else at the store, but not at the lunch counter.The protesters had been encouraged to dress professionally, to sit quietly, and to occupy every other stool so that potential white sympathizers could join in. The Greensboro sit-in was quickly followed by other sit-ins in Richmond, Virginia; Nashville, Tennessee; and Atlanta, Georgia The most immediately effective of these was in Nashville, where hundreds of well organized and highly disciplined college students conducted sit-ins in coordination with a boycott campaign As students across the south began to “sit-in” at the lunch counters of local stores, police and other officials sometimes used brutal force to physically escort the demonstrators from the lunch facilities The “sit-in” technique was not new—as far back as 1939, African-American attorney Samuel Wilbert Tucker organized a sit-in at the then-segregated Alexandria, Virginia, library. In 1960 the technique succeeded in bringing national attention to the movement On March 9, 1960, an Atlanta University Center group of students released An Appeal for Human Rights as a full page advertisement in newspapers, including the Atlanta Constitution, Atlanta Journal, and Atlanta Daily World. Known as the Committee on Appeal for Human Rights (COAHR), the group initiated the Atlanta Student Movement and began to lead sit-ins starting on March 15, 1960. By the end of 1960, the process of sit-ins had spread to every southern and border state, and even to facilities in Nevada, Illinois, and Ohio that discriminated against blacks

Demonstrators focused not only on lunch counters but also on parks, beaches, libraries, theaters, museums, and other public facilities. In April 1960 activists who had led these sit-ins were invited by SCLC activist Ella Baker to hold a conference at Shaw University, a historically black university in Raleigh, North Carolina This conference led to the formation of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). SNCC took these tactics of nonviolent confrontation further, and organized the freedom rides. As the constitution protected interstate commerce, they decided to challenge segregation on interstate buses and in public bus facilities by putting interracial teams on them, to travel from the North through the segregated South === Freedom Rides, 1961 === Freedom Rides were journeys by civil rights activists on interstate buses into the segregated southern United States to test the United States Supreme Court decision Boynton v. Virginia, 364 U.S. 454 (1960), which ruled that segregation was unconstitutional for passengers engaged in interstate travel. Organized by CORE, the first Freedom Ride of the 1960s left Washington D.C. on May 4, 1961, and was scheduled to arrive in New Orleans on May 17.During the first and subsequent Freedom Rides, activists travelled through the Deep South to integrate seating patterns on buses and desegregate bus terminals, including restrooms and water fountains. That proved to be a dangerous mission In Anniston, Alabama, one bus was firebombed, forcing its passengers to flee for their lives In Birmingham, Alabama, an FBI informant reported that Public Safety Commissioner Eugene “Bull” Connor gave Ku Klux Klan members fifteen minutes to attack an incoming group of freedom riders before having police “protect” them. The riders were severely beaten “until it looked like a bulldog had got a hold of them.” James Peck, a white activist, was beaten so badly that he required fifty stitches to his head.In a similar occurrence in Montgomery, Alabama, the Freedom Riders followed in the footsteps of Rosa Parks and rode an integrated Greyhound bus from Birmingham. Although they were protesting interstate bus segregation in peace, they were met with violence in Montgomery as a large, white mob attacked them for their activism They caused an enormous, 2-hour long riot which resulted in 22 injuries, five of whom were hospitalized.Mob violence in Anniston and Birmingham temporarily halted the rides SNCC activists from Nashville brought in new riders to continue the journey from Birmingham to New Orleans. In Montgomery, Alabama, at the Greyhound Bus Station, a mob charged another bus load of riders, knocking John Lewis unconscious with a crate and smashing Life photographer Don Urbrock in the face with his own camera A dozen men surrounded James Zwerg, a white student from Fisk University, and beat him in the face with a suitcase, knocking out his teeth.On May 24, 1961, the freedom riders continued their rides into Jackson, Mississippi, where they were arrested for “breaching the peace” by using “white only” facilities. New Freedom Rides were organized by many different organizations and continued to flow into the South. As riders arrived in Jackson, they were arrested. By the end of summer, more than 300 had been jailed in Mississippi When the weary Riders arrive in Jackson and attempt to use “white only” restrooms and lunch counters they are immediately arrested for Breach of Peace and Refusal to Obey an Officer. Says Mississippi Governor Ross Barnett in defense of segregation: “The Negro is different because God made him different to punish him.” From lockup, the Riders announce “Jail No Bail”—they will not pay fines for unconstitutional arrests and illegal convictions—and by staying in jail they keep the issue alive. Each prisoner will remain in jail for 39 days, the maximum time they can serve without loosing [sic] their right to appeal the unconstitutionality of their arrests, trials, and convictions After 39 days, they file an appeal and post bond The jailed freedom riders were treated harshly, crammed into tiny, filthy cells and sporadically beaten. In Jackson, some male prisoners were forced to do hard labor in 100 °F heat. Others were transferred to the Mississippi State Penitentiary at Parchman, where they were treated to harsh conditions. Sometimes the men were suspended by “wrist breakers” from the walls. Typically, the windows of their cells were shut tight on hot days, making it hard for them to breathe Public sympathy and support for the freedom riders led John F. Kennedy’s administration to order the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to issue a new desegregation order When the new ICC rule took effect on November

1, 1961, passengers were permitted to sit wherever they chose on the bus; “white” and “colored” signs came down in the terminals; separate drinking fountains, toilets, and waiting rooms were consolidated; and lunch counters began serving people regardless of skin color The student movement involved such celebrated figures as John Lewis, a single-minded activist; James Lawson, the revered “guru” of nonviolent theory and tactics; Diane Nash, an articulate and intrepid public champion of justice; Bob Moses, pioneer of voting registration in Mississippi; and James Bevel, a fiery preacher and charismatic organizer, strategist, and facilitator. Other prominent student activists included Charles McDew, Bernard Lafayette, Charles Jones, Lonnie King, Julian Bond, Hosea Williams, and Stokely Carmichael === Voter registration organizing === After the Freedom Rides, local black leaders in Mississippi such as Amzie Moore, Aaron Henry, Medgar Evers, and others asked SNCC to help register black voters and to build community organizations that could win a share of political power in the state. Since Mississippi ratified its new constitution in 1890 with provisions such as poll taxes, residency requirements, and literacy tests, it made registration more complicated and stripped blacks from voter rolls and voting. In addition, violence at the time of elections had earlier suppressed black voting By the mid-20th century, preventing blacks from voting had become an essential part of the culture of white supremacy. In June and July of 1959, members of the black community in Fayette County, TN formed the Fayette County Civic and Welfare League to spur voting. At the time, there were 16,927 blacks in the county, yet only 17 of them had voted in the previous seven years. Within a year, some 1,400 blacks had registered, and the white community responded with harsh economic reprisals Using registration rolls, the White Citizens Council circulated a blacklist of all registered black voters, allowing banks, local stores and gas stations to conspire to deny registered black voters basic services. What’s more, sharecropping blacks who registered to vote were summarily evicted from their homes. All in all, the number of evictions came to 257 families, many of whom were forced to live in a makeshift Tent City for well over a year Finally, in December 1960, the Justice Department invoked its powers authorized by the Civil Rights Act of 1957 to file a suit against seventy parties accused of violating the civil rights of black Fayette County citizens. In the following year the first voter registration project in McComb and the surrounding counties in the Southwest corner of the state. Their efforts were met with violent repression from state and local lawmen, the White Citizens’ Council, and the Ku Klux Klan. Activists were beaten, there were hundreds of arrests of local citizens, and the voting activist Herbert Lee was murdered.White opposition to black voter registration was so intense in Mississippi that Freedom Movement activists concluded that all of the state’s civil rights organizations had to unite in a coordinated effort to have any chance of success. In February 1962, representatives of SNCC, CORE, and the NAACP formed the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO). At a subsequent meeting in August, SCLC became part of COFO.In the Spring of 1962, with funds from the Voter Education Project, SNCC/COFO began voter registration organizing in the Mississippi Delta area around Greenwood, and the areas surrounding Hattiesburg, Laurel, and Holly Springs. As in McComb, their efforts were met with fierce opposition—arrests, beatings, shootings, arson, and murder. Registrars used the literacy test to keep blacks off the voting roles by creating standards that even highly educated people could not meet In addition, employers fired blacks who tried to register, and landlords evicted them from their rental homes. Despite these actions, over the following years, the black voter registration campaign spread across the state Similar voter registration campaigns—with similar responses—were begun by SNCC, CORE, and SCLC in Louisiana, Alabama, southwest Georgia, and South Carolina. By 1963, voter registration campaigns in the South were as integral to the Freedom Movement as desegregation efforts. After the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, protecting and facilitating voter registration despite state barriers became the main effort of the movement. It resulted in passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which had provisions to enforce the constitutional right to vote for all citizens === Integration of Mississippi universities, 1956–1965 ===

Beginning in 1956, Clyde Kennard, a black Korean War-veteran, wanted to enroll at Mississippi Southern College (now the University of Southern Mississippi) under the G.I. Bill at Hattiesburg Dr. William David McCain, the college president, used the Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission, in order to prevent his enrollment by appealing to local black leaders and the segregationist state political establishment.The state-funded organization tried to counter the civil rights movement by positively portraying segregationist policies. More significantly, it collected data on activists, harassed them legally, and used economic boycotts against them by threatening their jobs (or causing them to lose their jobs) to try to suppress their work Kennard was twice arrested on trumped-up charges, and eventually convicted and sentenced to seven years in the state prison. After three years at hard labor, Kennard was paroled by Mississippi Governor Ross Barnett. Journalists had investigated his case and publicized the state’s mistreatment of his colon cancer.McCain’s role in Kennard’s arrests and convictions is unknown. While trying to prevent Kennard’s enrollment, McCain made a speech in Chicago, with his travel sponsored by the Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission. He described the blacks’ seeking to desegregate Southern schools as “imports” from the North. (Kennard was a native and resident of Hattiesburg.) McCain said: We insist that educationally and socially, we maintain a segregated society…In all fairness, I admit that we are not encouraging Negro voting…The Negroes prefer that control of the government remain in the white man’s hands Note: Mississippi had passed a new constitution in 1890 that effectively disfranchised most blacks by changing electoral and voter registration requirements; although it deprived them of constitutional rights authorized under post-Civil War amendments, it survived U.S. Supreme Court challenges at the time. It was not until after passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act that most blacks in Mississippi and other southern states gained federal protection to enforce the constitutional right of citizens to vote In September 1962, James Meredith won a lawsuit to secure admission to the previously segregated University of Mississippi. He attempted to enter campus on September 20, on September 25, and again on September 26. He was blocked by Mississippi Governor Ross Barnett, who said, “[N]o school will be integrated in Mississippi while I am your Governor.” The Fifth U.S Circuit Court of Appeals held Barnett and Lieutenant Governor Paul B. Johnson Jr. in contempt, ordering them arrested and fined more than $10,000 for each day they refused to allow Meredith to enroll Attorney General Robert Kennedy sent in a force of U.S. Marshals. On September 30, 1962, Meredith entered the campus under their escort Students and other whites began rioting that evening, throwing rocks and firing on the U.S. Marshals guarding Meredith at Lyceum Hall. Two people, including a French journalist, were killed; 28 marshals suffered gunshot wounds, and 160 others were injured. President John F. Kennedy sent regular U.S. Army forces to the campus to quell the riot. Meredith began classes the day after the troops arrived.Kennard and other activists continued to work on public university desegregation. In 1965 Raylawni Branch and Gwendolyn Elaine Armstrong became the first African-American students to attend the University of Southern Mississippi. By that time, McCain helped ensure they had a peaceful entry. In 2006, Judge Robert Helfrich ruled that Kennard was factually innocent of all charges for which he had been convicted in the 1950s === Albany Movement, 1961–62 === The SCLC, which had been criticized by some student activists for its failure to participate more fully in the freedom rides, committed much of its prestige and resources to a desegregation campaign in Albany, Georgia, in November 1961 King, who had been criticized personally by some SNCC activists for his distance from the dangers that local organizers faced—and given the derisive nickname “De Lawd” as a result—intervened personally to assist the campaign led by both SNCC organizers and local leaders The campaign was a failure because of the canny tactics of Laurie Pritchett, the local police chief, and divisions within the black community. The goals may not have been specific enough. Pritchett contained the marchers without violent attacks on demonstrators that inflamed national opinion. He also arranged for arrested demonstrators to be taken to jails in surrounding communities, allowing plenty of room to remain in his jail. Prichett also foresaw King’s presence as a danger and forced his release to avoid King’s rallying the black community

King left in 1962 without having achieved any dramatic victories. The local movement, however, continued the struggle, and it obtained significant gains in the next few years === Birmingham campaign, 1963 === The Albany movement was shown to be an important education for the SCLC, however, when it undertook the Birmingham campaign in 1963. Executive Director Wyatt Tee Walker carefully planned the early strategy and tactics for the campaign It focused on one goal—the desegregation of Birmingham’s downtown merchants, rather than total desegregation, as in Albany The movement’s efforts were helped by the brutal response of local authorities, in particular Eugene “Bull” Connor, the Commissioner of Public Safety. He had long held much political power but had lost a recent election for mayor to a less rabidly segregationist candidate Refusing to accept the new mayor’s authority, Connor intended to stay in office The campaign used a variety of nonviolent methods of confrontation, including sit-ins, kneel-ins at local churches, and a march to the county building to mark the beginning of a drive to register voters. The city, however, obtained an injunction barring all such protests Convinced that the order was unconstitutional, the campaign defied it and prepared for mass arrests of its supporters. King elected to be among those arrested on April 12, 1963.While in jail, King wrote his famous “Letter from Birmingham Jail” on the margins of a newspaper, since he had not been allowed any writing paper while held in solitary confinement Supporters appealed to the Kennedy administration, which intervened to obtain King’s release King was allowed to call his wife, who was recuperating at home after the birth of their fourth child and was released early on April 19 The campaign, however, faltered as it ran out of demonstrators willing to risk arrest James Bevel, SCLC’s Director of Direct Action and Director of Nonviolent Education, then came up with a bold and controversial alternative: to train high school students to take part in the demonstrations. As a result, in what would be called the Children’s Crusade, more than one thousand students skipped school on May 2 to meet at the 16th Street Baptist Church to join the demonstrations. More than six hundred marched out of the church fifty at a time in an attempt to walk to City Hall to speak to Birmingham’s mayor about segregation They were arrested and put into jail.In this first encounter, the police acted with restraint On the next day, however, another one thousand students gathered at the church. When Bevel started them marching fifty at a time, Bull Connor finally unleashed police dogs on them and then turned the city’s fire hoses water streams on the children. National television networks broadcast the scenes of the dogs attacking demonstrators and the water from the fire hoses knocking down the schoolchildren Widespread public outrage led the Kennedy administration to intervene more forcefully in negotiations between the white business community and the SCLC. On May 10, the parties announced an agreement to desegregate the lunch counters and other public accommodations downtown, to create a committee to eliminate discriminatory hiring practices, to arrange for the release of jailed protesters, and to establish regular means of communication between black and white leaders Not everyone in the black community approved of the agreement—the Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth was particularly critical, since he was sceptical about the good faith of Birmingham’s power structure from his experience in dealing with them. Parts of the white community reacted violently. They bombed the Gaston Motel, which housed the SCLC’s unofficial headquarters, and the home of King’s brother, the Reverend A. D. King. In response, thousands of blacks rioted, burning numerous buildings and one of them stabbed and wounded a police officer Kennedy prepared to federalize the Alabama National Guard if the need arose. Four months later, on September 15, a conspiracy of Ku Klux Klan members bombed the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, killing four young girls === “Rising tide of discontent” and Kennedy’s response, 1963 === Birmingham was only one of over a hundred cities rocked by the chaotic protest that spring and summer, some of them in the North During the March on Washington, Martin Luther King would refer to such protests as “the whirlwinds of revolt.” In Chicago, blacks rioted through the South Side in late May after a white police officer shot a fourteen-year-old black boy who was fleeing the scene of a robbery Violent clashes between black activists and white workers took place in both Philadelphia and Harlem in successful efforts to integrate state construction projects. On June 6, over a thousand whites attacked a sit-in in Lexington,

North Carolina; blacks fought back and one white man was killed. Edwin C. Berry of the National Urban League warned of a complete breakdown in race relations: “My message from the beer gardens and the barbershops all indicate the fact that the Negro is ready for war.”In Cambridge, Maryland, a working‐class city on the Eastern Shore, Gloria Richardson of SNCC led a movement that pressed for desegregation but also demanded low‐rent public housing, job‐training, public and private jobs, and an end to police brutality. On June 11, struggles between blacks and whites escalated into violent rioting, leading Maryland Governor J. Millard Tawes to declare martial law. When negotiations between Richardson and Maryland officials faltered, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy directly intervened to negotiate a desegregation agreement. Richardson felt that the increasing participation of poor and working-class blacks was expanding both the power and parameters of the movement, asserting that “the people as a whole really do have more intelligence than a few of their leaders.ʺIn their deliberations during this wave of protests, the Kennedy administration privately felt that militant demonstrations were ʺbad for the countryʺ and that “Negroes are going to push this thing too far.” On May 24, Robert Kennedy had a meeting with prominent black intellectuals to discuss the racial situation. The blacks criticized Kennedy harshly for vacillating on civil rights, and said that the African-American community’s thoughts were increasingly turning to violence. The meeting ended with ill will on all sides. Nonetheless, the Kennedys ultimately decided that new legislation for equal public accommodations was essential to drive activists “into the courts and out of the streets.” On June 11, 1963, George Wallace, Governor of Alabama, tried to block the integration of the University of Alabama. President John F. Kennedy sent a military force to make Governor Wallace step aside, allowing the enrollment of Vivian Malone Jones and James Hood. That evening, President Kennedy addressed the nation on TV and radio with his historic civil rights speech, where he lamented “a rising tide of discontent that threatens the public safety.” He called on Congress to pass new civil rights legislation, and urged the country to embrace civil rights as “a moral issue…in our daily lives.” In the early hours of June 12, Medgar Evers, field secretary of the Mississippi NAACP, was assassinated by a member of the Klan. The next week, as promised, on June 19, 1963, President Kennedy submitted his Civil Rights bill to Congress === March on Washington, 1963 === A. Philip Randolph had planned a march on Washington, D.C., in 1941 to support demands for elimination of employment discrimination in defense industries; he called off the march when the Roosevelt administration met the demand by issuing Executive Order 8802 barring racial discrimination and creating an agency to oversee compliance with the order.Randolph and Bayard Rustin were the chief planners of the second march, which they proposed in 1962. In 1963, the Kennedy administration initially opposed the march out of concern it would negatively impact the drive for passage of civil rights legislation. However, Randolph and King were firm that the march would proceed With the march going forward, the Kennedys decided it was important to work to ensure its success. Concerned about the turnout, President Kennedy enlisted the aid of white church leaders and Walter Reuther, president of the UAW, to help mobilize white supporters for the march.The march was held on August 28, 1963. Unlike the planned 1941 march, for which Randolph included only black-led organizations in the planning, the 1963 march was a collaborative effort of all of the major civil rights organizations, the more progressive wing of the labor movement, and other liberal organizations. The march had six official goals: meaningful civil rights laws a massive federal works program full and fair employment decent housing the right to vote adequate integrated education.Of these, the march’s major focus was on passage of the civil rights law that the Kennedy administration had proposed after the upheavals in Birmingham National media attention also greatly contributed to the march’s national exposure and probable impact. In the essay “The March on Washington and Television News,” historian William Thomas notes: “Over five hundred cameramen, technicians, and correspondents from the major networks were set to cover the event. More cameras would be set up than had filmed the last presidential

inauguration. One camera was positioned high in the Washington Monument, to give dramatic vistas of the marchers”. By carrying the organizers’ speeches and offering their own commentary, television stations framed the way their local audiences saw and understood the event The march was a success, although not without controversy. An estimated 200,000 to 300,000 demonstrators gathered in front of the Lincoln Memorial, where King delivered his famous “I Have a Dream” speech. While many speakers applauded the Kennedy administration for the efforts it had made toward obtaining new, more effective civil rights legislation protecting the right to vote and outlawing segregation, John Lewis of SNCC took the administration to task for not doing more to protect southern blacks and civil rights workers under attack in the Deep South After the march, King and other civil rights leaders met with President Kennedy at the White House. While the Kennedy administration appeared sincerely committed to passing the bill, it was not clear that it had enough votes in Congress to do so. However, when President Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963, the new President Lyndon Johnson decided to use his influence in Congress to bring about much of Kennedy’s legislative agenda === Malcolm X joins the movement, 1964–1965 === In March 1964, Malcolm X (el-Hajj Malik el-Shabazz), national representative of the Nation of Islam, formally broke with that organization, and made a public offer to collaborate with any civil rights organization that accepted the right to self-defense and the philosophy of Black nationalism (which Malcolm said no longer required Black separatism). Gloria Richardson, head of the Cambridge, Maryland, chapter of SNCC, and leader of the Cambridge rebellion, an honored guest at The March on Washington, immediately embraced Malcolm’s offer. Mrs Richardson, “the nation’s most prominent woman [civil rights] leader,” told The Baltimore Afro-American that “Malcolm is being very practical…The federal government has moved into conflict situations only when matters approach the level of insurrection. Self-defense may force Washington to intervene sooner.” Earlier, in May 1963, writer and activist James Baldwin had stated publicly that “the Black Muslim movement is the only one in the country we can call grassroots, I hate to say it…Malcolm articulates for Negroes, their suffering…he corroborates their reality…” On the local level, Malcolm and the NOI had been allied with the Harlem chapter of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) since at least 1962 On March 26, 1964, as the Civil Rights Act was facing stiff opposition in Congress, Malcolm had a public meeting with Martin Luther King Jr. at the Capitol. Malcolm had tried to begin a dialog with Dr. King as early as 1957, but King had rebuffed him. Malcolm had responded by calling King an “Uncle Tom”, saying he had turned his back on black militancy in order to appease the white power structure But the two men were on good terms at their face-to-face meeting. There is evidence that King was preparing to support Malcolm’s plan to formally bring the U.S. government before the United Nations on charges of human rights violations against African Americans. Malcolm now encouraged Black nationalists to get involved in voter registration drives and other forms of community organizing to redefine and expand the movement.Civil rights activists became increasingly combative in the 1963 to 1964 period, seeking to defy such events as the thwarting of the Albany campaign, police repression and Ku Klux Klan terrorism in Birmingham, and the assassination of Medgar Evers. The latter’s brother Charles Evers, who took over as Mississippi NAACP Field Director, told a public NAACP conference on February 15, 1964, that “non-violence won’t work in Mississippi…we made up our minds…that if a white man shoots at a Negro in Mississippi, we will shoot back.” The repression of sit-ins in Jacksonville, Florida, provoked a riot in which black youth threw Molotov cocktails at police on March 24, 1964. Malcolm X gave numerous speeches in this period warning that such militant activity would escalate further if African Americans’ rights were not fully recognized In his landmark April 1964 speech “The Ballot or the Bullet”, Malcolm presented an ultimatum to white America: “There’s new strategy coming

in. It’ll be Molotov cocktails this month, hand grenades next month, and something else next month. It’ll be ballots, or it’ll be bullets.”As noted in the PBS documentary Eyes on the Prize, “Malcolm X had a far reaching effect on the civil rights movement. In the South, there had been a long tradition of self reliance. Malcolm X’s ideas now touched that tradition”. Self-reliance was becoming paramount in light of the 1964 Democratic National Convention’s decision to refuse seating to the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) and instead to seat the regular state delegation, which had been elected in violation of the party’s own rules, and by Jim Crow law instead. SNCC moved in an increasingly militant direction and worked with Malcolm X on two Harlem MFDP fundraisers in December 1964 When Fannie Lou Hamer spoke to Harlemites about the Jim Crow violence that she’d suffered in Mississippi, she linked it directly to the Northern police brutality against blacks that Malcolm protested against; When Malcolm asserted that African Americans should emulate the Mau Mau army of Kenya in efforts to gain their independence, many in SNCC applauded.During the Selma campaign for voting rights in 1965, Malcolm made it known that he’d heard reports of increased threats of lynching around Selma In late January he sent an open telegram to George Lincoln Rockwell, the head of the American Nazi Party, stating: “if your present racist agitation against our people there in Alabama causes physical harm to Reverend King or any other black Americans…you and your KKK friends will be met with maximum physical retaliation from those of us who are not handcuffed by the disarming philosophy of nonviolence.”The following month, the Selma chapter of SNCC invited Malcolm to speak to a mass meeting there. On the day of Malcolm’s appearance, President Johnson made his first public statement in support of the Selma campaign Paul Ryan Haygood, a co-director of the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, credits Malcolm with a role in gaining support by the federal government Haygood noted that “shortly after Malcolm’s visit to Selma, a federal judge, responding to a suit brought by the Department of Justice, required Dallas County, Alabama, registrars to process at least 100 Black applications each day their offices were open.” === St. Augustine, Florida, 1963–64 === St. Augustine was famous as the “Nation’s Oldest City”, founded by the Spanish in 1565 It became the stage for a great drama leading up to the passage of the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964. A local movement, led by Dr Robert B. Hayling, a black dentist and Air Force veteran affiliated with the NAACP, had been picketing segregated local institutions since 1963. In the fall of 1964, Hayling and three companions were brutally beaten at a Ku Klux Klan rally Nightriders shot into black homes, and teenagers Audrey Nell Edwards, JoeAnn Anderson, Samuel White, and Willie Carl Singleton (who came to be known as “The St. Augustine Four”) sat in at a local Woolworth’s lunch counter, seeking to get served. They were arrested and convicted of trespassing, and sentenced to six months in jail and reform school. It took a special act of the governor and cabinet of Florida to release them after national protests by the Pittsburgh Courier, Jackie Robinson, and others In response to the repression, the St. Augustine movement practiced armed self-defense in addition to nonviolent direct action. In June 1963, Dr. Hayling publicly stated that “I and the others have armed. We will shoot first and answer questions later. We are not going to die like Medgar Evers.” The comment made national headlines. When Klan nightriders terrorized black neighborhoods in St. Augustine, Hayling’s NAACP members often drove them off with gunfire In October 1963, a Klansman was killed.In 1964, Dr. Hayling and other activists urged the Southern Christian Leadership Conference to come to St. Augustine. Four prominent Massachusetts women – Mary Parkman Peabody, Esther Burgess, Hester Campbell (all of whose husbands were Episcopal bishops), and Florence Rowe (whose husband was vice president of John Hancock Insurance Company) – also came to lend their support. The arrest of Mrs. Peabody, the 72-year-old mother of the governor of Massachusetts, for attempting to eat at the segregated Ponce de Leon Motor Lodge in an integrated group, made front-page news across the country and brought the movement in St. Augustine to the attention of the world Widely publicized activities continued in the ensuing months. When Dr. King was arrested, he sent a “Letter from the St. Augustine Jail”

to a northern supporter, Rabbi Israel Dresner A week later, in the largest mass arrest of rabbis in American history took place, while they were conducting a pray-in at the segregated Monson Motel. A well-known photograph taken in St. Augustine shows the manager of the Monson Motel pouring muriatic acid in the swimming pool while blacks and whites are swimming in it. The horrifying photograph was run on the front page of a Washington newspaper the day the Senate were to vote on passing the Civil Rights Act of 1964 === Chester School Protests, Spring 1964 === In the early 1960s, racial unrest and civil rights protests led by George Raymond of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored Persons (NAACP) and Stanley Branche of the Committee for Freedom Now (CFFN) made Chester, Pennsylvania one of the key battlegrounds of the civil rights movement. James Farmer, the national director of the Congress of Racial Equality called Chester “the Birmingham of the North”.In 1962, Branche and the CFFN focused on improving conditions at the predominantly black Franklin Elementary school in Chester Although the school was built to house 500 students, it had become overcrowded with 1,200 students. The school’s average class-size was 39, twice the number of nearby all-white schools. The school was built in 1910 and had never been updated. Only two bathrooms were available for the entire school. In November 1963, CFFN protesters blocked the entrance to Franklin Elementary school and the Chester Municipal Building resulting in the arrest of 240 protesters. Following public attention to the protests stoked by media coverage of the mass arrests, the mayor and school board negotiated with the CFFN and NAACP. The Chester Board of Education agreed to reduce class sizes at Franklin school, remove unsanitary toilet facilities, relocate classes held in the boiler room and coal bin and repair school grounds.Emboldened by the success of the Franklin Elementary school demonstrations, the CFFN recruited new members, sponsored voter registration drives and planned a citywide boycott of Chester schools. Branche built close ties with students at nearby Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania Military College and Cheyney State College in order to ensure large turnouts at demonstrations and protests. Branche invited Dick Gregory and Malcolm X to Chester to participate in the “Freedom Now Conference” and other national civil rights leaders such as Gloria Richardson came to Chester in support of the demonstrations.In 1964, a series of almost nightly protests brought chaos to Chester as protestors argued that the Chester School Board had de facto segregation of schools. The mayor of Chester, James Gorbey, issued “The Police Position to Preserve the Public Peace”, a ten-point statement promising an immediate return to law and order. The city deputized firemen and trash collectors to help handle demonstrators The State of Pennsylvania deployed 50 state troopers to assist the 77-member Chester police force. The demonstrations were marked by violence and charges of police brutality. Over six hundred people were arrested over a two month period of civil rights rallies, marches, pickets, boycotts and sit-ins. Pennsylvania Governor William Scranton became involved in the negotiations and convinced Branche to obey a court-ordered moratorium on demonstrations. Scranton created the Pennsylvania Human Relations Commission to conduct hearings on the de facto segregation of public schools. All protests were discontinued while the commission held hearings during the summer of 1964.In November 1964, the Pennsylvania Human Relations Commission concluded that the Chester School Board had violated the law and ordered the Chester School District to desegregate the city’s six predominantly African-American schools. The city appealed the ruling, which delayed implementation === Freedom Summer, 1964 === In the summer of 1964, COFO brought nearly 1,000 activists to Mississippi—most of them white college students—to join with local black activists to register voters, teach in “Freedom Schools,” and organize the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP).Many of Mississippi’s white residents deeply resented the outsiders and attempts to change their society. State and local governments, police, the White Citizens’ Council and the Ku Klux Klan used arrests, beatings, arson, murder, spying, firing, evictions, and other forms of intimidation and harassment to oppose the project and prevent blacks from registering to vote or achieving social equality On June 21, 1964, three civil rights workers disappeared: James Chaney, a young black Mississippian

and plasterer’s apprentice; and two Jewish activists, Andrew Goodman, a Queens College anthropology student; and Michael Schwerner, a CORE organizer from Manhattan’s Lower East Side. They were found weeks later, murdered by conspirators who turned out to be local members of the Klan, some of them members of the Neshoba County sheriff’s department This outraged the public, leading the U.S Justice Department along with the FBI (the latter which had previously avoided dealing with the issue of segregation and persecution of blacks) to take action. The outrage over these murders helped lead to the passage of the Civil Rights Act From June to August, Freedom Summer activists worked in 38 local projects scattered across the state, with the largest number concentrated in the Mississippi Delta region. At least 30 Freedom Schools, with close to 3,500 students, were established, and 28 community centers set up.Over the course of the Summer Project, some 17,000 Mississippi blacks attempted to become registered voters in defiance of the red tape and forces of white supremacy arrayed against them—only 1,600 (less than 10%) succeeded. But more than 80,000 joined the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP), founded as an alternative political organization, showing their desire to vote and participate in politics.Though Freedom Summer failed to register many voters, it had a significant effect on the course of the civil rights movement It helped break down the decades of people’s isolation and repression that were the foundation of the Jim Crow system. Before Freedom Summer, the national news media had paid little attention to the persecution of black voters in the Deep South and the dangers endured by black civil rights workers. The progression of events throughout the South increased media attention to Mississippi.The deaths of affluent northern white students and threats to other northerners attracted the full attention of the media spotlight to the state. Many black activists became embittered, believing the media valued lives of whites and blacks differently. Perhaps the most significant effect of Freedom Summer was on the volunteers, almost all of whom—black and white—still consider it to have been one of the defining periods of their lives === Civil Rights Act of 1964 === Although President Kennedy had proposed civil rights legislation and it had support from Northern Congressmen and Senators of both parties, Southern Senators blocked the bill by threatening filibusters. After considerable parliamentary maneuvering and 54 days of filibuster on the floor of the United States Senate, President Johnson got a bill through the Congress On July 2, 1964, Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which banned discrimination based on “race, color, religion, sex or national origin” in employment practices and public accommodations. The bill authorized the Attorney General to file lawsuits to enforce the new law. The law also nullified state and local laws that required such discrimination === Harlem riot of 1964 === When police shot an unarmed black teenager in Harlem in July 1964, tensions escalated out of control. Residents were frustrated with racial inequalities. Rioting broke out, and Bedford-Stuyvesant, a major black neighborhood in Brooklyn erupted next. That summer, rioting also broke out in Philadelphia, for similar reasons. The riots were on a much smaller scale than what would occur in 1965 and later Washington responded with a pilot program called Project Uplift. Thousands of young people in Harlem were given jobs during the summer of 1965. The project was inspired by a report generated by HARYOU called Youth in the Ghetto. HARYOU was given a major role in organizing the project, together with the National Urban League and nearly 100 smaller community organizations. Permanent jobs at living wages were still out of reach of many young black men === Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, 1964 === Blacks in Mississippi had been disfranchised by statutory and constitutional changes since the late 19th century. In 1963 COFO held a Freedom Vote in Mississippi to demonstrate the desire of black Mississippians to vote More than 80,000 people registered and voted in the mock election, which pitted an integrated slate of candidates from the “Freedom Party” against the official state Democratic Party candidates In 1964, organizers launched the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) to challenge the all-white official party. When Mississippi voting registrars refused to recognize their

candidates, they held their own primary. They selected Fannie Lou Hamer, Annie Devine, and Victoria Gray to run for Congress, and a slate of delegates to represent Mississippi at the 1964 Democratic National Convention.The presence of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party in Atlantic City, New Jersey, was inconvenient, however, for the convention organizers. They had planned a triumphant celebration of the Johnson administration’s achievements in civil rights, rather than a fight over racism within the Democratic Party. All-white delegations from other Southern states threatened to walk out if the official slate from Mississippi was not seated. Johnson was worried about the inroads that Republican Barry Goldwater’s campaign was making in what previously had been the white Democratic stronghold of the “Solid South”, as well as support that George Wallace had received in the North during the Democratic primaries Johnson could not, however, prevent the MFDP from taking its case to the Credentials Committee There Fannie Lou Hamer testified eloquently about the beatings that she and others endured and the threats they faced for trying to register to vote. Turning to the television cameras, Hamer asked, “Is this America?” Johnson offered the MFDP a “compromise” under which it would receive two non-voting, at-large seats, while the white delegation sent by the official Democratic Party would retain its seats. The MFDP angrily rejected the “compromise.” The MFDP kept up its agitation at the convention after it was denied official recognition When all but three of the “regular” Mississippi delegates left because they refused to pledge allegiance to the party, the MFDP delegates borrowed passes from sympathetic delegates and took the seats vacated by the official Mississippi delegates. National party organizers removed them. When they returned the next day, they found convention organizers had removed the empty seats that had been there the day before. They stayed and sang “freedom songs” The 1964 Democratic Party convention disillusioned many within the MFDP and the civil rights movement, but it did not destroy the MFDP The MFDP became more radical after Atlantic City. It invited Malcolm X to speak at one of its conventions and opposed the war in Vietnam === Selma Voting Rights Movement === SNCC had undertaken an ambitious voter registration program in Selma, Alabama, in 1963, but by 1965 little headway had been made in the face of opposition from Selma’s sheriff, Jim Clark After local residents asked the SCLC for assistance, King came to Selma to lead several marches, at which he was arrested along with 250 other demonstrators. The marchers continued to meet violent resistance from police. Jimmie Lee Jackson, a resident of nearby Marion, was killed by police at a later march in February 17, 1965. Jackson’s death prompted James Bevel, director of the Selma Movement, to initiate and organize a plan to march from Selma to Montgomery, the state capital On March 7, 1965, acting on Bevel’s plan, Hosea Williams of the SCLC and John Lewis of SNCC led a march of 600 people to walk the 54 miles (87 km) from Selma to the state capital in Montgomery. Six blocks into the march, at the Edmund Pettus Bridge where the marchers left the city and moved into the county, state troopers and local county law enforcement, some mounted on horseback, attacked the peaceful demonstrators with billy clubs, tear gas, rubber tubes wrapped in barbed wire, and bull whips. They drove the marchers back into Selma. Lewis was knocked unconscious and dragged to safety. At least 16 other marchers were hospitalized. Among those gassed and beaten was Amelia Boynton Robinson, who was at the center of civil rights activity at the time The national broadcast of the news footage of lawmen attacking unresisting marchers’ seeking to exercise their constitutional right to vote provoked a national response, and hundreds of people from all over the country came for a second march. These marchers were turned around by Dr. King at the last minute so as not to violate a federal injunction With the support of James Forman and other SNCC leaders, activists throughout the country committed civil disobedience for Selma, particularly in Montgomery and at the White House. The marchers were able to lift the injunction and obtain protection from federal troops, permitting them to make the march across Alabama without incident two weeks later The evening of a second march on March 9 to the site of Bloody Sunday, local whites attacked Rev. James Reeb, a voting rights supporter He died of his injuries in a Birmingham hospital March 11. On March 25, four Klansmen shot and killed Detroit homemaker Viola Liuzzo as she drove marchers back to Selma at night after the successfully completed march to

Montgomery === Voting Rights Act, 1965 === Eight days after the first march, but before the final march, President Johnson delivered a televised address to support the voting rights bill he had sent to Congress. In it he stated: Their cause must be our cause too. Because it is not just Negroes, but really it is all of us, who must overcome the crippling legacy of bigotry and injustice. And we shall overcome On August 6, Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which suspended literacy tests and other subjective voter registration tests It authorized Federal supervision of voter registration in states and individual voting districts where such tests were being used and where African Americans were historically under-represented in voting rolls compared to the eligible population. African Americans who had been barred from registering to vote finally had an alternative to taking suits to local or state courts, which had seldom prosecuted their cases to success. If discrimination in voter registration occurred, the 1965 act authorized the Attorney General of the United States to send Federal examiners to replace local registrars Within months of the bill’s passage, 250,000 new black voters had been registered, one-third of them by federal examiners. Within four years, voter registration in the South had more than doubled. In 1965, Mississippi had the highest black voter turnout at 74% and led the nation in the number of black public officials elected. In 1969, Tennessee had a 92.1% turnout among black voters; Arkansas, 77.9%; and Texas, 73.1% Several whites who had opposed the Voting Rights Act paid a quick price. In 1966 Sheriff Jim Clark of Selma, Alabama, infamous for using cattle prods against civil rights marchers, was up for reelection. Although he took off the notorious “Never” pin on his uniform, he was defeated. At the election, Clark lost as blacks voted to get him out of office Blacks’ regaining the power to vote changed the political landscape of the South. When Congress passed the Voting Rights Act, only about 100 African Americans held elective office, all in northern states. By 1989, there were more than 7,200 African Americans in office, including more than 4,800 in the South Nearly every Black Belt county (where populations were majority black) in Alabama had a black sheriff. Southern blacks held top positions in city, county, and state governments Atlanta elected a black mayor, Andrew Young, as did Jackson, Mississippi, with Harvey Johnson Jr., and New Orleans, with Ernest Morial Black politicians on the national level included Barbara Jordan, elected as a Representative from Texas in Congress, and President Jimmy Carter appointed Andrew Young as United States Ambassador to the United Nations. Julian Bond was elected to the Georgia State Legislature in 1965, although political reaction to his public opposition to the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War prevented him from taking his seat until 1967. John Lewis was first elected in 1986 to represent Georgia’s 5th congressional district in the United States House of Representatives, where he has served since 1987 === Watts riot of 1965 === The new Voting Rights Act of 1965 had no immediate effect on living conditions for poor blacks A few days after the act became law, a riot broke out in the South Central Los Angeles neighborhood of Watts. Like Harlem, Watts was a majority-black neighborhood with very high unemployment and associated poverty Its residents confronted a largely white police department that had a history of abuse against blacks.While arresting a young man for drunk driving, police officers argued with the suspect’s mother before onlookers. The spark triggered a massive destruction of property through six days of rioting. Thirty-four people were killed and property valued at about $30 million was destroyed, making the Watts Riots among the most expensive in American history With black militancy on the rise, ghetto residents directed acts of anger at the police. Black residents growing tired of police brutality continued to riot. Some young people joined groups such as the Black Panthers, whose popularity was based in part on their reputation for confronting police officers. Riots among blacks occurred in 1966 and 1967 in cities such as Atlanta, San Francisco, Oakland, Baltimore, Seattle, Tacoma, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Columbus, Newark, Chicago, New York City (specifically

in Brooklyn, Harlem and the Bronx), and worst of all in Detroit === Fair housing movements, 1966–1968 === The first major blow against housing segregation in the era, the Rumford Fair Housing Act, was passed in California in 1963. It was overturned by white California voters and real estate lobbyists the following year with Proposition 14, a move which helped precipitate the Watts Riots. In 1966, the California Supreme Court invalidated Proposition 14 and reinstated the Fair Housing Act.Working and organizing for fair housing laws became a major project of the movement over the next two years, with Martin Luther King Jr., James Bevel, and Al Raby leading the Chicago Freedom Movement around the issue in 1966. In the following year, Father James Groppi and the NAACP Youth Council also attracted national attention with a fair housing campaign in Milwaukee Both movements faced violent resistance from white homeowners and legal opposition from conservative politicians The Fair Housing Bill was the most contentious civil rights legislation of the era. Senator Walter Mondale, who advocated for the bill, noted that over successive years, it was the most filibustered legislation in U.S. history It was opposed by most Northern and Southern senators, as well as the National Association of Real Estate Boards. A proposed “Civil Rights Act of 1966” had collapsed completely because of its fair housing provision. Mondale commented that: A lot of civil rights [legislation] was about making the South behave and taking the teeth from George Wallace, [but] this came right to the neighborhoods across the country. This was civil rights getting personal === Nationwide riots of 1967 === In 1967 riots broke out in black neighborhoods in more than 100 U.S. cities, including Detroit, Newark, Cincinnati, Cleveland, and Washington, D.C. The largest of these was the 1967 Detroit riot In Detroit, a large black middle class had begun to develop among those African Americans who worked at unionized jobs in the automotive industry. These workers complained of persisting racist practices, iimiting the jobs they could have and opportunities for promotion. The United Auto Workers channelled these complaints into bureaucratic and ineffective grievance procedures. Violent white mobs enforced the segregation of housing up through the 1960s Blacks who were not upwardly mobile were living in substandard conditions, subject to the same problems as poor African Americans in Watts and Harlem When white Detroit Police Department (DPD) officers shut down an illegal bar and arrested a large group of patrons during the hot summer, furious black residents rioted. Rioters looted and destroyed property while snipers engaged in firefights from rooftops and windows, undermining the DPD’s ability to curtail the disorder In response, the Michigan Army National Guard and U.S. Army paratroopers were deployed to reinforce the DPD and protect Detroit Fire Department (DFD) firefighters from attacks while putting out fires. Residents reported that police officers and National Guardsmen shot at black civilians and suspects indiscriminately After five days, 43 people had been killed, hundreds injured, and thousands left homeless; $40 to $45 million worth of damage was caused.State and local governments responded to the riot with a dramatic increase in minority hiring In the aftermath of the turmoil, the Greater Detroit Board of Commerce also launched a campaign to find jobs for ten thousand “previously unemployable” persons, a preponderant number of whom were black. Governor George Romney immediately responded to the riot of 1967 with a special session of the Michigan legislature where he forwarded sweeping housing proposals that included not only fair housing, but “important relocation, tenants’ rights and code enforcement legislation.” Romney had supported such proposals in 1965, but abandoned them in the face of organized opposition. The laws passed both houses of the legislature. Historian Sidney Fine wrote that: The Michigan Fair Housing Act, which took effect on November 15, 1968, was stronger than the federal fair housing law…It is probably more than a coincidence that the state that had experienced the most severe racial disorder of the 1960s also adopted one of the strongest state fair housing acts President Johnson created the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders in response to nationwide wave of riots. The commission’s final report called for major reforms in employment and public policy in black communities. It warned that the United States was moving toward separate white and black societies

=== Memphis, King assassination and the Poor People’s March 1968 === Rev. James Lawson invited King to Memphis, Tennessee, in March 1968 to support a sanitation workers’ strike. These workers launched a campaign for union representation after two workers were accidentally killed on the job; they were seeking fair wages and improved working conditions. King considered their struggle to be a vital part of the Poor People’s Campaign he was planning A day after delivering his stirring “I’ve Been to the Mountaintop” sermon, which has become famous for his vision of American society, King was assassinated on April 4, 1968. Riots broke out in black neighborhoods in more than 110 cities across the United States in the days that followed, notably in Chicago, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C The day before King’s funeral, April 8, Coretta Scott King and three of the King children led 20,000 marchers through the streets of Memphis, holding signs that read, “Honor King: End Racism” and “Union Justice Now”. Armed National Guardsmen lined the streets, sitting on M-48 tanks, to protect the marchers, and helicopters circled overhead. On April 9, Mrs. King led another 150,000 people in a funeral procession through the streets of Atlanta. Her dignity revived courage and hope in many of the Movement’s members, confirming her place as the new leader in the struggle for racial equality Coretta Scott King said, [Martin Luther King Jr.] gave his life for the poor of the world, the garbage workers of Memphis and the peasants of Vietnam. The day that Negro people and others in bondage are truly free, on the day want is abolished, on the day wars are no more, on that day I know my husband will rest in a long-deserved peace Rev. Ralph Abernathy succeeded King as the head of the SCLC and attempted to carry forth King’s plan for a Poor People’s March. It was to unite blacks and whites to campaign for fundamental changes in American society and economic structure. The march went forward under Abernathy’s plainspoken leadership but did not achieve its goals === Civil Rights Act of 1968 === As 1968 began, the fair housing bill was being filibustered once again, but two developments revived it. The Kerner Commission report on the 1967 ghetto riots was delivered to Congress on March 1, and it strongly recommended “a comprehensive and enforceable federal open housing law” as a remedy to the civil disturbances The Senate was moved to end their filibuster that week.As the House of Representatives deliberated the bill in April, Dr. King was assassinated, and the largest wave of unrest since the Civil War swept the country. Senator Charles Mathias wrote that: some Senators and Representatives publicly stated they would not be intimidated or rushed into legislating because of the disturbances Nevertheless, the news coverage of the riots and the underlying disparities in income, jobs, housing, and education, between White and Black Americans helped educate citizens and Congress about the stark reality of an enormous social problem. Members of Congress knew they had to act to redress these imbalances in American life to fulfil the dream that King had so eloquently preached The House passed the legislation on April 10, and President Johnson signed it the next day. The Civil Rights Act of 1968 prohibited discrimination concerning the sale, rental, and financing of housing based on race, religion, and national origin. It also made it a federal crime to “by force or by threat of force, injure, intimidate, or interfere with anyone…by reason of their race, color, religion, or national origin.” == Movements, politics, and white reactions == === Grassroots leadership === While most popular representations of the movement are centered on the leadership and philosophy of Martin Luther King Jr., some scholars note that the movement was too diverse to be credited to one person, organization, or strategy. Sociologist Doug McAdam has stated that, “in King’s case, it would be inaccurate to say that he was the leader of the modern civil rights movement…but more importantly, there was no singular civil rights movement The movement was, in fact, a coalition of thousands of local efforts nationwide, spanning several decades, hundreds of discrete groups, and all manner of strategies and tactics—legal,

illegal, institutional, non-institutional, violent, non-violent. Without discounting King’s importance, it would be sheer fiction to call him the leader of what was fundamentally an amorphous, fluid, dispersed movement.” Decentralized grassroots leadership has been a major focus of movement scholarship in recent decades through the work of historians John Dittmer, Charles Payne, Barbara Ransby, and others === Black power (1966–1968) === During the Freedom Summer campaign of 1964, numerous tensions within the civil rights movement came to the forefront. Many blacks in SNCC developed concerns that white activists from the North were taking over the movement The participation by numerous white students was not reducing the amount of violence that SNCC suffered, but seemed to exacerbate it Additionally, there was profound disillusionment at Lyndon Johnson’s denial of voting status for the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party at the Democratic National Convention. Meanwhile, during CORE’s work in Louisiana that summer, that group found the federal government would not respond to requests to enforce the provisions of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, or to protect the lives of activists who challenged segregation The Louisiana campaign survived by relying on a local African-American militia called the Deacons for Defense and Justice, who used arms to repel white supremacist violence and police repression. CORE’s collaboration with the Deacons was effective in disrupting Jim Crow in numerous Louisiana areas.In 1965, SNCC helped organize an independent political party, the Lowndes County Freedom Organization (LCFO), in the heart of the Alabama Black Belt, also Klan territory. It permitted its black leaders to openly promote the use of armed self-defense. Meanwhile, the Deacons for Defense and Justice expanded into Mississippi and assisted Charles Evers’ NAACP chapter with a successful campaign in Natchez. Charles had taken the lead after his brother Medgar Evers was assassinated in 1963. The same year, the 1965 Watts Rebellion took place in Los Angeles. Many black youth were committed to the use of violence to protest inequality and oppression During the March Against Fear in 1966, initiated by James Meredith, SNCC and CORE fully embraced the slogan of “black power” to describe these trends towards militancy and self-reliance In Mississippi, Stokely Carmichael declared, “I’m not going to beg the white man for anything that I deserve, I’m going to take it. We need power.”Some people engaging in the Black Power movement claimed a growing sense of black pride and identity. In gaining more of a sense of a cultural identity, blacks demanded that whites no longer refer to them as “Negroes” but as “Afro-Americans,” similar to other ethnic groups, such as Irish Americans and Italian Americans. Until the mid-1960s, blacks had dressed similarly to whites and often straightened their hair. As a part of affirming their identity, blacks started to wear African-based dashikis and grow their hair out as a natural afro. The afro, sometimes nicknamed the “‘fro,” remained a popular black hairstyle until the late 1970s. Other variations of traditional African styles have become popular, often featuring braids, extensions, and dreadlocks The Black Panther Party (BPP), which was founded by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale in Oakland, California, in 1966, gained the most attention for Black Power nationally. The group began following the revolutionary pan-Africanism of late-period Malcolm X, using a “by-any-means necessary” approach to stopping inequality They sought to rid African-American neighborhoods of police brutality and to establish socialist community control in the ghettos. While they conducted armed confrontation with police, they also set up free breakfast and healthcare programs for children. Between 1968 and 1971, the BPP was one of the most important black organizations in the country and had support from the NAACP, SCLC, Peace and Freedom Party, and others.Black Power was taken to another level inside prison walls. In 1966, George Jackson formed the Black Guerrilla Family in the California San Quentin State Prison The goal of this group was to overthrow the white-run government in America and the prison system. In 1970, this group displayed their dedication after a white prison guard was found not guilty of shooting and killing three black prisoners from the prison tower. They retaliated by killing a white prison guard Numerous popular cultural expressions associated with black power appeared at this time. Released in August 1968, the number one Rhythm & Blues single for the Billboard Year-End list was James Brown’s “Say It Loud – I’m Black and I’m Proud”. In October 1968, Tommie Smith and John Carlos, while being awarded the gold and bronze medals, respectively, at the 1968

Summer Olympics, donned human rights badges and each raised a black-gloved Black Power salute during their podium ceremony King was not comfortable with the “Black Power” slogan, which sounded too much like black nationalism to him. When King was assassinated in 1968, Stokely Carmichael said that whites had murdered the one person who would prevent rampant rioting and that blacks would burn every major city to the ground. Riots broke out in more than 100 cities across the country Some cities did not recover from the damage for more than a generation; other city neighborhoods never recovered === Black conservatism === Despite the common notion that the ideas of Martin Luther King Jr., Malcolm X and Black Power only conflicted with each other and were the only ideologies of the civil rights movement, there were other sentiments felt by many blacks. Fearing the events during the movement were occurring too quickly, there were some blacks who felt that leaders should take their activism at a slower pace. Others had reservations on how focused blacks were on the movement and felt that such attention was better spent on reforming issues within the black community Those who blatantly rejected integration had various rationales for doing so, such as fearing a change in the status quo they had been used to for so long or fearing for their safety if they found themselves in environments where whites were much more present. Some defended segregation for the sake of keeping ties with the white power structure from which many relied on for social and economic mobility above other blacks. Based on her interpretation of a 1966 study made by Donald Matthews and James Prothro detailing the relative percentage of blacks for integration, against it or feeling something else, Lauren Winner asserts that: Black defenders of segregation look, at first blush, very much like black nationalists, especially in their preference for all-black institutions; but black defenders of segregation differ from nationalists in two key ways First, while both groups criticize NAACP-style integration, nationalists articulate a third alternative to integration and Jim Crow, while segregationists preferred to stick with the status quo. Second, absent from black defenders of segregation’s political vocabulary was the demand for self-determination. They called for all-black institutions, but not autonomous all-black institutions; indeed, some defenders of segregation asserted that black people needed white paternalism and oversight in order to thrive Oftentimes, African-American community leaders would be staunch defenders of segregation Church ministers, businessmen and educators were among those who wished to keep segregation and segregationist ideals in order to retain the privileges they gained from patronage from whites, such as monetary gains. In addition, they relied on segregation to keep their jobs and economies in their communities thriving It was feared that if integration became widespread in the South, black-owned businesses and other establishments would lose a large chunk of their customer base to white-owned businesses, and many blacks would lose opportunities for jobs that were presently exclusive to their interests. On the other hand, there were the everyday, average black people who criticized integration as well. For them, they took issue with different parts of the civil rights movement and the potential for blacks to exercise consumerism and economic liberty without hindrance from whites.For Martin Luther King Jr., Malcolm X and other leading activists and groups during the movement, these opposing viewpoints acted as an obstacle against their ideas. These different views made such leaders’ work much harder to accomplish, but they were nonetheless important in the overall scope of the movement For the most part, the black individuals who had reservations on various aspects of the movement and ideologies of the activists were not able to make a game-changing dent in their efforts, but the existence of these alternate ideas gave some blacks an outlet to express their concerns about the changing social structure === Avoiding the “Communist” label === On December 17, 1951, the Communist Party–affiliated Civil Rights Congress delivered the petition We Charge Genocide: “The Crime of Government Against the Negro People”, often shortened to We Charge Genocide, to the United Nations in 1951, arguing that the U.S. federal government, by its failure to act against lynching in the United States, was guilty of genocide under Article II of the UN Genocide Convention The petition was presented to the United Nations at two separate venues: Paul Robeson, concert singer and activist, to a UN official in New York City, while William L. Patterson, executive director of the CRC, delivered copies of the drafted petition to a UN delegation in Paris.Patterson, the editor of the petition, was a leader in the Communist Party USA and head of the International Labor Defense, a group that offered legal representation to communists, trade unionists, and African Americans in cases involving issues

of political or racial persecution. The ILD was known for leading the defense of the Scottsboro boys in Alabama in 1931, where the Communist Party had considerable influence among African Americans in the 1930s. This had largely declined by the late 1950s, although they could command international attention. As earlier civil rights figures such as Robeson, Du Bois and Patterson became more politically radical (and therefore targets of Cold War anti-Communism by the U.S. Government), they lost favor with both mainstream Black America and the NAACP.In order to secure a place in the mainstream and gain the broadest base, the new generation of civil rights activists believed they had to openly distance themselves from anything and anyone associated with the Communist party According to Ella Baker, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference adopted “Christian” into its name to deter charges of Communism The FBI under J. Edgar Hoover had been concerned about communism since the early 20th century, and continued to label as “Communist” or “subversive” some of the civil rights activists, whom it kept under close surveillance. In the early 1960s, the practice of distancing the civil rights movement from “Reds” was challenged by the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee who adopted a policy of accepting assistance and participation by anyone, regardless of political affiliation, who supported the SNCC program and was willing to “put their body on the line.” At times this political openness put SNCC at odds with the NAACP === Kennedy administration, 1961–1963 === For the first two years of the Kennedy administration, civil rights activists had mixed opinions of both the president and attorney general, Robert F. Kennedy. A well of historical skepticism toward liberal politics had left African Americans with a sense of uneasy disdain for any white politician who claimed to share their concerns for freedom, particularly ones connected to the historically pro-segregationist Democratic Party. Still, many were encouraged by the discreet support Kennedy gave to Dr. King, and the administration’s willingness, after dramatic pressure from civil disobedience, to bring forth racially progressive initiatives Many of the initiatives resulted from Robert Kennedy’s passion. The younger Kennedy gained a rapid education in the realities of racism through events such as the Baldwin-Kennedy meeting. The president came to share his brother’s sense of urgency on the matter, resulting in the landmark Civil Rights Address of June 1963 and the introduction of the first major civil rights act of the decade.Robert Kennedy first became concerned with civil rights in mid-May 1961 during the Freedom Rides, when photographs of the burning bus and savage beatings in Anniston and Birmingham were broadcast around the world. They came at an especially embarrassing time, as President Kennedy was about to have a summit with the Soviet premier in Vienna. The White House was concerned with its image among the populations of newly independent nations in Africa and Asia, and Robert Kennedy responded with an address for Voice of America stating that great progress had been made on the issue of race relations. Meanwhile, behind the scenes, the administration worked to resolve the crisis with a minimum of violence and prevent the Freedom Riders from generating a fresh crop of headlines that might divert attention from the President’s international agenda. The Freedom Riders documentary notes that, “The back burner issue of civil rights had collided with the urgent demands of Cold War realpolitik.”On May 21, when a white mob attacked and burned the First Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama, where King was holding out with protesters, Robert Kennedy telephoned King to ask him to stay in the building until the U.S. Marshals and National Guard could secure the area. King proceeded to berate Kennedy for “allowing the situation to continue” King later publicly thanked Kennedy for deploying the force to break up an attack which might otherwise have ended King’s life With a very small majority in Congress, the president’s ability to press ahead with legislation relied considerably on a balancing game with the Senators and Congressmen of the South Without the support of Vice-President Johnson, a former Senator who had years of experience in Congress and longstanding relations there, many of the Attorney-General’s programs would not have progressed By late 1962, frustration at the slow pace of political change was balanced by the movement’s strong support for legislative initiatives, including administrative representation across all U.S. Government departments and greater access to the ballot box. From squaring off against Governor George Wallace, to “tearing into” Vice-President Johnson (for failing to desegregate areas of the administration), to threatening corrupt white Southern judges with disbarment, to desegregating interstate transport, Robert Kennedy came to be consumed

by the civil rights movement. He continued to work on these social justice issues in his bid for the presidency in 1968 On the night of Governor Wallace’s capitulation to African-American enrollment at the University of Alabama, President Kennedy gave an address to the nation, which marked the changing tide, an address that was to become a landmark for the ensuing change in political policy as to civil rights. In 1966, Robert Kennedy visited South Africa and voiced his objections to apartheid, the first time a major US politician had done so: At the University of Natal in Durban, I was told the church to which most of the white population belongs teaches apartheid as a moral necessity. A questioner declared that few churches allow black Africans to pray with the white because the Bible says that is the way it should be, because God created Negroes to serve. “But suppose God is black”, I replied. “What if we go to Heaven and we, all our lives, have treated the Negro as an inferior, and God is there, and we look up and He is not white? What then is our response?” There was no answer. Only silence Robert Kennedy’s relationship with the movement was not always positive. As attorney general, he was called to account by activists—who booed him at a June 1963 speech—for the Justice Department’s own poor record of hiring blacks. He also presided over FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover and his COINTELPRO program This program ordered FBI agents to “expose, disrupt, misdirect, discredit, or otherwise neutralize” the activities of Communist front groups, a category in which the paranoid Hoover included most civil rights organizations Kennedy personally authorized some of the programs. According to Tim Weiner, “RFK knew much more about this surveillance than he ever admitted.” Although Kennedy only gave approval for limited wiretapping of Dr. King’s phones “on a trial basis, for a month or so.” Hoover extended the clearance so his men were “unshackled” to look for evidence in any areas of the black leader’s life they deemed important;they then used this information to harass King Kennedy directly ordered surveillance on James Baldwin after their antagonistic racial summit in 1963 === American Jewish community and the civil rights movement === Many in the Jewish community supported the civil rights movement. In fact, statistically Jews were one of the most actively involved non-black groups in the Movement. Many Jewish students worked in concert with African Americans for CORE, SCLC, and SNCC as full-time organizers and summer volunteers during the Civil Rights era. Jews made up roughly half of the white northern volunteers involved in the 1964 Mississippi Freedom Summer project and approximately half of the civil rights attorneys active in the South during the 1960s.Jewish leaders were arrested while heeding a call from Martin Luther King Jr. in St. Augustine, Florida, in June 1964, where the largest mass arrest of rabbis in American history took place at the Monson Motor Lodge—a nationally important civil rights landmark that was demolished in 2003 so that a Hilton Hotel could be built on the site. Abraham Joshua Heschel, a writer, rabbi, and professor of theology at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America in New York, was outspoken on the subject of civil rights He marched arm-in-arm with Dr. King in the 1965 Selma to Montgomery march. In the 1964 murders of Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner, the two white activists killed, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner, were both Jewish Brandeis University, the only nonsectarian Jewish-sponsored college university in the world, created the Transitional Year Program (TYP) in 1968, in part response to Rev. Dr Martin Luther King’s assassination. The faculty created it to renew the university’s commitment to social justice. Recognizing Brandeis as a university with a commitment to academic excellence, these faculty members created a chance to disadvantaged students to participate in an empowering educational experience The American Jewish Committee, American Jewish Congress, and Anti-Defamation League (ADL) actively promoted civil rights. While Jews were very active in the civil rights movement in the South, in the North, many had experienced a more strained relationship with African Americans. In communities experiencing white flight, racial rioting, and urban decay, Jewish Americans were more often the last remaining whites in the communities most affected. It has been argued that with Black militancy and the Black Power movements on the rise, “Black Anti-Semitism” increased leading to strained relations between Blacks and Jews in Northern communities. In New York City, most notably, there was a major socio-economic class difference in the perception of African

Americans by Jews. Jews from better educated Upper Middle Class backgrounds were often very supportive of African American civil rights activities while the Jews in poorer urban communities that became increasingly minority were often less supportive largely in part due to more negative and violent interactions between the two groups According to political scientist Michael Rogin, Jewish-Black hostility was a two-way street extending to earlier decades. In the post-World War II era, Jews were granted white privilege and most moved into the middle-class while Blacks were left behind in the ghetto. Urban Jews engaged in the same sort of conflicts with Blacks—over integration busing, local control of schools, housing, crime, communal identity, and class divides—that other white ethnics did, leading to Jews participating in white flight. The culmination of this was the 1968 New York City teachers’ strike, pitting largely Jewish schoolteachers against predominantly Black parents in Brownsville, New York ==== Profile ==== Many Jewish individuals in the Southern states who supported civil rights for African Americans tended to keep a low profile on “the race issue”, in order to avoid attracting the attention of the anti-Black and antisemitic Ku Klux Klan. However, Klan groups exploited the issue of African-American integration and Jewish involvement in the struggle to launch acts of violent antisemitism. As an example of this hatred, in one year alone, from November 1957 to October 1958, temples and other Jewish communal gatherings were bombed and desecrated in Atlanta, Nashville, Jacksonville, and Miami, and dynamite was found under synagogues in Birmingham, Charlotte, and Gastonia, North Carolina. Some rabbis received death threats, but there were no injuries following these outbursts of violence === White backlash === King reached the height of popular acclaim during his life in 1964, when he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. His career after that point was filled with frustrating challenges The liberal coalition that had gained passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 began to fray King was becoming more estranged from the Johnson administration. In 1965 he broke with it by calling for peace negotiations and a halt to the bombing of Vietnam. He moved further left in the following years, speaking of the need for economic justice and thoroughgoing changes in American society. He believed change was needed beyond the civil rights gained by the movement King’s attempts to broaden the scope of the civil rights movement were halting and largely unsuccessful, however. King made several efforts in 1965 to take the Movement north to address housing discrimination. SCLC’s campaign in Chicago publicly failed, as Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley marginalized SCLC’s campaign by promising to “study” the city’s problems In 1966, white demonstrators holding “white power” signs in notoriously racist Cicero, a suburb of Chicago, threw stones at marchers demonstrating against housing segregation.Politicians and journalists quickly blamed this white backlash on the movement’s shift towards Black Power in the mid-1960s; today most scholars view backlash as a phenomenon that was already developing in the mid-1950s, embodied in the “massive resistance” movement of the South where even the few moderate white leaders (including George Wallace, who had once been endorsed by the NAACP) shifted to openly racist positions. Northern racists opposed the southerners on a regional and cultural basis, but also held segregationist attitudes which became more pronounced as the civil rights movement headed North. For instance, prior to the Watts riot, California whites had already mobilized to repeal the state’s 1963 fair housing law.Even so, the backlash was not sufficient at the time to roll back major civil rights victories or swing the country into reaction. Social historians Matthew Lassiter and Barbara Ehrenreich note that backlash’s primary constituency was suburban and middle-class, but not working-class whites: “among the white electorate, one half of blue-collar voters…cast their ballot for [the liberal presidential candidate] Hubert Humphrey in 1968…only in the South did George Wallace draw substantially more blue-collar than white-collar support.” === African-American women in the movement === Women often acted as leaders in the civil rights movement and led organizations that contributed to the cause of civil rights African-American women stepped into the roles that men had previously held. Women were members of the NAACP because they believed it could

help them contribute to the cause of civil rights. Women involved with the Black Panthers would lead meetings, edit the Black Panther newspaper, and advocated for childcare and sexual freedom. Women involved with SNCC helped to organize sit-ins and the Freedom Rides, as well as keeping the organization together Women also formed church groups, bridge clubs, and professional organizations, such as the National Council of Negro Women, to help achieve freedom for themselves and their race. Some women who participated in these organizations lost their jobs because of their involvement ==== Discrimination ==== Many women in the movement experienced gender discrimination and sexual harassment within the movement. In the SCLC, Ella Baker’s input was discouraged in spite of her being the oldest and most experienced person on the staff. Within the ministers’ patriarchal hierarchy, age and experience were actually considered detriments for a woman. Her role as an executive was only assigned as a placeholder for a male leader. Women that worked under SNCC did the clerical work and were not consistently given leadership positions. Women who worked in multiple civil rights organizations noted that males tended to become the leaders and women “faded into the background” and the men of the movement did not acknowledge the gender discrimination present in the organization Much of the reasoning for the lesser role that women took in the movement was that it was time for black men to take on a role as a leader now that they had the opportunity Women got very little recognition for their roles in the civil rights movement despite the fact that they were heavily involved with the participation and planning === Long-run impact === A 2018 study in the American Journal of Political Science found that civil rights protest activity had a meaningful persistent impact on attitudes in the long-run. The study found that “whites from counties that experienced historical civil rights protests are more likely to identify as Democrats and support affirmative action, and less likely to harbor racial resentment against blacks… counties that experienced civil rights protests are associated with greater Democratic Party vote shares even today.” == Johnson administration: 1963–1968 == Lyndon Johnson made civil rights one of his highest priorities, coupling it with a whites war on poverty. However in creasing the shrill opposition to the War in Vietnam, coupled with the cost of the war, undercut support for his domestic programs.Under Kennedy, major civil rights legislation had been stalled in Congress his assassination changed everything On one hand president Lyndon Johnson was a much more skillful negotiator than Kennedy but he had behind him a powerful national momentum demanding immediate action on moral and emotional grounds. Demands for immediate action originated from unexpected directions, especially white Protestant church groups The Justice Department, led by Robert Kennedy, moved from a posture of defending Kennedy from the quagmire minefield of racial politics to acting to fulfill his legacy. The violent death and public reaction dramatically moved the moderate Republicans, led by Senator Everett McKinley Dirksen, whose support was the margin of victory for the Civil Rights Act of 1964 The act immediately ended de jure (legal) segregation and the era of Jim Crow.With the civil rights movement at full blast, Lyndon Johnson coupled black entrepreneurship with his war on poverty, setting up special program in the Small Business Administration, the Office of Economic Opportunity, and other agencies. This time there was money for loans designed to boost minority business ownership Richard Nixon greatly expanded the program, setting up the Office of Minority Business Enterprise (OMBE) in the expectation that black entrepreneurs would help defuse racial tensions and possibly support his reelection == Prison reform == === Gates v. Collier === Conditions at the Mississippi State Penitentiary at Parchman, then known as Parchman Farm, became part of the public discussion of civil rights after activists were imprisoned there In the spring of 1961, Freedom Riders came to the South to test the desegregation of public facilities. By the end of June 1963, Freedom Riders had been convicted in Jackson, Mississippi. Many were jailed in Mississippi State Penitentiary at Parchman. Mississippi employed the trusty system, a hierarchical order of inmates that used some inmates to control and enforce punishment of other inmates.In 1970 the civil rights lawyer Roy Haber began

taking statements from inmates. He collected 50 pages of details of murders, rapes, beatings and other abuses suffered by the inmates from 1969 to 1971 at Mississippi State Penitentiary In a landmark case known as Gates v. Collier (1972), four inmates represented by Haber sued the superintendent of Parchman Farm for violating their rights under the United States Constitution Federal Judge William C. Keady found in favor of the inmates, writing that Parchman Farm violated the civil rights of the inmates by inflicting cruel and unusual punishment. He ordered an immediate end to all unconstitutional conditions and practices. Racial segregation of inmates was abolished, as was the trusty system, which allowed certain inmates to have power and control over others.The prison was renovated in 1972 after the scathing ruling by Judge Keady, who wrote that the prison was an affront to “modern standards of decency.” Among other reforms, the accommodations were made fit for human habitation. The system of trusties was abolished. (The prison had armed lifers with rifles and given them authority to oversee and guard other inmates, which led to many abuses and murders.)In integrated correctional facilities in northern and western states, blacks represented a disproportionate number of the prisoners, in excess of their proportion of the general population. They were often treated as second-class citizens by white correctional officers. Blacks also represented a disproportionately high number of death row inmates. Eldridge Cleaver’s book Soul on Ice was written from his experiences in the California correctional system; it contributed to black militancy == Cold War == There was an international context for the actions of the U.S. federal government during these years. Soviet media frequently covered racial discrimination in the U.S. Deeming American criticism of Soviet Union human rights abuses as hypocritical the Soviets would respond with “And you are lynching Negroes”. In his 1934 book Russia Today: What Can We Learn from It?, Sherwood Eddy wrote: “In the most remote villages of Russia today Americans are frequently asked what they are going to do to the Scottsboro Negro boys and why they lynch Negroes.”In Cold War Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Democracy, the historian Mary L. Dudziak wrote that Communists critical of the United States accused the nation for its hypocrisy in portraying itself as the “leader of the free world,” when so many of its citizens were subjected to severe racial discrimination and violence; she argued that this was a major factor in moving the government to support civil rights legislation == In popular culture == The 1954 to 1968 civil rights movement contributed strong cultural threads to American and international theater, song, film, television, and folk art == Activist organizations == National/regional civil rights organizations Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) Deacons for Defense and Justice Leadership Conference on Civil Rights (LCCR) Medical Committee for Human Rights (MCHR) National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) National Council of Negro Women (NCNW) Organization of Afro-American Unity Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) Southern Conference Educational Fund (SCEF) Southern Student Organizing Committee (SSOC)National economic empowerment organizations Operation Breadbasket Urban LeagueLocal civil rights organizations Albany Movement (Albany, GA) Council of Federated Organizations (Mississippi) Montgomery Improvement Association (Montgomery, AL) Regional Council of Negro Leadership (Mississippi) Women’s Political Council (Montgomery, AL) == Individual activists == == See also == List of civil rights leaders List of Kentucky women in the civil rights era Photographers of the American civil rights movement “We Shall Overcome”, unofficial movement anthemHistory preservation: Birmingham Civil Rights National Monument Freedom Riders National Monument

Read’s Drug Store (Baltimore), site of a 1955 desegregation sit-in Seattle Civil Rights and Labor History Project Television News of the Civil Rights Era 1950–1970Post–civil rights movement: Black Lives Matter Post–civil rights era in African-American history == Notes == == References == == Bibliography == Arsenault, Raymond (2006). Freedom Riders: 1961 and the Struggle for Racial Justice Oxford Press Back, Adina “Exposing the Whole Segregation Myth: The Harlem Nine and New York City Schools” in Freedom north: Black freedom struggles outside the South, 1940–1980, Jeanne Theoharis, Komozi Woodard, eds.(Palgrave Macmillan, 2003) Bartley, Abel A. Keeping the Faith: Race, Politics and Social Development in Jacksonville, 1940–1970 (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000) Bass, S. Jonathan (2001) Blessed Are The Peacemakers: Martin Luther King Jr., Eight White Religious Leaders, and the “Letter from Birmingham Jail” Baton Rouge: LSU Press. ISBN 0-8071-2655-1 Beito, David T. and Beito, Linda Royster, Black Maverick: T.R.M. Howard’s Fight for Civil Rights and Economic Power, University of Illinois Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-252-03420-6 Branch, Taylor. Parting the waters: America in the King years, 1954–1963. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988 Breitman, George ed. Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements (Grove Press, 1965) Brown, Jennie Medgar Evers, Holloway House Publishing, 1994 Bryant, Nicholas Andrew The Bystander: John F. Kennedy And the Struggle for Black Equality (Basic Books, 2006) Cannato, Vincent “The Ungovernable City: John Lindsay and his struggle to save New York” Better Books, 2001. ISBN 0-465-00843-7 Carson, Clayborne (1981). In Struggle: SNCC and the Black Awakening of the 1960s. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-44727-1 Chafe, William Henry (1980). Civilities and civil rights : Greensboro, North Carolina, and the Black struggle for freedom. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-502625-2 Chafe, William Henry (2003). The Unfinished Journey: America since World War II. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-515049-0 Cleaver, Eldridge (1967). Soul on Ice. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Crump, Spencer Black riot in Los Angeles: the story of the Watts tragedy (1966) Davis, Townsend (1998). Weary Feet, Rested Souls: A Guided History of the Civil Rights Movement. New York: W. W. Norton & Company ISBN 978-0-393-04592-5 Dudziak, M.L.: Cold War Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Democracy Erikson, Erik (1969). Gandhi’s Truth: On the Origins of Militant Nonviolence. New York City: Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-31034-4 Eskew, Glenn T. But for Birmingham: The Local and National Struggles in the Civil Rights Movement (University of North Carolina Press, 1997) Fine, Sidney Expanding the Frontier of Civil Rights: Michigan, 1948–1968 (Wayne State University Press, 2000) Finkelman, Paul, ed. (2009). Encyclopedia of African American History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-516779-5 Forman, James (1972). The Making of Black Revolutionaries. New York: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-940880-10-8 Garrow, David J. Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (Harper Collins, 1987) Gershenhorn, Jerry (2018). Louis Austin and The Carolina Times: A Life in the Long Black Freedom Struggle. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press

Goluboff, Risa L. The Lost Promise of Civil Rights, Harvard University Press, MA: Cambridge, 2007 Gregg, Khyree. A Concise Chronicle History of the African-American People Experience in America. Henry Epps Hague, Euan; Sebesta, Edward H.; Beirich, Heidi (2008). Neo-Confederacy: A Critical Introduction. University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-71837-1 Hill, Lance The Deacons for Defense: Armed Resistance and the Civil Rights Movement (University of North Carolina Press, 2006) Hilty, James (2000). Robert Kennedy: Brother Protector. Temple University Press. ISBN 978-1-4399-0519-7 Hoose, Phillip (2009). Claudette Colvin: Twice Toward Justice. New York: Melanie Kroupa Books/Farrar Straus Giroux. ISBN 978-0-312-66105-2 Houston, Benjamin (2012). The Nashville Way: Racial Etiquette and the Struggle for Social Justice in a Southern City. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press. ISBN 978-0-8203-4326-6 Jackson, Thomas F. (July 17, 2013). From Civil Rights to Human Rights. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-0000-3 Klarman, Michael J., Brown v. Board of Education and the Civil Rights Movement [electronic resource] : abridged edition of From Jim Crow to Civil Rights: The Supreme Court and the Struggle for Racial Equality, Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2007 Levy, Peter B. “The Dream Deferred: The Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr., and the Holy Week Uprisings of 1968” in Baltimore ’68 : Riots and Rebirth in an American city (Temple University Press, 2011) Lewis, John (1998). Walking With the Wind Simon & Schuster Locke, Hubert G. The Detroit riot of 1967 (Wayne State University Press, 1969) Logan, Rayford,The Betrayal of the Negro from Rutherford B. Hayes to Woodrow Wilson. New York: Da Capo Press, 1997 McAdam, Doug (1988). Freedom Summer. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-504367-9 Marable, Manning Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention (Penguin Books, 2011) Matusow, Allen J. “From Civil Rights to Black Power: The Case of SNCC” in Twentieth Century America: Recent Interpretations (Harcourt Press, 1972) Pinkney, Alphnso and Woock, Roger Poverty and Politics in Harlem, College & University Press Services, Inc., 1970 Piven, Francis Fox and Cloward, Richard Regulating the Poor (Random House 1971) Piven, Francis Fox and Cloward, Richard Poor People’s Movements: How They Succeed, How They Fail (Random House, 1977) Ransby, Barbara Ella Baker and the Black Freedom Movement: A Radical Democratic Vision (University of North Carolina Press, 2003) Reeves, Richard (1993). President Kennedy: Profile of Power. New York: Simon & Schuster ISBN 978-0-671-64879-4 Robinson, Jo Ann & Garrow, David J. (forward by Coretta Scott King) The Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Women Who Started It (1986) ISBN 0-394-75623-1 Knoxville, University of Tennessee Press Rosenberg, Jonathan; Karabell, Zachary (2003) Kennedy, Johnson, and the Quest for Justice: The Civil Rights Tapes. WW Norton & Co. ISBN 978-0-393-05122-3 Saito, Leland T. (1998). Race and Politics: Asian Americans, Latinos, and Whites in a Los Angeles Suburb. University of Illinois Press Schultz, Jeffrey D. (2002). Encyclopedia of Minorities in American Politics: African Americans and Asian Americans. ISBN 978-1-57356-148-8 Schlesinger Jr., Arthur M. (2002) [1978] Robert Kennedy and His Times. Houghton Mifflin Books. ISBN 978-0-618-21928-5 Schoen, Douglas (2015). The Nixon Effect: How His Presidency Has Changed American Politics Encounter Books. ISBN 978-1-59403-800-6 Self, Robert O. (2005). American Babylon:

Race and the Struggle for Postwar Oakland Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-4417-3 Smith, Jean Edward (2001). Grant. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-1701-9 Stephens, Otis H. Jr.; Scheb, John M. II (2007) American Constitutional Law: Civil Rights and Liberties. Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-0-495-09705-1 Strain, Christopher Pure Fire:Self-Defense as Activism in the Civil Rights Era (University of Georgia Press, 2005) Tucker, William H. The Funding of Scientific Racism: Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund, University of Illinois Press (May 30, 2007) Tyson, Timothy B. Radio Free Dixie: Robert F. Williams and the Roots of “Black Power” (University of North Carolina Press, 1999) Umoja, Akinyele We Will Shoot Back: Armed Resistance in the Mississippi Freedom Movement (NYU Press, 2013) Weems, Robert E. Jr., Business in Black and White: American Presidents and Black Entrepreneurs (2009) Weiner, Melissa F. (2010). Power, Protest, and the Public Schools: Jewish and African American Struggles in New York City. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-4772-5 Wendt, Simon The Spirit and the Shotgun: Armed Resistance and the Struggle for Civil Rights (University of Florida Press, 2007) Williams, Juan. Eyes on the Prize: America’s Civil Rights Years, 1954–1965. Penguin Books, 1987. ISBN 0-14-009653-1 Winner, Lauren F. “Doubtless Sincere: New Characters in the Civil Rights Cast.” In The Role of Ideas in the Civil Rights South, edited by Ted Ownby. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2002 Woodward, C. Vann The Strange Career of Jim Crow, 3rd rev. ed. (Oxford University Press, 1974) Young, Coleman Hard Stuff: The Autobiography of Mayor Coleman Young (1994) Zarefsky, David President Johnson’s war on poverty: Rhetoric and history (2005) == Further reading == === Historiography and memory === Armstrong, Julie Buckner, ed. (2015). The Cambridge Companion to American Civil Rights Literature. Cambridge University Press. pp xxiv, 209. ISBN 978-1-316-24038-0 Catsam, Derek (January 2008). “The Civil Rights Movement and the Presidency in the Hot Years of the Cold War: A Historical and Historiographical Assessment”. History Compass. 6 (1): 314–344 doi:10.1111/j.1478-0542.2007.00486.x Cha-Jua, Sundiata Keita; Lang, Clarence (Spring 2007). “The ‘Long Movement’ as Vampire: Temporal and Spatial Fallacies in Recent Black Freedom Studies”. The Journal of African American History. 92 (2): 265–288 Eagles, Charles W. (November 2000). “Toward New Histories of the Civil Rights Era”. The Journal of Southern History. 66 (4): 815–848 doi:10.2307/2588012. JSTOR 2588012 Fairclough, Adam (December 1990). “Historians and the Civil Rights Movement”. Journal of American Studies. 24 (3): 387–398 Frost, Jennifer (May 2012). “Using ‘Master Narratives’ to Teach History: The Case of the Civil Rights Movement” (PDF). History Teacher. 45 (3): 437–446 Hall, Jacquelyn Dowd (March 2005). “The Long Civil Rights Movement and the Political Uses of the Past” (PDF). The Journal of American History. 91 (4): 1233–1263. doi:10.2307/3660172 JSTOR 3660172 Lawson, Steven F. (April 1991). “Freedom Then, Freedom Now: The Historiography of the Civil Rights Movement”. The American Historical Review. 96 (2): 456–471. doi:10.2307/2163219 JSTOR 2163219

Lawson, Steven F.; Payne, Charles M. (1998) Debating the Civil Rights Movement, 1945–1968 Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-8476-9053-4 Lawson, Steven F. (2003). Civil Rights Crossroads: Nation, Community, and the Black Freedom Struggle University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-8131-2693-7 Payne, Charles M. (2007). “Bibliographic Essay: The Social Construction of History”. I’ve Got the Light of Freedom: The Organizing Tradition and the Mississippi Freedom Struggle. University of California Press. pp. 413–442. ISBN 978-0-520-25176-2 Robinson, Armstead L.; Sullivan, Patricia, eds. (1991). New Directions in Civil Rights Studies. University of Virginia Press. ISBN 978-0-8139-1319-3 Sandage, Scott A. (June 1993). “A Marble House Divided: The Lincoln Memorial, the Civil Rights Movement, and the Politics of Memory, 1939–1963” (PDF). The Journal of American History. 80 (1): 135–167. doi:10.2307/2079700. JSTOR 2079700. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 2, 2015 Strickland, Arvarh E.; Weems, Robert E., eds (2001). The African American Experience: An Historiographical and Bibliographical Guide Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-29838-7 Zamalin, Alex (2015). African American Political Thought and American Culture: The Nation’s Struggle for Racial Justice. Springer. pp xii, 192. ISBN 978-1-137-52810-0 === Autobiographies and memoirs === Carson, Clayborne; Garrow, David J.; Kovach, Bill; Polsgrove, Carol, eds. Reporting Civil Rights: American Journalism 1941–1963 and Reporting Civil Rights: American Journalism 1963–1973. New York: Library of America, 2003. ISBN 1-931082-28-6 and ISBN 1-931082-29-4 Dann, Jim. Challenging the Mississippi Firebombers, Memories of Mississippi 1964–65. Baraka Books, 2013. ISBN 978-1-926824-87-1 Holsaert, Faith et al. Hands on the Freedom Plow Personal Accounts by Women in SNCC. University of Illinois Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-252-03557-9 Malcolm X (with the assistance of Alex Haley) The Autobiography of Malcolm X. New York: Random House, 1965. Paperback ISBN 0-345-35068-5 Hardcover ISBN 0-345-37975-6 == External links == Civil Rights Digital Library – Provided by the Digital Library of Georgia Civil Rights Movement Veterans ~ Provides movement history, personal stories, documents, and photos. Hosted by Tougaloo College Civil Rights in America – Provided by The National Archives of the United Kingdom Television News of the Civil Rights Era 1950–1970 – Provided by the University of Virginia Provided by the Library of Congress: The Civil Rights Era – Part of The African American Odyssey: A Quest for Full Citizenship presentation Voices of Civil Rights – A project with the collaboration of AARP and the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights (LCCR) We Shall Overcome: Historic Places of the

Civil Rights Movement – Provided by the National Park Service Provided by Southern Poverty Law Center: “Teaching the Movement: The State Standards We Deserve” – Part of “Teaching Tolerance” project published on September 19, 2011 “Teaching Tolerance Publishes Guide for Teaching the Civil Rights Movement” – Part of “Teaching Tolerance” project published on March 26, 2014 “Teaching the Movement 2014: The State of Civil Rights Education in the United States” – Part of “Teaching Tolerance” project published in 2014 Civil Rights Teaching – Provided by Teaching for Change, a 501(c)(3) organization SNCC Digital Gateway – Profiles and primary documents on the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), the national civil rights movement organization led by young people A project of the SNCC Legacy Project, Duke’s Center for Documentary Studies, and Duke University Libraries

The Musket V-Twin – Jay Leno's Garage

well another episode of Jay Leno’s Garage and the fun thing about this website is you meet other people have cool websites and you all help one another and I discovered a bike I’m going to show you on a website called bicurious now it it’s really interesting it’s based on the Enfield Bullet okay see we love hot rodding we like people to take something stock and just make it something faster and cooler before we do that let me introduce a OB ami has this website bicurious how are you good to see you good to see you again Jay now I think your website is fantastic it’s all motorcycles but it’s not just Japanese bike it’s all cut you have vintage you have classic you cover the whole range of motorcycle yeah it’s one of those things it started just because I’m obsessed about bikes right it would no matter what it is I enjoy riding it I’ve done a few rides in the past where you know last summer I went to the top of the last got a bike and then a couple years ago I did a border border run from Canada to Mexico in less than 24 hours now he comes from my hometown to Van Dorma that’s right and that’s kind of cool so we have something in common there and the fact that you find all these unusual bikes the fact the bike we’re going to see in a few minutes I found through your website I would never have known about this you know the fun thing about America is hot rodders come from all walks of life arkus-duntov the famous Corvette guy he was from Russia other guys are from Poland and I see more and more young men and women from India coming to America getting into hot rodding and it’s really kind of cool that’s what your friend is done in absolutely yes and this is a bike built in India this is the Royal Enfield now the Royal Enfield was originally made in England then I guess India bought the rights to it or yeah whether hat was happening was you had a lot when the British colonized India right you had a lot of British Army British soldiers things like that and so to make it easier they were selling bikes they’re producing bikes in India right for that market and even though it’s a vintage looking bike it has fuel injection and it’s fairly modern and up-to-date and it’s hugely popular in India but India like everyplace else has hot rodders and they like to make things go faster and maybe even add more cylinders if they have to and that’s what your friend is down in it okay absolutely what’s his name tell us his name now his name is Onika vardhaan right and like you said he’s been able to take one of these single cylinders and and make it a v-twin now he too was born in India but came to America yeah and I find a fascinator do a Harley which everybody does he’s Indian so do an Indian bike I mean I he’s right over here like show you the bikes he’s done and I cuz how are you good to see ya delighted to meet you J gods good to see you I must say you are a master fabricator and builder these look like factory motorcycles and they’ve not only does he add an extra cylinder he makes the pattern himself not using 3d print using wood right you’ve carved carving wood I mean this is great stuff he casts his own cylinders and he makes this this is a thousand CC and this is what a 700 hundred yes okay now this is this is based on a much earlier Royal Enfield actually both of these bikes are based on what was the original British Royal and pupil it which had a cast-iron barrel had a separate gearbox separate crankcase and separate clutch case and it was basically a quintessential 1950 style British single so for the longest time I think up to the late 2000s Royal Enfield in India made that version of the bike and then various regulations with emissions and noise and so on have them redesign the engine with fuel injection to meet all those new requirements but for almost 50 years they made that motorcycle as it was made in 1955 virtually unchanged that’s the bike I grew up looking at in India and saying one day I want that thing which goes dug dug dug dug dug right and when I was in college I got one and that’s half the story and what blew my brains was one day I was riding my bicycle and I stopped at the store and I’m gonna buy pencils or something and I see this motorcycle parked outside and it is unlike anything I’ve ever seen and I stand there and it seems like it has two engines right and I had never seen anything with two engines before so I stand there and I’m waiting to see who’s it belong to what’s he look like is he gonna write it what’s it gonna sound like and the guy comes out and I ask him and it turns out it is a harley-davidson WLA from World War two oh okay so it’s just a twin cylinder it is but compared to the other little hundred cc 130 CC scooters and mopeds which I’d grown up seeing it was something from another planet right so I’m frothing at the mouth now because I want to hear what this thing sounds like because it’s gonna sound like something

else and how old were you in all this I was nineteen nineteen okay I was in architecture school not paying much attention to architecture paying more attention to my Royal Enfield Bullet which no because your parents have been thrilled you’re an architectural student put your engine dickering with bikes all day you’re going down the tube every Indian parents dream that kid is gonna work with motor not yeah exactly okay so go ahead continue so this guy comes and I find out and then he goes on it and he goes boom it goes to Duke and my mouth hangs open because in that one second I realized that thing sounds like a gigantic human heartbeat right because the human heartbeat is not evenly spaced thuds like Duke the heart beats Duke Duke Duke Duke that motorcycle sounds like a heartbeat and it was that moment when you know when you have your first kiss or you ride your bicycle for the first time and you have that moment which will never happen again when you realize that life from now on is not gonna be the same so kinda like in that movie vertigo where our main guy falls in love with this woman who then is gone she’s lost and he is so shattered by that that he tries to recreate that woman from another woman alright and I try to do that with his motorcycle right and of course I’m sure it broke your mother’s heart when you came home with a motorcycle it went from thumb so it’s kind of come full circle you hear a heart you break a heart oh my god that’s amazing to me is that well look at some of these photos he did all this himself did all these casting now there’s a picture in the book that you gave me I thought was amazing where you were carving into the wood and you found something tell him about that so the patterns like I wanted to make it the way they would have made it back in the 1950s like it was not just like make an engine but really have the flavor and the feel for that time period when there was no you know automatic 3d printing and everything and plus when you’re carving wood it is so much more satisfying to work with a beautiful piece of wood than it is to work with a piece of synthetic plastic which is used these days so I had these chunks of gorgeous kiln dried seasoned maple and I love maple because I also build guitars and you know I you make my necks out of maple so I love the maple and I’m machining it and suddenly my tool makes this angry sound and I stop and I pull it out of there and it’s a small bullet like a bullet from a rifle which was wedged in the tree from which that piece of wood came oh and I tell myself okay I’m working on an engine for a motorcycle called a Royal Enfield Bullet I’m making the pattern and inside the wood there’s a bullet it is a sigh from away from above yes I couldn’t put it better yes it is a sign you are absolutely right sir that’s right now you call this the Enfield musket because bullet musket gun I mean I must say do people think this is a factory bike the first question which people ask is what year is it right and I tell him and they say the day you did you restore it and I tell him no I didn’t actually restore it that motors made from scratch and that’s when they say ah tell me more and then I don’t know more well I mean it’s beautifully I mean imagine what we’re saying here you take some wood and you essentially carve the cylinder and then you cast it and then you have to allow for shrinkage and all of that so obvious and you’re a very educated engineer correct not engineer Kjell I did architecture okay and then when I came to the US I did a master’s in industrial design okay which is product design but still not engineering okay we have your masters yes okay smart guy I wouldn’t say master’s mean smart it’s smarter than me okay oh it’s um than me so I have to I must say the level of detail I mean it’s just so nice to see it done the old-fashioned way that’s what I mean there’s a great joy and working with your hands everybody now works sort of with computers so to meet someone like yourself who’s so much younger than I am and enjoys working with their hands it makes me realize oh maybe the old ways aren’t going to die I you know and it was just fantastic so tell us some more about the problems you encountered I mean did you get the cylinder design right the first time you have to make a number of pattern the pattern actually worked perfectly fine the very first time J but the the big hiccup the big you know oh dear moment was that I am teaching design at an Art and Design School in Columbus the Columbia College Art and Design and in my spare time on the weekends I’m working on this project right so I’ve designed it I’ve drawn it up and I’m making the casting patterns out of wood and it’s taken a couple of years at least of doing this and I haven’t done that I’m trying to find a foundry which

is going to pour molten aluminum in there so there’s a place in town which is kind of busy and they say we won’t be able to do it but there’s one guy and he’s a small shop and he might be able to help you so I go there it is a small shop and so the guy says he will do it and I go and I drop off my patterns and he says come back next week and I go back next week and he basically it he says it doesn’t work out and you’re gonna have to make some changes and so on and so forth so I go to pick up my box and I see something’s wrong and I pick up my box of patterns and my fingers are shaking right now because I’m but I’m telling you this because this was bad he’d put them next to a window it had rained furiously over the weekend and my box with my painstakingly made patterns made over two years had been soaked and they’d been sitting wet until the bottom of the patterns had just swelled and split and basically just wrecked them oh man so for three I mean the furnace was going on there and I had a you know really think this carefully that should I push that guy into the furnace and run for it and that’s it I’m free and clear yeah or that would kind of mess things up and and they will probably put me in jail and then I’m not be able to build a bike right so I just picked up my box and I just walked out there and I left and by the way those days I had a 1950 Plymouth okay that made me feel a little better right so anyway side note so I go back home for three months I don’t touch it I said this is too depressing I’m just gonna not look at it because if I do I’ll start crying and and plotting revenge and negative things like that right so after three months or so okay I’m fine I’ll get back to it so I just got the whole messed up parts away and I made them all over again and you know sand it and smooth and everything and then spray the clear coat and then you can’t really tell anything happen and then I look for a different foundry and I found a great place in Toledo and I’d love to give you their name seaport mold right and there are a prototyping foundry they will give you one casting if you want or they’ll give you a hundred and they’re so amazing that the owner told me that get here eight o’clock in the morning we will cast them on the same day and you’re taken back home okay I said okay and eight o’clock morning I was there and sure enough i profusely had my camera clicking constantly with them packing the sand on the bowl and melting the aluminum and pouring in and they gave me castings and I came back home and and that was the first big deal it is actually in metal now it’s no longer a piece of wood and it can’t work with a piece of wood but Wow and that that was the one major setback oh yeah and that’s a huge setback well a lot of other people might have given up I’m glad you didn’t because uh the end result is really really impressive so that’s a thousand seas yes and this is a 700 yes OS it’s just fascinating to me okay what tell me about the transmission sure we’re going to do there this motor will drop into the stock crankcase I beef off the clutch that can handle the extra torque with a clutch springs and that same gearbox which the bullets have is what Royal Enfield in the UK back in the day used all the way up till there interceptor models which were the 750 sure I remember and they made the actual finder yes yeah that’s the exact same box of the neutral finder and they were able to you that box all the way up to like the 52 horse for interceptors so that box is beefy enough to handle that so this motorcycle should be putting on let’s say just under 50 horse bar so I am using the stock box or the beefed up clutch and so far no issues at all and the story with that engine is that once I finish this one and I put some videos up on YouTube I got a lot of views and emails from folks saying that I would really like to have an engine like that and put it in my bullet are you going to make more of these yes so then this whole top process of okay if we have to make these for potential enthusiasts or customers how should I go about it do I need to change something do I need to improve some details do I need to make it easier to manufacture so that result in a complete redesign and that engine has a totally different crankcase which was molded a game from scratch and I made the patterns all over again everything got done all over again new castings do everything and with this one what I did was that it allows the customer to choose if they want the 350 heads on there or the 500 so they can order a 700 or a 1000 I say so this one has a tighter V angle because after that one being a slightly wider because I wanted to be as smooth as possible right and be as cool as possible temperature-wise a degree that’s a 70 degree 70 okay and this one so 59 okay so tighten it up and it’s closer to what a Vincent angle that’s like a Vincent yeah yes see I thought when I first saw this you had just gotten a couple of heads off a couple of bullets and adapted them but you didn’t he

he made the heads okay that’s pretty pretty impressive and these are kickstart only those are kickstart only yes that fancy electric no that would add a dramatic amount of machining and weight and manufacturing complexity to it so keep it true to that vintage Brit bike thing where you just kick it over and you go I kept it with kick start only do you think of this is an Indian motorcycle or is a British motorcycle because when you were a kid they were built in India yes yes still yeah I think it’s kind of a hybrid I mean yeah it’s something which was originally in England adapted in India and then this thing was dreamt up here in the US and this is where it was possible to do it and the fun thing about India to me is it’s a bit like England after the war you have all these little shops where he’s extremely talented machinists and painters and detailed people they’re not organized at all one guy’s here the other guy’s way over there one guy could be in his mother’s basement you know it’s not a factory it’s it’s it’s fascinating craftsman because I’ve met so many Indian craftsmen you know while we’re sitting here playing video games or watching TV they’re actually making stuff I mean it it’s fascinating well I am anxious to to hear it run can we start it up absolutely so do you use any any stark stock bullet parts on this all the stock bullet internal parts will fit like the connecting rods the Pistons the heads the valves the cans the push rods and all of these parts are available upgraded high performance from various places like Hitchcock’s in the UK and ace Performance bullets these are guys who are really good friends of mine and they get a custom forged piston made I say order Carillo Conrad’s they get the head forwarded by Joe Mandela’s shop and they get 40 horses from the 535 CC single ok so one thing we’re going to do later on is to do a v-twin version using their high-performance parts and then we end up with close to 80 horses Wow and then we leave this bricks and plenty of torque go ahead fire it up and see how she goes okay usually she won’t need the choke on a one day yeah that’s good there you go – can you see sign much like a bullet can we take it for a ride absolutely let’s take it for a ride as you see it’s got a nice v-twin Rumble to it like a classic Vincent or bro superior now if you’re looking at the head you might notice hey why the spark plugs there no wires attached well that’s where the compression release normally would be in the old days you pull a lever and raise the exhaust valve and make it easier to kick through but as Annika said those can leak so what he’s done is he just done a couple of spark plugs in there but he is going to make the dual plug head he’ll make it both plugs firing will make it even more efficient so I’m anxious to take from right it’s a nice-sized bike it’s pretty light what is it weighed you know 420 pounds so and the classic v-twin Rumble why it really does feel like a production-ready motorcycle you know to compare it’s like gone from a bullet to a 50 caliber and at 422 pounds it’s really flickable you can flew this thing around I love the neutral finder that’s pretty neat last time’s the fight drawers kick him down second for a second for a second first you you know the real surprise to this motorcycle is how little he did throw said before it’s about 100 degrees here surveillance engine eyes off my leg to be roasting what it’s obviously not probably because the compression ratios not that high it’s a nice torquey motor and it feels about well twice as fast as a bullet it’s just fun to roll on that big tour it really does feel like a mid 50s classic British v-twin

gotta make you wonder if a guy Columbus Ohio can do this in his house why can’t the Indian make a beach win like this you’d be really popular keep this bike is bill for a special class of person well that’s it really for people that like metal in their motorcycles cos plastic I don’t mean that mess sarcastic way I just mean there are some motorcycles they need to look like motor sights maybe they don’t have to be the fastest or the quickest stopping or the best handling but they need to look like motorcycles bullets have always looked like the classic interpretation performer cycle metal fenders metal metal around here chrome headlight rim you know the whole deal and it’s kind of on and it still only 420 how cool is it when you pull up to a motorcycle beat sequence what kind of bike is as you go home I made it myself you made the engine think of how many manufacturers don’t even make their own end why I get almost no vibration at all from the mirrors when I’ve driven an antique Harley to stuff we can’t he can’t even see your own reflection had shaken so much but no fuzziness coming through the bars I mean there’s a nice some thump thump but not not buzzing it it’s not uncomfortable well what a nice bike does is to ride you know it’s not the fact that it it does anything better than anything else the fact that it does everything very nicely I mean it’s got 18,000 miles on it and it was made by one person by hand I mean this is a close this is close to having a baby if the guy will ever get you know you make something you create it it drives it breeze it gets you around it’s it’s pretty amazing you know I think it’s just fantastic you know it restores my sort of faith in America you know the people come here from all over the world but their dreams to make something and build something and that’s what this young man is done here look at this there’s no weeping around any of the cylinders none of bass gaskets are leaking haven’t had to make any excuses transmissions a little bit notchy but that’s okay that’s not the end of the world it just drives so nicely it doesn’t throw any heat it’s really beautifully really beautifully done and to shake the hand of the man who built this come on Anna come on in let’s see man I am very impressed thank you so much you’re very you’re a very modest guy I’m come on Albie I mean I want to thank I’ll be – I found out about this through his website bicurious now people can buy and sell bikes on your website – right yeah so if you have a really cool bike you think you’d like to put on his website send them an email but I just want to thank you for really making something really different and fun I mean anybody can go out and buy a motorcycle how many people can build a motorcycle and make the cylinders and the crank it’s it’s it’s just amazing so congratulations Thank You Jay there you go very much your mother would be proud

Wheels Episode 26

the following program is a Time Warner Cable television production hello everybody and welcome to wheels I’m Tommy cassava your host you know tonight was supposed to be couples night but Cathy Cathy’s Astro you let me down you were supposed to come tonight but you found something better to do but that’s okay because we have your son here with your husband Glen and we are gonna have a fun time and tell you what are you guys out there go whistle whatever you do to get your women or your spouse or your significant other over to watch this show because we are gonna have fun tonight all right let’s get started now welcome back everyone I hope you’re all able to get your significant others to sit next to you and watch this show let’s see I think they’re up Oh you ma’am zip that up a little bit yeah that looks good that’s good okay all joking aside mr. Glenn’s astral here a friend for years and man this guy’s got too many he’s got a story about his cars especially the second one we’re gonna do I say Kathy your wife couldn’t show up tonight and I know she was busy we have your son Matt yeah it’s gonna be kind of interesting just to talk to him and you but your latest acquisition you wanted a 58 Chevy for four years since I was 14 and when did you purchase this car three years ago for you they’ve been that long yeah I know a couple of us were looking for you yeah you and a couple other guys were up at Minnesota and right you’re telling me about it and I already called and happened to be the same car right now tell the viewers you know it’s hard to find a car you look for years you just don’t run out a little knowledge you have to possess two you have to know what you’re looking for and first of all in your price range oh yeah and 58 SAR hard to come by because they’re either too expensive or they’re all rotted away they were known for water seeping into it right such as the trunk such and they were only made one year I mean right of course this style yeah so tell us what led you to this car the features and just generally tell us all about this car well what I liked about the car it it was more than a engineer that made it he had to be an artist oh yeah the curves and shape of the car and I like the taillights on the and the it’s the first car that they start coming out with the fins right right and it always appealed to me when I was 14 I wanted it the guy up the street had it and he was parked out he worked the second shift at Northwest so I always went by and oh sure the car was sitting there and but I was too young and my dad said you don’t want an old beater like that exactly I remember taking my bike home from grade school looking at 69 z/28 and finally purchased one same as you you finally took you a few more years old when we found it what happened is got married I first I went to service got married and had kids soul and then I waited until they were out of college because money was tight and finally I said I’m gonna get the car I always wanted and they raised it so and Kathy was all behind you she that’s all that’s the main thing your wife has to know if you or it’s or she’s not with you yeah right yeah it’s as simple as that I the color lovely I mean this car looks like a custom it already looks with the skirts as if it was customized in a mid-50s type style but it wasn’t this all back this is stock yes it’s beautiful what I liked about this car all the chrome matched it was all nice and there’s not many dings in it right and it’s got the 283 the smaller not the big block but it’s it’s nice and rides on the highway beautiful right you picked it up really reasonable – we won’t say the price but I’ll tell you what after looking in the auto traders and magazines now it was a steal and in and we I’ve told us two people many times you on the show it really is in your favor to buy a car done right if you don’t have the skills the time the place the monies because it does cost a lot of money to finish a car if very I did my my other car and it exactly exactly know it’s also good to have friends that know a lot of ours well they can help check it out for you that’s the sweet part about this hobby of our is there’s so many people involved we get to know each other and meet new people with life and talents and skills and yeah it’s that that’s the beauty of it I really love this this sport you’re driving it with a 283 283

power glide power glide yeah okay and what is what has to be done this car anything what you’re looking at the future oh it needs a new paint job it start starting to bubble in places and I like to redo the trunk it needs to be cleaned before that and interior looks beautiful yes that’s what turned me on about this it just needed a little wash job and hadn’t cleaned up the other ones in it but it’s just a minor stuff and the engine compartment really has to be done over it I like to have the engine redone okay yeah those are the things that you you get and it personalizes it then done your thing too and it truly is your car then okay let’s take a look at the interior take a look at the gauges talk about that any of the style similar to 56 to 59 and I know they stayed similar but is this 58 really that unique that everything about it is truly 58 well when you come to redo these you’ll find that out is a lot of parts from the 57 or to 59 do not fit this this was their anniversary car it was yeahthere’s 75-year anniversary car and I was surprised that so what year would that have been no ladies you sitting near a husband you can figure that out for him yeah so so and a lot of like the door handles and that don’t even fit on the same models like if you go from an Impala to a Bel Air and the Bel Air handles they don’t fit on to the Impala so you have to really look for parts for these cars oh yeah imagine picking up a basket case having to do it and then walk Iola Jefferson all the big swap meets and find it you did yourself right there beautiful car but I’ll tell you what here’s the story you people are really gonna enjoy we’re gonna bring Glenn’s other car his his first car and you’ll have the story to tell about it beautiful heavy Chevy yeah and we’re gonna see it right now so stay tuned hey we’re back anywhere with Glenn and Matt Zastrow hey did you do that math on that last 75-year anniversary quiz Glenn was a little off I think was fifty years all right and right now and the assistants is supposed to be like couples night I got to give a shout out to Jim and Connie staszek I told you guys I’d give you a shout and Connie I know you’re sitting next to Jimmy and whatever he told you about me he’s he’s right it’s not a lie so here we are um 72 heavy Chevy Chevelle Glenn please tell us the story on this car okay this is my first car I ever owned by myself we and I got home from service and I took a ride with my brother-in-law and sister and over to Broadway Chevrolet looking for a car and my sister was said oh look at that pumpkin so I turned around and looked in here it was the heavy Chevy fell in love with it and had it ever since it’s my my every one of my kids were cook him to the hospital in it when they were born and we got married in it we took it on our honeymoon and it’s my wife’s favorite car so you could say like Matt went out with you and came home with mom in this car that’s right all three kids came home mom okay and I really appreciate the fact you serve your country in Vietnam I appreciate that so much I thank you you came home from the service what kind of money did you have the purchase this car how we were able to purchase it well Uncle Sam made me save warbots in a savings bond so uh I saved them and I cashed him in and put a down payment on it my mother co-signed it because I didn’t have a job and that’s how I got it two weeks later I got a job this is how we ended up with it it’s been redone and 80 in 1989 we redid it because it was a sconce encar the wheel wells were flapping the fenders were you know it was an everyday drivers family cars so I got it Bruce fixed it for me and it took a year and a half because I didn’t have enough money so he did it on the side whenever he had a opening he’d work on it if a car came in he did that one Matt we gotta let you talk a little bit tell us your memories of not only this car but your dad’s fascination with automobiles and mothers well I remember when I was really little we had a fifty-seven sitting in the garage and I used to sit behind it little kid sitting behind the wheel but it had been Larry’s car could it possibly have been but we had that one and then I remember they had gotten an accident back in 83 with a drunk driver and ever since then this car started rusting out but then dad decided he wanted to redo it mmm I’ve sort of been along for the ride ever the whole way I’ve been helping him out holding the bumper up while we’re putting the bumper on helping him level everything out scraping the paint off of it before we took it to get painted and then pretty much every weekend before we go to a car show I’ve been the one the

wash and detail the car so right here I’m not sure your mom helped too I always saw Cathi help and I’ll faint a true family affair and that’s really what this whole car sport is about Glenn what did this car go for in 1972 $3,400 you know what did it cost her totally redo this car I bought twice that and this was in 1989 89 yes yes the probably the paint job was more than what the car costed yeah tell us some of the features at this and this is a really weird car because it’s not a normal Chevelle heavy Chevy’s were only made two years what were they thinking they put this stripe on a friend of mine has another one of these and it’s it’s unique that I know – and that’s the only – I’ve ever seen while it was considered the family man’s sport car because at that time the insurance companies were going crazy with your SS models so and Chevrolet wanted to do competition with the GTO with the judge do that with so they put the heavy Chevy emblems on in that and it’s actually a positive regular Chevelle but it you only could get it with three speed on the column three speed on the floor and it had to have a bench seat or automatic and it the biggest engine you could get in it was a 350 notice about this Glen you kind of going retro back to when it would look like in the 70s with the chrome reverse the baby was is that the way you had it then yes only I didn’t have the baby moons on it I just had the chrome averse and after so many years with Kreger mags on it I said I will go back and put the chrome reverse back on this is just sweet I love this story I mean how many people have their first car besides Glen and I of course Matt I want to thank you very much for coming of course you got to drive the car because your dad has 58 Glen I want to thank you and hey don’t go away because we’re gonna be right back with another couple hey welcome back everyone really is a pleasure I’ve been waiting for this for a long time introduce you to Roy and Pam Paulus really a true car couple I’ve known Ryan Pam for years and I’m telling you every car show you go to they are there together Pam beautifully dressed up like a teenybopper and I and what kind of skirt would that be called it’ll skirt without a poodle all right I like that I’ll be the dog okay they travel all around the country not just local shows really live breathe eat die walk talk go to the corner turn around come back okay cars believe me and you guys are really in for a treat because not only does Roy have a car and Pam travel with him for years not with this car but other cars he’s had a Pam decided to have her own little pink metropolitan we’re gonna learn more about that in a little bit but first we’re gonna talk to Roy Pam you’re gonna go get us that little treat that you promised us remember they were to bring you back we’re gonna talk about your little pink metropolitan how’s that sound all right let’s all right nice talking you know Roy let’s talk about the beautiful Chevy 46 47 48 huh 46 47 48 they’re all the same yeah so were the force or the dodges right okay let’s talk about how you acquired this car how many years ago I know you had a beautiful 53 Chevy that we’re looking at now let’s talk about that first okay how did that come about that car well I got done racing and 1990 I retired and I had I needed something to do I had to have something with cars I did it for 25 years so I know we uh let me just interrupt you I’m sorry but you all remember Roy Paulus you diehard racers Roy race from 1965 up until win 1990 Oh any good stock car driver how many cars would you wish you would have saved for hot-rodding instead of smashing up just about all of them okay I’m sure you did I’m sure you did okay I’m sorry keep on going yeah but so we got into friends of ours during re OMA Glenn’s Astro and he took me to car shows and I got kind of hooked got the bug so we started looking for a car and I found this 53 mm-hm and a guy from De Pere Bob Herrick I bought it from him and my cousin did the bodywork on it and painted it and put a small-block 327 in it right three speed mile can for a barrel yeah it was a beautiful car you guys went everywhere that I really like that car but then it was time for that car to go yeah and the urge was on for a full blown custom and I’m telling you this thing is it looks like it’s right out of the 50s every last detail tell us about the construction process well originally we got it about four years ago and it was hot rod at the back end up in the air and a tattoo for sticking out of the hood and I wanted something different I got into customs and I loved it and nobody else in the area has a 48 customs okay you’re right so we decided to drop the car down we took it to Ralph and Jeff Jindal and they found out that what we bought wasn’t exactly as we talked to Glenn

about that how do you really look for the perfect card and so many things are hidden under paint yeah mud and such but you say to drop the car down that called a California rake when the ass and drags and yes did I say ass oh I didn’t mean that but took the car down we channel it over to frame which is cutting the body and dropping the whole body over the frame down you’re not cutting the suspension yeah getting an illusion at strap yeah still have full travel on your suspension yeah okay so it’s dropped four inches front and back squared up it’s got a Mustang two front end under it it’s got a motor in under 325 years I said Mopar oh that’s sick no the new word is sick nowadays ladies and gentlemen someone says you’re sick you got to take it as a compliment that means hot or cool so my daughter told me from Chicago all right so you’re sick go ahead but it’s got a 350 350 training in it automatic on the floor green and I wanted to do a 50 style custom and we ran it for about three years in primer right and just to get the bugs out and make sure nothing cracked I cheated that because I’m still running in private or the brothers know I’m all alone yeah but we were pretty happy with it and it had decided we wanted to paint it and we chose the raspberry it’s a GM raspberry I think it’s a 95 s10 color beautiful beautiful and they owe a world to Jeff and roll oh god I’m telling you if you could appreciate bodywork and in the body mods there’s got to be hundreds there are molded fenders drop shape frenched I mean it’s just phenomenal a lot of a lot of kudos go out to Ralph and Jeff and I know I’ve talked to you guys a couple times I gotta appreciate all that all the work that went into this thing and other things let’s look at the inside I really love the inside I mean it’s right out of the 50s yeah yeah we had that in mind from when I started and that’s why I call it The Dream Chaser it’s something I’m you know chasing but I wanted it totally a 50 style we’re not done with the interior yet I don’t I’d like to get a tuck and roll done on it yeah oh yeah yeah but had there flames Oh flames and who did we turn to to get a flame job Jackie no Jax you can’t have her why don’t we bring the master out the keeper of the flame as I like to call him jack just happened to stop by his roan neighborhood just bought his wife a brand new vehicle so he’s kind of he’s hurting a little bit in a pocketbook Jack tell us how you laid out the flames the theme that Roy wanted how do you how do you coordinate that with a customer especially pinstriping I mean you can’t tell them what you’re gonna do do you let your creativity flow and Surprise them and then wait for the fireworks in this particular case right here with Roy’s car and actually I do with almost all my customers cars and that is we did some preliminary drawings there’s a lot of different styles of flames some people say old flame is a flame as a flame but that’s not true the style that we chose this for this particular car there’s a style that Pam and Roy chose is actually called a seaweed style of flame and this was originated back in the 1950s of course by a very famous by the name of Larry Watson and the thing that’s really nice about this flame job on your too because of the the flow of the flames what it does is it gives the illusion that the car is longer if you could have seen it before picture of this and hopefully there will be one available that we can show to your viewers that the car had kind of a squatty look to it but with the flames added to it now to give the illusion that the car is actually lower and longer so it’s kind of a pink type of trick right and then finally the last thing now we added to it if you get a shot later on of the the deck lid and the and the hood what you’re going to find is that it’s got a really bizarre style of striping and the reason that this striping was introduced into the car is because this was popular which would of the type of style that was done back in the 1950s that was originated by the no deceased Dutch was probably one of the most famous pinstripers of all time so what we did was just as Roy originally wanted to those concept to end up being it’s a totally 50s style flame job the only thing that isn’t 50s about it is we kind of fog the bottoms net a little bit to get a three-dimensional effect but the style of flame is 50s the pinstriping is 50s and as you can see the whole theme of the currents up to be very successfully 50s and when they go to let East this year they’re gonna knock them daddy thank you I mean this car is sick you know what I’m saying okay thanks a lot jack I really appreciate your comments on that and it helps you people out to really know how to do your car after its onion the customizing really added the flames added their superior to it what else would like to say about the car of the how many years to take to build something you could offer to someone maybe starting out that would like to build a car okay roughly took about four years totaling to get to where we are now there’s a lot of body work done to it the fenders have been widened to inches they’re

fiberglass molded in Ralph did a super job hoods been well it shut down the seams been felled in tail lights have been inverted originally the the taillights were vertical not horizontal just something a little different the radius exhaust pipes where the exhaust comes all it’s been radius front anything of all those bodies it’s hard but yeah we’re looking at it now I mean all the different things how do you open the doors it’s electronic electronic switches yeah remote v we got a hidden remote and hidden where is it hidden I just checking to see if you had her all down there for no Chrome a lot all you did with the grill I mean yeah your paint it it’s kind of monochromatic blends in with the flame beautiful job there little things that I think people are going to know what we talked about you go to let East Yahoo go around the country with your car and you drive them you don’t not I ever already like a breakdown we have already but it’s just a chance you take you can break throw in a new current so you sure can and I tell you when you get closer to the big shows in the thousands and thousands of cars and people are there they’re out to help you yeah I mean how many numerous stories I I’ve read and heard about that I mean they keep you overnight the the Brotherhood of the car club is really all definitely fascinating in one world and talking about fascinating and wonderful what do we get Pam over here we’re gonna take a little break right now and then we’ll get Pam out here okay great thanks right sir oh you want to talk about pretty-in-pink we have it right here Pam it’s a pleasure thanks for coming back we enjoyed the little treat before – thanks for coming down okay had a wonderful talk with Roy it’s really super to talk to him and to you but so many years I saw you at the car shows always dressing up in the poodle skirts all he’s dressing up period to look the part and enjoying yourself so much talking with the guys and the women really relating to both both sides of the field here but you finally got yourself your own car what happened well I thought about it for many many years Roy knew I was interested in this metropolitan and finally I searched on the internet a few years ago and found one in Milwaukee and here it is okay and this is what yours is 1961 61 Nash metropolitan yeah correct Nash metropolitan what kind of shape what color what was it like when you got it it was yellows farmer owners had painted it yellow I’m not sure why original color was black and white oh and that was my color too that was one of the original metropolitan colors okay what kind of shape was the car in very solid body doors open and closed well it wasn’t sagging no rust okay green that was a big seller oh yeah you’re darn right because these cars had to weather a lie and I know they didn’t last too long so you got yourself a really beautiful car here who did the paintwork and bodywork Ralph Shindell so again Ralph big congrats cool well great beautiful job I mean if you could see this in person ladies and gentlemen it is really flawless a beautiful job I knew I wanted a pink car oh sure I mean this is when you get this thing running and the reason I say that is not running yet not the original engine or anything what did you do to it it has a 1970 h of that drivetrain automatic and motor did you say drivetrain yes I did cease not many know what the wrong drivetrain you’re learning well a svet drivetrain is that a trick for the Metropolitan’s to put that in because it’s short wheelbase and such it has been done in other Metropolitan’s I had learned that from people I met on the Internet okay it’s a good fit there are a few changes that had to be made few things moved around in the firewall that’s it do you say firewall yes I do I mean I love you Pam is great you know all the terminology you got it down we’ll talk about talking the guys on the internet a little bit later too about that okay not about car stuff either you may want to know why I wanted automatic in it no maybe I don’t okay okay I do why don’t you have a stake the met okay the Metropolitan’s only came were made with a stick 40 years of driving I still don’t shift when did you start driving when you were 14 years oh you’re born all right 40 years ago when I was 16 oh my god you weather well I’ve always had a hang-up for driving standard transmission so Roy said he would do this changeover yeah I’m sure he had to say that any what I decided well I wasn’t going to buy the car if right great that’s a minor touch the little in there automatic you got a nice little floor shifter in here is that out of the Chevette so you’re able to salvage a lot of the parts and use right oh how did you get the Chevette from local junkyard oh really and the motor and was

that running exactly gone through – uh it was gone over okay I don’t know if it was actually running when we got it I said okay so you really don’t know that much about cars right what is left to get this thing running because hey back to the 50s is in a week right well I won’t make it it won’t make it I would like to take it there you told me something interesting before when I called you when Roy was gone to work okay we want to talk about that either you said you can find all the Nash metropolitan pieces you want but the Chevette parts are holding you up well sure vets aren’t necessarily collector there aren’t the most popular although on the internet I found out there are some Chevette clubs and people have been those people are sick yes that’s not a way there because of Shaban only Donnie Webster Lakes events but Metropolitan’s have been a popular collector item for a long time there are companies all over the country that sell the parts anything you need are the new parts reproduction parts some are new old stock and another term and some are brand new ok great we saw and I say we a couple of guys in us and saying this saw a pro Street at Nash metropolitan now imagine tubbing the rear end putting the big tires on and that was crazy but I love what you did to this guy you are gonna get looks well not only the normal looks you get from guys but now that you’re driving this was that tough doubt Pro Street or turquoise and Wi-Fi yes it was you really are a fan of Metropolitan’s aren’t you love the trunk let’s look in the trunk and hold the big size cooler well I think you just put ice in it and put your soda and whatever else just drill a hole in the floor would that be alright or not alright well as we take away the car and walk around it it is just beautiful and we’re gonna come right back get everybody back together and I can’t thank you enough thanks for having us over today Pam hey this this is fun I mean I can’t believe yeah I would do this show for nothing wait I do this show for nothing okay we’ll be right back thank you well we say all good things must come to an end and I’ll tell ya this is couples night Connie were you sitting with Jimmy I hope you liked it I tell you I’ve never had so much fun before doing a shoulder and this one here I mean we were stoked I’m telling you we had so much fun when we weren’t filming too and all thanks to these guys Glenn I want to thank you very much do you have anything to add yeah I wish Kathy was here to see Elvis you missed them again Kathy yeah we had a good time Matt thank you thank you I hope the car gets passed on for another 40 years next generation here that cleaning wants a car Pam thank you so much you were wonderful I got to ask you one question okay some guys were saying why don’t you put a bra in the front of this I think should have a jockstrap myself yeah I do – look we’ll leave that for another time okay Roy thank you so much Thank You Tommy it’s been a wonderful it really has now usually under shoulder I get a ride in a car or or I get to take a ride in a car so which one of you guys are gonna let me take your car these are sick you guys are really sick the cars everything’s sick well that’s good we’ll catch you next time on wheels I’m Tomica javo hope we had a great time see ya

Empirical formula

hello mr. Courtney here in this video we’re talking about mole concept and we’re going to be specifically looking at empirical and molecular formula over compound so we’ll be looking at how to calculate empirical formula how to calculate the molecular formula and all to get the molecular formula of a hydrate so we’d use the formula for compound to calculate percent composition in this lesson we’re going to see how we can use the percent composition to determine the formula of the compound so what is the empirical formula when perfect formula is the smallest whole number ratio of the elements in a compound we see the smallest whole number ratio mean the simplest form that the element the compound can be broken down into so when we look at the ratio of the elements in this element we have one carbon to oxygen we cannot break it up into any simpler form so that is our empirical formula in h2o you cannot break it on into a simple a whole number ratio so that’s our empirical formula but when we look at c4h10 we see that we have we it is able to be broken down into a simpler formula it is not the simplest whole number ratio we can divide the ratio of carbon to hydrogen by two we get a simpler ratio of c2h5 so c2h5 is the empirical formula for c4h10 so how do we calculate the empirical formula first we need to know the mass then we convert on mass into moles and how do we do that by dividing by the atomic mass of each other now if you give it a percent composition we’re going to assume it’s a hundred gram of the compound why can we assume it’s 100 grams of the compound you can do that because a percent is out of 100 so if you told the percentage of something is twenty-five percent that means out of 100 grams you have 25 grams of that element from the compound next we need to determine our mole ratio so was the mole ratio of each element in the combo what we’re going to do is look for the element that provides the lowest are the smallest number of moles and divide all the number of moles my element that number of mole and that will give us a whole number now if we do not get a whole number we need to multiply both the ratio by some number some factors that will give us a whole number once we’ve done that we’re going to use the ratios as a subscript in the formula so that’s the kind of example so compound is made up of 79 cuisine 79.8 percent carbon and 20.2 percent hydrogen or asked the fans empirical formula so first thing listia elements present in a compound then we determine what mass we have with a mass of carbon in the compound is 79.8 because we convert % 2 grams and the mass of hydrogen will be 20.2 we divide now by our atomic mass of these elements to get our number of moles over cotton we’ve had bagged 12.0 that gives us six point six five four hydrogen we / 1.01 that gives us 20.0 now after we have moles if you refer back to your steps we need to get more ratio so look at the number of moles we have for carbon and hydrogen you see that carbon has lowest number of moles which is 6 165 so we’re going to divide each number of moles that is six point six five four for carbon and 20.0 for hye-jin by 6.65 that gives us a mole ratio of 14 carbon and the mole ratio of three by hydrogen so empirical formula tells us we have one carbon and three hydrogen so what empirical formula will be CH three in the second example we have an oxide of aluminum which is formed by the complete reaction of 4.15 one grams of aluminum with 3.69 two grams of oxygen and we’re asked to calculate empirical formula of this come from so we’re given grams we’re not were current percentage so we give it a specific amount of grams of each element aluminum and oxygen again list our molds or math sorry now we get our molds x divided by the atomic masses of the element so aluminum will / 27.0 for oxygen will / is 16.0 so we look at our number of moles for each element and we use that to determine our moderation and this one we see that aluminum provides a smallest number of moles so we’ll divide the number of moles of aluminum and oxygen by each one guy point one five three seven we get one mole for aluminum and 1.5 models for oxygen now we didn’t get a whole number thank you go back to the steps we said if you don’t get a whole number you need to multiply it by

some factor that will give us a whole number so we’re going to multiply the 1.5 and the one multiplied both of them back to that gives us two aluminum’s and three oxygens so the empirical formula for this compound is al to go three so what this is showing us is basically how we move from the mass of the elements to empirical former so we start with mass percent of elements then we good we even mass percent we assume it’s out of 100 grams then we get grams of each element use the atomic weight so we divide by atomic weights to give us moles of each element so that gives us moles that we calculate our mole ratio by dividing by the smallest amount of moles then we can use those numbers to give us our subscripts in our company and that gives us the empirical formula so molecular formula molecular formula is active actual number each element or the actual month of each element in the compound so that’s what it tells us it gives us a ratio of the elements in the come from not the simplest phone number with just a ratio so it could be c2h4 it is not the simplest form but it is the correct ratio of the elements in the compound the empirical formula and the molecular formula can be the same let’s look at some examples in water each two is the empirical formula and the molecular formula because it is the actual ratio of the elements in the compound and it also represents the lowest whole number ratio of the elements in a compound for hydrogen peroxide h2o2 is the molecular formula but it is it is not the empirical formula because it is not the simplest whole number ratio of the elements the empirical formula will be H oh so calculated molecular formula to calculate molecular formula we need to know the ratio of the molecular mass to the ratio of the empirical mass we say in berk molecular formula Max and Virgo formula mass so we need to know these two values so to get n that is how many times is the molecular formula larger than our empirical formula we take the molecular mass and / the empirical mass once we get that ratio and we’re going to take that and multiply by the empirical formula to get our molecular formula when we get that we’re going to multiply each subscript in the empirical formula bag and so that’s very important we get a multiply each subscript by the emperor in empirical formula by that ratio n so that’s the kind of example here we’re told a white powder is analyzed and fund to have the empirical formula p 2 o 5 the compound has a molar mass of twenty eight point three nine to eight to eighty two point nine grams and we need to find a molecular formula so first we need to determine the ratio how many times is our molecular formula greater than 0 empirical formula so we need to find the empirical mass of p2o5 once you do that you get the empirical mass to be 140 2.0 so now we’re going to divide our molar mass so we take our molar mass and / the zone molar mass here and / or empirical mass and gives us two so now we have to as a ratio we multiply our empirical formula bag that ratio to give us our molecular formula so p 2 o 5 times 2 number 1 we’re going to multiply the subscript so 2 times 2 and 2 times 5 so I gives us p 4 4 10 and as our molecular formula now a compound used as an additive for gasoline to help prevent engine knock shows a falling percent composition so we have twenty four point seven percent carbon four point zero seven percent hydrogen 71.6 five percent chlorine we’re told the molar mass is known to be 98.9 six and we’re asked to determine the empirical formula and the molecular formula of this come from so we we’re incorporating both steps in this problem so we start by calculating empirical formula so we have carbon hydrogen and chlorine and since we’re given percent we’re gonna see you miss out of 100 grams so the masses will be the same as a percentage except we changes a grandson then we divide by the atomic masses of each of these elements

to get our number of moles so we / 12.0 to give us 2.0 24 carbon / 1.01 or hydrogen and that gives us 4.03 / 35.5 for chlorine that gives us 2.0 to we now need to know Oh a mole ratio so we look for the smallest number of moles that were we’d be calculated before we calculated 2.02 4.03 and 2.0 tooth so 2.02 is the lowest number of moles are the smallest number of mole so we divide the number of moles II calculated for each element like 2.02 so get one for carbon 2.0 for hydrogen and one for chlorine so that means our empirical formula is ch ch 2 CL now we need to final empirical mass or the empirical formula mask which find out to be forty nine point five grams once we follow a miracle formula mass that we need to find a ratio of the empirical mass to sorry of the formula mass to empirical mass so we divide formula mass by the empirical mass and then we’re already given the molar mass or formula mass which is ninety-eight point ninety six so we take 1 98.9 6 and / 49.5 that gives us approximately 2 so that means I’m molla molecular formula sorry is two times larger than our empirical formula so we multiply our empirical formula by two so i’ll give a c2h4 co2 is again we’re multiplying our subscripts so we multiply our subscripts the two times one it gives us to two times two is four two times one is to hydrate a hydrant is a compound that has water molecules chemically bonded to it then ink component has water molecules chemically modded to it it’s considered a hydric how do we know if something is a hydrate here we have a compound assault followed by a dot and then set amount of water molecules attached to it this number tells us how many water molecules and this h2o the watermark is attached to it is what leave lets us know that this is a hydric you can also look at the name of the compound the name of the compound will come contain the term hydrate so we have carpet to solve it tetrahydrate and tetra tells us we have four water molecules in it now to name the hydrate the name of the salt when in the salt and then we follow it with the term hydrate and with some numerical prefix attached to it the numerical prefix tells us how many hydrates we have in the compound so for this one if you were to name this company we named the salt plus sodium carbonate we have sodium carbonate and we have water I have any water molecule we have been out of 10 so that’s sodium carbonate and since we have hydrate you know it has water markets in the end of the term hydrate coming out 10 of them it’s decahydrate so the name of the compound is sodium carbonate decahydrate so what’s the formula for copper to sulfate tetrahydrate so copper to solve it copies plus to solve it is minus two so that’s cuso4 tip we put a dot and tetrahydrate will be 4h to go now the formula mass we do the formal matches as how we do we’ve done for any of any compound before just by adding the individual masses up together so we do for copper sulphur oxygen now we can do water as 18.0 15 or 18 point 0 2 x 4 or if you went to each one individually to 10 1.0 1 plus 16 and all that x for which is the same thing and that gives us 2 30 1.5 grams per mole to determine the formula for hydric now the moles of water present is going to be a whole number multiple of the moles of salt present and we saw that before we have one more one mole of the salt and four moles of the water in caco-2 sulphate tetrahydrate so let’s see how we determine that we’re gonna work it out simple some are similar to how we did empirical formula except we’re not going to be using elements we’re going to be using the compounds whatever the salt is and the water monkey so we look at this problem we’re given a sample of a

hydrate which is 10.40 seven grams and is heated to drive off the water and hydrous this is important anhydrous or the dry sample as a mass of 99.5 20 grams we want the format of the hydrate and then the name of the hydrate so first of all we know we have barium iodine that’s our salt and we have water because it’s a hydrate we need we need to know the mass of the hydrate of water sorry and the mass of the area highlight now since we’re told in the beginning the sample is the hydrate then we dragged it off so the mass of the dry sample will be the mass of the salt and the difference between the two masses will be the mass of water let me calculate moles we divide 9.5 20 by the formula mass of the area mega dive that gives us the number of moles we do the same thing for water / 18.02 and gives us number of moles and again we’re going to calculate or mole ratio this here is a smallest number of moles so you divide this by 1 by itself we’re going to divide this by point zero two four three four also we do that we get one for barium iodine and two for water so that tells us in every mole of the hydrate there’s one very mad i and two water molecules so bai to dot 2 h2o so that’s very Amanda died died hydrate because we have two water molecules attached so we’re going to talk about combustion analysis in combustion analysis it’s using organic or and analytical chemistry to determine the empirical formula for pure organic compound and as you can see here the sample is passed through the furnace then you’re going to have and absorb it something that absorbs the water molecules and then something that absorbs our carbon dioxide oxygen and other gases will be given out at the end so once the substance is combusted the products and usually is going to be carbon carbon dioxide water and oxygen gas can be analyzed to determine the empirical formula so we get mass you go to moles and then empirical formula so it’s a kind of example set a complete combustion of a sample of propane gas we started off we sorry we ended up with 2.6 21 grams of carbon outside 1.1 full 2 grams of water as only products find the empirical formula of propane so we know propane is going to contain carbon and hydrogen so that means from carbon dioxide we need to find the moles of carbon and from Waterloo to find the moles of hydrogen so we start with this we start with 2.4 61 grams of carbon dioxide we know in 1 mole of carbon dioxide we have 44.0 grams so that gives us moles now look I’ve got the formula for carbon dioxide co2 we have one carbon atom in one mole of carbon dioxide one mole of carbon atoms in one mole of carbon out there so that gives us point 0 600 moles of carbon for water we start with 1.4 for two grams in one mole of water we have 18.02 grams the formula mass and in one mole of water that we have two moles of hydrogen because we have h2o so here we have two moles of hydrogen that gives us 10 16 same thing as we did before going to calculate our mole ratio this here we have a smallest number of moles from carbon so we do our ratio of carbon to hydrogen and that gives us 1 06 / point 06 or carbon point 16 / point 06 for hydrogen and gives us a ratio of one to two point six seven so now we gonna we don’t have a whole number 40 mole ratio and we need whole numbers so i’m going to multiply everything by 3 so I gives us three carbon atoms 8 hydrogen atoms so that means of empirical formula is c3h8 let’s look at one more no suppose you were able to isolate them acid from two leaves and know that it contains only the elements carbon hydrogen and oxygen when you heat it when you hit 8.5 13 grams of acid we get point 501 grams

carbon out 7.10 three grams water we need to know the empirical formula and the molecular formula if you’re also told that the molar mass was determined to be 90 point zero four grams per mole the notice we’re given that is made bit Elm the compounds are is made from the elements carbon hydrogen and oxygen but we’re only given the mass of carbon dioxide and the mass of water produced so from carbon dioxide we can determine grams of carbon from water we can determine grams of hydrogen then we can find the grams of oxygen from the as being the room in subtract those values point from point 5 13 to give us grams of oxygen so we do it similar to what we did the first time in previous examples of point 501 grams of carbon in one mole of carbon dioxide sorry and in one mole of carbon dioxide we have 40 4.01 grams we know that we have one mole of carbon dioxide one mole of carbon in one mole of carbon dioxide then we’re going to convert our moles to grams so we have 12.01 grams of carbon in one mole of common so in the compound we have point one three seven grams of carbon we do the same thing for water point 103 grams in one mole of what that we have 18.02 grams then we look at the mole ratio in hydrogen in water molecules we have two moles of hydrogen in every mole of water then we multiply by 101 grams in each mole of hydrogen that gives us 0 point 0 1 16 grams once we’ve done that we can calculate the mass of oxygen by subtracting these two values from point 5 13 so now that we have the mass of each element in the compound we can go ahead and cut empirical formula so we start with our elements we start with the mask which we just calculated you already know the moles of carbon and hydrogen is we we could have determined that already so we do that by their atomic masses to give us the moves we do the same thing for oxygen now we look at the the values that produces the smallest number of moles so let’s go with this one these two are approximately the same okay so we go here so for more Moorish of column we get one hydrogen we get one oxygen we get 1.98 that tells us it’s approximately one two one two two so empirical formula is CH 0 2 but we still need to find our molecular formula so to find molecular formula phone from empirical formula we must know our empirical formula maths or are the empirical mass that’s 45.0 and we will give in the molecular formula of the compound previously in the question so we have 90 point zero four grams per mole as a molecular formula we divided by our empirical formula mass sorry Lloyd molecular masses 90.0 for we divided by the empirical mass of 40.0 that gives us a ratio of two once we have the ratio of two we’re going to multiply this by our empirical formula which is CH 0 2 to give us our molecular formula so that will give us c 2 h 2 o 4 mr. that takes us to the end of this until the next time i’m out blessings

Intro to Organic Functional Groups Lesson

this video is an introduction to the types of organic compounds and organic functional groups and there are a lot of them but this is just an introduction so what is an organic functional group well it’s not a complete compound but rather it is part of an organic compound often a reactive site in a compound for example ch3 something is part of many organic compounds including a small molecule such as methane here and including large molecules like an HEC tain carbon 100 hydrogen 202 and in this formula methyl group is part of that compound now students have organic chemistry you must memorize a variety of organic functional groups and the types of organic compounds that they form so let’s get started alkyl groups we’ve just mentioned the methyl group ch3 something as for example in the compound methyl chloride now if we have a methylene group it’s a ch2 group but that means there’s two more single bonds to something as for example in the compound methylene chloride and here’s a structure of it ch2 ccl2 chlorine is known to be a pale green gas and in these models cloying is represented by green atoms to carbonell kills an ethyl group would be the simplest ch3 ch2 something as for example in the compound ethyl chloride now we can also have an ethylene group which has two methylene groups and each one it has a single bond to some substituent as for example in the compound ethylene chloride here is ch 2 CL CH 2 CL methylene chloride a few more alkyl groups let’s look at three carbon al kills well straight chain alkyl n propyl group as for example in and pro pro quo ride is ch3 ch2 ch2 CL well it turns out that there is another isomer of the propyl group called an isopropyl group in which case the substituent is on the second carbon or the middle carbon as for example in the compound isopropyl chloride we have CH three chcl ch3 now whereas there were two different isomers of the propyl group there are in fact four different butyl isomers and have drawn for butyl chlorides below to illustrate this we’ll start with n-butyl chloride not n meaning normal or unbranched or straight chain as shown with the chlorine on the end this next structure is named isobutyl chloride now it’s butyl because there’s four carbons but why I so well in the numb in the nomenclature of the common system and there isn’t much but there are a few rules iso defines that a compound has a methyl group on the second last carbon from the end of the chain well what’s the beginning of the chain well the longest chain that contains the functional group is the main chain the head carbon is defined as the carbon bonded to the substituents so this marks the beginning of the chain here’s the end of the chain second from the end is a methyl group and that defines the ISO group isobutyl chloride there is also an isomer called sec-butyl chloride short from term secondary butyl chloride and sometimes abbreviated s hyphen butyl chloride notice in the structure that one of the internal carbons has a substituent on it now because this head carbon has bonded to two other carbons it’s defined as being a secondary carbon and the name sec-butyl chloride derives from that the fourth and final butyl isomer is named tert-butyl chloride if you look at the structure the head carbon is bonded to three other carbons and so that defines what’s called a tertiary carbon so the name can be tertiary butyl chloride sometimes written t-butyl chloride or even T hyphen beautiful

chloride let’s look at a couple of alkenyl groups taken from alkenes ch2 double bond CH something is defy is called a vinyl group an example would be vinyl chloride and here is the structure of vinyl chloride ch2 double bond chcl now vinyl chloride is a mala monomer that is polymerized to polyvinyl chloride a plastic often referred to simply as vinyl so rubber boots raincoats shower curtains and even vinyl siding on a home is generally polyvinyl chloride this next compound CH 2 double bond carbon with two substituents is referred to as a vanilla bean group an example would be vanilla tea in chloride CH 2 double bond CCL 2 and there’s the structure of vinylidene chloride another group that is similar but different than the vinyl group is called an allyl group some people call it an illegal group CH 2 double bond ch ch 2 CL is an example of allyl chloride so what’s the difference between allyl chloride and vinyl chloride well allele means that there is a substituent on a carbon next to a double bonded carbon whereas vinyl means that there is a substituent directly on the double bonded carbon let’s then look at some types of organic compounds we’ll start with the simplest now in these compounds are the letter R represents any alkyl group or sometimes simply the rest of the molecule an alkane is a saturated hydrocarbon it’s also referred to as a paraffin think of paraffin wax is a good example simple another simple example is propane and here is a structure ch3 ch2 ch3 all carbons are saturated with hydrogen alkenes have one or more carbon-carbon double bonds an alternate name for an alkene is an olefin which means attracted to few things or attracted by a few things and if you’ve smelled alkenes you know why few people are attracted to them simple example is propene CH 3 CH double bond CH to keep in mind always that carbon has four bonds a hydrocarbon with one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds is referred to as an alkyne simple example in its propyne and there’s its structure ch3 see triple bond CH our x where x is a halogen fluorine chlorine bromine or iodine is referred to as an alkyl halide occasionally called halo alkane there’s n-propyl chloride is an example of a simple alkyl halide ch3 ch2 ch2 CL aromatics sometimes called irene’s are compounds derived from benzene c6h6 now benzene is represented by all of the structures that are shown below in this structure on the left all carbons and hydrogen’s are showing other models our skeletal structures and is understood that there’s a carbon at the end of every line or at the junction of any two lines hydrogen’s are not shown these in these structures so benzene is a six membered hexagonal carbon ring it has an alternating pattern of single and double carbon-carbon bonds now in reality all six carbons share the six pi electrons there are three pi bonds to PI electrons per bond total of six pi electrons but they are not localized as the structure would indicate rather than having three single bonds and three double bonds benzene actually has six bonds which might be described as being one and a half bonds and these two illustrations on the right it’s served to show this that the six electrons the PI electrons are shared equally among the six carbons here we

have a phenol group c6h5 something that is referred to as an aerial group sometimes abbreviated AR when bonded now the benzyl group c6h5 ch2 is also shown here and it’s often confused with the fennel group they differ by this methylene group so try and keep them separate chlorobenzene c6h5 CL put a chlorine on here and benzoyl chloride c6h5 CH 2 CL put a chloride on here are examples of aromatic compounds ethers have an oxygen atom that is singly bonded to two alkyl groups as illustrated in this structure now the oxygens bonding in an ether is very similar to an oxygens bonding and water and so the basicity of an ether PKB about 17 is similar to that of the basicity of water it’s the same oxygen donating the same-ish pair of electrons however the acidity of an ether is quite different ethers are completely non-acidic ethers do not have the hydroxyl hydrogen to donate and as a result of that you’ll sometimes see either is used as solvents in reactions where using a very strong base which would otherwise deprotonate other solvents like alcohols which have hydroxyl hypertens diethyl ether fo oxygen ether is a common organic solvent ch3 ch2 oh ch2 ch3 so oxygens are depicted red in these models diethyl ether is nonpolar it’s dielectric constant is only for it has a low boiling point 35 degrees C that makes it a good solvent general purpose solvent in the organic laboratory so you can use ethers to extract organics out of water the ether will separate from water in a separatory funnel being less dense it’s the upper layer you can then separate them the two layers take the ether layer dry it and then evaporate off the ether relatively quickly the blowing points35 and recover your product organic peroxides now peroxides contain the oxygen to oxygen single bond group there are two kinds we have died alkyl peroxides RoR and hydro peroxides are olh here’s an example dimethyl peroxide and here’s a hydro peroxide t-butyl hydro peroxide both of these are analogous to hydrogen peroxide the peroxide bond is weak only about 50 kilo Cal’s per mole that makes it reactive and unstable especially when you think of the strength of an oxygen to carbon bond or an oxygen to hydrogen bond typically in the range of 90 to 100 killa kellz per mole so a lot of heat can be released when an oxygen the oxygen peroxide bond is broken and an oxygen to carbon or oxygen to hydrogen bond is formed instead now peroxides cleave homolytic ly producing two free radical groups so here is the peroxide bond cleaning homiletic allah meaning breaking evenly notice one electron going in each direction these fish hooks these half arrowheads indicate the transfer of one electron producing in this case at all coxy free radical there’s the free radical the unpaired electron and the hydroxy free radical alcohols ROH are similar to water not only in their structure but also in their acid-base chemistry water is a very weak acid its PKA is 15.7 for it’s also a very weak base pkb 15.7 for likewise alcohols are very weak acids pKa approximately 16 and very weak bases pkb approximately 16 as well ethanol and there’s a structure of it ch3 ch2 o h is the alcohol of beverages aqueous solutions of isopropyl alcohol here it is CH 3 CH 0 h CH 3 here again we see this isopropyl group thirty to seventy percent aqueous solutions of isopropyl alcohol are sold in pharmacies under the name rubbing alcohol don’t think that the uncharged hydroxyl group of an alcohol for example here is even

remotely close to the hydroxide group oh h minus of the hydroxide ion c whereas the hydroxyl groups of water and of alcohol are neutral the hydroxide group in sodium hydroxide base PK b- 1.74 this is a good electron donor negative charge makes a huge difference next we’re going to look at phenols now this compound c6h5 o-h is a specific compound called phenol but phenols are actually a class of compounds that are derived from phenol here’s an example of a phenol a phenolic compound common name is parekh wrestle and parekh wrestle wikipedia tells me is the major component of pig odor present in human perspiration and believed to be the component of human odor that is attractive to female mosquitoes now if you look at the structure of an alcohol and a phenol they look alike but chemically they’re different alcohols are weak acids they have a pka of about sixteen but phenols are actually mildly acidic their PKA is approximately ten that’s a large difference PK values are powers of ten we’re saying that a phenol is 10 to the sixth or a million times more acidic than an alcohol and so whereas alcohols will not react with sodium hydroxide a phenol will react with it neutralize it if you will acting as an acid and dissolve in strong bases like sodium hydroxide here’s an example of that chemical reaction sodium hydroxide the hydroxide ion is a pkb of negative 1.74 phenol itself has a pka of nine point nine our base is the electron pair donor donating pair electrons to form a bond with the acidic hydrogen in phenol hydrogen is mono valent it can’t have two bonds at the same time if it’s going to form a bond to oxygen then it has to break the bond but is currently has with phenol that liberate seeeeee water and gives us the conjugate base sodium phenoxide now the phenoxide ion is another functional group its pkb is for its a moderately strong base since we’re talking about acids let’s look at the most common organic acids called carboxylic acids our carbonyl o-h now the hydroxyl group in a carboxylic acid is acidic because it is bonded to the carbonyl group the carbonyl groups are electron withdrawing it changes the game we don’t have carbonyl groups in water or in alcohols and those hydroxyl groups are not acidic but in a carboxylic acid in fact it is acidic typically they have a pKa of approximately five this is a structure of acetic acid ch3 carbonyl o.h it has a pKa of 4.7 and it will react completely with strong bases like sodium hydroxide producing the acetate ion which is an example of a carboxylate ion here’s the acetate ion ch3 carbonyl Oh minus without as hydrogen ion do you recall the general acid based mechanism here’s our base electron pair donor here is our asset electron pair acceptor the base will donate a pair of electrons to the hydrogen ion the hydrogen in the acid hydrogen is mono valent and can’t have two bonds at the same time so it has to break a bond with a and so the base becomes bh the conjugate acid of the base at the same time h a becomes a minus the conjugate base of this acid so let’s try that on a specific example here’s a carboxylic acid and here’s the hydroxide ion carboxylic acids in general have a pKa of approximately five hydroxide i- 1.74 what’s the mechanism going to look like the base will donate a pair of electrons any one of these three pairs is identical to the hydrogen the acidic hydrogen in the carboxylic acid hydrogen is mono valent can only form one bond at a time so that means it has to break this bond to the carboxylic oxygen in order to form a bond to the hydroxide water is the product and a carboxylate

ion now the PKB of the carboxylate ion is 14 minus the pKa 14 minus 5 is 9 and so this is basic enough that we can reverse the reaction by reacting with a strong acid such as the hydronium line PK a negative 1.74 notice that the pKa of the hydronium ion is equal in magnitude to the PKB of the hydroxide ion not surprising since the pKa and the PKB of water is the same 15.7 for in any case here’s the reaction mechanism our base donates a pair of electrons to the acidic hydrogen hydrogen is mono valent it has to break a bond with vibranium I on to form the bond of the carboxylate so water is produced and the carboxylic acid is reformed acid anhydride are just what their name implies acids without water there is a structure of an acid anhydride our carbonyl whole carbonyl are now in and hydrides the R groups r 1 r 2 they can be the same or different alkyl groups how do you form an anhydride vigorous heating will dehydrate a carboxylic acid if you take a look at the reaction here a total of one mod one water molecule is removed for every two molecules of the acid so here I have two molecules of acetic acid it’s heated up water is eliminated to produce the anhydride in this case acetic anhydride because it’s formed from acetic acid and here is the structure of acetic anhydride ch3 carbonyl Oh carbonyl ch3 siegen hydride is probably the simplest and most common acid anhydride uslan lab this reaction you may have noticed is reversible when you take an anhydride and heat it with water then the water molecule will add forming two carboxylic acids acid and hydrides are very reactive organic electrophiles meaning electronic scepters they are therefore often used in organic synthesis reactions esters are next an ester is our carbonyl oor now the structure looks similar to a carboxylic acid except we have an R group instead of a hydrogen now the R groups the two R groups and Esther can be the same or different esters in fact are often synthesized by reacting a carboxylic acid with an alcohol in the presence of an acid catalyst that’s called the Fischer esterification reaction here’s an example methyl butano ate the flavor of apples forms when butanoic acid reacts with methyl alcohol here’s the reaction ch3 ch2 taken twice carbon loh that’s butanoic acid reacting with methanol in the presence of acid and a hydrogen ion catalyst will condense out water now notice that’s not an acid-base reaction because it is the acid is not losing a hydrogen ion in fact though the acid is losing the hydroxyl group and it’s the alcohol is losing the hydrogen ion so it really isn’t any sort of an acid-based reaction condensation occurs we get the methyl ester butanoic acid methyl butan 08 now the reaction yield is typically about fifty percent more with small with small acids and alcohols and it’s a little bit less with large acids and alcohols and it’s also reversible you may have noticed if I add water to the system rather than boil it out heat it and add an acid catalyst the reaction goes in the reverse forming the carboxylic acid in the alcohol this is simply less chatelier’s principle at work next group is an a seal group our carbonyl something the ACL group like the carbonyl group is an incomplete compound that is it’s part of several classes of organic compounds such as the acid halide also known as the ACL halide now acid halides they’re one of the most reactive electrophiles electronic scepters in organic chemistry and they’re used to carry out very quickly a

lot of organic reaction syntheses that otherwise would require long reaction periods now the x and the acid halide represents any halogen however in practice the halogen is usually not part of the reaction product and so the least expensive acid halide that would be the acid chloride is almost always used and here is the structure of an acid chloride our carbonyl CL as a teal chloride ch3 carbonyl CL acetyl chloride and benzoyl chloride c6h5 ce o– CL are too common a sealed halides the formal group also known as the method oil group is again part of other compounds H carbonyl something and one of the groups are going to look at next that the formal group is part of is our aldehydes and aldehydes have an R group attached the formal group so it’s our carbonyl H aldehydes are flavorings and they are fragrances here’s an example propionaldehyde a three carbon aldehyde ch3 ch2 carbonyl H has a fruity flavor benzaldehyde c6h5 carbonyl H has an overpowering cherry odor now this particular aldehyde formaldehyde is a bit of an exception to the structure rule it has one carbon but it has two hydrogen’s and no our group it’s the simplest possible aldehyde it’s the only aldehyde that doesn’t have an alkyl group attached to it so from aldehyde was formerly used to preserve biological specimens but it’s been largely replaced since being designated a known carcinogen ketones are next ketones have the structure our carbonyl are similar to aldehyde except two alkyl groups instead of one several ketones are produced by the human liver from fatty acids during periods of low food intake aka fasting or from carbohydrate restricted diets and I have here the structure and a model of acetone dimethyl ketone commonly called acetone is important it’s miscible in water dissolves many organic compounds as well and it’s a good general purpose solvent particularly because of its high volatility its boiling points only 50 degrees Celsius and so glassware rinsed with acetone dries quickly well let’s look at some organic bases and alkyl amines are certainly the most common organic base and they’re very similar to ammonia an alkylamine simply has one or more of its hydrogens replaced by alkyl groups hero is a primary amine it has one alkyl group replacing a hydrogen or we could say there is one carbon bonded to the central nitrogen a secondary amine has two carbon groups bonnet of nitrogen a tertiary amine has three alkyl group spawn into nitrogen this last structure actually has 4 alkyl groups volatile nitrogen such that the nitrogen is no longer neutral it’s a nitro neum cation and this group as a whole is called a quaternary ammonium cation and so primary secondary tertiary and quaternary alkyl amines respectively have one two three or four alkyl groups attached nitrogen and when I say quaternary alkyl amines I do it in the spirit in which it’s commonly used but we understand that it’s not truly an amine any longer it’s an iminium cation once its quaternary now ammonia is moderately basic its pkb is 4.8 and so are the neutral a means the fact is slightly more basic typically about pkb for the quaternary iminium cation will be acidic much like ammonia mine is acidic and affect its PKA is approximately 10 so let’s look at an acid-base neutralization reaction we’re going to use methylamine as our base it’s pkb is 3.4 and will react it with hydronium ion who is PK a is negative 1.7 for now the

base is the amine it’s got the non bonded pair of electrons which it can donate to any one of the three city captions in hydronium ion hydrogen is monoprotic if it’s going to form a bond with nitrogen it’s going to have to break its bond to oxygen that will produce the methyl ammonium cation and by-product is water now the methyl ammonium cation is the conjugate acid of the amine we can calculate its PKA it’s 14 minus the pka of the conjugate base so 14 minus 3.4 is 10.6 we can reverse this reaction by reacting with hydroxide ion peak a b- 1.7 for a strong base any one of its three non bonded pairs of electrons can form a bond with one of the acidic hydrogen’s if hydrogen is going to form a bond with oxygen it has to break it spawned to nitrogen because hydrogen is always mono valent the product will be methylamine and by-product water ariella means they’re like alkylamines there’s an amino group bonded to an aromatic ring so here we have a primary area lamine with one aerial group bonnet and nitrogen a secondary area lamine has two area groups bond to nitrogen a tertiary aerial amine has three ariel groups bonnet of nitrogen and when we have for aerial group sponsored nitrogen this would be a quaternary aerial iminium cation so analogous to alkyl amines aerial amines have primary can be primary secondary tertiary or quaternary when they have one two three or four aerial groups attached to nitrogen this is annalynne c6h5 nh2 it’s a common aerial amine now aerial amines are much weaker basis than alkyl amines and that’s why they’re presented separately here annalynne for example has a pkb of 9.3 and this is because the nitrogens the non bonded electrons on the nitrogen are tied up in the aromatic ring when you show it here these pair of electrons are tied up in the aromatic ring and they’re less available for donation to an acid making an aerial I mean much less basic an alkylamine adeline however is basic enough that will react with a strong acid like hydronium ion and let’s show the mechanism for that annalynne with a pkb of 9.3 and I drone in line with a pkb pKa of negative 1.74 will react completely nitrogens non bonded pair of electrons is the base it’s going to donate the pair of electrons to any one of the three acidic hydrogen see in a hydronium if that hydrogen is going to form a bottle of nitrogen it has to break its bond with oxygen because hydrogen is mono valent and so as nitrogen forms a bond forming the and the linnean chloride cation at the same time hydronium ion is converted to water now the pKa of the N linnean chloride cation is 14 minus the PKB of its conjugate base 14 minus nine point three is four point seven and so this reaction could be reversed as well using a strong base let’s look next at a mites our carbonyl nh2 now a mites contain both an amino group and a carbonyl group a primary a mind has one carbon group attached some nitrogen a secondary amide has two carbon groups volatile nitrogen and a tertiary a mine has three carbon groups bonded to nitrogen so primary secondary and tertiary amides have one two or three carbon groups bonded to nitrogen respectively despite their similarity to amines in name and appearance amides are not basic instead they are similar to alcohols being either basic nor acidic you see the non-bonded nitrogen electrons that are basic and amines are tied up by the adjacent electronegative carbonyl group so the less available to be donated to acids amides therefore are

quite neutral they are relatively stable and unreactive compounds a mines are pervasive in nature in technology as structural materials for example nylon plastics Kevlar protein hair spider silk the name a few are long-chain polyamides here is the structure of us acid amide ch3 carbonyl NH 2 because of its low molecular weight it’s a low melting solid used as a plasticizer and a soluble Iser it increases the solubility of many other chemicals nitriles naturals have the structure are see triple bond n now the prefix ino is often used interchangeably with the term nitrile in industry in organic compounds that contain the same group C triple bond and are called cyanides for example here’s hydrogen cyanide potassium cyanide would be another example nitriles are relatively stable unreactive compounds and pH neutral naturals are found in many useful compounds including cyanoacrylates the super glues and nitrile rubber gloves that are used often in latex free laboratories here is a commercially important nitrile aquila nitrile ch2 double bond CH c triple bond n this monomer is polymerized to make polyacrylonitrile fiber which is used in the manufacture of clothing under the trade names acrylic and/or lon nitro compounds contain the no.2 group bonded to an alkyl group inorganic salts that contain the same group are termed nitrates many nitro compounds and nitrates are in fact made from nitric acid now you want to notice that in both nitrates and in the organic natural compound the no.2 group contains the negatively charged oxygen and a positively charged electronium cation while the whole time the Nano to group is overall neutral you probably are aware that highly nitrated compounds are very explosive and I have two structures to show hear of such this is trinitrotoluene on the right three nitro groups on a toluene ring aka dynamite and here’s nitroglycerin and that’s probably enough for an introduction to organic functional groups

Lengua sudada

es evidente que estamos hoy un día celebrando aquí toda la semana estamos próximos a esas fiestas de quito que nos encanta celebrar que nos gusta mucho y que los quiteños disfrutan mucho también con diferentes actividades y algunas cosas importantes que ellos hacen año a año pues bien para festejar aquí vamos a preparar algunas recetas que nos han contado que preparan mucho allá y bueno algo de historia algo sobre todo de tradiciones y es que ustedes no lo hacen en casa pues no importa porque ahora es el momento de aprender nuevas opciones nuevas recetas miren que para mí también muchas de estas cosas son novedosas son sobre todo muy enriquecedoras porque es importante conocer un poco de la cultura de cada provincia del país y como no de la capital de nuestro país pues bien para este día vamos a preparar una lengua sudada cuenta una historia de este gran historiador valga la redundancia julio pasos barrera que preparaban esta lengua sudada esta receta que vamos a preparar hoy es tradicional para mí como cuencana pero él es contario también un poco de nuestras tradiciones para que ustedes puedan apreciar la diferencia y sobre todo la importancia de tener una gran versatilidad en los productos y lo que ustedes preparan vaya y tome papel y lápiz para que tengan donde apuntar cada uno de los ingredientes de esta lengua azulada para ello por supuesto voy a utilizar lengua de res como trabajo con la lengua de redes miren ustedes deben cocinarla por lo menos por dos horas si en agua con cebolla ajo algo de sal unas pimienta en grano si es que ustedes quieren una cebolla larga podría mejor que una cebolla perla y dos horas el enrollado presión inclusive se demora siquiera una hora una hora y media y en goya normal dos horas mínimo si también les va a quedar un poco un poco dura dos un poco más pero bueno vayamos a un promedio de dos horas de cocción de la lengua luego pues ustedes deben pelar la primera capa cuando está caliente entonces obviamente en honor al tiempo yo he adelantado y está aquí ya cocinada entonces nada más lo que ha hecho es cocinarla y pelarlas y ahora voy a cortar en rodajas y ustedes van a poder observar eso a detalle para la salsa que voy a utilizar el día de hoy está receta muy tradicional de quito es pues una salsa que tiene cebolla manzana tomate de árbol algo de azúcar para contrarrestar la acidez ají criollo ají normal elegir el que consiguen en el mercado ecuatoriano en el mercado quiteño tienen por acá algo de orégano que bueno si bien es una hierba introducida pues la utilizamos mucho y algunas especies dulces que por supuesto tiene que ser alguna influencia de otros países para acompañar este plato pues tendremos algo de cambios que vamos a utilizar el maduro maduro frito podemos utilizar aceitunas verdes y un pan de costra un pan de costra que si bien es tradicional en toda la sierra ecuatoriana lo que va a hacer ahora es el acompañante de esta lengua sudada voy primero a cortar la lengua cocida en rodajas es medio dura la lengua si es que tengan cuidado vamos a cortar las rebajas qué sé yo de menos de un centímetro de ancho pero que todos esos y tengan el mismo tamaño para que luego puedan terminar la cocción de manera uniforme yo voy reservando por acá es muy rica para la gente que no le gusta la lengua el sentir como que muy grueso el tamaño pues puede cortar una lámina más fina nada más y listo no se siente tan tan fuerte la textura de la lengua porque de ahí el sabor el sabor es de espectacular por supuesto como todas las partes que nosotros podemos consumir de las veces miren como es de sabia la naturaleza como eran de sabios nuestros antepasados que sabían aprovechar todos los productos que nos daba la naturaleza miren lo que es esto yo sé hay mucha gente vegetariana que no consume carne que no consume animales pues bueno yo tengo una creencia diferente y para mí dios creó diferentes cosas para poder alimentarnos de una de ellas por supuesto son algunos animalitos que nos proporcionan muchos elementos para alimentar estos tengo ya por acá la lengua voy a cortar unas rodajas más y regresa enseguida del corte comercial estamos ya de regreso preparando está

deliciosa lengua plato de la sierra norte ecuatoriana de quito por sus fiestas de menor a ellos estamos preparando estas recetas tradicionales como nos cuenta la historia lo que voy a hacer ahora es sellar los las rodajas de lengua esta sartén una pequeña cantidad de aceite también puede ser de manteca y voy por acá para nada más voy a darle un toque más de calor recuerden que esto ya está cocido y lo que voy a hacer es sellar las rodajas de lengua rápidamente y nos ayudamos para colocar estas rodajas no mucho aceite recuerden que solamente quiero soñar pero eso sí que esté a una buena temperatura para que me permita él se llama sexto lista voy dando vueltas nada más con sellado ligero que me va a ayudar esto de sellar la lengua ya está cocida y adquirió algunos jugos pues conservarlos en el interior para poder apreciar mejor este sabroso plato un poco para que ustedes conozcan y para que tengan un tip importante como solemos cocinar normalmente tradicionalmente los los cuencanos la lengua pues con una salsa nada más liga va a comprar ropa de sambo y con leche crema de leche cierto con una base igual de cebolla ajo es importante que conozcan también para compartir un poco de tradiciones ese es el intercambio para aquellos que no conocían este plato xe no pues van a apreciar mucho porque seguramente estuvieron acostumbrados a ser la lengua de esta manera bien estamos ya con esto casi sellado y es importante que en este momento julio césar nos dé una recomendación analía un consejo embutidos begins alimentos de confianza visite el delicado piques en avenida 10 de agosto y francisco moscoso esquina o en avenida la castellana y segovia sector aeropuerto en cuenca muchísimas gracias por esta recomendación julio césar que tengo ya la lengua sellada nada más que esté ligeramente dorada a los dos lados y ustedes se pueden fijar ya tengo el color que quiero y sobre todo ya tengo esa concentración de los jugos que tiene la carne en la lengua de res y voy a reservar ahí unos minutos hasta preparar mi salsa para la salsa lo que voy a hacer es cortar la cebolla en brunoise con esta base vamos a marcar listo marcó acá y voy con este producto más pequeño que puedo soy pegadito nunca repique en la cebolla recuerden que lo único que logran es sacar los ácidos de la cebolla y bajar algún sabor desagradable recuerden que es importante e inclusive picarlo a mano en el momento para evitar el contacto de las cuchillas en el caso de por ejemplo quererlo hacer con una marca voy a reservar un poco por acá la cebolla y voy a cortar el ají qué voy a hacer con el ají voy a quitar los bordes voy a retirar la parte central de mojar un poco voy a cortar un filo y lo que voy a hacer es lavar para retirar las semillas y las venas si esto le gusta picante próximo a las retire siempre es importante bajo el chorro de agua para evitar que me salte a los ojos y sobre todo para pasar un poco el picante con el agua que nos va a ayudar recuerden que igual cuando le expliqué la cebolla si ustedes la colocan en un pozuelo con agua pues evitan española eviten que le quiten los ojos esto se ha lavado y lo que voy a hacer ahora es cortar igual en cuadros entonces para ello voy a cortar primero en tiras benin las tiras

lin que estos picantes y es que vamos a trabajar con cuidado voy a cortar ya me está afectando este giro y les enseguida del corte lengua sudada ingredientes una libra de lengua de res una cebolla paiteña cuatro dientes de ajo cuatro granos de pimienta negra y agua cantidad necesaria para la salsa tres cucharadas de aceite una cebolla perla una manzana dos tomates de árbol agua cantidad necesaria una hippie o yo azúcar cantidad necesaria especias dulces orégano sal y pimienta al gusto y una ramita de perejil la salsa de esta deliciosa lengua sudada plato de la sierra norte de quito por sus fiestas que hemos preparado el día de hoy pues yo tengo picado de esté así y lo que voy a hacer es cortar manzanas lo que he hecho es adelantar nada más quito los bordes y voy a cortar en cubos para la salsa el efecto quito el corazón lo que voy a hacer es cortar el primero en tiras ahí para cortar unos cubos que están presentes en la salsa en la preparación si ustedes quieren solamente obtener el sabor que no haya presencia de la manzana pues la cocina y luego la tritura y luego la cierne más tienen el sabor de la manzana pero no la presencia de los cubos si es que no quiere listo recuerden que siempre hay muchas opciones hay personas que no les gusta sentir los pedazos de cebolla pues las personas deberán triturar o deberán cortar muy pequeño y deshacer en la cocción empezará a fuego bajo para evitar la presencia de la cebolla para las personas que no les gusta la textura de la manzana la misma estrella listo entonces lo que voy a hacer por aquí es calentar una sartén para empezar con humilde frito algo de aceite importante recuerden que todas las salsas tradicionales parten de un refrito importante para dar ese sabor esa intensidad que yo necesito en estos en estas preparaciones sobre todo en mi caso de hacer la lengua pues recuerden que no a todo el mundo le gusta justamente por la textura que tiene si usted le da una salsa deliciosa pues van a saber apreciar es una textura muy sutil muy suave si es que está bien cocinada voy a colocar la cebolla voy a sufrir acitronar recuerden que yo les enseñé eso este domino importante así tronada que es estar abajo que la cebolla se vuelva transparente eso solamente lo logró a una temperatura media no muy alta porque si yo trabajo con una temperatura muy alta porque voy a ocasionar es que la cebolla se duele muy rápido entonces con la desarrolla miren aquí voy a agregar algo de azúcar para caramelizar para bajar la acidez de la cebolla nada más me duró con una pequeña cantidad de azúcar tengo por acá puré de tomate de árbol lo que he hecho nada más los cocinas en tomate licuar y luego seguir y toma toneladas también el micro sabor de agregar un poco más con este sabor a la preparación y también para encontrar o estar un poco el ácido voy a agregar un poco de azúcar recuerden que se viene el ágil el ágil cuando nosotros mezclamos con algo dulce no pica tanto entonces vamos a utilizar primero la salsa para luego agregar el ají y agregar aquí la manzana en esta mansión y está por aquí pongamos que ahí está ahí está bien gusto hoy es un poquito y aquí agregó una pequeña cantidad de agua antes de esa zona de comida china y las especies una pequeña cantidad de agua para lograr que mi salsa

la textura que deseo recuerden que tiene que reducirse esto pero deben cocinarse algo las manzanas entonces ahí voy para reducir la salsa y agregar un poco más de azúcar antes de la sal y la pimienta y luego reducir un poco para y como esto pero para lavarme las manos saben que es importante que cada cambio de actividad pues lavar muy bien sus casos perfecto tenemos deshacerse reduciéndose ya cocinando esa manzana deliciosa y ahora voy a colocar el así la cantidad dependerá del gusto de ustedes y qué tan picante quieran que recuerden que no están los aguados si es que ustedes quieren el sabor del ají los agrada el sabor del ají pero no les agrade el picante pues lo que pueden hacer es desaguar como desaguan nada más agua y el ají y dejan hervir votan el agua cambian el agua vuelven a hervir y así las veces que ustedes crean necesarias hasta retirar el picante que voy a hacer acá voy a agregar orégano especies dulces sal y pimienta cuánto tiempo me demoro haciendo estas aves a máximo 10 minutos hasta yo cocinar bien esa manzana y sobre todo reducir la salsa a la textura que yo deseo voy a agregar sal y pimienta para darle ese toque necesario y me voy enseguida con una recomendación de julio cc analía tengo una recomendación que darles austro limpio empresa dedicada a la limpieza y mantenimiento integral de edificaciones tales como edificios casas oficinas bancos hospitales hoteles colegios naves industriales y mucho más que cuenta con una experiencia de siete años de servicio en la ciudad de cuenca muchas gracias julio césar por esta importante recomendación yo voy a cocinar un poco más esta manzana voy a seguir unos maduros para acompañar este plato y regresó enseguida del corte comercial lengua sudaba ingredientes una libra de lengua de res t una cebolla paiteña cuatro dientes de ajo cuatro granos de pimienta negra y agua cantidad necesaria para la salsa tres cucharadas de aceite una cebolla perla una manzana dos tomates de árbol agua cantidad necesaria una hippie hoyo azúcar cantidad necesaria especias dulces orégano sal y pimienta al gusto y una ramita de perejil estamos de regreso preparando este delicioso plato sueño y si vieron que hoy viene arreglada en honor a quito pues esas gracias a es ver nadie después nadie está ubicado en el redondel del estadio peluquería que está a su servicio y que no solamente les da servicio de maquillaje y peinado sino también de spa masajes diferentes tipos de servicios pues vayan y visiten enfermería muchas gracias por el trabajo estos hacen conmigo todos los días tengo yo por acá adelantado que les había contado los plátanos nada más es reír un poco para acompañar la lengua normalmente cuenta esta historia de julio pasos que los servían acompañados de maduros y también las aceitunas seguramente también introducidas porque sabemos que no son productos endémicos nuestros pero que por supuesto nosotros tenemos muchas influencias y hay productos introducidos que nos ayudan a hacer más variada nuestra gastronomía miran que hoy tengo ya dorados los dos lados pues así es como vamos a presentar en este mismo aceite del plátano lo que voy a hacer es yo durar un poco un pan de costra que también me recomienda utilizar cuál es el plan de costo pues es un pan tradicional también que soy la boda con algo de dulce y sale entonces es un pan tiene esa mezcla de los dos los dos sabores muy tradicional también manteca de cerdo también en su preparación este pan de costra hemos utilizado nosotros escogemos como utilizado no es cierto nos contaron la historia nos dijeron que la salsa tiene tomate de árbol con la salsa tiene manzana tiene algunas especias dulces tiene pan de costra pues yo he escogido dorado ahora para presentarlos así es

que si ustedes miran que capaz es pero hay una innovación de eso se trata se trata de cambiar puede ser la apariencia física de los productos pero es respetar el sabor y respetar sobre todo las tradiciones de cada ciudad y de cada país quisimos que ustedes brindarnos sus comentarios y sugerencias pueden hacerlo a redes sociales en twitter @ hoy cocina efe y en facebook hoy en la cocina y por supuesto cidh algo superior a esta receta mirarlos en nuestra página del triple-doble punto télérama punto s y esto pone un poquito más de grasa que me falta para dorar y rápidamente voy a dar la vuelta a este pan tengo ya casi y el color que yo quiero miren ahí perfecto y listo y entonces hacer el montaje de este plato diremos estoy acá voy a colocar la lengua número de rodajas que yo desee nada más está sellada recuerden que ya habíamos cocinado con antelación y vamos nada más luego de esa tela sellar he visto servir es un plato que sirva para compartir salsa y la procedencia de las manzanas manzanas rojas que se van a apreciar muy bien vamos a bañar la lengua con la salsa cubrir porque es importante que todo tenga ese sabor esta salsa tradicional lista un poco más precoz y por supuesto algo de hojas verdes voy utilizar un poco de perejil que ustedes pueden ponerlo picado también pone de tu en rama como yo voy a colocar este momento y voy a colocar estos plátanos recuerden que tengo plátanos tengo aceitunas y tengo pan de costra la forma tradicional del pan costra que tiene como esa bolita encima pues en este pedazo se va a observar un par de aceitunas que le van a dar ese toque ácido que necesita el plato vamos acá y listo perfecto tenemos esta lengua y bueno espero tienen disfrutado de esta deliciosa receta aquí peña y sobre todo todo el país la haga nuevamente para que pueda apreciar las muchas gracias y que tengan un buen día no no no

Victor García Vicente – Metodos de Cocinado – Campus Virtual de Cocina

no no no e no sé piso pero no yo de acuerdo i de nada se hace más complicada que sea no sé si me veis en la pantalla o no y amigos la imagen me ve esto no va a cámara vamos él de acuerdo a lo que él chávez y no hay nada por ahí venga solo y otra tarde además es un poco larga me imagino que medir todo el mundo ahora por su corto el skype no no no buenas tardes aquí en españa buenos días en américa me imagino que me está echando yo no recibo en ninguna comunicación por parte vuestra o sea que se me hace un poco más difícil el poder hacer esto pero vamos a tratar de hablar un poco de todos los métodos aislados y para ello vamos a empezar en esta manera en presencia de todo el pollo lo que puede significar cocer conocer es el principio someter al calor alimentos con objeto de ablandar los sanearlos y esto nos purifica contar también que adquieran nuevos sabores aromas o que pierdan sabores desagradables también cortar deterioros naturales las enzimas van actuando sobre las hortalizas la carne se va deteriorando y

al someterlo al calor intenso pues todo esto se paga eliminar algún producto tóxico del campo no y también que sean las arroz agradables al paladar entonces sin pisado hasta arriba luego la evolución de la cocción existiera en el fuego del fuego me imagino que habría la prehistoria algún incendio natural de rayos historias y ahí pues algún animal se me pasaría y probándolo los que allí estaban vieron que eso era mejor que estaba mejor la carne así tostado después las vasijas de barro aparecen siete mil años antes de cristo los hornos de cocción unos 5000 luego la cocina económica lo que se tiene por cocina económica de carbón y la cocina baja de leña pues parece más posterior y finalmente tenemos los hornos los microondas y la cocina dentición que son nuevos sistemas de producir calor eso nos podríamos mes y agua tirar alguna cuestión sobre ello podríamos tratar de aclarar después la cómo se transmite el calor el calor se transmite de tres maneras por conducción por convección y por radiación por combustión es el contacto directo entre dos ríos uno tiene más temperatura y otro menos al tocarse o adjuntarse pues pasa el calor de uno a otro y se puede cocinar o cocer de esta manera por convención es se transmite el calor a través de fluidos en fluidos pueden ser líquidos como puede ser el aceite o el agua o cualquier líquido y puede ser también otro fluido que puede ser el aire el aire caliente puede también transmitir calor y cocinar y lo último por radiación esto se transmite la energía por medio de ondas pero sin que entre en contacto el receptor que sería la carne con el transmisor que es el que emite las ondas sino que a través se van se pasan por el aire sin que se calienta el aire nada más pasan y esto produce calor vamos a verlo de una forma simple conducción sería el hierro este que está en contacto con el fuego o cerca del fuego y calienta al otro sonido que sería la mano convención sería el calor que se te va subiendo el aire caliente construyendo el juego pero el aire siempre sube o sea no va hacia los lados y entonces el calor se mueve hacia arriba y sería el del otro medio y por radiación que sería a través del aire pero sin que afecte esos serían los tres sistemas de transmitir el calor para cocinar las listas sistemas no se ven puros todos y decir convención conducción es el horno clásico la conducción sería en tenemos la placa con las piezas adentro está el plan del suelo del horno está caliente calienta la placa y calienta la carne que se sería y por conversión sería el aire caliente que alguien no solo en el horno a través del calor se va produciendo en la bóveda pues sería conducción radiación convención sería el green y lazard hay hornos instituciones y después radiación conducción convención pues la cocción en placas de inducción una placa inducción produce el calor en la base de la olla es la inducción que sería la radiación y después a partir de ahí ya empieza la construcción incluso la convención si seguimos adelante qué pasa con los alimentos cuando los sometemos al calor pues que se modifican sus características sus formas por ejemplo el color del color se modifica una carne cruda puede ser rosa o más o menos roja o rojiza y si es sacarle la cocinamos se queda gris y si la hacemos en un horno se tuesta como un color tostado marrón y dentro va cambiando de color así como su barco augurando las proteínas en las hortalizas las de color verde si se cuecen bien en agua hirviendo destapadas y con sal se reaviva el color y entonces eso es una cosa que es agradable el olor el nuevo remontado nosotros percibimos no solo el sabor el gusto a la que algo tomamos que lo percibimos en la lengua y demás sino que también es importantísimo el oro si

alguien está resfriado con una congestión nasal fuerte no puede no huele porque está congestionado se le dan algo a comer suele decir no me sabe a nada y no es que no le sepa es que no le huele a nada lo que pasa que en la mente combinamos el sabor con el con el olor con el olfato el volumen y el peso la vista también se transforma se transforma porque una carne que sea sábado ha mermado normalmente merma el arroz por ejemplo al cocerse aumenta tres veces el volumen o sea que va habiendo cambios en él por el hecho de cocinarlo la textura hay los géneros se ablandan están más suaves de comer más agradable y también provocamos algunos que se tuesten y que sean crujientes lo cual nos da texturas una gama de texturas distintas que pueden ser combinando las contras agradables y también la textura del crujir algo que comemos en la boca eso no nos afecta al oído y no tenemos a que todos los órganos participan en este lo que es comer degusta llevar y el favor que es un término que más poco más moderno que yo entiendo que es todo la mezcla de todos estos sensaciones en lo que es el favor es el color el olor el sabor el producto se mezclan es lo que nos da el término un poco complejo que todavía no está mostrado bien lo que significa ahora en las técnicas de cocción de los alimentos podemos distinguir tres sistemas el de expansión el de concentración y el mixto expansión es cocinar algo y permitir que salgan las sustancias las proteínas de la parte de los sabores de esa de ese ese producto y que pasen al caldo concentración es tratar de evitar que salgan esos esos sabores y esos aromas y que se mantengan en la pieza que estamos cocinando y visto es mezclar los dos primero generalmente primero concentración sellar la carne y después cocinarla con humedad para ablandar la y que salgan los sabores al cubo ya las salsas eso es un poco muy rápido lo que hemos visto el sistema expansión la temperatura siempre menor porque por qué se cuece con humedad con agua la temperatura fuerte y sobre los 100 grados actúa un poco menos pero sobre los 100 grados entonces es menos humedad el tiempo es más tiempo se prolonga el tiempo de cocción y el líquido siempre con humedad en la concentración hay más temperatura una plancha tiene que tener 160 a 180 incluso más grados el tiempo es menor menos tiempo porque porque el pasa el calor antes a la pieza si entonces se cocina antes y el líquido que podemos utilizar para este sistema de visa de siempre grasa las aguas y es agua lo enfriamos y el mixto que es primero concentración y después de expansión esos son básicamente los tres sistemas también hay quien considera que cocinar es el hecho de someter los alimentos al marinadas que después se consumen crudos pero bueno si se puede se podría ampliar pero con esa característica especial que no se llegan a cocinar alcocer luego vamos a ver las técnicas de los métodos de la expansión tenemos los que vienen aquí siguiente servirá a partir del líquido ese sería expansión en el máximo blanquea el bid a partir de un líquido de medición que es una expansión más hacer nada ahora diremos por qué y al vapor también la expansión atenuada que hay una pieza que sería las flechas indican que van saliendo los sabores y demás de la el sistema de passion partiendo un líquido frío es el tema es el de verdad expansión de la técnica es poner a hervir en una cacerola con agua o con un líquido porque es el agua puede ser pueden ser otra vino otros otros elementos otros líquidos sí oye otros líquidos y exponerlo de bien con un líquido frío y hasta que resulte

hasta que esté cocinado conocido aquí me sale a que un chat pero no puedo abrirlo no sé qué rica donde dice algo pero no sé lo que es bueno revisar la semana que viene en un líquido frío y eso está hasta que resulte tierras de cocido y eso lo que facilita es la salida de los sabores juegos y demás de la carne y el caldo entonces eso es una de las cosas eso también se compensa un poco cuando el líquido eso tiene cierta densidad tiene sal tiene otros productos tiene incluso grasa tiene elementos en disolución y aumenta la densidad de ese líquido y entonces sale menos producto al caldo y va entrando algo de sus sabores la sal y demás al producto o sea que ahí se hacen un poco pero no la utilidad de este este método en frío sobre todo es para hacer fondos caldos comes para cocer patatas para cocer legumbres secas siempre se parte la paciente frío con excepción de los garbanzos para despojos pescados enteros para servicios porque si se cuecen en agua hirviendo pueden romper la piel y entonces tienen peor presentación ese sería va tenemos ahora aquí hemos puesto un ejemplo que sería fondo blanco caldo blanco ingredientes huesos tendones carcasas condimentos de hortalizas de condimentación de especias y el líquido agua o caldo de repaso y minorando al ser coral contenía que ese vino blanco en el líquido filtrado de los ingredientes se más frecuentemente y se asusta de vez en cuando para facilitar que es ahora más espuma y más importa si estando este de mejor aspecto se mantiene en ebullición a fuego lento mejor que es rápido fuerte y cuando falten unos 30 minutos 20-30 minutos de cocción es cuando yo le agregaría las hortalizas de condimentación cebolla fueron zanahoria y demás cortadas y terminé pues y las agregaría al término seccionado amigo por qué y después colar utilizar y huelva en el frigorífico o usar barrer porque digo de utilizar las hortalizas al final de la cocción si tenemos huesos de res que estarían conociendo 234 horas depende de las redes y depende de la edad de más de la res esto ni echamos las zanahorias y el apio al principio eso tiene una característica y es que los aromas de las orgánicas pasan al caldo rápido en 20 minutos mientras se cuecen en 20 minutos con el haber pasado ya si seguimos cociendo y cociendo durante mucho tiempo lo que ocurre es que esos aromas se evapora y entonces el caldo ya no tiene el sabor de las hortalizas entonces para que esas hortalizas no se queden sabor el aroma en el caldo no deben de hacer mucho tiempo los huesos de ternera sí para que dejen la sustancia pero no las hortalizas para ver el método blanquear blanquear que es pues es sumergir finalmente en agua hirviendo pero algunas cosas se hacen a partir de agua fría pueden ser a partir de líquido frío viviendo se sumergen en alimento y se mantiene unos minutos o simplemente escalda sería meter y sacar el depender ahora lo que quedamos al final para qué sirve esto pues en algunos casos para endurecer un poco la epidermis como el caso del morro de ternera y que se pueda manipular después con más fácil para eliminar impurezas si tenemos alguna un hueso o algún elemento que se ha empezado a pasar un poco y se ve un poco que vamos con esa parte si se blanquea se limpia se quita todo esto se quitan los olores fuertes algunas hortalizas es conveniente darles un vaciado para quitar el sabor algunas evita que se pongan negra como el caso de las alcachofas entonces esa es la técnica de blanquear no es cocinado del todo es sencillamente un principio para que tenga una finalidad es una de estas después a partir de la única idea pues es lo mismo quiero decir una cosa cuando es una cocción corta por ejemplo una una ración de pescado que hay que demostrarlo cocido hervido esto sería el caldo corto hirviendo mete

el pescado dentro y enseguida se coagulan las proteínas de la superficial es y al calcularse las proteínas superficiales dificultan la salida de las de las interiores y entonces se podría decir que es una expansión atenuada es un poco no quiera ser la expansión del frío pero pero algo sí entonces si el caldo en que la conocemos en ese pescado es un caldo denso caso que tiene santina otros elementos que vayan puesto más denso es facilitar a él que salgan menos sabores menos cosas de él de la del pescado se utiliza para los verduras huevos pastas carnes aves crustáceos moluscos es bastante usado este sistema que también es expansión porque es el líquido pero tiene esa característica que se hace más y después vamos a ver un sistema una receta para el este sistema del viento he puesto la cocción de la ternera para blanket tenemos aquí los ingredientes y esto que es en un líquido generalmente puede ser caldo nada señor con sal y con alguna cosa más se ponen los trozos de carne de ternera que pueden estar incluso vencidos en agua para que pierda la sangre es ahora más blanca el caldo y se espuma y se dejan conocer lentamente hasta que esté cocido las hortalizas es el mismo sistema que antes echarlas las de sabor echarlas media 2 20 minutos o media hora antes de que esté cocida la ciuda carne esté tierna la carne y una vez la carne tierna se retira se pueda cuando se hace la salsa se le agrega la carne y las hortalizas en la guarnición que hay atrás servicio eso sería tratar de que la carne que es lo importante en este caso es aprovecharla lo más importante tratar de que sea se vea beneficiada que no pierda excesivamente las características de la carne vamos a ver el método agua por las hortalizas sobre todo y el pescado y algunas cosas blandas algunos alimentos blandos no duros se puede encontrar agua por el vapor no es nada más que tener agua hirviendo sobre si agua en una rejilla que no está en contacto con el agua y allí encima se colocaría lo que queramos que sea vapor se tapa esa olla y el tiempo de cocción es muy similar al tiempo de cocción en la propia agua es lo mismo lo que ocurre es que sale pierde menos elementos porque lo que pasa en el agua de la ecuación disolución pues pasa bastante menos se pierde bastante menos es mejor la cocción al vapor que la cocción directa es que nada también se puede considerar con una expansión hacia nueva las patatas se pueden hacer perfectamente y además tardan más o menos lo mismo que cocidas en el agua ahora vamos a ver la concentración los que están en el líquido lo que es la concentración son sistemas en los que el elemento que se lea que facilita el paso del calor es que nos ayuda a cocinar es la grasa tenemos asado a la parrilla oa la plancha regado sofrito frito y el frito puede ser con poca grasa o en abundante grasa con poca grasa es un poco de grasa porque no cubran y la cierta media pieza o menos y con abundante grasa están lavando dentro de la propia sartén o de los propios útil que tenemos vamos a ver el método de asado durante es el horno y lo que ocurre en este método es que por el calor que es un calor fuerte suele estar sobre los 200 grados arriba a abajo depende de la pieza y de la técnica aunque también hay asados ahora que se hacen a baja temperatura 60 a 70 grados pero están mucho tiempo mucho en el horno lo que ocurre con esto el calor fuerte es que coagula las proteínas externas se produce el efecto marginal que ya hemos visto un poco ese efecto mañana hace que esta costra se sella y que no salgan los jugos interiores de la pieza lo cual es mejor porque después al comer estaba mejor y también con los jugos que saben que siempre sale alguno deben de recuperarse para hacer la salsa o el jugo que acompañe la sangre la técnica dice en un recipiente apropiado si fuera un recipiente muy

grande se nos quedará es conveniente siempre que sea apropiado a las piezas la cantidad de producto que estemos gastando entonces en el horno con grasas al dorar y una vez cocinado si vemos que va un 4 lo no bajarlos jugar un poco las temperaturas y el tamaño de las piezas y recuperar el jugo de la sal la utilidad para piezas de carne grandes y pescados y marcelo que las criadas de carne tienen que ser tiernas no puede ser duro sin es duro se tiene que pasar a la otra técnica que es el gres lladó en la carne es el a saber si es importante tenemos cuatro puntos de cocción dice a por la textura al tocar una pieza que está poco hecha está muy poco hecha está blanda es casi no tanto pero casi como si estuviese cruda o casi cruda el interior debe ser rojo y la temperatura interior estará entre los 40 y 45 grados no a todo el mundo le gusta la carne así sangrante es el punto del punto siguiente es algo más firme en la superficie el color va bajando a rosa va bajando el rojo más intenso va bajando de color y la temperatura sobre los 50 55 al punto sume esa esa tacto al tocar el asado que se ve que está blanda en el centro pero va a la parte cuajada por qué con el calor se bancó hablando y es lo que hace la sensación que al tocar no estamos si se nota cuando estás ao pues al tacto sí por eso poner las diferencias del lazo de una carne cruda a una carne asada es que las proteínas a coágulos tienen sobre 60 65 grados bien hecha cuando están la parte interior ya está gris blanquecino y tienen los 70 grados y pues es fuésemos a verla si fuésemos a ver la carne pues eso son gustos muy personales el que le gusta la carne asada o sea muy pasada no soporta verla poco hecha pero él sanitariamente sería mejor tomarla pasada porque en los 70 grados hace que se haya saneado totalmente la carne pero también hay otra cosa y es que la pieza de carne se contamina no en el interior se contamina en la superficie y de ahí va puede ir pasando hacia adentro y en la superficie siempre en los trazados y demás al haber tenido bastante temperatura porque en el horno puede haber 180 o 200 grados incluso más entonces tenemos que eso se ha saneado la parte superior y no saneado y la parte interior que es la que podría tener problemas por no haber alcanzado la temperatura 40 o 50 grados es poco para sanearla esto resulta que no en principio en nuestra contabilidad entonces por eso se puede consumir así una cosa que sí hay que tener en cuenta que tiene que estar bien hecho bien cocido que el alcance de los 70 grados lo muy próximo son las piezas que rellenamos con carne picada y demás porque porque en la carne picada así pues está contaminada y para sanearlas y conviene que alcance la temperatura otra cosa es no nos pueda gustar más o menos y sobre todo es cuando esa pieza que hemos rellenado va se va a guardar y se va a consumir más tarde como fiambre de otra manera tiene que haber ser cocinado lo suficiente con suficiente temperatura en el marco estacional muy simple de un pollo asado que es que sea sarro pues nada la prevención se lleva ya después de mirarlo después pasa sazonarlo engrasarlo meter de adorno como los ponemos ahora cada vez son más tiernos porque cada vez tienen algunos casos al mes o sea son una producción rapidísima entonces yo recomiendo si el horno es de los de calor en el suelo del horno que ponerlo de una parte de la pechuga hacia abajo cuando eso sea tostado por el calor del suelo darle un tercio de vuelta y finalmente con el logo acá arriba sólo que he puesto aquí esto hay que hacer el juego y cuando se sacan del horno y se dejan en otra placa mientras se sirven o se cocinan digo se cuartea nos esperamos a que se vayan a consumir les comenté dejamos con la pechuga hacia abajo porque porque los jugos van a concentrar en una

pechuga que es la parte más seca y más carnosa entonces siempre será algo mejor luego otro ala para arriba a la plancha bueno pues estos son pequeñas piezas o reacciones en la pared ya son los agentes hernández que se someten a una acción de calor fuerte sobre una plancha o una parrilla con carbón o con las cuarta debajo qué es la técnica está pues es conseguir que por medio de la grasa que hemos juntado se produzca el efecto manillar lo antes posible y se observa que en la superficie de encima la que tenemos la que está debajo la que está en contacto con el calor fuerte se va tocando y entonces como no pueden salir jugos hacia abajo tienden a salir hacia arriba y se observa que en la parte de encima del filete hay una gota de sal una gota un sanguinolenta del jugo de la carne bien pues antes de que salga esa gota antes de que empieza a salir jugos por ahí es conveniente darle la vuelta para que se tueste y esa gota no salga que debe intentar ayudar por la parte de arriba pero esa parte está sellada entonces se dan y es conveniente tened en cuenta eso para conseguir mejor la técnica está para que se utiliza para hortalizas a la plancha se hacen pescados los pescados hay que tener en cuenta dónde se colocan sobre la plancha siempre hay que poner la parte si es una suprema que no tiene espina la parte que estaba pegada a espina primero hacia la plancha porque se pone en la parte de la piel los músculos del pescado tienen algunos tensores todavía y se encogen y se retuerce conviene ponerlo de con la parte interna de la plancha sirve sobre todo para carnes tiernas cualquier tipo de carne vacuno porcino a las árabes incluso la caza que son extremadura y despojos hemos puesto un tornado a la plancha es lo que hemos acabamos de decir primero se reacciona así se pasa ya en la parte de la cocina caliente se razona el turnero algunas piezas se suelen sazonar incluso después de haberlas hecho la puerta nadie dice que el mejor o sancionarlo después hay que respetar esto un está representa con aceite y se coloca sobre la plancha es conveniente que no permitir que salgan jugos de la carne si se echa mucha carne en una plancha y se adjuntan las piezas al final se cuece porque es una suelta jugos y se cuece es un mal sistema tiene que estar lo suficientemente separada la plancha lo suficientemente caliente para que no salga jugó ya cuando se ha producido este tostado que hemos hablado damos la vuelta más tener cuidado con eso y enseguida a servir otro método de cocinado son las verduras las verduras se pueden se pueden cocinar se pueden hacer a la plancha esto la única precaución es que algunas es conveniente blanquear las antes por ejemplo yo blanquear y antes las alcachofas la que haría antes las judías verdes por qué pues porque las judías verdes antes de cocinarse a la plancha se resecan y están después peor y las alcachofas para evitar que se ennegrezca entonces no no hay que cortarlas en lonchas más o menos fina más bien más finas y ponerlas a la plancha con sal y con algo de aceite cuando están en las planchas se les puede poner unas gotas de zumo de limón por encima le vienen bien deben de tostarse el efecto mañana para que se coloquen las hortalizas darle la vuelta y si a mí vas al momento en caliente al final se suelen sazonar no condimentar con algo de aceite crudo el salteado el salteado es salteado saltar pensar de una sartén un poco de grasa y muy caliente se doran los alimentos cocidos la técnica es lo mismo en efecto mayor conseguir que se forme en la costa para que esté más jugoso la carne o lo que se vaya a comer y esté mejor sea más agradable al paladar y después depende de que por ejemplo los champiñones que creo que habréis hecho pues se hace ahí en esa pieza mismo se hace algo para que haga algo de jugo el champiñón suelta bastante agua ese agua se aprovecha para hacer la salsa que acompaña con algo de vino y con algo del zumo de limón es un limón es sobre todo para evitar que se

merezca si se puede usar el zumo de limón puedes sal es excesivo el sabor que coge tenía que ser algo para evitar que se crezca y el harina es una pizca de harina para que esas alzas se espese ligeramente y se enseña también también al principio cuando así de champiñón cortado que tiene estar muy escurrido que no tiene cuanto más sea mejor dvd el fuego y un poco fuerte para que incluso si se puede tomar un poco de color es más complicado porque suelta agua rápido pero se puede intentar en la utilidad del salteado es para hortalizas esa opinión para pescados para crustáceos las gambas al ajillo también es una técnica clara las carnes tiana como es el pollo pollo la ayuda miembro de las piezas que se hacen así y con un poco de de salsa y despojos como las mollejas aquí hemos visto esto el tournedos rossini esto es una pica de carne que por supuesto es tierna es la misma técnica que a la plancha la misma técnica de la cuenta pero en sartén y con esa tensión del fondo hueso mejor entonces lo que ocurre en este caso que los jugos que pueda soltar el solomillo no se pierde en la plancha sino que se quedan en la sartén entonces yo diría cocinarlos primero con algo de aceite dar una vuelta que éste no esté en que se doren cuando están ya para sacar retirar casi todo el aceite si deja un poco mejor pero aparte del aceite que había mucho y agregar algo de mantequilla veréis que la carne se suaviza se pone como más suave mejor el tostado se suaviza retirarlo de la sartén y ahí con algo de vino desplazar y hacer la salsa oportuna para que acompañan sólo a niños eso sería recuperar los tubos que aprendido surgir en el cocinado para el servicio como si fuese la salsa natural de s después el rehogado arreglado aquí ya la la temperatura baja es un útil una cacerola con algo de grasa de aceite generalmente es cocinar los alimentos hasta que estén hechos pero a fuego más lento sin que se tienen sin que se doren es virus rehogando y agregando a los alimentos los por ejemplo de hortalizas las más duras antes la más tierna del final y hasta que estén cocinadas en la receta que muerte elegido para esto es el pisto pisto manchego es cebollas tomates calabacines pimientos verdes no hay más y entonces todo esto se corta todo en dados pequeños y después en aceite se rehoga como la seguridad la más dura primero la cebolla cuando está medio rehogar el siguiente verde sin que tomen colores rehogar se después el tomate y el calabacín al final todo cortada en dados no tienen que hacer mucho tiempo porque eso es tan seguida conocido y nada más es un plato bastante sencillo y bastante sabroso para acompañar los roscos y después el sofrito sofrito en la cocina en españa se utiliza bastante para terminar potaje es para terminar algunas guisos que tenemos y que por la forma de guisar tenían poca casa y poco sabor entonces el aceite se sofríen las hortalizas generalmente cebolla ajo pimiento verde tomate alguna especia como es el pimentón una otra todo esto toda esta mezcla una vez que sea sofrito se ha hecho se le agrega al potaje o al piso que sea para no perder sabor este sujeto se puede agregar una vez cocido por ejemplo lentejas se hacen solicitud después de hecha o se puede hacer a la vez o antes por ejemplo si se va a hacer un rabo pues cada vez que cocino la carne estoy haciendo el sofrito años es de bastante utilidad y complementa de grasa y de aromas muchos guisos sopas y demás después de aquí nos ofreció puesto uno que pone que se denomina pasaje mariscos y pescados entonces éste tiene unas características y es que lleva casi o igual cantidad de cebolla que de patata que de tomar viajó más entonces en aceite la cebolla cortada plumas se rehoga y se rasga mucho hasta que esté dorada no dorada tostada casi de color

muy oscuro color muy oscuro y una vez que te vista ese color así se agrega el ajo con el sector duro también se le agregará el tomate y el tomate hace que pierda ese color oscuro casi negro’ que hemos hecho por el sofrito largo largo hasta que se pone muy tosca o se queda el color marrón nos queda rojo de todo antes y no se queda marrón y es lo que se agrega después al pescado en la zona ángeles la fraccionada de estar por ahí en el recetario lo podréis ver te he puesto como ejemplo para un sofrito y luego vienen los dos fritos y los fritos hay dos tipos uno que es con poca grasa y otros con mucha garra con poca grasa es una sartén en la que le ponemos un medio centímetro o menos de aceite se calienta pero con arreglo a lo que vayamos a hacer o sea tampoco es excesivamente el resultado debe ser dorado en el exterior que se ha producido respecto mayor la costra esa famosa del efecto mayor que es lo que buscamos porque es lo que hace que este jugoso dentro ya donde se ve con claridad el efecto maya es parte de una idea es en el pan en el pan el tostado del pan el marrón tostado del pan de la corteza que es el efecto media y eso hace que la amiga esté muy tierna y que no se seque si no tuviese ese efecto si no sigues órdenes es todo esto estaría duro y seco por dentro entonces eso es lo que no permite que salga la humedad y que el pan este jugoso izquierdo aporte pues eso es lo que no me ocurre con la carne o con el pescado y eso debe de ocurrir también con este crédito poco de esto para facilitar el efecto mayor este se puede enajenar las cosas o rebozar las o incluso empanadas si es en harina que es lo que ocurre que al echarle en la sartén algo un pescado que hemos pegado por harina en la harina que está en la superficie del pescado se absorbe parte de la unidad de la que está saliendo está saliendo el pescado y eso se está se coagula rápido la harina se tuesta y hace que dentro del pescado pierda menos menor el logro es lo que se pretende para qué se utiliza esto pues para todo tipo de carnes piernas sobre todo aves huevos pescados para hortalizas para cualquier cosa que no sea sobre todo que sean tierras que no sean duras y freír hemos dicho con poca grasa de puerto a la reducción romana que es un rebozado yo lo que sí es la merluza a la romana de si un pescado que lo que trato es de hacer la parte abierta la parte de pesca ambiental que tiene vientre le sacamos los dos lomos y le retiramos la piel estos se cortan unos medallones un poco gruesos y para al momento de febrero se pasan por harina aplastando los conocidos para que se queden el medallón no muy grueso de un centímetro o escaso y después pasan por el huevo y se fríe se fíen que no haya mucho aceite que hay un poco de aceite la mente pero no demasiado ese como tienen la protección de la harina y del huevo pues no hace falta comer tan fuerte el aceite que está muy caliente y una vez que se afeitó se retira a un plato de servicio para retirar el exceso de grasa y en el poco aceite que haya quedado se suele hacer aquí en la parte norte igual por ahí se le echan una navaja con una o laminado con un poco de ajo que se fría y se le echa también un par de rodajas o tres de guindilla cuando se hace todo eso una gota de zumo de limón y con el occiso caldas la merluza que sea proyector suele dar bastante buen resultado es que se denomina a la bilbaína y en abundante grasa pues son las frituras que están flotando lo que echamos ahí está flotando lo más característico de todo el mundo se enfríe son las patatas el aceite estará más o menos caliente tendrán que van a freír si es un pescado tiene que estar muy caliente por encima de los 180 grados no mucho más porque a partir de 200 horas se empieza a quemar la salida acroleína y ha quedado problemas pero por debajo de los 180 grados se van formando la carolina pero necesita 810 calentamientos y dependerá del tipo de aceite incluso más la es sumergirlo en las características lo mismo que hablábamos antes todo esto es de la concentración producir el efecto maya de

la costra y dado de la harina y dentro que se quede en la humedad del pescado que se quede jugoso pero cuajado qué ocurre que dentro del pescado en el centro del pescado tiene que alcanzar los 60 grados porque porque es cuando se coagula la proteína cuando no se ve el pescado crudo entonces lo metemos más de 500 y calienta 170 180 grados por fuera pero producto secreto pero la temperatura de penetrando poco a poco y cuando dentro en el centro a alcanzar los los 60 grados ya hay que sacarlo porque ya a partir de ese momento lo que se hace es que se reseca el pescado ya se ve perjudicado en el resultado la utilidad de esto es para todo tipo de pescados pequeñas o bien pescados troceados espectador’ trozos de pescado más pequeños y esto se puede influir es un pasador por harina o rebozados o empanados cualquier característica de esa va bien las patatas las patatas es un poco cuarta parte se verán más adelante pero tienen que ser estos primeros cosechadas a 140 150 grados de cintas al final a 180 aquí puesto un ejemplo de la pintura andaluza limpiar los pescados y mariscos y cortarlos los que sean grandes alomar los hay un adobo aquí que va bien para el pescado y qué y tiene dos misiones una que es la de dar aroma y sabor y carácter a ese pescado y otra va de conservar lo de pescado tiene una característica que se estropea con rapidez entonces si lo metemos en el adobo este que el alavés 3 agua bastante agua vinagre sal algo de sal y especias las especias pueden ser orégano ajos se suele hablar también con piel de naranja seca cepeda naranja se deja secar la piel y eso es el hecho gastos y buen aroma bueno pues con esto al momento de freír se escurre bien escurrido el pescado separado por harina y se fríe es importante que equivale el aceite esté caliente otra característica de esta pintura escritura andaluza es el harina que no sea muy fina muy fina sino que sea de una molienda un poco más gorda incluso hay muchos sitios que lo que hacen es moler garbanzos hacer harina con garbanzos igual que con un tornillo puede hacer igual que si fuese harina hace un poco de color amarillento y mezclar una parte de harina de garbanzos y otra parte de harina o menos cantidad de harina de garbanzos y con eso se en harina para que la posta sea mejor y facilitar ese efecto que se pretende luego estemos en el sistema mixto el sistema mixto que tenemos dos preciados mi salteado con salsa además hay otro que no le he puesto aquí pero que se podría entender también aquí aunque no él exactamente mixto que sería lo que se llaman estofados luego hablaremos un poco del estado ya que lo que se pretende el sistema mixto primero primero tostar lo sellar la pieza por medio del efecto mayor de la coagulación exterior de las propiedades exteriores y después como la carne es dura por la pizza es dura que sea darle cocción con humedad para facilitar que se hidroliza el colágeno el colágeno son los tendones si los tendones los queremos poner a medio cocer o crudos es imposible masticar si los comemos lo suficientemente cocidos están francamente buenos y agradables al paladar eso se tiene que priorizar como cociendo mucho tiempo dos horas tres dependerá del el primero es tan preciado que es eso primero la pieza grande sellarla es la esto sería el azar piezas de carne duras entonces dorar sellar esta pieza con grasa añadir todo resto de los ingredientes de hortalizas de condimentación y demás y añadir añadir la humedad puede ser vino cual sea el caldo para ambas cosas y poner a cocción con el la presea dorada tapada durante el tiempo que proceda hasta que esté tierna es ese día ese es el primero que toma ya y después el contrario la utilidad pues para carnes tendinosas duras y también se desea pescados enteros un pescado grande pero aquí no se tuesta sino que se le pone una juliana de

hortalizas o correo gradas se pone el pescado encima y se le agrega ahí el vino o el líquido algo de caldo corte y demás para que se hace en el horno en la carne y hortalizas también sobre sean también tienen su peculiaridad las hortalizas por ejemplo la corte del repollo entonces primero utilizaríamos esta después ahora lo veremos es esto es aprovechar el agua de vegetación de las hortalizas para que se cueza en su propia humedad y c5 a su propia un ejemplo aquí vemos el refugio paisana que es un preciado de repollo esto lleva cebollas nabos apio zanahorias puerros algo de panceta todo esto picado cortado en lonchas poco gruesas y la panceta albardones todo esto se pone a rehogar al ver lugar algo de grasa y una vez que se ha rehogado le agregaríamos el repollo deshojado todo esto se tapa y sin agregar agua se deja cocer tendrá que estar cociendo pues venía ahora todo hasta que esté tierno y una vez una vez que se ha cocido pues tal cual estar con la humedad que le haya quedado se sirve él puede ser que si lo tapamos muy bien y el fuego va despacio tenga mucha humedad entonces lo que tenemos que hacer es destapar lo al final de la cocción para que no se quede como es una sopa sino que sea verdura y si ocurre lo contrario que se nos ha afectado pues habrá que agregarle algo de agua este es el método del sistema de presión luego tenemos otro expuesto por ejemplo que es santa ron encebollado el zangarrón es el morcillo de la vaca del vacuno de la red esto es no lleva nada más que el morcillo cebolla algo de grasa y vino blanco y especias se limpian y servida de amorcillos corta la cebolla en juliana la cebolla es conveniente incluso blanquear la parte en un poco de agua en la presea dorada de la cacerola se doran los bolsillos en grasas y una vez estando a seda agrega la cebolla que va en mayor cantidad que carne lleva bastante cebolla yo boca bastante si esa zona miento y el vino una vez que se tiene todo eso puesto se tapa y se deja cocer hasta cruz de tierno como el morcillo extendido sobre da a conocer dos tres o más horas dependiendo del tipo de res que se sea el propio juego que deja la cebolla y el vinito de estrecharle la salsa de acompañaría el funk errores en él se le denomina así porque en el país vasco aquí el morcillo le dejaba sacaron todo buenos platos característico del país después el rabo o salteado con salsa org es un salteado antes con el de los champiñones que lleva algo de juego pero de carne de elementos piernas este sería de carnes duras entonces no valen el sistema la carne en haina cortar en tacos el ayunar llorar el efecto mayor que ya hemos dicho muchas veces agregar la humedad y dejar cocer terminar de agregar los blogs elementos de aromáticos y rápidos pero puede ser hortalizas o puede ser de utilidad para todos pintura y carnes que necesiten cocción que necesiten bastante tipo de cocción aquí me has puesto en el rango de ternera es el característico es el seco de red es nuestro de chivo que se hace por el favorito de estas zonas y es para que esté un ácido que todo el mundo tiene esto bastante dominado después aquí puesto tres más que viendo las anomalías las causas y las posibles correcciones por ejemplo en elemento de expansión si conocemos verdura la verdura se queda amarillenta y grisácea al final de la cocción puede ser porque esté recolectada de hace mucho tiempo no es fresca todo hay que comprar la fresca puede ser

que sea puesto a cocer en agua fría no es correcto hay que poner agua hirviendo con sal y puede ser que se ha cocido tapada y se han reclamado por el exceso de temperatura los los pigmentos de la pala eso sería la otra dice así queda muy blando exceso de porción no es conveniente conocer las caritas demasiado pierden aroma y pierden bastante calidad cuanto más se cuecen peor no quiere decir que sí que descubras la remolacha si está estar que es color escarlata si está descolorida es porque se ha servido con sal y sin vinagre les comenté que ponerla hervida en un medio ácido en vinagre sin sal o que sea pelado o que se ha pinchado del durante la cocción sino equipo de pelarla después de cocida y sin pinchar las zanahorias coloridas porque le hemos puesto mucho líquido el olor fuerte de las coles pues porque se cuenta con la canción atrapadas y se cuece destapada huelen menos las patatas rotas hervidas porque la variedad de patatas no es la adecuada para hervir o porque servía fuerza borbotones contra la roda por las organiza de oxidadas pues en los champiñones o la alcachofa sobran syfy o al contado alguna de estas hortalizas que cuando se cortan se van ennegreciendo se oxidan con el que pueden acoger blanquear las en un caldo blanco de hortalizas que es caldo digo agua perdón agua algo de sal y zumo de limón si no se quiere poner zumo de limón porque hay alguien que dice que puede darle acidez lo que se le agregan -1 animal son rasgos de perejil las matas de perejil que tiene muchos ramos tienen mucha vitamina c y esto hace el efecto del limón después tenemos el medio de concentración al asad o si las hortalizas se quedarse acá pues que la tengas demasiado fuerte en los demasiado tiempo del horno porque como tiene mucha humedad el autorizaciones de la porción de humedad si no tenemos mucho tiempo al calor pues al final se reseca a la plancha pues es lo mismo eso sin no se dora es porque hay poca temperatura porque tiene mucha humedad porque nuestra grasa y todo esto son las correcciones están a la parte derecha con la baja temperatura al rodado si se dora es que extiende el sofrito de recordar la diferencia sobre todo es que no queremos que se doren para que dé un carácter especial para la finalidad que se esté haciendo y el regado lo que queremos es que los hedores ejemplo yo he hecho aquí en el pasaje de una zarzuela que la cebolla se tiene que dejar casi negra es sufriendo hasta que ésta una ansiedad la cebolla en el caso de la merluza a la vasca que es otras zonas de españa características y además de buen resultado la cebolla debe estar totalmente blanca como transparente si se dora sale mal el resultado no es bueno y en cambio en lo de la captura como he dicho antes de la cebolla te tiene que costar entonces no se ha sufrido se ha rozado las patatas fritas si están bien hechas porque se pueden echar agua la temperatura que darle un poco más de fuerza con exceso de color pues la calidad de las patatas que no es la correcta para cuando se ponen negros en la pintura es porque no es se fríen correctamente la variedad correcta ahí tenéis mucha más variedad de patatas que aquí en españa imagino qué las entenderéis más y mejor ahora aquí en españa en europa no se considera ninguna cocina la ausencia de la patata es se come todos los días de todas horas pues yo a veces me pregunto qué comerían que se comería aquí antes de que fuese coronaría amén que nos traje de las patatas por estas dudas no son de aquí y las patatas de los pimientos y el maíz ni el tomate o sea que todo eso que son elementos ahora por sustracciones en la cocina que no se entiende una cocina en europa sin esos elementos pues antes no existían aquí se trajeron de él y lo cual es algo algo de agradecer y el visto bueno se las hortalizas están pasadas por ejemplo recuerdo como he dicho exceso de cocción necesidad que se ha cocido demasiado tapada se reserva está cocido destapada hay que corregir el estofado y en el que depende del agua depende hay que saber jugar con ello para conseguir posible y después yo no porque no lo tengo pero hay otra forma de cocinar que es característica que son los estofados si hemos visto el ragú que es dorar

primero en grasa el estofado es cocer todo a partir de crudo por ejemplo ahora con el ejemplo simple carne estofada pues sería tacos de carne puestos en una olla le pondríamos también cebolla yo le pondría la seguridad entera en unas dos horas que fue enteras también se puede poner algún tomate entero los elementos de guarnición zanahorias y demás también después la seguridad ahí le echaríamos también las especias la sal el vino blanco posiblemente algo de agua pero muy poco tiene que estar justo cubrir o escasamente cubrir esos etapa y ya mí me faltaba una cosa y el aceite la grasa la grasa en crudo ahí y se pone a cocer muy lentamente el tiempo que sea hasta que esté tierno una vez que se ha conseguido que esté tierno se retira la cebolla y el tomate tomate antes de tomate y se recoge la grasa con un cazo quede por encima y entonces le echaríamos de aquí las hortalizas de ebullición zanahorias torneadas nabos champiñón incluso alguna palabra y esto con la cebolla y el tomate y algo de la patata cocida se tritura bien el túrmix le agregaríamos la grasa del aceite que hemos retirado para expresarlo y con eso echarlo de nuevo al el estofado para que se forme la salsa y espese el caldo es con un round pero sin nora sin tostar sin ese efecto también se produce bastante los resultados va bien para legumbres y hortalizas también y para carnes sobre todo en otro sistema más que estaría en éstos yo creo que más o menos todos están metidos aquí no le ocurre que después hay variaciones sobre ellos pero hemos tratado de veces todos hemos tratado de ir un poco rápido quizás demasiado y demasiado denso si tenéis alguna pregunta alguna cosa me lo tiene que hacer por escrito porque no os oigo no puedo no tener un ipad yo me imagino que me veis pero yo no los puedo oír no tengo no recibo sonidos no sé qué ha pasado con con la máquina o con el ordenador es el amigo será de sistema no lo sé y eso es lo que hace que yo no pueda contestar directamente que es una pena porque el poder hablar acerca aunque estamos lejos pero nos acerca más si tenéis alguna cosa oa través de carolina o escribir a quién es donde pone aquí a la derecha pone mismos mensajes me podéis enviar algo y yo trataré de contestador hablándolo por si no lo veríamos yo quiero deciros que en este curso es que se ha tratado de poner toda la que es las bases de la comunidad hemos estado estudiando y trabajando en españa la cocina hoy no se puede decir por supuesto de cocinar española cocina francesa cocina americana de todos los cruceros más o menos las bases los sistemas de cocina de más es en todos sitios igual las características diferenciadoras es porque utilizan un tipo de géneros u otros y porque utilizan un tipo de condimentos u otros pero lo que es el procesado se cocine igual lo que allí de suelo en unas hojas aquí es más bien espesas y en esas cosas y demás se suelen de la nómina y potaje pero la denominación no quiere decir que no sea actividad un potaje de legumbres en hombres y carne o pescado casa y demás pues es una sopa de las que me hacéis pero que añadamos colo echáis otros con incluso aquí no se tienen o aquí algún y acá y no tenga donde son las diferencias básicas pero lo que es unos metros de cocinados básicamente son los mismos en todos los sitios más o menos temperatura más o menos grasa más o menos reacciones de elegir los productos de cocina las carnes adecuadas para este guiso para este otro así son tierras de una manera sino de otra eso es la base de esto después él

cada uno de todo lo que va captando se tiene que ir haciendo su propia cocina con cocina de que después tendrás un carácter y que tratará de imprimir como la cocina es una un elemento muy manual mi manual hay que poner mucho interés en la elaboración porque de ahí obtendremos un tipo de resultados con el mismo producto se puede conseguir cosas distintas entonces ahí es la mano del que el que cocina el que tiene que ver nos va no veo ningún mensaje no sé si carolina o alguien pueda decirme algo alguien tiene alguna alguna pregunta que hacer a víctor tal vez pero no no hay preguntas yo lo sé si hay alguna cosa o alguna inquietud para que al no recibir nada por parte vuestra pues me queda aquí un poco no sé si me habéis oído si me ha entendido si hablo de prisa si ahora despacio estoy un poco perdido en este aspecto como freire en frío vaya el rey en frío yo no lo concibo mucho porque te voy a cenar a freír es cocinar en casa la grasa la característica que tiene es que se puede llevar a nuestra ciudad no es el agua el agua no pasados 100 grados entonces somos de la elevada no además la temperatura y si se fríe con el aceite flojo más frío lo que ocurre es que se empapa de grasa el producto se enfría con el aceite muy caliente lo que ocurre es que se sella la parte exterior la parte de la superficie del elemento que estamos que metemos en la fritura y eso hace que se doren y ese dorado no permite ni la salida de los cubos de ese elemento a la gente ni permite la entrada excesiva de grasa ese es el de freír pero no es que no sé muy bien la pregunta con en qué sentido está áfrica una pregunta que no por lugar al progreso es lo que yo veo siempre se considera freír se está pensando en freír por supuesto a bastante más de 100 grados si escuchar que es ablandar las patatas entonces se puede hacer a 140 grados 150 vaya aproximadamente pero sí es freír que explorar esas patatas adoran la carne el aspecto mañana hay que hacerlo además temperatura 180 también la temperatura dependerá del productos y ponemos la fría algo muy gordo un grueso tendrá que ser más bajo porque si no quemaremos la parte exterior es más fino cuanto más fino pues más temperatura para que se quede a estos efectos que estamos diciendo con una pregunta si el efecto my car’ resulta bien en la forma vamos a ver en eso no es en frío pero casi en la teoría no es eso lo que estoy intentando vamos a ver el el confital el confital la palabra ésta viene de lo que los franceses llaman confín en grasa o en la propia grasa del elemento no atrofia de el confital es aquí es en españa es lo que se llamaba antes ahora también se empieza además con citar el abogó en la logo es el cerdo por ejemplo el lomo de cerdo se cortaba en lonchas él y esto se cocinaba en la propia grasa del cerdo pero abajo no muy alto no se

tostaba ni mucho menos sino prácticamente se cocinaba y después se iban colocando esas piezas en una olla de barro y se le agregaba allí la grasa la propia rasta donde se había confitado en aceite bien manteca de cerdo y eso se conserva durante meses ese serán los adornos en la olla el lado de la olla que se hacía y ahora es el conflicto más carácter de los datos que los cuecen despacio no fuerte no fuerte aquí porque la pretensión es otra en la propia grasa del pato después lo suelen en la tarde sellan la lata y esa se vende y se consume al cabo del tiempo calentando y utilizando algo de la grasa del propio pato ese es él porque ahora las llamas codificadores porque aquí en españa antes ahora por influencias se está utilizando es y el confital es cocinar a baja temperatura en grasa pero no es frei es agitar es lo que antes hacía aquí antes la palabra confite o confitería significaba algo de azúcar los confites eran grageas de caramelos y eso pero pasa que ahora se ha dejado se ha cogido este otro significado pero influencia francesa creyente me parece que hemos tratado de contestar no sé si se ha entendido si vamos a bailar es al someter una carne un pescado una pieza o a temperatura alta y con calor seco no con agua se va produciendo se van haciendo las macromoléculas entre los hidratos de carbono y las proteínas se degradan y se prueba unas máquinas con moléculas que con tan solo la corteza esa tostada de la carne del pescado o de lo que estamos cocinando así y esta costa tiene las siguientes características eso hace que se serie que suscribe las área de juegos interiores de esa pieza y tampoco permite mucha gente entonces el efecto mañana es sobre todo el tostado del pan que es bastante visual el pan está en el horno que se impermeabiliza un poco la barra de pan y eso hace que se mantenga fresca y húmeda dentro durante más tiempo y no se quedaría con una galleta dura que habría que cortarla a golpes la costra es a esa costa se puede hacer siempre que haya proteínas e hidratos de carbono que esa mezcla se degrada y se forma el efecto media es interesante conseguirlo es interesante eso seguro porque eso hace que la pieza que vamos a comer sea y una salida hacia mejor semana también si es la leche lo que ocurre es que se queman se pone a veces un poco de color ligeramente tostado y es porque se queman los azúcares la de la leche pero es la leche frita el dulce de leche cuando se enfríe pues ese es el mismo hacer y la leche tiene proteínas y tiene hidratos de carbono en las fugas de chamoy y eso hace que se preste que el cadáver izar el azúcar es distinto del efecto maya porque el caramelizada azúcar es que el azúcar se va cortando se van quedando a quemar es en el parlament a del azúcar pero en los las proteínas y los hidratos de carbono esa mezcla se consigue el efecto mayor con el calor seco se facilita también este efecto con algo de grasa porque las grasas eleva la

temperatura siempre mucho de escribir exactamente el meta por es que el agua esté hirviendo el producto no está metido en el agua está suspendido más alto y entonces se va cocinando por la acción del calor dinero aportó a penetrando entonces es mejor que agua hirviendo el efecto este en agua fría pues lo que ocurre es que se va desangrando va a ser va soltando los elementos rápidos en los elementos que se puedan disolver en el agua y bueno pues tenemos otro otras características si queremos que cuando sea bueno lo pondremos con los elementos en frío si queremos que la carne que vamos a cocer sea buena también es una cosa si está cociendo durante mucho tiempo porque la carne es dura pues también los sábados los sabores y los elementos al caldo eso es porque la carne dura para si es una carne tierna es mejor ponerla cocer en agua hirviendo que obtener un mejor sabor es mejor en sentido a la hora de comerlo me da igual a muchos algunos de ustedes tienen una otra pregunta para víctor sí a ver no te preocupes si cocotera sí qué es esto sí sí la pieza que vamos a conocer ahí se verá primero sí porque con tener una cuota es conocer a un recipiente generalmente de barro no tiene también pues el vegetal en el cual ponemos la pieza que sea el que sea un faisán por ejemplo con todos los elementos de la guarnición y todos los bienes antes la hemos dorado como se quiera meterla adentro está para sellarla para que no pierda nada lo más posible y conservar en el horno hasta ahora ellos entonces esto es enviar y la adoramos sin igual que ingrese ado se podría incluir meter dentro del el verseador la cocción en coco teca y me ya está respondida tu pregunta city alguien más tiene alguna inquietud o podemos terminar en una videoconferencia si yo nada más recordar que he recibido no todos son unos cuantos trabajos de tareas y prácticas y veo que es pero las que quedan para tratar de correctivas y demás normalmente hago algún comentario a esto es conveniente hacerlo en el machote está en el modelo que está en la plataforma y es conveniente lo más estado posible porque siempre todas estas cosas y eso es va para toda la vida la presentación es importante si una cosa está puede ser igual y si estaba presentada tiene menos valor entonces él es conveniente que la presentación sea lo más correcta posible también la forma de valorar una práctica sobre todo es a través de las fotografías o del vídeo lo que se haya hecho porque no se está presente

y después en los trabajos escritos si se cogen cosas de otros internet o donde se ha acreditado que la consulta es siempre positiva es cómo poner las fuentes por ejemplo este párrafo esta zona tomada entre paréntesis de tal fuente en este sitio porque el utilizar documentos fuentes y libros y demás es yo lo entiendo como positivo no como negativo como positivo y después lo que sí también es que la conclusión final del trabajo sea personal que cada uno pues de allí pues de lo que ha visto lo que ha leído lo que ha puesto penal su opinión si es bueno o es malo la opinión no tiene por qué ser consciente con la de los demás o incluso con la mía pues ser distintas son opiniones que es conveniente sobre todo reflejar las listo les agradezco mucho por su paciencia les agradezco mucho por por su tiempo lamentablemente tuvimos algunos problemas de sonido con vitor pero esperamos que para las próximas videoconferencias nos vaya muchísimo mejor muchas gracias a ustedes y que tengan una excelente tarde muchas gracias muchas gracias sí y y ah o no eso

Los mezcales del pasado y el futuro — Marco Ochoa (Mesamérica 2014)

hola que tal bueno ya dijeron mi nombre me llamo marco ochoa primero quiero agradecerle a todos ustedes por haber venido a escucharnos al proyecto de mezcal o teca quiero extender el agradecimiento también a meza américa a la organización y los organizadores de esta charla vamos a tocar muchos temas va a ser una embarrada de lo que nos dedicamos a hacer en este en mi escalote cadáver éste no cambio el slide ok no ese no es el título de la charla es los mezcales del pasado y el futuro que tiene que ver mucho con el tema que toca més américa de expresiones urbanas y esto es porque el mezcal ya ha estado en la ciudad de méxico hace mucho tiempo lo dejamos ir y ahora a partir de hace unos 15 años está de vuelta a la isla toda la cultura toda la biodiversidad y gracias a los consumidores y al interés de la gente es que está volviendo a ver toda esta cultura renaciente de los mezcales tradicionales de ahí que venga el título porque ya lo estuvimos aquí no los queremos volver a perder y esperemos que en un futuro sigan llegando a las grandes urbes el proyecto de mezcal o teca rápidamente les tocó el tema es un proyecto que nace desde 2005 la idea se encuentra un spot físico hasta dormir hasta 2010 y la idea es crear un vínculo con los mets con los productores de mezcal tradicional y los consumidores todos los ahorita hay un boom del mezcal y en este gran universo no todas las marcas se encuentran en estos agrupados en el mismo nombre de mezcal o la palabra mezcal como vino los dice viene del agua del mezcal y que significa maguey cocido hay un libro que publica el consejo regulador del tequila que se llama de la antigua taberna artesanal a la industria de alcance global ellos describen de dónde viene la palabra mezcal porque el tequila es un mezcal y las palabras siempre nos van a ayudar a definir el origen de las cosas mezcal y significa maguey cocido en horno de tierra ahorita por ahí me van a ayudar a pasarles este maguey cocido para que lo probaran no sé si llegaron las charolas pero sí pero sí es importante que lo prueben porque esta es la materia prima con la cual está hecho el mezcal va a ser una de las características que lo van a diferenciar de cualquier otro destilado viene del agua de cocido a través de una tema que de ahí heredamos el este heredamos el plata tema o barbacoa de final de cuentas el mezcal es una barbacoa de maguey está cocido en un horno que lleva leña lleva piedra lleva la materia que vas a cocinar y se tapa por varios días y los que ya lo probaron sale este dulce que se llama mesón el mesón del mesón te dependiendo de la región por qué mezcal se hace más de 25 estados de la república mexicana ese mapa que están viendo ahí es un estudio que hace un investigador llamado henry newman lo publica la universidad de yuta y nos muestran las zonas en las cuales éste se produce mezcal y aparte en esta parte punteada nos muestra hasta dónde se consume el maguey conocido hoy por hoy hemos perdido grandes regiones mezcaleras debido a las normas oficiales ya las denominaciones de origen que no están contemplando a todas estas poblaciones que hacen mezcal tradicional desde hace cientos de años aquí la denominación de origen que como bien ustedes saben una denominación de origen se diseña y se hace para proteger un producto y para que este producto fomente una movilidad social en la región aquí la denominación de origen es puede tener 25 estados la república no los deja solamente con 8 esto es absurdo porque en vez de proteger el producto le está arrebatando la palabra a los este a los verdaderos poseedores de esta tradición que son los pueblos la palabra mezcal nos define tres cosas defina la planta en el occidente se le refiere en escala al maguey se le llama también me escala al maguey cocido y se llama mezcal a lo que todos se nos viene a la mente ahorita que es el líquido que es el destilado los ocho estados que tienen denominación de origen es oaxaca guerrero tamaulipas michoacán zacatecas durango en los municipios de guanajuato hablando de lo mal que están hechas las denominación de origen aquí nos vemos vemos también la del tequila si ésta estuviera bien hecha tequila solamente se haría en la población de tequila jalisco hoy por hoy podemos encontrar tequilas en michoacán

en guanajuato y en tamaulipas esto significa que estas normas oficiales y estas denominaciones de origen fueron creadas como herramientas políticas o herramientas económicas para beneficio de unos cuantos y para beneficio de la industria activa ahorita en esta charla vamos a tocar un poco de historia vamos a tocar varias cosas vamos a hacer como una pequeña embarrada de lo que nos dedicamos en escalote acá para que se vayan pues con la cosquillita de saber qué más pasa con los mezcales tradicionales con los mezcales originales no sé si no se alcanza a ver pero esto es una estadísticas agrícolas de 1800 a 1905 del estado de oaxaca aquí nos están mostrando cuánto mezcal se producía en aquella época eso quiere decir que era un elemento importante de bueno dentro de estadística podemos ver que en oaxaca también se produce pulque tlachi que y henequén mucho de esta industria la perdimos es parte de lo que los mitos y todo este embate agroindustrial ha logrado no sólo no conformes con arrasar con la biodiversidad ahora están empezando a arrasar con la cultura este es el resumen se mantiene este perdón se refiere solamente al estado al estado de oaxaca la siguiente lámina vamos a ver un hace este club vamos a ver unas estadísticas de 1952 este es un estudio que hace gabriel sommer a martínez para es una tesis para obtener el título de químico farmaceútico es por parte de la unam si quieren checar la fuente se encuentra en la biblioteca nacional hay en ciudad universitaria aquí podemos ver lo que se producía este lo que se producía en en diferentes años del 37 al 45 por ejemplo en mi los 45 a 1946 se produjeron seis mil novecientos cincuenta litros parece muy poco pero esto es porque esto es lo que pasó por la secretaría de hacienda nada más la gran cantidad de mezcales se consumían localmente o se llevaban a poblaciones vecinas de donde se estaba produciendo y que vamos a tocar distintos temas porque la siguiente lámina que vamos a ver que es parte de esta tesis nos muestra puntos que no concuerdan con la norma actual oficial qué quiere decir esto la norma actual oficial tiene unos parámetros que no nos van a garantizar calidad es decir no nos están garantizando que sea un buen producto una de las cosas que sucede por ejemplo en esta parte es la acidez la norma oficial te dice que tú no puedes pasar de 170 puntos de acidez eso quiere decir que todos que la mayoría de estos mezcal es que se estaban haciendo en 1952 no pasaría en esa norma entonces no esta norma actual entonces no podrían llamarse mezcal esto es lo absurdo porque no hubo nunca una investigación no hubo nunca nunca se involucró a la academia ni a los verdaderos poseedores de esta de este conocimiento que son los maestros mescaleros y a quienes ésta está hablando me va a ayudar para muchas cosas porque luego hay una discusión que qué pasa con los mezcales estadísticos los mezcales abajo de 45 grados siempre se usa el argumento de que son mezcales para nuevos paladares ahorita aquí comentaba un hombre imagínense que nos quieren enseñar a comer hamburguesas llevándonos a mcdonald’s burger king o imagínense que nos quieren llevar a comer mole y conocer de moles de estos moldes de latita o de envase de vidrio no tiene nada que ver con los productos originales nosotros no estamos peleados con la industrialización simplemente lo que no queremos es que esta misma industrialización arrase porque lo que está pasando está arrasando con los mezcales y está arrasando con la biodiversidad en tequila sucedió antes de 1960 cuando la industria del tequila llega a jalisco se producía este mezcal con más de 10 diferentes especies de agave si no nos preguntamos cuántas conocemos decimos solamente una el azul que fue lo que sucedió que la industria escogió la más rentable y acabó con la biodiversidad los campos en tequila jalisco que son patrimonio de la humanidad por la unesco son campos que están plagados esa materia prima ya no sirve y eso y eso no lo dicen porque porque obviamente el producto es un producto inferior a lo que conocieron nuestros abuelos o nuestros tatarabuelos nuestros padres esto es importante porque aquí vemos que hay mezcal es de tamaulipas en guanajuato y quiero que vean las graduaciones alcohólicas las grabaciones alcohólicas están aquí en esta en esta columna y como pueden ver en el pasado en el pasado van desde 51 58 ahí tenemos las medias porque decidieron 45 porque decidieron que 37 38 a lo que nos iban a vender porque lleva más agua al final de cuentas el grado alcohólico lo que nos está contando es partes de agua por partes de alcohol es decir un mes con mezcal de 50 grados tiene 50 partes de

agua por 50 de alcohol hay otros componentes pero eso nos ayuda mucho a ejemplificar lo un mes cal de 36 grados tiene 36 partes de alcohol por 64 de agua como dice un amigo te están vendiendo muy cara el agua si tú le pones lo estás diluyendo en el alcohol es donde van los sabores y los aromas y decía el pretexto de bajar de bajar el grado alcohólico para los nuevos paladares no es argumento estás quitándole elementos a los productos originales y lo estás volviendo genéricos miren cómo las relaciones alcohólicas nos han marcado hasta 57 en algunos en algunos lugares de oaxaca por ejemplo aquí vemos que en este estudio de 1952 está nuevo león con algunas comunidades nuevo léon hoy no figura dentro de los estados con denominación de origen porque no está no sabemos la mejor en esa época el gobernador no era amigo de quien estaba haciendo el presidente de quien estaba haciendo todas estas normas la norma nace en el 94 junto con la denominación de origen y también son un poco sí esquizofrénicas porque la norma te dice que tú puedes llamar mezcal algo que llaman mezcal tipo 2 el mezcal tipo 2 es 80% alcohol de agave y 20% de otros orígenes eso aquí en china se llama adulteraba ustedes deben conocer muy bien el concepto del fraude alimentario un fraude alimentario es cuando tú adúlteras un producto con otro de menor calidad eso es lo que sucede con el mezcal tipo 2 o con los tequilas tipo 2 la denominación de origen de perdices que puedes un 60-40 y la quieren bajar aún más son bastante aberrantes estás normal estas nominaciones hace poco el año hace dos años quisieron empujar una norma que es la norma 186 donde la industria quería apropiarse de la palabra agave es decir que ya los productores que no están en denominación de origen como en puebla como un nuevo que ya no pueden llamarme escala su producto ya tampoco podrían llamarlo destilado de agave que ya que se llamará destilado de agave y dentro de la saga bases hay otras familias más allá de los agaves están las fotografías y las dolinas jazz pero es otro tema y hay expertos que ya que te lo pueden explicar mucho mejor entonces esta norma imagínense que ustedes van a una tienda a una vinatería y encuentran tres botellas y una dice mezcal la otra dice destilado de agave y la otra dice destilado de agave pues la que van a comprar es la que dice mezcal cuando posiblemente la que dice de la que en ese tiempo si esa norma hubiera pasado la que la que decía destilado de agave sea iba a ser de una mayor calidad porque porque los mezcales tradicionales perdón que iban a comprar la de la de mezcal porque porque esta norma es lo que a éste es lo que ha hecho nos ha engañado muchas veces otro otro gran ejemplo es la industria por ejemplo la industria láctea nosotros no conocemos el verdadero sabor de la leche cuando probemos bueno en mi caso leche bronca seguramente no nos va a gustar nos han engañado no nos han puesto un producto que es una interpretación de la industria está bien que exista pero también está bien que nos lo digan también lo que les quería mostrar los alcoholes por ejemplo los granos de metanol que siempre es una cuestión que dicen grandes calles tradicionales es que te vas a quedar ciego mentira los productores son los principales consumidores y tienen mucho cuidado en hacer esto la norma oficial dice que tú no puedes que puede estar entre 100 y 300 puntos de metanol de miligramo por cada 100 mililitros aquí podemos ver en alcoholes que van hasta 400 2 910 y no pasaba nada otra vez la academia nunca estuvo atrás cuando te van a decir qué tiene que ver todo todas estas cosas que están que están diciendo y todas estas regiones me escaleras pues que ya estuvo el mezcal alguna vez aquí en méxico y se debió gracias al ferrocarril a partir de 1800 de 1880 hasta 1910 crece la industria ferroviaria esto que están viendo son toda la red digamos que es la primera red es la primera red social que alcanza toda la toda la república pues muchos productos empiezan a llegar a la ciudad de mexico en el caso de oaxaca el tren llegaba a esta isla esto es algo muy importante porque eso quiere decir que en ese méxico el que les estoy hablando la gente tenía contacto con el productor los que tuvimos la oportunidad de viajar en el tren alguna vez baby los los trenes pasan paradas en la noche en pueblos que se encontraban al lado de la vía y la gente se subía a vender pulque vender mezcal vender tamales enchiladas y te vas parando en pueblos que nos producían diferentes cosas si tú productivo si viajamos en este tren alguna vez conforme caminaba hacia la

locomotora los volviendo como mucho más barato viajar los primeros vagones que así ya viajaban parados bueno ahí viajaban estas personas hacia la ciudad de mexico con todos los productos la aduana se encontraba aquí atrás del metro normal o metro cuauhtémoc si no me equivoco y ahí llegaban y la gente podía ir a escoger ya dialogar con el productor tú sabías quién lo estaba haciendo tú sabías cómo lo hacía con que lo hacía y sabía si lo consumía esto era muy importante porque también llegaban los productos frescos si tú ahora vas al súper y quieres comprar jitomates y jitomate quién sabe cuándo se cortó no alcanzó la madurez lo mismo sucedía con muchas otras cosas lo gasta en la salud impacta y bueno es esto este concepto aquí va a ser un poquito más porque es el concepto más importante que tiene que tener un mezcal tradicional no quiero adentrarme en mucho más en otras características como uno que tiene que estar arriba de 45 grados que tiene que ser blanco más adelante les platicaremos pero el gusto histórico es esta sofisticación de sabores y aromas que han alcanzado y que han desarrollado las poblaciones mi escaleras cada zona cada región en méjico de este mapa que vimos de estos 25 estados ha generado un gusto histórico si tú le preguntas a alguien de michoacán que mezcal es le gustan más seguramente van a decir que los de michoacán si tú le preguntas a alguien de oaxaca te va a decir que los de oaxaca eso es el gusto histórico están acostumbrados a tomar ese producto ya nosotros nos pasa a los que hemos tenido oportunidad de ir a otro país por ejemplo eeuu y tú pruebas la tortilla como mexicano sabes que no sabe a tortilla y eso no quiere decir que sepas ni que está analizar o que sepas agarrar el metate y mol del maíz significa que creciste con esos sabores y es lo que te vaya eso es lo que te va a ayudar a identificar en este caso una buena tortilla de una mala tortilla este gusto histórico nos va a ayudar a identificar un buen mezcal de un mal mezcal a final de cuentas que se consume en la región es lo que te va a garantizar que está bien hecho en el caso por ejemplo de mezcal o teca que es lo que nos dedicamos nosotros todos los mezcales que tenemos ahí tiene un gusto histórico es importante que parte de la producción se consuma en la región porque les decía esto va a garantizar que está bien hecho los señores los estilos los maestros mescaleros de la comunidad es la bebida que utiliza para sus fiestas para sus fiestas patronales fiestas cívicas y es otra cosa que lo va a separar de los mezcales artesanales artesanal y tradicional no son lo mismo un escalar dice un mezcal artesanal puede estar bien hecho puede ser un proceso limpio es decir que no lleva no quiero si la palabra químicos porque todo tiene químicos que no lleva acelerantes pero no se consume en la zona yo conozco a productores que trabajan para marcas de mezcal y cuando les preguntas y usted consume de esa marca te dice no cuando yo quiero consumir me hago uno propio porque porque los dueños de muchas marcas llegaron a decir que así no les gustaba que bajaban el grado alcohólico porque nuevos paladares que quieren entrar al mundo de mezcal y no les gusta el mezcal si no te gusta el mezcal como lo hacen pues tal vez en escala no es para ti hay muchas otras bebidas por ahí bien dice un dicho que no todo es para todos imagínense lo que les decía imagínense que ahora llevan ustedes ese molde de latita a un pueblo de señoras que hacen mole desde hace mucho tiempo pues te va a decir qué es esto que me trajiste esto no cumple las características ahora imagínense que el gobierno y la industria del mole quiere hacer una norma oficial de una denominación de origen y entonces dice bueno la denominación de origen la van a tener los estados de puebla estado de méxico y michoacán de modo oaxaca como no estás o no o no eres mi amigo tú ya no le puedes llamar mole ahora tienes que llamar pasta de chile es así de absurdo ha sido absurdo funciona de estas normas y estas denominaciones ahora imagínense que en la industria apoya una norma que dice que no porque no puede usar estos ingredientes por qué pues porque como ellos no lo obtienen o no hay en tal cantidad para producir industrialmente mejor se lo quitan y ahora lo que hace rato les comentaba cuando tú le vas quitando elementos a un producto lo mismo siendo un elemento genérico cómo es que hay diferentes gustos históricos como como llegan a través de lo que se llaman indicaciones geográficas esto es una es un trabajo que podemos hacer como consumidores porque muchas veces nos hemos acercado ya a las instituciones que se que están involucradas con esto y pues se queda siempre en papel alguna vez ya en méjico sesión e indicaciones geográficas que hicieron resaltar los mezcales de mexico el caso sedes de quilá el tequila se volvió famoso seguramente por su sabor seguramente porque estaba muy bien hecho y fue el primero que vio la industria y

que se acercó y que llegó a jalisco y les digo empezó a crecer de una manera voraz y arrasó arrasó con todo en la indicación geográfica la van a encontrar en las etiquetas que es un tema que vamos a hablar un poquito más adelante de lo importante de un etiquetado correcto porque hoy por hoy nuestro único nuestro diálogo más cercano con un productor es la etiqueta nos va a decir y lo vamos a poder corroborar no vamos a poder corroborar en algún momento tenemos la oportunidad de hacer un viaje y con a estos productores y que de viva voz’ te cuenten que hacen y que consumen lo de las indicaciones geográficas es muy importante porque lo imagínense que de pronto empieza a ver a sobresalir los mezcales de malinalco los mezcales de puebla los de teposcolula en oaxaca porque también en oaxaca no todos los municipios que hacen escala están dentro de la dentro de esta denominación de origen lo que les decía que estas indicaciones de acision alguna vez ya estuvieron aquí en méxico y el siguiente en el siguiente slide utilice una tecnología bastante vieja que es el que dicho ni salió ahí está la imagen que es el código qr que es un vídeo de tinta y eso tiene mucho que ver con esta expresión urbana aquí podemos ver varios elementos directo expresiones es el que está aquí arriba es un fragmento de una canción de chava flores que se llama el crimen del expreso porque el mezcal estuvo en la ciudad de mexico esta es otra expresión de la familia burrón donde el personaje que se llama el gobierto memelas desde la coi el cacique de la coyotera que aparte en la coyotera en el universo de la familia burrón era una potencia magueyera movía pulque y movía estas cosas pero él está diciendo para los que no alcanzan a leer a mí me gusta recibir a los amigos con honores con qué con qué quiere emborracharse jovenazo con tequila mezcal bacanora estamento un charanda o chinchón hable pues a él le contesta yo no le hago a la bebida algo yo no sé por qué le hizo feo a esas delicias pero aquí podemos ver que el habla de tres mezcal es el tequila el mezcal que seguramente será final de oaxaca y el bacanora que viene de sonora que nos que nos dice este elemento de la familia burrón que el mezcal estaba bastante integrado en el día el día de la ciudad la ciudad de mexico se construyó con los migrantes de diferentes estados de la república al final de cuentas uno siempre viaja con su comida cuando vamos a otro lado es lo primero que extrañamos entonces en esta urbe este llegar llegaban los mezcales de diferentes son las pintan en muchas películas hace ya se ve en este código lo va a mandar al link donde pintan hace una este hace una mención del mezcal y hace una mención de las perlas del mezcal que es otra característica que tienen que buscar que esté arriba de 45 grados que se haya hecho en horno en horno de tierra y que pearl es la forma más fácil que tenemos de ver pero les agarraba una botella y agitarla eso va a generar unas burbujas y el tiempo que duren estas burbujas nos va a indicar grado alcohólico para un ojo experto en el caso de los maestros mescaleros va a indicar el tipo de maguey con el que está hecho este en entre muchas otras cosas hay quien dice que la perla no dice nada pero seguramente lo dicen porque los mezcales no pelean pero es muy importante es muy importante que esté bien tengo que un mezcal pero leo lo que sigue es el es el etiquetado como les decía hace rato nuestro vínculo ahora con el productor en estos tiempos es un etiquetado correcto un amigo decía que tú no pones en una etiqueta todo por dos cosas uno porque no tienes nada bueno que decir o porque tienes algo que ocultar como consumidores cuando cuando nos acercamos a los mezcales es importante que alguien te los sirva te diga quién lo hizo con qué maguey lo hizo qué tipo de destilado horus o qué tipo de maguey uso qué tipo de horno que hago utilizo para la fermentación todos estos elementos que parecen no tener importancia tienen mucha importancia el agua es muy importante el agua que están utilizando en la fermentación que número de destilación es tiene depende la tecnología de cada región va a ser el número de estimaciones no necesariamente tienen que ser dos hay alambique es que con una vid steel acción es decir 2 destilación es en un solo paso existen en la región de jungla y de miahuatlán puedes tener mezcales con un gusto histórico también en la etiqueta tiene que venir cuando se hizo la riqueza alcohólica la cantidad de litros producidos y algo muy importante que tienen que preguntar si quieren conocer estos mezcales originales es decir si lo consumen en la región si no saben decirles lo que yo nosotros les proponemos es que como tengan alguna oportunidad vayan a las regiones me escaleras conozcan a los productores tomen este tomen información de ahí generen esta movilidad social ellos a ellos les gusta mucho platicar

de lo que hacen están orgullosos de lo llevan cientos de años son muchas generaciones las que están atrás hay un proceso obvio cultural y con bio cultural me refiero a la planta y la cultura que lleva muchos años de sofisticación el maguey fue alimento antes que el maíz el maguey ha sido casa ha sido ha sido vestido ha servido para la escritura tenemos una potencia vegetal enorme como mexicanos que hay que cuidar tenemos también otra gran oportunidad porque hoy por hoy estamos en cero estamos en cero en tanto a la historia por allá y esbozos como estos estudios que hemos encontrado de la historia del mezcal pero esto se parece mucho a un tejido que se va deshilachando y cada vez quedan menos vínculos con la parte anterior entonces tenemos que no tenemos que perder estos hilos que nos siguen conduciendo a los mezcales tradicionales como les decía no es que estemos peleados con los mezcales industriales o los artesanales no simplemente que los tradicionales tienen que tener cabida son los mezcales es son los mezcales originales y aparte nos rodean muchos muchísimos temas el tiempo no va no no da para tanto no podríamos hablar de cómo han arrasado con el maguey de todo el saqueo que ha hecho la industria tequilera no sólo en oaxaca sino en varias partes de méxico de la migración de la biodiversidad y de toda la industrialización del mezcal y así pues ya para un poco para terminar porque no me queda mucho tiempo más en mi escalo teca nuestro trabajo es vincular con los productores mandarlos a ustedes si alguna vez tienen ganas para que vayan y los visiten lo que les proponía hacer rato es que estamos en una época que falta mucho trabajo falta desarrollar herramientas que nos sirvan herramientas para acercarnos más a un método científico hay muchos mitos está el mito de comercio que te deja ciego el mito de que tiene mescalina el mito de que es mágico de que es chamánico creo que eso forma parte de la mercadotecnia así como lo es el gusano de mezcal y está bien está padre pero hasta que construir de una manera más metódica como lo han hecho con los vinos es increíble por ejemplo ustedes bien deben saber cuántas denominaciones de origen hay para el vino en españa en francia en italia aquí tenemos una que abarca 25 regiones que no solamente este resumen de 25 regiones cada población tiene una manera distinta de hacer esto de hacer mezcal y la oportunidad que tenemos es que prácticamente estamos en ceros como desde hace rato aquí hay dos cosas una buena y una mala la mala es que estamos en ceros la buena es que estamos en ceros y que estamos en tiempo de construir toda esta cultura de los mezcales tradicionales para finalizar el tema de los mezclar estacionales les puse otros códigos aquí donde hay ciertos documentales como este la vida mezcal que habla de la norma 186 que les platicaba hace rato esa batalla la ganamos pero junto con otras instituciones como la de el clip tequila interchange project en eeuu el poder del consumidor instituciones académicos como jorge larsson caterina isl y ana valenzuela para ti colunga que es gente que se ha dedicado y que ha defendido los mezcales tradicionales de hace mucho tiempo el vídeo que está acá es de conabio que nos habla de bío de biodiversidad en el principio de este vídeo van a poder ustedes ver una avenencia y una jícara donde van a poder ver el perlado que es la forma en la cual el productor diseña los sabores porque quiere algo bien importante un productor no está buscando grado alcohólico está buscando sabores y aromas y como y como hace rato les decía el grado alcohólico entre menos alcohol haya hay más agua y estamos del más diluido el productor no puede percibir los es por eso que arriba de 45 grados la percepción se afina y tú puedes saborearlo y pues ahí puedes para labrar lo y finalmente aquí hay una guía para reconocer los mezcales tradicionales como tengan una botella enfrente yo por allá hay un dicho que dice que el mes que el mejor mezcal es el que tengas enfrente no es cierto el mejor mezcal es el que te gusta si quieres escoger un mezcal tradicional o uno industrial o un artesanal que quede en tu decisión consciente como consumidor es lo que queremos formar consumidores conscientes y con poder de decisión cada quien se mata por propia mano si quieren seguir consumiendo agua de colima ranilla como bien decimos pues adelante ahí están pero también están los mezcales tradicionales que aparte pues es hacerle un honor a estos productores que no hay nada nada nuevo que descubrir ellos lo mantuvieron por muchos años en el méxico profundo porque lo seguían consumiendo volvió a salir aquí está de nuevo y creo que hay que hay que conservarlo no tengo mucha otra cosa más que decir espero que se ha despertado muchas dudas espero que se ha despertado curiosidad por acercarse a los mezcales

tradicionales y por probarlos después de probar un mezcal tradicional ya nada va a ser igual ya no van a poder volver a los otros y pues ni modo muchas gracias

Opening plenary: Social entrepreneurship – a new framework for addressing urban challenges

well welcome and good morning labret vcm she says they starve evaluate Busan glabella wada but drew is she who store that sells the all-time some comment artist fellow cloth biscuit dakkadakka I’m Sinatra’s nods I just said that this working language of the session will be English but the people may ask the questions and comments in Latin so welcome we will help one and a half hour for the opening panel for the opening of this forum social entrepreneurship forum social entrepreneurship what livable cities and during the time that has been allotted to us we will aim at letting the stage for these two days and highlights some of the most impressive examples of social entrepreneurship inner cities in urban environment we will look at the various journeys the total entrepreneurs are taking in that context in the countries and we will discuss the challenges and joys of the work we will also try to address the question and answers answer it on why should cities invest in social entrepreneurship why is social entrepreneurship social innovation important for decision-makers and how can social entrepreneurs help cities reaching their policy objectives as to say format of this panel the first hour will be devoted though our brief presentations from the speaker and the panelist and then we will have 30 minutes for talking with you and let me briefly present the people that we have here and I’m very happy for this wonderful panel and I’m so happy that everybody made it to rego today some people had to stay overnight in Kiev somewhere arriving early summer coming from places but we are all still healthy and happy all here that’s that’s great so I will start with presenting lisa at least Lisa baseball come from Denmark from roskilde University where she leads the center for social entrepreneurship we the next speaker will be yiannis Rosenberg yanis Rosenbergs a mayor of a city then we will have remarked from rooted in Monta rooted amanta is the the leader of a charitable portal Xia dude what donate and this is an online site where people can donate at the various charitable projects we would also have Taylor pick Taylor has been also traveling for long this week and you made it the rigor and Taylor comes from Estonia until I ahead of urban lab Estonian social enterprise we can probably call it that way and finally I am very happy that we will have need need super earn it comes from Israel and he has been having a long journey on social entrepreneurship issues and need is leading a shocker in Israel though I suggests the Bible’s thought with Lisa’s presentation so Lisa will have 15 minutes time and Lisa guess with Lord is yours hello everyone shall I use my is that about working this one okay hello everyone I’m very pleased to be a very honored to be here and also to be one of the first presenters and as Eva said I’ve come from the University but I’m not going to make a long hair presentation today not at all academic because what I’m going to do in 15 minutes hopefully give you a part of my life story as a social entrepreneur what I’m going to do actively is talk about a case my own case the case I’ve been involved in myself and then draw some kind of conclusion because what I stayed is that social entrepreneurs create value and values at the same time I also state that if you work with Urban Development making partnerships of course this sectors believe in the social entrepreneurs you can achieve various goals at the same time so this is what I want to demonstrate we have to go to Denmark to annas a small city and industrial city which has been highly I mean I be damaged by structural changes been a industrial city which has always had a lot of unemployment a lot of social problems what happened in the middle of this 70s was we got a lot of influx of refugees coming to the to the city what had happened in hannah’s in my

town and all in cities in Denmark was that in the end of 60s beginning of the 70s there was a big expectation of growth everything was going well and we built all these housing areas in the outskirts of the cities what happened was that when the oil crisis came in the beginning of the 70s I mean these areas started to go in a run-down spiral and in the mid-70s when there are 80s when when the refugees came we had housing areas that were empty with a lot of problems a lot of challenges so I was at that time working at the Danish Refugee Council I thought we have to do something about that so what I did I’m actually an artist I’m a weaver so what I did i took my my weaving workshop moved into the moving to the area and that was the basement it was called cool to aquiline is a bit babe the culture in the basement and I made a workshop inviting women from the area making training courses ending up having a factory where we have trade the women and making a designer clothes selling it all over Denmark and brought and also took my weaving gear and we started an evolution about making tapestries which became actually very very famous throughout Europe which we sold and exhibited at museum and art galleries knots institutions everywhere so just give you some examples I the idea was that the women were going to tell stories about about their lives in butte tapestries which were had a quality which could be sold not you know some probably something you did in a basement buy something with the quality right so that’s that’s a bosnian before busting refugees making that one yeah and this is say is it helped Christian Andersen tapestry a story but out from that we also built a puppet theater so sometimes you get one idea and that leads to the next idea so that’s pop bubble theater was leaving our quick it was a with us on our opening sessions of the exhibition’s but he started living his own life so it became a social enterprise itself so when I was in the about nineteen ninety I thought actually we had got some platforms which could be developed and I really wanted to work on different kind of social enterprise form which could actually a host or could employ some of the migrant population which had very hard access to labor market we had we talked about crisis in Denmark now we have and we have a nominal rate of about seven that time in my tongue it was eighteen percent of unemployment so that was very hot so of course because we had this industrial history there was a mean there was a need to think differently about about development but i also had this idea that we had some platform which could be delivered I also knew that we needed to go downtown we had to be in the hop to be able to to to work it out and I developed project which i called the greenhouse and I managed to get a couple of millions danish kroner to develop to develop that idea at the same time the city of alaniz came to people in in an area called tuyos heron and ask them well could you think of new ideas to how to combine housing and economics and well i live just around the corner at that time so I thought well now we got some more tea now we got some potential here so let’s go together and see what we can do so actually we have we invited people to get into the process there are about 75 people coming in and working with us and that was across sectors there were individuals it was pretty private companies it was people from the municipality and we started developing the idea of a wonder we wanted to tap it into the oath of the micron cultures to say well they’re very good entrepreneurs could we make some kind of market space I would like to I would like to make a gallery of papa theater textile workshop catering business a shop something different we wanted to work with training as well so we’ve worked these ideas out in every we had a lot of researches was a plan of a Turkish bath or some kind of bath which was something between you know a smoke sauna from Finland and the dealers you know mean in in the Budapest and you know their hammams in Turkey where you get you know things but that only came into cardboard because it was very expensive to build and everybody thought that was a great idea we had to build this complex but every time he said well we only need

30 million then we had a problem so and there was also another debate in the city we had the piece of land that we’ve been looking at was a bit outside city center so the politicians in the city said well yeah we like your idea but can you think of another piece of land yeah and there was a piece of land in the city center variant close to the cultural institutions and you said oh yes that’s nice but that’s only adds 10 million more to the bad kids and what to do so in 96 we spotted some money in Brussels and we went down to talk to some people have presented our idea and they said well after an hour’s talk with the administrator of program they say well we like your idea we want something like that go back make an application and then we have got five weeks to make it and now in 96 within six years after we started thinking about this so we had a lot of things that were done we could easily put it into the application and then we send it off and then we waited and then we waited and then we waited because I mean is that it’s not the most I mean speedy process but with what we did while our applications within we made up exhibition in the European Parliament we thought that might be helpful so finally one year later we got the we got the message that we’ve got funded so now we got the funding we got 60 million kronor which is about 1 million 10 million euro something like that and now we have to start building it now we’ve been talking about it for ten seven years and now we had to build it and to do that we started to actually started making a completely new organization because what was very important that we got different stakeholders involved in the in the project because if you don’t like it you against it so we had to be very strategic also to be invited in in the room so a new organization was built and that’s of some kind of a process because you need to to work very much to get people having the same mindset because you can invite people some suddenly the project is going somewhere else and this is not nice at all so we work a lot and that was building a site that we’re going to be demolished and worked out built new and in the building process we asked the companies who were actively going to do the work to employ or make a job training schemes for for Refugees so that was a demand we had further further for the companies who were involved so in two thousand the building were there four thousand square meters with a lot of different activities and lots of I’ll just give you a quick tour this is the entrance outside as a cafe there are some shops with different kind of handicrafts this is a sort of street which is covered so you can have a lot of different activities that’s a shop that was our shop where we sold products from our workshops and products from partners in different countries this was a viewing gallery this is the biggest Elvis Presley a museum outside Graceland we got matches we got butchers we got hairdressers we got this we got that we got Studios we got theater and we also trained entrepreneurs because we knew that it was very important that the people who were actually going to be in in in the hub that they had sustainable their businesses so we had a training program called the gas station you’re coming and get some gas and you go out again so got some beauty of different spaces for conferences and exhibitions this is a cover the record cover exhibition and we got the outside space to make a lot of different performances and and different shows we also built a house that’s a yellow house there for young people residents because we thought it was a nice way to get young people involved in the project but it also fit nicely into the plan because it gave us quite a bit of money co-financing which is also think that it’s need is okay so you look what is it true that does it create something here so I appoint a few things which I think it has created value the first thing I would say about a social value first of all we created a lot of empowerment for the people was actively being involved there’s been a lot of people participating in the project people who are not normally getting into local of developing processes it has created employment and social capital and to be posting a bit we will want to select as one of the 20 model projects on the big urban program from 95 to 2000 which is tons and tons of euro distributed all over and and the

European Commission were actually evaluating our project and what they’re saying was it huh oh no viagra the Wonder has strongly empowered marginalized groups and why and they say what has it done yeah you’ll create a participation of the local community in the process we have made it interesting and transferable model which could actually be applied everywhere else there were well developed training concept kept training has always been a part of the thinking about about the urban regeneration and then the holistic thinking so urban regeneration is not only about houses is not about physical structure is also about physical structures it’s also about something else right in honour whereas when we open on over the Wonder we had created 61 new jobs and that was job that’s never been there before so our idea about this should be a locomotive our vehicle for economics development we were right there and also that you can see that we got into sectors which were new actively because we have we’re in the retail the catering the service the cultural industries is quite a big thing the culture creative industries so we managed to get jobs created in areas where there were no jobs before as a substitute for the jobs that were not there anymore my colleague asked who were gone has also been looking at my case a long time ago now i’m working with him and thomas b spell is actually my son has been working with with Lars and they were looking at how how policy net by how social capital what what does that play when you talk about to lift products like that what what what they were saying i’m making this figure where they say cool to alkaline which was my own organization had a strong very strong links bonded to local activities and local citizens businesses and whatnot tillens organization and also to them what municipalities as such but we also had the connection on the international level and on the state level and what they’re claiming is that that the fact that we were able to bridge that social capital which was sort of created on the local level was actually what made the project if social capital can be something to look at right that was the wrong way okay the economic value what happened was we established a lot of enterprises when we open the owner vehicle we had 22 new enterprises created and in a six year period for ninety nine to two thousand five year period for 99 2 2004 77 new enterprises was created and that was enterprises created by unemployed people some of them are probably got bust since then but at least that was a quite an impressive number we create a new product and services because we created product service which it wasn’t there before and we generated investments because in that 15 year period from from 9787 until 2012 where i was involved in this we generated or we had a turnover about 10 million europe but we generated about 40 million not 40 million euro more i can’t i can’t really figure it out but it’s about 275 million danish kroners of you have I think it’s 40 million something like that so you have to understand I mean what my mess is actually that if you’ve got something successful going you seem to attract unless which means that it means a lot for the local community because it means taxes it means employment it means lack but then not so many much money spent on on welfare services and so on so you have a quite a good economic situation what I think is it has been interesting to to see from my stuff when I started in 87 is how how things are out social entrepreneurship has shifted from project paradigm to a market paradigm and I think there are some challenges when we talk on some dilemmas as well and someone is to actually to create continuity because you’ve got to such short time horizons when it comes to funding you have lot of competition when it when we talk about funding you do have a market where you’re not quite sure what is going to happen so to create the continuity especially when you have something good going with good stuff and good a good methodology that’s very challenge is to keep that going and then when the enterprise grows it has to

sometimes you I mean it seems to stagnate in a way because you get so self concerned and now now we sort of lean back and that’s very very very dangerous to get into that position and we think it’s very important to think that your why are you grown are you growing because you want your organization to grow and your personal success as a social entrepreneur although you want to grow because the mission that you have is so important you have to walk the talk if you want what other people to take people in need employment for instance or do good you have to do it yourself so thirty percent of the people employed where people we have trained our cell phone either when we were at the highest they will do about i had 45 employees i had a problem with recognition from the private sector they had a bit sort of arrogant attitude towards what i was doing because they thought oh you’re not really business and i was i got so pissed off to be honest and i told them well and i will guarantee that i would say it’s easy to run a normal private business in on a business where you’ve got two or maybe three bottom lines because it’s much much more complex and that’s what I think what you’re doing is actually manage complexity and I’ll just give you a slight about my organization in 2099 actually it’s just a sort of a slap shot do I have more time 30 mins then I’ll just rush through because some what I’m not saying is that if you think about creatively and holistically around urban development involving different sector I think you can achieve more objectives at the same time so in our case and that is not only what I’ve seen in my case but in the case I’ve been studying around is that well you active its citizens important you have job and enterprise creation important you have new product and services important you make integration between cultures important you are you create intercultural competence you’re a Cuban 8xt ocean capital but you also use social capital you nurture democratic processes you create wealth reinvestment generation of investment and you improve the image of the local area so i think more policy objectives can be reached at the same time so what does it take i think some crucial factors establishment of partnership is very essential but it’s not easy I mean when every time almost where every time you are going to have a make of F funding application to state well you’re going to have a partnership yeah but partnership is not easy it has to be worked it has to be nursed in a way and don’t I mean but it’s so important if you can get every liable partnership to work network is our most important competent leadership and management yes risk-taking and risk-taking does not only apply to the social entrepreneur the organization it also applies to the politicians and to the people who are actively administrating all the different regulations and and and laws creativity our capital we and all sort of capitals not only money is social carries on cultural capital or whatever knowledge itself we need that in this then creativity and what’s creativity is that only to have a brush in your hand and paint a picture no creativity arrives when you’re at the edge of your competences when you want to go a bit more that’s where it comes when you really want to aspire something wrong that’s where it happens right continuity are already talking about that capitalize on caucus of diversity there are lots and lots of lots of some resources to take their think of synergy and complementarity and you have time and time enough because it took us 10 years from started thinking about the Wonder to leave actually was there thank you thank you so much later it was so inspiring I must say and I’m really thankful to you because you’re did set the stage for a forum you touched up on many issues that we are also am i aiming to address today and tomorrow and if i may ask just out of curiosity where do you get the energy for all this impressive work i think if you think it’s important enough if you think it’s important look it’s a way you have your microphone here okay yeah if you think it’s important enough of what you’re doing because I mean for me was also a personal thing I didn’t want my son to grow up in a ratio a resistive society so that was my sort of personal I mean point then I think I’ve always been as a

person being I mean fairness is a thing and I’ve always stood for and then if you out together with people you can see you have a success you can see that thing grows you have fun I mean you get the energy thank you and now I would like to invite you to mentally move to another not less beautiful city here in Latvia please so we will now listen to yah miss Rosenberg who is the mayor of places and faces it’s a beautiful medieval town approximately 1 100 kilometers north from Riga innocent part of latvia and mayor will speak on why he thinks social enterprises and social innovation and businesses and active civil society is important for his city thank you good morning participant good morning speakers it’s very nice to be today here thank you very much for invitation and I would like to present experience from stasis it is possible to today speaking two languages Latvian and english and i would like to prefer in Latvian much clearly express our best things from chases that that says is it really all skies must be us at musa let’s build groups gusta tu vida Moonseed out doubt pasar como bit on shaky our novice well at least I got much time that they’re better it’s like me on it like it’s like Nick report i know you’re supporting 30 is 0 op shop would say yeah yeah better to host but most likely chases without those guys too young diamond out dogmas bad dog lima glutes are converse with sock puppets miss Durham Dudley discuss waiting to own a bit macedo taco de una taka you snorted no doubt and Adam Latrice milan vs milan tourism oh my booty sakuma ceased etre des nosotro domestic Madame de Mendoza kilometros Emily Oster mm not know Gospels at lukla by geographica novia to Emma Moonseed out lolly she stay out machine Linney’s sausage we go Esther own katras Ingham unseated you at la biografía this locus is viet mrs. some USB San on bigar a story eurostat Medusa do since esta god bill to assess Academy’s phenom Austin synagogues dendritic bateria nakato dairy rig what would patrol a buck unko Puma Moonseed not impotent to Toshi what are protons the CDC Awards bday was God was signal to depart SE by NGO thi one supply sicknesses and appeared to be ocean proteomes da Genova game ranked Rakesh largely remaining sherry para domestic beer store acne not arunabha Maya we’re after caceres Maya’s admirers Scott are still busy myosin is why they as Maya bet Nemeth Lara to occur now your taco p.m. CT Kapil drop zone on cooter on master monster i lured out you da man per curiam user boot zenith Katara dear Bipasha waka you generate anak noche SI muchachos Adama courtesy tadka sista chris on cots water a lot i see devatas in casino aloes moose in Lavaca mendoza risotto un cielo que estaba en ratas latvia moon Sierra’s rato vodka sauce OMG des des kay amudhan spaen moon soo meta lobster pseudonym o Musa styling kuznia most logs indoors countries like I cockiness tempo with must retrace da snakes good tomate the automatic asaram car payments export dangerous endeavor important to Scandinavia Austin log rotation on the reservation export to the container is lost in dr. Prescott a pleasure Adam kisaku asleep skatin viento en las canas going down names nasal cavities codes wanna pump rasika no more impetus Perez not excessive clinic wats lockers pastorship arbutus latvia’s nor Becca’s mom Sarah kami le llamas nesco de esos Vista motel jamel net score Clemmie two moons ooh la la que la pasión sin falta un secondo teresa news new mom son una maestra shot the moon ciudad de janeiro Hakuna moombahton esta pelea want at the apart expert rujuta Monte turismo Yemen

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nota boasted a Christmas at calico cats thats magnets of pave doses nautical God’s potentials you only be an yeah miss meadows cuesta Travis cryptic esta vez cryptic Toa cod nice option pretium Griffin psst tuvok’s new tech cinta a potential Culliver boot sock want a new kawasaki nesta pro to school manana con Coveney woven Vegas Gustafson ops beta Sita’s cotton deulim EOP de paso that lets mess iqaluit each atom that arisia project boqueria me estas t that Guardian DVM 3 and ministers that booty skier tecmo skillsets artisti whom pets no se nada use- sadness conference to the other ancient astronaut my finale now this lame copd a no-look started without without and plush for this thank you very much and I really hope that the approach of places mayor and sizes municipality has been heard also in other cities talked in other cities in the Baltic States and it has inspired leaders in other part to take a similar path and to invest in people and build social capital thank you now I would like to invite Ruta Lee monster naruto is a chairman of the tourney portal 0l bay tonight lb and she herself has also taken a journey of a social entrepreneur so we will hear news Reuters sober assessment of this journey through the area 1mon in front of everyone so thank you evil don’t and Angie’s foreign station I very happy to be here and my presentation will be about my experience my challenges and my dylan’s so but I was speaking Latvian course that’s more comfortable for me breed with same not think I’m state is Gribble pasta state / sorry mrs. knowing me mm nato that a no time in my pill a marksman ear is a douche is that way the suit allows name a derby door it’s not bad native estas academics is dato che uomo noticed Aretas casa de naissance hae yo haga una assists eight of the Orca practice untested a measured in some Oh Josie Oh times up spread without my structure will weird question hoekstra do Ahmad g6 era namazi honest collective motion so tell vamonos cortes de say de Vaca bamboo rods x 11 ish de tu voto a nepotism a satin barrette chatted s and artistry rounding Institute go Appa is rated for more artists ignore format intervention gatos good Williams dustman theorems who isn’t looks fedora mothman’s presented is like a hippo started the sooner but them anantha that a miata mm-hmm Carper card note per card attaboy use voodoo got a shot 0d i use multidrug herbs leg rope that needs shoes ergo diced being muscled are to be but the children listen sometime bullet which solid copa look I specimen Grigio species erika se to ensure we saw salaam crushing oak summer presented a sock monkey bleh you suppress the column is no not am so not the absorbance at a hotel ammonia mom una she’s Molly Exeter’s palma de at the stars from relatives who sorry so tell owes me on context tub that was moose organs are you miss upload and Casilla it’s easy was ticketed winning Todd y mas boo symbian what it’s it’s a sitter little rocky Commandments new pashto sim solids not sat since this command miss nepal a unified wearisome so ego a mistake a mixing see temps est mr Hempstead mysterious promised MC estiga

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beliefs and our philosophy and they all bring together these our core topics so it’s creating concepts and providing education and offering solutions to different problems in order to achieve urban sustainable sustainable urban development and happier cities happier people and so forth so one example is it’s a very small town close to Tulane so we’re 6,000 residents and we are consultants for the city government there in order to regenerate their central their center there is no Center at the moment it’s an industrial and warehouse district so and it’s a very small town but still they are very ahead of of the times because they went for this collaborative planning approach so they hired us to consult them how to engage more people how to engage residents how to engage the landowners and the other entrepreneurs in the town in order to create something new to also create better image for the city government so this is still an ongoing process but we believe that this is a good example of how things in the future can be and should be and we have organized several workshops already and they’re created the concept how this all the process should be and actually we don’t know how it will go how it will end we’re hoping that we will reach the point where the detailed plan for this new center will be composed out of these visions and ideas that the process is generally generating at the moment and shortly about another service that we are providing these are even walks different and alternative experimental excursions in mainly in Thailand but if somebody wants we can organize them anywhere mainly in Estonia so these are we have worked out several topics that we provide for example the seaside of talion central sea side of Tallinn or the visible suburban life but actually not so many orders have come on that on these topics but more we have offered the urban walks for different conferences and different it’s educational events as a as a sub program and as you see we are not only walking there are there also bike tours and this is a this is a new thing in a sonia because so far we only have the touristic tours in the old town mainly and architectural tours that focus on objects on buildings but we are more focused in on mental processes and the history the present and the future well this is basically it you can find out more from our website and from facebook and i’ll be presenting one other projects about neighborhood movement in tallinn in the afternoon session so i’ll give more space for questions and discussion thank you have the opportunity so hear more from LA today is the afternoon at the breakout session and just in order to save the time I will ask an aide now to stand up and to order please briefly present yourself and I think what Nate will say to us is extremely important and they have a lot of thoughts and conversations and research and talks on motivations and values of social entrepreneurs and I believe that theme has a lot to say on these things yeah well thank you for the invitation it’s my first time you’re in lovely to be here so thank you for bringing me by a key of last night I have some good news and bad news bad news the good news i’m the last speaker well that’s the good news and the other news i don’t have a presentation so i’ll just talk for ten minutes and you’ll have to listen I think just to say a bit about myself I used to be an academic I should say it carefully in this institution I wrote my PhD on social capital and how political context create and disturb social capital we can talk about it later and then I realized that academia is a bit too academic for me let’s put it this way and I discovered a shoka I read a book that actually changed my life there’s a book with a humble title of

how to change the world very modest and down to earth it was the first book written about social entrepreneurship antra preneur almost ten years ago the author another good Jewish boy from Montreal wrote his first book on Muhammad Yunus Muhammad Yunus Muhammad Yunus and when Muhammad Yunus told him I am a social entrepreneur he said but it’s an oxymoron like somebody said you cannot be entrepreneur and social then Mohamed told Dave it’s like a movie when Mohamed told David go and talk to Bill Drayton the founder of Ashoka the person who coined the term social entrepreneurship David met with Bill wrote the book that the New York Times has heralded as the Bible we should be get very careful people through Israel from Israel talking about the Bible right the Bible in the field of source entrepreneurship this book was written I finished my PhD it was lovely but I felt I want to do something else read read the book the book is a bit if you have if you happen to read it and I think you should the book is a bit too American right i mean if you read if you wrote those American books there’s a bit of cheese or marshmallow or excitement about the amazing people doing amazing things in amazing places look at them jumping swimming brushing their teeth right and I guess because because i wrote my PhD in england in Cambridge I needed some cynicism some grain of salt in the story however if you manage to look through this Kitsch and schmaltz you realize wow this is an incredible movement I want to be a part of it I join a show guy in 2005 right after finishing my PhD moved from Cambridge to Washington DC then convinced the organization to open the branch in Israel and now I’m in Israel running Ashoka trying to be sustainable impactful and happy and I think and I think and I think the important thing the important thing is to is to say that we are at an interesting point in the movement as as other people said before me because a Chaka started talking about social entrepreneurship 32 years ago which was a long time ago back then people said this is crazy it’s not going to work it doesn’t exist right there’s nothing like that there is no such animal right I mean we shouldn’t talk about the elephant in the room but about the horse in the room right and we have chinese horses and we have german horses and we have russian horses we should have an auction after the session how much would you pay for the horse no and it’s interesting i’ll try to pick up on some of the art what other people said and try to weave it into what i’m saying speaking of weaving I think Weaver’s are real entrepreneurs right it’s all about weaving if we’re talking about the network if about talking about taking taking separate threads and creating a new fabric this is exactly what we’re talking about how to create a new urban fabric how to create a new national fabric using existing materials and trying to put them together I loved also the whole idea of the gas station right you create a gas station people come drink get some gasoline and energy and move forward and I think social capital is crucial for for this thing and I think we should think when we talk now about social entrepreneurship about the role of businesses the role of social enterprises in the role of government it can be local government or national government in creating social capital and social capital is as some of you may know it’s this super important foundation or ecosystem of trust and collaboration and creativity all the wonderful things we talk about all the time but don’t really know how to create or don’t even know how to sustain and already know how to spread or scale up so these things are I think fundamental for the next two days we will talk about again Lisa said wonderful thing we’re moving from a from a project paradigm to a market paradigm we now by now after 30 years of talking about certainty ownership we know that there is a market there is a field or a subject called social entrepreneurship actually some people would say it’s no longer field but actually a mindset right so it’s not I’m a social entrepreneur but all of us should have those glasses social entrepreneurship glasses through which I can sell your mind through which you can see the world so how you create this mindset among governmental officials among academics among our citizens among kids among however this is a super important question of course by the end of this two days we will all move to chase’s right i mean this is this is obvious because there’s beer there is honey they create Windows that you can open and close i think window is a very good metaphor they create platforms for young entrepreneurs and they give free houses I mean I mean and but but in order to make sure we play it right for in this list and myself we realize we will not take separate mentions we will live together we’ve things and make things happen I think another lesson

another less than 4 for the creation of this kind of plasma you may need a very young mayor in order to think young and creatively but i don’t know i don’t know maybe he’s maybe he’s older than he looks and I think and I think what we should what we should talk about is try and take you were talking about experimental an alternative to is right in Tallinn taking two miserable urban suburbs I think I think we should take it we should take an alternative tour in the field of stars entrepreneur for them for the next three minutes and try to understand what we have achieved as social entrepreneurs people supporting and promoting social partnership and what is yet to come because I think as we said bye now people know that social entrepreneurship does exist and they know that social entrepreneurs perform an important role rule in society in economy in education in all that stuff and we know that these people interact with the public sector they interact with us with with the financial sector or the business sector I think what we should talk about now and we can discuss that throughout the next two days is to make sure we don’t only agree that the research and animal such a horse such a beautiful horse called a social entrepreneur but how we create the ecosystem that would support these people and that would make the right connection between these people and themselves and these people and the rest of society because princess I come from a very entrepreneurial country Israel i mean i don’t know i don’t know if you know i mean some people call it some people say to entrepreneurial right and we will not talk politics today at all at least not now and and the beautiful thing about about some of the statistics about israel israel has more startup companies registered in nasdaq then all the European Union put together which is crazy yeah it is it is and and what we’re trying to do now for instance blip for a shoka in Israel is try to learn from the high tech entrepreneurs and the bio tech entrepreneurs and and and all these other tech entrepreneurs to understand what kind of an ecosystem they created and what kind of relationships with governments or with foundations or even with Italian universities what kind of what kind of connections they have in order to make it then in the social field as well so we realized we need some kind of platforms and the platform can be physical or can be virtual super important we realize you need some hubs as we said as you’ve created some geography geographical apps we realized you need face-to-face meetings like these meetings well I mean I mean of course we could have all this event online but it would have be the same also very important thing that we learn from the high-tech industry needs well you need a media channel you need you need a media outlet and use a tool through which people could tell and people could hear and I think one of the most important things is we need to understand the mechanism in which we can not only create because I think we know what what it takes to create the right kind of social enterprise or the right kind of social entrepreneurial idea right it takes the crazy person just just like we know from from the stories here it takes the crazy person it takes a personal need it takes some excessive amount of energy right people who cannot sit quietly and would like to weave and create galleries and do these things you know my my grandmother grew up in Austria and she said that people like us have kinds its flesh right you speak German they don’t they don’t have sitting flesh they cannot they cannot so I get so I guess all the entrepreneurs it’s kind of a some of them have a beautiful mental issue right from which we are all enjoy so this kinds its flight how do you make sure you maintain and sustain it how do you make sure that it’s not only about the creation of the crazy idea but next year we create another kind of house in a different kind of in a different city in Denmark or how we create a similar a similar solution in another country how you scale up how you replicate how you spread I think these are the interesting challenge of the movement now and I think we can talk about sort entrepreneurship as a movement again the beautiful thing is that you have such conferences I mean of course you are all super special right but there are such conferences in dozens of countries there are many social entrepreneurship conferences people don’t talk about it as an oxymoron but talk about it as an important locomotive for economic growth for wellbeing for empowerment for

solidarity for political power so first of all you are in the right room and be there are many other like-minded crazy people around the world who are eager to do what you’re doing or to learn from from what you’re doing so I think we’re going to have incredible two days thank you thank you later hmm thank you I guess I will open the floor for questions and comments please do use this opportunity of 13 minutes though squeeze all the large jaws remote speakers so microphones any hands hands I can’t say anything selfless motivational speech but I’m later okay that’s two hands here dancing so I would suggest we take three questions eat enough here oh well all right you said these problems could be online we are on line two we’ve been broadcast so we need to speak in microphone said that the interpreters and online they are heard as well so maybe I help a question primarily to Lisa thank you for your presentation and the question comes from the context of Baltic the Baltic States when we I used to adopt some concepts from coming from Europe you know here and then we start to desperately searching for some experience local experience and examples which could fit this concept so my question is when you started may your activities in their mark and not with this house but this previous ones with not rotary but we even did you think about these activities in terms of social entrepreneurship how did you marked these activities for yourselves at least if I may get another question okay sorry there is the girl behind you I just wanted to ask the mayor of a system I think it’s a great example of what you told us and I was actually very surprised to hear that also the source foundation was involved in funding this opportunity because in Latvia they’re quite a lot of people who are very skeptical of the Soros foundation so I just want to ask you who gave you the courage to pursue this collaboration and partnerships okay and the third question up third thank you Paul condom i know you have to speak in the microphone beautiful but the online and a translation i would like to thank rita for the fantastic presentation because the kind of issues that you picked out are the ones that i have been thinking quite a lot about as well but the one question that I always kind of think about is why does it always happen that the kind of social enterprises are usually the one kind of funky small one cultural types you know like scarves or boots or something like that but we never get out of those we never get huge companies that do great stuff what we do have are these small nice things and initiatives but it’s kind of sometimes you think it’s it’s another scarf it’s another jumper it’s quite nice the idea is cool but it’s just another one of those if you know what I mean so that’s one kind of an issue that i keep on struggling with and I guess thank you thank you all right the whole questionable I’d like to thank all panelists for very different levels and approaches to incite my reflections are more upon what the difference is between or the movement between creating socially responsible businesses and social entrepreneurship because i think that the approach towards having socially responsible businesses is not that far away looking at the way these the movement goes when i was looking at the horse i probably would give it double the price but this is above and beyond what purchase power is here however if you or anybody else were to have it manufactured in China or Asia or wherever you would probably be sending it to an environment that has very many human rights violations in terms of all kinds of practices in doing business where you know which means you would be behaving in a socially irresponsible way to further possibly socially responsible means so question to you is do you see and and and to

whoever wants to respond you know is there a movement because that’s what I take away from this environment having worked a lot with trying to create social lee responsible business in it in an industry that is seen as extremely irresponsible namely the oil and gas industry so what are your reflections so I will invite now they said to respond to the first question they just think of yourself as a social entrepreneur when you started your journey if I may some of you a question yes no it doesn’t lovely yeah now the thing is that I thought very much about my organisation structure that put me into these kind of dilemmas and I had to choose in a way because what I was seeing was well I’m doing this I’m this is a private nita TV should i do this as a private business and on the other hand I said well it closed would be something that the public sector could have done easily so why shouldn’t why should a pride why should I organized it as a private private company so so I let it in between when I chose I mean the organization which sort of surrounded the activities and it was not until I think mid 90s when I was invited by the European Commission in a working group about unemployment or employment of marginalized groups I’m it we were 20 people from Europe and I met people from from Portugal and Italy and Spain they were talking about social economy or social copper cove social and then suddenly as I’m yes I’m one because because only i realized i was in the middle I was not private I was not public but I was in the middle and I in a way I say well I was doing things which could be done by the public but I do it on the terms of the private sector thank you now the question to the mayor of your friendship with George Soros and sizes yo times milord sammelsohn are ISNA be itemized list them dressed moons now our hood is missing my girl mr Rizzo pat on Monica’s gratuitously licks on a station that could use formula at the author i miss boom a bit Curnow competi- monocot no bueno so the phone breaks total dead glad to hear that but the third questions why are we always talking about small scale our social enterprises when we will reach the point when we will talk about big scale big big things big impact social enterprises who would like to respond it yes maybe Lisa O’Neill good no no a lot of the neck cushion yeah okay I think there’s something about I mean you mentioned it was about productivity I think there’s a major major issue i think the social enterprises me having a social cooperatives in italy for instance i think they’re sort of reaching a kind of I mean also burma sizes which are more than small skiing businesses I think I mean I’ve been working very much a work integration of people who are very much about far from labor market and there is a issue of productivity and you can’t compete on the big big scale I mean I think that’s one of the problems there and then to fight the right product as well I think we’ve got a quite an interesting or organization in Denmark all the spacer specialist foundation who works with people with the autistic daughters and I saw the furthest other fellow in the sky name exactly yeah and they work I mean they are sort of getting into but they’re so specialized in their services and so that’s another thing thank you call my focus medium yes the star even would program to reduce problems and acoustic session us way so ceremony among push speared their cappella group my fellow drapes are in South America thing store space which the site is like instantly uno due tre is the matata during recession each other the two waters come estimator deal yo premarin share gada no moon score / t vas da insane Oversoul pasola treacherously locker zoos near mom’s lost and its

embassy in moscow mu amount of hillbilly pseudonyms the savvy and arrows plenty and duties corporativa governor’s ears yeah yes after veterans nowadays visuals pretoria we stay with me on what hotel are building business be super easily along everything Thank You rota and near volunteered to answer the last question on corporate social responsibility and social entrepreneurship yeah sorry totally responsible businesses which which which which which which is interesting and important because i took the bird’s eye view and i think i think or the child’s dickham said it was the best of times it was the worst of times I mean the beautiful thing is more and more people talk about social entrepreneurship and social enterprises and socially responsible businesses however there is there is that the more we talk about it the less they let me know what we’re talking about and everybody is using the term social entrepreneurship I mean someone who donates who sells basilicum right and donates to sense to charity calls herself a social entrepreneur with a halo and white wings and all that stuff so on one end we are the victims of our own success because everything is sort entrepreneurship on the other we should be very careful when we talk about definitions and I guess this is my background as an academic what is social entrepreneurship what is social enterprise and how these things touch upon government and a bad business the way the short answer to your question is yes of course there’s a place for socially responsible businesses the main question enter in entrepreneurship is not the word but they have how do you create the incentives for businesses to be socially responsible how do you make sure that the voice of the market customers and clients is being heard how do you make companies understand that creating those products is good for the company is good for the market and it’s good for the employees how do you create all these all these are again let me use the word ecosystem in which companies are being incentivized to create it in which companies are being punished for violating human rights or for violating other elements of what we call values and now you create a system in which social enterprises social entrepreneurship and socially responsible businesses become the norm one last one last question one last thing I guess we will talk in the next two days about social entrepreneurship and social enterprises right and what is the difference between business exactly and what is the difference between between a business entrepreneur and a social entrepreneur I teach I teach entrepreneurship at the Hebrew University a teacher master’s degree on social entrepreneurship and what helps me and might be able to help you we try to define between business and social according to three main things according to the motivation in the targets right the explicit motivation and target that led the person to start the business the target population because as you will real as we will realize more often than not in terms of social entrepreneurship the target population is marginalized we can at least the original one and of course the last and important thing that helped to differentiate between social and business is how do you measure success of course then you come to all these gray areas that you’ve alluded to in your question but we have the next two days to talk about that thank you and please stay for the panel after the lunch and the topic for the pen now after the launch is defining a social enterprise challenges and the very forward so thank you so much for writing the question let me join in thanking the wonderful panelists here this morning and please go downstairs for a lunch break and we will be back into true @ @ @ @ in one and a half hour at 42 13 yes we will